Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The regulatory elements of an OPERON to which activators or repressors bind thereby effecting the transcription of GENES in the operon.
Bacterial repressor proteins that bind to the LAC OPERON and thereby prevent the synthesis of proteins involved in catabolism of LACTOSE. When lactose levels are high lac repressors undergo an allosteric change that causes their release from the DNA and the resumption of lac operon transcription.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
A non-metabolizable galactose analog that induces expression of the LAC OPERON.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.
The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Cyclic AMP response element modulator is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that is regulated by CYCLIC AMP. It plays an important role in SPERMATID development in the mammalian TESTIS.
The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
DNA sequences recognized as signals to end GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The first DNA-binding protein motif to be recognized. Helix-turn-helix motifs were originally identified in bacterial proteins but have since been found in hundreds of DNA-BINDING PROTEINS from both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. They are constructed from two alpha helices connected by a short extended chain of amino acids, which constitute the "turn." The two helices are held at a fixed angle, primarily through interactions between the two helices. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, p408-9)
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.
In eukaryotes, a genetic unit consisting of a noncontiguous group of genes under the control of a single regulator gene. In bacteria, regulons are global regulatory systems involved in the interplay of pleiotropic regulatory domains and consist of several OPERONS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
A subclass of repressor proteins that do not directly bind DNA. Instead, co-repressors generally act via their interaction with DNA-BINDING PROTEINS such as a TRANSCRIPTIONAL SILENCING FACTORS or NUCLEAR RECEPTORS.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.

Induction of apoptosis by overexpression of the DNA-binding and DNA-PK-activating protein C1D. (1/209)

Apoptosis is induced in various tumor cell lines by vector-dependent overexpression of the conserved gene C1D that encodes a DNA-binding and DNA-PK-activating protein. C1D is physiologically expressed in 50 human tissues tested, which points to its basic cellular function. The expression of this gene must be tightly regulated because elevated levels of C1D protein, e.g. those induced by transient vector-dependent expression, result in apoptotic cell death. Cells transfected with C1D-expressing constructs show terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling of DNA ends. Transfections with constructs in which C1D is expressed in fusion with the (enhanced) green fluorescent protein from A. victoria (EGFP) allow the transfected cells to be identified and the morphological changes induced to be traced. Starting from intense nuclear spots, green fluorescence reflecting C1D expression increases dramatically at 12-24 hours post-transfection. Expression of C1D-EGFP protein is accompanied by morphological changes typical of apoptotic cell death, e.g. cytoplasmic vacuolation, membrane blebbing and nuclear disintegration. Cell shrinkage and detachment from extracellular matrix are observed in monolayer cultures while suspension cells become progressively flattened. The facility to differentiate between transfected and non-transfected cells reveals that non-transfected cells co-cultured with transfected cells also show the morphological changes of apoptosis, which points to a bystander effect. C1D-dependent apoptosis is not induced in cells with non-functional p53. Accordingly, C1D-induced apoptosis is discussed in relation to its potential to activate DNA-PK, which has been considered to act as an upstream activator of p53.  (+info)

SMRTER, a Drosophila nuclear receptor coregulator, reveals that EcR-mediated repression is critical for development. (2/209)

The Drosophila ecdysone receptor (EcR)/ultraspiracle (USP) heterodimer is a key regulator in molting and metamorphoric processes, activating and repressing transcription in a sequence-specific manner. Here, we report the isolation of an EcR-interacting protein, SMRTER, which is structurally divergent but functionally similar to the vertebrate nuclear corepressors SMRT and N-CoR. SMRTER mediates repression by interacting with Sin3A, a repressor known to form a complex with the histone deacetylase Rpd3/HDAC. Importantly, we identify an EcR mutant allele that fails to bind SMRTER and is characterized by developmental defects and lethality. Together, these results reveal a novel nuclear receptor cofactor that exhibits evolutionary conservation in the mechanism to achieve repression and demonstrate the essential role of repression in hormone signaling.  (+info)

Differential expression of the Groucho-related genes 4 and 5 during early development of Xenopus laevis. (3/209)

Recently, we demonstrated that the Xenopus Wnt effector XTcf-3 interacts with Groucho-related transcriptional repressors (Roose et al., 1998. Nature 395, 608-612). A long form of the Groucho-related genes, XGrg-4, was shown to repress axis formation in the Xenopus embryo, whereas a short form, XGrg-5, acted as a potentiator. In this study, the temporal and spatial expression of XGrg-4 and XGrg-5 is described in Xenopus laevis embryos. Both genes are maternally expressed. In the gastrula, transcripts of both genes are present in the animal as well as the vegetal region. At later stages, XGrg-4 and XGrg-5 show specific patterns of expression in the central nervous system (CNS), cranial ganglia, eyes, otic vesicles, stomodeal-hypophyseal anlage, cement gland, head mesenchyme, branchial arches, neural crest and derivatives, somites, pronephros, pronephric duct, heart and tailbud. Differences in the expression of XGrg-4 and XGrg-5 were found in the CNS, cranial ganglia, olfactory placodes, stomodeal-pharyngeal anlage, cement gland, head mesenchyme and ectoderm.  (+info)

Disrupted development of the cerebral hemispheres in transgenic mice expressing the mammalian Groucho homologue transducin-like-enhancer of split 1 in postmitotic neurons. (4/209)

Transducin-like Enhancer of split (TLE) 1 is a mammalian transcriptional corepressor homologous to Drosophila Groucho. In Drosophila, Groucho acts together with bHLH proteins of the Hairy/Enhancer of split (HES) family to negatively regulate neuronal differentiation. Loss of the functions of Groucho or HES proteins results in supernumerary central and peripheral neurons. This suggests that mammalian TLE/Groucho family members may also be involved in the regulation of neuronal differentiation. Consistent with this possibility, TLE1 is expressed in proliferating neural progenitor cells of the central nervous system, but its expression is transiently down-regulated in newly generated postmitotic neurons. Based on these observations, we investigated whether persistent TLE1 expression in postmitotic neurons would perturb the normal course of neuronal development. Transgenic mice were derived in which the human TLE1 gene is regulated by the promoter of the Talpha1 alpha-tubulin gene, which is exclusively expressed in postmitotic neurons. In these mice, constitutive expression of TLE1 inhibits neuronal development in the embryonic forebrain leading to increased apoptosis and neuronal loss in the ventral and dorsal telencephalon. These results provide the first direct evidence that TLE1 is an important negative regulator of postmitotic neuronal differentiation in the mammalian central nervous system.  (+info)

Promoter of the gene encoding the 16 kDa DNA-binding and apoptosis-inducing C1D protein. (5/209)

The 5' region of the gene encoding the human 16 kDa DNA-binding and apoptosis-inducing C1D protein was analysed for promoter activity. Sections of this region were cloned into a promoterless vector containing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) as reporter gene. Expressed EGFP was estimated in transfected cells by quantitative fluorescence microscopy. The sequence between mRNA positions ATG -868 and ATG -12 results in relatively highest EGFP expression in transiently transfected human and murine cells. The upstream segment immediately adjacent to the 5' end of the most active fragment was identified as an inverted LINE-1 repeat element. Transient transfection experiments point to the presence of cis-acting repressing sequences on this LINE-1 element which reduce the transcriptional activity of the basal C1D promoter in human and murine cells by more than 95%. This result supports previous evidence suggesting that LINE-1 sequences may function as regulatory elements to control the expression of nearby genes.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and characterization of PELP1, a novel human coregulator of estrogen receptor alpha. (6/209)

Nuclear hormone receptors (NRs) are transcription factors whose activity is regulated by ligands and by coactivators or corepressors. We report the characterization of a new NR coregulator: proline-, glutamic acid-, leucine-rich protein 1 (PELP1), a novel human protein that comprises 1,282 amino acids and is localized on chromosome 17. The primary structure of PELP1 consists of several motifs present in most transcriptional regulators including nine NR-interacting boxes (LXXLL motifs), a zinc finger, and glutamic acid- and proline-rich regions. We demonstrate that PELP1 is a coactivator of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha). PELP1 enhances 17beta-estradiol-dependent transcriptional activation from the estrogen response element in a dose-dependent manner. PELP1 interacts with ERalpha and also with general transcriptional coactivators p300 and cAMP response element-binding protein-binding protein. PELP1 was differentially expressed in various human and murine tissues with the highest expression levels in the testes, mammary glands, and brain. We also provide evidence supporting the developmental regulation of PELP1 expression in murine mammary glands, the detectable expression of PELP1 in human mammary cancer cell lines, and the enhanced expression of PELP1 in human breast tumors. These findings suggest that PELP1 is a novel coregulator of ERalpha and may have a role in breast cancer tumorigenesis.  (+info)

The E2A-HLF oncoprotein activates Groucho-related genes and suppresses Runx1. (7/209)

The E2A-HLF fusion gene, formed by the t(17;19)(q22;p13) chromosomal translocation in leukemic pro-B cells, encodes a chimeric transcription factor consisting of the transactivation domain of E2A linked to the bZIP DNA-binding and protein dimerization domain of hepatic leukemia factor (HLF). This oncoprotein blocks apoptosis induced by growth factor deprivation or irradiation, but the mechanism for this effect remains unclear. We therefore performed representational difference analysis (RDA) to identify downstream genetic targets of E2A-HLF, using a murine FL5.12 pro-B cell line that had been stably transfected with E2A-HLF cDNA under the control of a zinc-regulated metallothionein promoter. Two RDA clones, designated RDA1 and RDA3, were differentially upregulated in E2A-HLF-positive cells after zinc induction. The corresponding cDNAs encoded two WD40 repeat-containing proteins, Grg2 and Grg6. Both are related to the Drosophila protein Groucho, a transcriptional corepressor that lacks DNA-binding activity on its own but can act in concert with other proteins to regulate embryologic development of the fly. Expression of both Grg2 and Grg6 was upregulated 10- to 50-fold by E2A-HLF. Immunoblot analysis detected increased amounts of two additional Groucho-related proteins, Grg1 and Grg4, in cells expressing E2A-HLF. A mutant E2A-HLF protein with a disabled DNA-binding region also mediated pro-B cell survival and activated Groucho-related genes. Among the transcription factors known to interact with Groucho-related protein, only RUNX1 was appreciably downregulated by E2A-HLF. Our results identify a highly conserved family of transcriptional corepressors that are activated by E2A-HLF, and they suggest that downregulation of RUNX1 may contribute to E2A-HLF-mediated leukemogenesis.  (+info)

HES6 acts as a transcriptional repressor in myoblasts and can induce the myogenic differentiation program. (8/209)

HES6 is a novel member of the family of basic helix-loop-helix mammalian homologues of Drosophila Hairy and Enhancer of split. We have analyzed the biochemical and functional roles of HES6 in myoblasts. HES6 interacted with the corepressor transducin-like Enhancer of split 1 in yeast and mammalian cells through its WRPW COOH-terminal motif. HES6 repressed transcription from an N box-containing template and also when tethered to DNA through the GAL4 DNA binding domain. On N box-containing promoters, HES6 cooperated with HES1 to achieve maximal repression. An HES6-VP16 activation domain fusion protein activated the N box-containing reporter, confirming that HES6 bound the N box in muscle cells. The expression of HES6 was induced when myoblasts fused to become differentiated myotubes. Constitutive expression of HES6 in myoblasts inhibited expression of MyoR, a repressor of myogenesis, and induced differentiation, as evidenced by fusion into myotubes and expression of the muscle marker myosin heavy chain. Reciprocally, blocking endogenous HES6 function by using a WRPW-deleted dominant negative HES6 mutant led to increased expression of MyoR and completely blocked the muscle development program. Our results show that HES6 is an important regulator of myogenesis and suggest that MyoR is a target for HES6-dependent transcriptional repression.  (+info)

Cytoplasmic localization of proline, glutamic acid, leucine-rich protein 1 (PELP1) is observed in ∼40% of women with invasive breast cancer. In mouse models, PELP1 overexpression in the mammary gland leads to premalignant lesions and eventually mammary tumors. In preliminary clinical studies, cytoplasmic localization of PELP1 was seen in 36% of women at high risk of developing breast cancer. Here, we investigated whether cytoplasmic PELP1 signaling promotes breast cancer initiation in models of immortalized human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs). Global gene expression analysis was performed on HMEC lines expressing vector control, PELP1-wt, or mutant PELP1 in which the nuclear localization sequence was altered, resulting in cytoplasmic localization of PELP1 (PELP1-cyto). Global gene expression analysis identified that PELP1-cyto expression in HMECs induced NF-κB signaling pathways. Western blotting analysis of PELP1-cyto HMECs showed up-regulation of inhibitor of κB kinase ϵ (IKKϵ) and ...
Purpose:Ovarian cancer remains a major threat to womens health, partly due to difficulty in early diagnosis and development of metastases. A critical need exists to identify novel targets that curb the progression and metastasis of ovarian cancer. In this study, we examined whether the nuclear receptor coregulator PELP1 contributes to progression and metastatic potential of ovarian cancer cells and determined whether blocking of the PELP1 signaling axis had a therapeutic effect. Experimental Design:Ovarian cancer cells stably expressing PELP1-shRNA were established. Fluorescent microscopy, Boyden chamber, invasion assays, wound healing and zymography assays were performed to examine the role of PELP1 in metastasis. Expression analysis of the model cells using was conducted to identify PELP1 target genes. Therapeutic potential of PELP1-siRNA in vivo was determined using a nanoliposomal formulation of PELP1-siRNA-DOPC administered systemically in a xenograft model. Results: PELP1 knockdown caused ...
The Proline-Rich Homeodomain protein (PRH/Hex) is a transcription factor that functions as an important regulator of vertebrate development and many other processes in the adult including haematopoiesis. The Groucho/TLE family of co-repressor proteins also regulate development and modulate the activity of many DNA-binding transcription factors during a range of diverse cellular processes including haematopoiesis. We have shown previously that PRH is a repressor of transcription in haematopoietic cells and that an Eh-1 motif present within the N-terminal transcription repression domain of PRH mediates binding to Groucho/TLE proteins and enables co-repression. Here we demonstrate that PRH regulates the nuclear retention of TLE proteins during cellular fractionation. We show that transcriptional repression and the nuclear retention of TLE proteins requires PRH to bind to both TLE and DNA. In addition, we characterise a trans-dominant negative PRH protein that inhibits wild type PRH activity by ...
5166 Chemoresistance is one of the main causes of failure of cancer chemotherapy. It is characterized by several mechanisms, including over-expression of membrane proteins known as ABC transporters, which actively reject anti-cancer drugs out of the cell. These mechanisms describe the Multidrug Resistance Phenotype (MDR).. We have previously shown that the promoters of MDR1 and MVP, which encode the P-glycoprotein and MVP respectively, two proteins involved in this phenotype, were trans-activated by the Leucine-Rich Protein 130 (LRP130) upon its binding to the invMED1 transcriptional element. Although few data are known, LRP130 has been described to bind RNA; it also appears to play different roles in cellular homeostasis, microtubule integrity, and chromosome activity, while its mutated form is involved in the French-Canadian variant of the Leigh syndrome. We wondered whether LRP130 was implicated in the MDR by other ways than controlling the transcription of MDR-related genes.. In the first ...
T cell development depends on the coordinated interplay between receptor signaling and transcriptional activation/repression. We performed a genetic complementation screen, and identified a novel transcriptional repressor, NKAP. NKAP associates with HDAC3 and is part of a DNA-binding complex, as shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation. NKAP also associates with CIR, a part of the Notch corepressor complex. The expression of NKAP during T cell development inversely correlates with the expression of Notch target genes, implying that NKAP may modulate Notch-mediated transcription. To examine the function of NKAP in T cell development, Lck-cre NKAP conditional knockout mice were generated. Interestingly, loss of NKAP blocks development of alpha/beta but not gamma/delta T cells. In addition, lck-cre NKAP cKO DP T cells express 8- to 20-fold higher levels of Hes1, Deltex1 and CD25, providing in vivo evidence that NKAP functions as a transcriptional repressor, acting at least in part, by repression of ...
The Groucho (Gro)/TLE/Grg Family Of Corepressors Operates In Many Signaling Pathways (including Notch And Wnt). Gro/TLE Proteins Recognize A Wide Range Of Transcriptional Repressors By Binding To Divergent Short Peptide Sequences, Including A C-terminal
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The width measurement of 1895 millimeters corresponds to the width of the Fiat Scudo Combi 2012 without exterior mirrors. Dimensiuni. Fiat car specs are listed here. The model range is available in the following body types starting from the engine/transmission specs … The wheelbase lengths are 3000mm (SWB). Volumul necesar. Fiat Scudo Models Price and Specs. Becurile pentru lămpile de stop la Fiat Scudo. Were here to help. Search for immediate answers to FAQs or contact our customer care team via phone or email. Volumul de ulei, Lichidul în sistemul de frânare Fiat Scudo. Fiat Scudo - Find out the correct alloy wheel fitment, PCD, offset and such specs as bolt pattern, thread size(THD), center bore(CB) for all model years of Fiat Scudo. Becurile pentru farurile anticeaţă la Fiat Scudo. The interior dimensions (length) of the Fiat Scudo … The Fiat Scudo is powered by Multijet engines which are offered with a choice of 90hp, 120 hp, 140 hp and 165 hp. Dimensions … The interior width of ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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Abstract #601 Back ground: Estradiol (E2) and estrogen receptor (ER) signaling play a key role in development and progression of breast cancer. ER signaling is complex, involves coregulatory proteins and the status of ER coregulators in tumor cells plays an important role in hormonal responsiveness and tumor progression. In addition, ER also participates in non-genomic signaling events in the cytoplasm, however the significance of non-genomic signaling in mammary tumorigenesis remain unknown. PELP1/MNAR is novel ER coregulator that participates in ER genomic and non-genomic actions. PELP1 expression is deregulated in breast tumors and in a subset of tumors PELP1 is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm. Since PELP1 cytoplamsic localization promotes excessive activation of Src and AKT pathways, we hypothesized that PELP1 mediated excessive activation of ER-nongenomic functions may play a role tumorigenesis. To test this, we have generated MMTV-PELP1cyto TG model that uniquely express PELP1 in ...
Complete information for PELP1 gene (Protein Coding), Proline, Glutamate And Leucine Rich Protein 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
YAP (yes-associated protein) and TAZ are oncogenic transcriptional co-activators downstream of the Hippo tumor-suppressor pathway. However, whether...
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Make an Appointment 2014 Fiat 500L by German Medeot, used under CC BY-SA 2.0 Service and Repair of Fiat Vehicles The Italian-based Fiat has a wider ...
Fiat is close to launching the U.S. spec Fiat 500 Abarth, and this first teaser video tries to position the car as a rebel and a bad boy.
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I too was at first disappointed about the 5 speed instead of the 6 speed. One difference between the Euro 1.4 and the American version is the addition of multi air which has more torque and may exceed the rating for the 6speed gearbox. Since the Abarth also uses the 5 speed, it may be the more rugged transmission. It is common to add a ratio to an existing gearbox by making some of the gears a bit smaller to fit in the same size case. Fiat did this back in the 70s with the X19 when it went from 4 speeds to 5 speeds. This caused a lot of failures of the reverse gear which was made 1/2 as wide to accommodate the 5th speed ...
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The FIAT brand is celebrating 40 years of its beloved Ducato commercial van this year. The Ducato has been the halo model for the FIAT Professional brand and is one of the most popular commercial vehicles in Europe. Thanks to its low operation cost and its ability to be available in a number of configurations such as a commercial van, a chassis cab, and a passenger van.
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Photographs of the 1905 Fiat 60 HP. Tourer. Coachwork by Quinby. Chassis number 3003. Engine number 3003. RM Auctions - Hershey. An image gallery of the 190...
Η Γερμανική Pogea Racing μας παρουσιάζει ακόμα ένα βελτιωμένο Fiat 500 Abarth. Στο Stage 1 το κάνει να αποδίδει 162 άλογα και 275 Nm ροπής, με το κόστος της
As long as the fiat money has NO EXPIRY DATES, the population at large may prefer keeping it even outside tax time to keeping perishable goods as a form of storing their
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I owned a 2015 Fiat 500 Abarth ( Automatic) from 3/15 until 6/18 . 25k miles, Not a single problem with it. Lots of character and fairly economical at ~30 mpg (+ or -) .
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The Fiat 500 is not new news, but stop! (collaborate and listen) there is something in this certain 500 that makes it harp back to its predecessor more than
Having spent the best part of the 1990s living on a drip, Fiat has embarked on a bold mission to resuscitate a bankrupt Chrysler and take over the European operations of its Detroit rival General Motors.
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Now and then, it pays to take a step back to get a broader perspective on things, to look beyond the daily financial news, to see through the short-term ups and downs in the market to find out what is really at the heart of the matter. If we do that, we will not miss the […]
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P0650 is a somewhat rare OBD2 trouble code. It is generic, meaning that it has the same definition for any vehicle, including the Toytoa Sedici Your Sedicis PCM will set P0650 when it detects an issue with the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL), also commonly referred to as the check engine light. The biggest issue ... Read more
During the H1 2019 Lancia has registered 34,700 units. On the other hand, the volume of its sister brand Alfa Romeo totaled 29,200 units.
During the H1 2019 Lancia has registered 34,700 units. On the other hand, the volume of its sister brand Alfa Romeo totaled 29,200 units.
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Review standard and optional interior, exterior, mechanical comfort, entertainment equipment and their warranties for a 2016 500 Easy 2dr Hatchback.
A Fiat Tipo is not a Nissan Versa, Tipo is a C segment car, the Versa is a B segment vehicle. Main external difference is width, Versa being 169.5 cm...
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Radiation from cell phones can possibly cause cancer, according to the World Health Organization. The agency now lists mobile phone use in the same carcinogenic hazard category as lead, engine exhaust and chloroform.
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Bis-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxy-phenyl)-methane (BDDPM) is a bromophenol 1st isolated from 0. The migrated amount of HUVECs. The info proven in the graphs will be the mean SD beliefs of at least three specific tests. ** 0.01 control. 2.3. BDDPM Inhibits Vessel Sprouting in Vitro Following, we utilized spheroid capillary sprouting assay to review the result of BDDPM … Continue reading Bis-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxy-phenyl)-methane (BDDPM) is a bromophenol 1st isolated from 0. The migrated. ...
Transcriptional corepressor that binds to a number of transcription factors. Inhibits NF-kappa-B-regulated gene expression. Inhibits the transcriptional activation mediated by FOXA2, and by CTNNB1 and TCF family members in Wnt signaling. The effects of full-length TLE family members may be modulated by association with dominant-negative AES. Unusual function as coactivator for ESRRG (By similarity).
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We report that neurofibromin, a tumor suppressor and Ras-GAP (GTPase-activating protein), is also an estrogen receptor-α (ER) transcriptional co-repressor through leucine/isoleucine-rich motifs that are functionally independent of GAP activity. GAP activity, in turn, does not affect ER binding. Cons …
Selectively enriched 13C-labeled proline-7 and 13C-labeled leucine-8 ocytocins as probes for analysis of peptide hormone interactions with bovine neurophysin i using 13C nuclear magnetic-resonance spectroscopy ...
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PELP1 activation of ribosomal promoter depends on functional nucleolar domains.(A) Schematic representation of PELP1 nucleolar domains. (B) 293T cells were tran
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Fiat Chrysler is recalling over 1.3 million vehicles worldwide to fix malfunctioning alternators that can cause engines to stall or a wiring problem that can make air bags deploy unexpectedly.The wiring recall covers nearly 771,000 Dodge Journey and Fiat F
MiRs influence the PELP1-mediated migratory and invasion potential. A, Boyden chamber analysis of the cell migration potential of the ZR cells transfected with
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Toledos mayor isnt about to pick a fight with Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, even if it pulls Jeep Wrangler production out of the city. Thats because the automaker will still have a large presence in the area and an assembly complex that will need another vehicle to replace the Wrangler, if it goes.
GOLD Title: Fiat Punto Agency: DArcy Author: Daniel Taylor Creative Director: Nick Hastings Art Director: Dave Godfree Copywriter: Mark Waldron Client: Fiat Auto UK Product: Fiat Punto So as not to alienate either female or male Punto drivers, planning arranged for two separate gender-specific groups to react to the script that railed against their sex. The groups expressed their feelings in detail to the first script. Planning then played the two narrative tapes again, exposing the groups to the other version for the first time. A full group discussion then took place to highlight the pros and cons. The results gave planning and Fiat the confidence not only to make the scripts, but to exploit the opportunity for controversy and exposure. ...
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Italys Fiat now owns most of Chryslers assets. The deal was closed today, saving the troubled U.S. automaker from liquidation.
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Fiat has officially gained full control of Chrysler after purchasing the remaining stake for over $4 billion. CNBCs Phil LeBeau reports.
The head of Fiat SpA said it had more than a 50 percent chance of succeeding in its bid for Opel, adding that the other contenders did not have the expertise to save the struggling car maker, according to a newspaper report.
Last fall we told you about the SCCA’s new B-Spec series, designed to be an affordable gateway into the world of SCCA racing. Cars for the series are purpose-built and include the Kia Rio, the MINI Cooper, the Mazda2, the Ford Fiesta, the Honda Fit and the Fiat 500. By series rules, each car must run the same brand and model of tire, and it’s...
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SKIL / SnoN, 0.1 ml. The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the SMAD pathway, which regulates cell growth and differentiation through transforming growth factor-beta (TGFB).
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Occasionally at Grand Prix Models we buy in collections of kits and hand built models. Often, these collections contain subjects made by manufacturers that we do not ordinarily deal with or, are rare enough that the manufacturers no longer exist. This is one of those items.. ...
N-methylimidazole-N-methylimidazole-N-methylpyrrole-aminobutyric acid- N-methylpyrrole-N-methylpyrrole-N-methylpyrrole-alanine- ...
The stronger a protein's interaction with DNA, the higher the salt concentration needed to elute that protein. Planar ... ISBN 978-0-632-02017-1. Bourgeois S, Pfahl M (1976). "Repressors". In Anfinsen CB, Edsall JT, Richards FM (eds.). Advances in ... It is often used in biochemistry in the purification of proteins bound to tags. These fusion proteins are labeled with ... Fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC), is a form of liquid chromatography that is often used to analyze or purify mixtures ...
The Krüppel protein is a transcription factor, and has been shown to act as a repressor. It functions in collaboration with ... Licht JD, Grossel MJ, Figge J, Hansen UM (July 1990). "Drosophila Krüppel protein is a transcriptional repressor". Nature. 346 ... December 1986). "A conserved family of nuclear proteins containing structural elements of the finger protein encoded by Krüppel ... protein,+Drosophila at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (Protein pages needing a picture, ...
The Bicoid protein is a morphogen as well. The Nanos protein is a translational repressor protein. Bicoid has a DNA-binding ... Nanos protein forms a gradient at the posterior end. The Bicoid protein blocks translation of caudal mRNA so Caudal protein is ... and Caudal proteins is in the transcriptional regulation of other zygotically expressed proteins. Many of these are the protein ... Nanos protein, in complex with Pumilio protein, binds to the hunchback mRNA and blocks its translation in the posterior end of ...
This second pathway is regulated by repressor protein DesT. DesT is also a repressor of fabAB expression for anaerobic ... Two DesR-P proteins will dimerize and bind to the DNA promoters of the des gene and recruit RNA polymerase to begin ... It acts as an activator of fabA and fabB transcription and as a repressor for the β-oxidation regulon. In contrast, FabR acts ... Another pathway uses two proteins, DesC and DesB, together to act as a Δ9-desaturase, which inserts a double bond into a ...
Then there's the repressor protein that turns genes off. The inducer can remove this repressor, turning genes back on. The ... Lastly, the regulatory gene is the gene for the repressor protein. An example of inducible enzyme is COX-2 which is synthesized ... operator is a section of DNA where the repressor binds to shut off certain genes; the promoter is the section of DNA where the ...
Saier MH, Ramseier TM (June 1996). "The catabolite repressor/activator (Cra) protein of enteric bacteria". Journal of ... Gupta V, Bamezai RN (November 2010). "Human pyruvate kinase M2: a multifunctional protein". Protein Science. 19 (11): 2031-44. ... Heterogenous ribonucleotide proteins (hnRNPs) can act on the PKM gene to regulate expression of M1 and M2 isoforms. PKM1 and ... Allosteric regulation is the binding of an effector to a site on the protein other than the active site, causing a ...
"Thermal denaturation of the core protein of lac repressor". Biochemistry. 24 (15): 3842-3846. doi:10.1021/bi00336a004. ISSN ... Matthews's research focuses on the interactions of protein and DNA, in particular LacI and the Hox gene protein Ultrabithorax. ... She received the William C. Rose Award in 2015 for her work in DNA-binding proteins and her commitment to mentoring young ... Wilson, C. J.; Zhan, H.; Swint-Kruse, L.; Matthews, K. S. (2006). "The lactose repressor system: paradigms for regulation, ...
1999). "The STAR protein QKI-6 is a translational repressor". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 (22): 12605-10. Bibcode:1999PNAS ... 2006). "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. ... QKI belongs to a family of RNA-binding proteins called STAR proteins for Signal Transduction and Activation of RNA. They have ... 2003). "Sam68 RNA binding protein is an in vivo substrate for protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1". Mol. Biol. Cell. 14 (1 ...
The NHL repeat has also been used to design a family of fully symmetrical 6-blade beta-propeller proteins called "Pizza". These ... Edwards TA, Wilkinson BD, Wharton RP, Aggarwal AK (October 2003). "Model of the brain tumor-Pumilio translation repressor ... The NHL repeats are also found in serine/threonine protein kinase (STPK) in diverse range of pathogenic bacteria. These STPK ... The arthropod 'Brain Tumor' protein (Brat; Q8MQJ9) is one such growth regulator that contains a 6-bladed NHL-repeat beta- ...
The KRAB domain is a potent repressor of transcription; thus this protein may function in transcription regulation. Two ... Zinc finger protein 160 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ZNF160 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... Halford S, Mattei MG, Daw S, Scambler PJ (Jul 1995). "A novel C2H2 zinc-finger protein gene (ZNF160) maps to human chromosome ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 7 (4): 273-81. doi: ...
... regulator genes often code for repressor proteins. Repressor proteins bind to operators or promoters, preventing RNA polymerase ... a gene which binds repressor proteins thus inhibiting the translation of RNA to protein via RNA polymerase). In prokaryotes, ... Inducers cause repressor proteins to change shape or otherwise become unable to bind DNA, allowing RNA polymerase to continue ... An example of a regulator gene is a gene that codes for a repressor protein that inhibits the activity of an operator ( ...
TFs work alone or with other proteins in a complex, by promoting (as an activator), or blocking (as a repressor) the ... RAV Cdx protein family DNA-binding protein Inhibitor of DNA-binding protein Mapper(2) Nuclear receptor, a class of ligand ... Pairs of transcription factors and other proteins can play antagonistic roles (activator versus repressor) in the regulation of ... Chadwick LH, Wade PA (April 2007). "MeCP2 in Rett syndrome: transcriptional repressor or chromatin architectural protein?". ...
This protein functions as both a transcriptional activator and repressor. Mutations in this gene result in autosomal dominant ... 2005). "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi: ... AP-2 proteins form homo- or hetero-dimers with other AP-2 family members and bind specific DNA sequences. They are thought to ... Transcription factor AP-2 beta also known as AP2-beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TFAP2B gene. AP-2 beta is a ...
This protein is likely a transcriptional repressor from the E-box binding factors family TR4/TR2 - These proteins are part of a ... The proteins encoded by the TMPIT proteins are predicted to be transmembrane proteins. However, there is lack of literature to ... It encodes a protein from a family of bacterial proteins with no known function. FHAD1 contains the forkhead-associated domain ... Forkhead-associated domain containing protein 1 (FHAD1) is a protein encoded by the FHAD1 gene. As the name suggests, it has a ...
These proteins may function as transcriptional repressors. They are also capable of eliciting spontaneously humoral and ... Protein SSX1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SSX1 gene. The product of this gene belongs to the family of highly ... "Functional domains of the SYT and SYT-SSX synovial sarcoma translocation proteins and co-localization with the SNF protein BRM ... 1995). "Fusion of SYT to two genes, SSX1 and SSX2, encoding proteins with homology to the Kruppel-associated box in human ...
These proteins may function as transcriptional repressors. They are also capable of eliciting spontaneously humoral and ... Protein SSX5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SSX5 gene. The product of this gene belongs to the family of highly ... "The cancer-related protein SSX2 interacts with the human homologue of a Ras-like GTPase interactor, RAB3IP, and a novel nuclear ... protein, SSX2IP". Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer. 34 (3): 285-98. doi:10.1002/gcc.10073. PMID 12007189. S2CID 11734893. Güre AO, ...
These proteins may function as transcriptional repressors. They are also capable of eliciting spontaneously humoral and ... Protein SSX4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SSX4 gene. The product of this gene belongs to the family of highly ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode: ... 2002). "The cancer-related protein SSX2 interacts with the human homologue of a Ras-like GTPase interactor, RAB3IP, and a novel ...
These proteins may function as transcriptional repressors. They are also capable of eliciting spontaneously humoral and ... SSX family member 6, pseudogene is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SSX6 gene. This gene belongs to the family of ... highly homologous synovial sarcoma X (SSX) breakpoint proteins. ...
These proteins may function as transcriptional repressors. They are also capable of eliciting spontaneously humoral and ... Protein SSX2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SSX2 gene. The product of this gene belongs to the family of highly ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode: ... 2002). "The cancer-related protein SSX2 interacts with the human homologue of a Ras-like GTPase interactor, RAB3IP, and a novel ...
This protein complexes with transcriptional co-repressor CTBP. It is also associated with BRCA1 and is thought to modulate the ... Retinoblastoma-binding protein 8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBBP8 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is ... It is found among several proteins that bind directly to retinoblastoma protein, which regulates cell proliferation. ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode:2005Natur. ...
"Entrez Gene: NOL3 nucleolar protein 3 (apoptosis repressor with CARD domain)". Stoss O, Schwaiger FW, Cooper TA, Stamm S (Apr ... Nucleolar protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NOL3 gene. NOL3 has been shown to interact with SFRS9 and ... "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi:10.1038/ ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode:2005Natur. ...
Nuclear receptor co-repressor 2, PRKAR2A, and Zinc finger and BTB domain-containing protein 16. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Protein CBFA2T1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RUNX1T1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a putative zinc ... with serine/threonine protein kinases and heat shock protein HSP90 in human hematopoietic cell lines". Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 90 ( ... "Interactions between the leukaemia-associated ETO homologues of nuclear repressor proteins". Eur. J. Haematol. 71 (6): 439-47. ...
The encoded protein has been suggested to be a transcriptional repressor. It localizes predominantly to the nucleolus. ... Zinc finger protein 274 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ZNF274 gene. This gene encodes a zinc finger protein ... ZNF274+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) FactorBook ZNF274 This article ... "Entrez Gene: ZNF274 zinc finger protein 274". Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap ...
The protein it encodes for is 344 amino acids in length. The protein itself is very acidic and is very rich in aspartic acid ... It also interacts with EWSR1, which functions as a transcriptional repressor. CCDC82 is a circulat-responsive gene. Circulat is ... Coiled-Coil Domain Containing protein 82 (CCDC82) is a protein that in humans, is encoded for by the gene of the same name, ... CCDC82 is known to interact with two proteins. It indirectly interacts with VHL, a gene that encodes for a tumor suppressor and ...
"Interactions between the leukaemia-associated ETO homologues of nuclear repressor proteins". Eur. J. Haematol. 71 (6): 439-47. ... Protein CBFA2T2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CBFA2T2 gene. In acute myeloid leukemia, especially in the M2 ... Zhang J, Kalkum M, Yamamura S, Chait BT, Roeder RG (2004). "E protein silencing by the leukemogenic AML1-ETO fusion protein". ... "Interactions between the leukaemia-associated ETO homologues of nuclear repressor proteins". Eur. J. Haematol. 71 (6): 439-47. ...
2000). "The human transcriptional repressor protein NAB1: expression and biological activity". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1493 (3 ... NGFI-A-binding protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NAB1 gene. NAB1 has been shown to interact with Zif268. ... "Entrez Gene: NAB1 NGFI-A binding protein 1 (EGR1 binding protein 1)". Bonaldo MF, Lennon G, Soares MB (1997). "Normalization ... Russo MW, Sevetson BR, Milbrandt J (Aug 1995). "Identification of NAB1, a repressor of NGFI-A- and Krox20-mediated ...
"Interactions between the leukaemia-associated ETO homologues of nuclear repressor proteins". Eur. J. Haematol. 71 (6): 439-47. ... Protein CBFA2T3 (core-binding factor, runt domain, alpha subunit 2; translocated to, 3) is a protein that in humans is encoded ... "Interactions between the leukaemia-associated ETO homologues of nuclear repressor proteins". Eur. J. Haematol. 71 (6): 439-47. ... CBFA2T3+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CBFA2T3 genome location and ...
"KRAB-Zinc Finger Proteins: A Repressor Family Displaying Multiple Biological Functions". Current Genomics. 14 (4): 268-78. doi: ... The C8orf48 protein is predicted to be a nuclear protein particularly located in the nuclear lamina. This protein does not ... C8orf48 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C8orf48 gene. C8orf48 is a nuclear protein specifically predicted to be ... The protein C8orf48 is 319 amino acids in length. The molecular weight of this protein is 36.9 kDa and the isoelectric point is ...
One such protein pathway is the REST co-repressor complex pathway. There are also several non-coding RNAs that regulate neural ... Neuroepigenetic mechanisms involve proteins or protein pathways that regulate gene expression by adding, editing or reading ... In response to DNA damage, the FUS protein also interacts with histone deacetylase I, a protein employed in epigenetic ... The protein encoded by the FUS gene is employed in the DNA damage response. It is recruited to DNA double-strand breaks and ...
Interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IRF2BP2 gene. This gene encodes ... Childs KS, Goodbourn S (2003). "Identification of novel co-repressor molecules for Interferon Regulatory Factor-2". Nucleic ... Carneiro FR, Ramalho-Oliveira R, Mognol GP, Viola JP (2011). "Interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein 2 is a new NFAT1 ... "Entrez Gene: Interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein 2". Retrieved 2017-01-06. ...
Protein superfamily[edit]. Interleukin is the main member of the IL-6 superfamily (Pfam PF00489), which also includes G-CSF, ... "The reelin and GAD67 promoters are activated by epigenetic drugs that facilitate the disruption of local repressor complexes" ... As IL-6 interacts with its receptor, it triggers the gp130 and IL-6R proteins to form a complex, thus activating the receptor. ... IL-6 is responsible for stimulating acute phase protein synthesis, as well as the production of neutrophils in the bone marrow ...
"A novel translational repressor mRNA is edited extensively in livers containing tumors caused by the transgene expression of ... Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (DNA:protein). *Far-western blot (protein:protein). *Far-eastern blot (lipid:post ...
They get translated into different proteins. Thus, a single gene may code for multiple proteins.[1] ... and splicing repressors that reduce the use of a particular site. New types of alternative splicing are being found.[4][5] ... Alternative splicing allows DNA to code for more than one protein. It varies the exon make-up of the messenger RNA. ... It greatly increases the diversity of proteins that can be encoded by the genome.[1] In humans, ~95% of multiexonic genes are ...
TFs work alone or with other proteins in a complex, by promoting (as an activator), or blocking (as a repressor) the ... Domain architecture example: Lactose Repressor (LacI). The N-terminal DNA binding domain (labeled) of the lac repressor binds ... lambda repressor-like InterPro: IPR010982 SCOP 47413 srf-like (serum response factor) InterPro: IPR002100 Pfam PF00319 SCOP ... homeodomain proteins, which are encoded by homeobox genes, are transcription factors. Homeodomain proteins play critical roles ...
The prokaryotic SOS system is regulated by two key proteins: LexA and RecA. The LexA homodimer is a transcriptional repressor ... In E. coli , the proteins involved are the Mut class proteins: MutS, MutL, and MutH. In most Eukaryotes, the analog for MutS is ... A class of checkpoint mediator proteins including BRCA1, MDC1, and 53BP1 has also been identified.[55] These proteins seem to ... Checkpoint Proteins can be separated into four groups: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-like protein kinase, proliferating ...
... has been shown to interact with SKI protein and it is also known to interact with AP-1. NFI-X3 has been shown to interact ... Liu Y, Bernard HU, Apt D (1997). "NFI-B3, a novel transcriptional repressor of the nuclear factor I family, is generated by ... Nuclear factor 1 X-type is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NFIX gene. NFI-X3, a splice variant of NFIX, regulates ... NFIX+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ...
... a computational tool to investigate protein function, disease, and genetic diversity. Curr Protoc Protein Sci. Vol. chapter 2. ... The E. coli lactose operon repressor LacI (PDB: 1lcc​ chain A) and E. coli catabolite gene activator (PDB: 3gap​ chain A) both ... When a sequence motif appears in the exon of a gene, it may encode the "structural motif" of a protein; that is a stereotypical ... For example, many DNA binding proteins that have affinity for specific DNA binding sites bind DNA in only its double-helical ...
... the encoded protein functions as a potent transcription repressor that binds to sumoylated transcription factors. Its ... Death-associated protein 6 also known as Daxx is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DAXX gene. Daxx, a Death domain- ... This protein also associates with centromeres in G2 phase. In the cytoplasm, the encoded protein may function to regulate ... It interacts with a wide variety of proteins, such as apoptosis antigen Fas, centromere protein C, and transcription factor ...
They exhibit a high degree of protein dynamics, alone or in complex. Several types of catenins work with N-cadherins to play an ... β-catenin becomes a coactivator for TCF and LEF to activate Wnt genes by displacing Groucho and HDAC transcription repressors. ... Catenins are a family of proteins found in complexes with cadherin cell adhesion molecules of animal cells. The first two ... Mutations in genes encoding these proteins can lead to inactivation of cadherin cell adhesions and elimination of contact ...
... phosphorylates ribosomal protein s6, which is involved in protein synthesis; and phosphorylates a translational repressor ... Some viruses can encode proteins that bind to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to prevent the activity of RNA-dependent protein ... the E7 protein of Human papillomavirus (HPV), and the B18R protein of vaccinia virus. Reducing IFN-α activity may prevent ... the phosphorylated eIF-2 forms an inactive complex with another protein, called eIF2B, to reduce protein synthesis within the ...
PFF1 consists of an origin of replication, oriV, an origin of transfer, oriT, a gene coding for plasmid replication proteins, ... and a set of complementary transcriptional repressor genes, called kor (short for "kil-override") genes, which inactivate the ... 4486-4491 Kolatka K, Witosinska M, Pierechod M, Konieczny I.: "Bacterial partitioning proteins affect the subcellular location ... the TrfA protein, binds to and activates oriV. In Escherichia coli, replication proceeds unidirectionally from oriV after ...
A connector protein dimer (e.g. CTCF or YY1) stabilizes the loop by anchoring one member on the enhancer and the other on the ... These transcription factors have specific activator or repressor sequences of corresponding nucleotides that attach to specific ... The loop is stabilized by a dimer of a connector protein (e.g. dimer of CTCF or YY1), with one member of the dimer anchored to ... The RNA transcript may encode a protein (mRNA), or can have a function in and of itself, such as tRNA or rRNA. Promoters are ...
YY1 is a zinc-finger protein that acts as a transcriptional repressor for a wide-variety of genes essential for development and ... Thereafter, one of the strands is incorporated into a multi-protein RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Among these proteins ... encodes a protein which binds to RNA and acts as a chaperone to facilitate and maintain the LINE protein-RNA complex structure ... or can be found within the introns of protein-coding genes. The co-localization of microRNA and protein-coding genes provides a ...
MHC-β is a 223 kDa protein composed of 1935 amino acids. MHC-β is a hexameric, asymmetric motor forming the bulk of the thick ... "Concerted regulation of myofiber-specific gene expression and muscle performance by the transcriptional repressor Sox6". ... Harris SP, Lyons RG, Bezold KL (March 2011). "In the thick of it: HCM-causing mutations in myosin binding proteins of the thick ... MHC-β is the major protein comprising the thick filament in cardiac muscle and plays a major role in cardiac muscle contraction ...
Zinc finger protein GLI2 also known as GLI family zinc finger 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GLI2 gene. The ... C-terminal activator and N-terminal repressor regions have been identified in both Gli2 and Gli3. However, the N-terminal part ... Gli2+protein at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) GLI2+protein,+human at the US National ... The anti-apoptotic protein BCL-2 is up regulated by Gli2 and, to a lesser extent, Gli1 - but not Gli3, which may lead to ...
... (polycomb repressive complex 2) is one of the two classes of polycomb-group proteins or (PcG). The other component of this ... "Polycomb Repressor Complex 2 in Genomic Instability and Cancer". Int J Mol Sci. 18 (8): 1657. doi:10.3390/ijms18081657. PMC ... PRC1 also mono-ubiquitinates histone H2A on lysine 119 (H2AK119Ub1). These proteins are required for long term epigenetic ... Koehler, Claudia; Hennig, Lars (2010). "Regulation of cell identity by plant Polycomb and trithorax group proteins". Current ...
... the heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) and the protein FKBP4 (FK506-binding protein 4). The endogenous glucocorticoid hormone ... "Evidence that the beta-isoform of the human glucocorticoid receptor does not act as a physiologically significant repressor". ... Hulkko SM, Wakui H, Zilliacus J (August 2000). "The pro-apoptotic protein death-associated protein 3 (DAP3) interacts with the ... resides in the cytosol complexed with a variety of proteins including heat shock protein 90 (hsp90), ...
During transport, translation of oskar is repressed by the RNA-binding protein Bruno, which is in turn released by the binding ... Chekulaeva, Marina; Hentze, Matthias W.; Ephrussi, Anne (2006). "Bruno Acts as a Dual Repressor of oskar Translation, Promoting ... Further, the roles of non-canonical RNA binding proteins in development as well as germ plasm assembly and function are ... After proper localization, oskar RNA is translated and organizes germ plasm by recruiting other proteins such as Vasa. Her ...
Otherwise, CDK4/6 binds cyclin D and forms an active protein complex that phosphorylates retinoblastoma protein (pRB). Once ... "Association of p14ARF with the p120E4F transcriptional repressor enhances cell cycle inhibition". The Journal of Biological ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Molecular Systems Biology. 3: 89. doi: ... a type 1 protein-phosphatase-binding protein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (17): 14161-9. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
Zinc finger protein Gfi-1 is a transcriptional repressor that in humans is encoded by the GFI1 gene. It is important normal ... "Gfi-1 encodes a nuclear zinc finger protein that binds DNA and functions as a transcriptional repressor". Mol. Cell. Biol. 16 ( ... GFI1+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ... "The zinc finger protein Gfi-1 can enhance STAT3 signaling by interacting with the STAT3 inhibitor PIAS3". EMBO J. 19 (21): 5845 ...
... lipoate-protein ligases A, octanoyl-(acyl carrier protein):protein N-octanoyltransferases, and lipoyl-protein:protein N- ... "Escherichia coli biotin holoenzyme synthetase/bio repressor crystal structure delineates the biotin- and DNA-binding domains". ... Lipoyl-protein:protein N-lipoyltransferases, or lipoylamidotransferases, are required for lipoic acid metabolism in some ... Octanoyl-(acyl carrier protein):protein N-octanoyltransferases, or octanoyltransferases, are required for lipoic acid ...
... repressor - repressor protein - respiration (physiology) - restriction enzyme - retinoblastoma protein - retinoic acid receptor ... protein - protein biosynthesis - Protein Data Bank - protein design - protein expression - protein folding - protein isoform - ... protein P16 - protein P34cdc2 - protein precursor - protein structure prediction - protein subunit - protein synthesis - ... proto-oncogene protein C-kit - proto-oncogene proteins c-abl - proto-oncogene proteins c-bcl-2 - Proto-oncogene proteins c-fos ...
When this protein forms a heterodimer with MafK, it functions as a repressor of Maf recognition element (MARE) and ... Transcription regulator protein BACH1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BACH1 gene. This gene encodes a ... These BTB/POZ domains facilitate protein-protein interactions and formation of homo- and/or hetero-oligomers. The C-terminus of ... BACH1+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human BACH1 genome location and ...
... to nuclear receptors induces a conformation of the receptor that preferentially binds coactivator proteins. These proteins ... Klinge CM (May 2000). "Estrogen receptor interaction with co-activators and co-repressors". Steroids. 65 (5): 227-51. doi: ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-1178. Bibcode: ... Additional proteins including RNA polymerase are then recruited to the NR/DNA complex that transcribe DNA into messenger RNA. ...
"Tumor suppressor pRB functions as a co-repressor of the CCAAT displacement protein (CDP/cut) to regulate cell cycle controlled ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the homeodomain family of DNA binding proteins. It regulates gene expression, ... The human CASP protein is predicted to contain 678 amino acids, of which 400 are shared with CUTL1. CASP protein is ... Cux1 (CUTL1, CDP, CDP/Cux) has been shown to interact with: CREB binding protein, Retinoblastoma protein, and SATB1 These ...
Human genes encoded teneurin domain proteins (TENM1-4) are list in the infoboxes. Tucker RP, Chiquet-Ehrismann R, Chevron MP, ... The intracellular domain interacts with the DNA-binding transcriptional repressors and also regulate the activity of ... The name refers to "ten-a" (from "tenascin-like protein, accessory") and "neurons", the primary site of teneurin expression. ... Ten-m refers to tenascin-like protein major. Teneurins are highly conserved between Drosophila, C. elegans and vertebrates. In ...
... the repressor of GATA-3 (ROG) early growth response protein 2 (Egr-2) Expression of these transcriptional factors are driven by ... They also express repressor of GATA-3 (ROG), while CD25+ FOXP3+ regulatory cells do not. ROG then downregulates GATA-3, a ... LAG-3 is a membrane protein on Tr1 cells that negatively regulates TCR-mediated signal transduction in cells. LAG-3 activates ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7-interacting protein 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAP3K7IP2 ... MAP3K7IP2 has been shown to interact with: HDAC3, TAB1, MAP3K7IP3, MAP3K7, NFKB1, NUMBL, Nuclear receptor co-repressor 1, TRAF2 ... "Entrez Gene: MAP3K7IP2 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7 interacting protein 2". Thienpont B, Zhang L, Postma AV ... The protein encoded by this gene is an activator of MAP3K7/TAK1, which is required for the IL-1 induced activation of nuclear ...
DNMT3A consists of three major protein domains: the Pro-Trp-Trp-Pro (PWWP) domain, the ATRX-DNMT3-DNMT3L (ADD) domain and the ... "Dnmt3a binds deacetylases and is recruited by a sequence-specific repressor to silence transcription". The EMBO Journal. 20 (10 ... This protein thus seems to have an inbuilt control mechanism targeting histones only for methylation. Finally, the ... DNMT3A is a 130 kDa protein encoded by 23 exons found on chromosome 2p23 in humans. There exists a 98% homology between human ...
Timeline for Protein Tetracyclin repressor (Tet-repressor, TetR) from a.121.1.1: Tetracyclin repressor-like, C-terminal domain: ... Tetracyclin repressor (Tet-repressor, TetR), C-terminal domain. *Protein Tetracyclin repressor (Tet-repressor, TetR) from a. ... Lineage for Protein: Tetracyclin repressor (Tet-repressor, TetR). *Root: SCOPe 2.06 *. Class a: All alpha proteins [46456] (289 ... Protein Tetracyclin repressor (Tet-repressor, TetR) from a.121.1.1: Tetracyclin repressor-like, C-terminal domain appears in ...
The function of YY1 as an activator or a repressor is specified by the presence of other proteins. ... The protein is involved in repressing and activating a diverse number of promoters. YY1 may direct histone deacetylases and ... YY1 is a ubiquitously distributed transcription factor belonging to the GLI-Kruppel class of zinc finger proteins. ... Human Transcriptional repressor protein YY1 (YY1) ELISA Kit. Human Transcriptional repressor protein YY1 (YY1) ELISA Kit Views( ...
The remaining two proteins obtained after HPLC separation were identified as homologues of bacterial repressor-like proteins. ... The remaining two proteins obtained after HPLC separation were identified as homologues of bacterial repressor-like proteins. ... The remaining two proteins obtained after HPLC separation were identified as homologues of bacterial repressor-like proteins. ... The remaining two proteins obtained after HPLC separation were identified as homologues of bacterial repressor-like proteins. ...
Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism * Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets / metabolism * Repressor Proteins / metabolism ... The protein kinases ATM and ATR, as well as their budding yeast orthologs Tel1 and Mec1, act as master regulators of the DDR. ... The initiating events in the DDR entail both DNA lesion recognition and assembly of protein complexes at the damaged DNA sites ...
Chromatin sampling--an emerging perspective on targeting polycomb repressor proteins. Klose RJ., Cooper S., Farcas AM., ...
Control the expression of structural genes (code for enzymes of the same metabolic pathway) Repressor protein is active when ... Binding of lactose to lac repressor is transient, Repressor now able to bind to operator. Cis (cid:448)s t(cid:396)a(cid:374)s ... BIOB11H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Lac Repressor, Lac Operon, Camp Receptor Protein. ... When lactose is present, it binds to repressor and inactivate it. Translation of mrna yields 3 enzymes that convert lactose to ...
Production of Repressor Production of Proteins Assumptions Retrieved from "" ... Transcription of Repressor: Transcription of Lysozyme and Holin:. Repression of Lysozyme and Holin Transcription ...
CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF TRP REPRESSOR OPERATOR COMPLEX AT ATOMIC RESOLUTION ... PROTEIN (TRP REPRESSOR). E [auth A],. F [auth C],. G [auth E],. H [auth G]. 108. Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. W3110. ... Crystal structure of trp repressor/operator complex at atomic resolution.. Otwinowski, Z., Schevitz, R.W., Zhang, R.G., Lawson ... There are no direct hydrogen bonds or non-polar contacts to the bases that can explain the repressors specificity for the ...
The repressor protein Stl obstructs the expression of SaPI proteins Str and Xis, latter which is responsible for mobilization ... The repressor protein Stl obstructs the expression of SaPI proteins Str and Xis, latter which is responsible for mobilization ... Our aim was to predict the binding sites for the Stl repressor within the S. aureus pathogenicity island DNA sequence. We found ... In Vitro Analysis of Predicted DNA-Binding Sites for the Stl Repressor of the Staphylococcus aureus SaPIBov1 Pathogenicity ...
This protein and LDB1 are co-repressors of LHX1/LIM-1, a homeodomain transcription factor. Multiple alternatively spliced ... ring finger protein 12. ring zinc finger LIM domain binding protein. ring zinc finger protein NY-REN-43antigen. NP_057204.2. * ... E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase RLIM. Names. E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase RNF12. LIM domain-interacting RING finger protein. R-LIM. ... The protein encoded by this gene is a RING-H2 zinc finger protein. It has been shown to be an E3 ubiquitin protein ligase that ...
Erratum: Nef protein of HIV-1 is a transcriptional repressor of HIV-1LTR (Science (1481)). ... Dive into the research topics of Erratum: Nef protein of HIV-1 is a transcriptional repressor of HIV-1LTR (Science (1481)). ...
The bHLH protein SCL/Tal-l interacts with the co-repressor ETO-2 in erythroid cells and megakaryocytes. ... The bHLH protein SCL/Tal-l interacts with the co-repressor ETO-2 in erythroid cells and megakaryocytes. ...
SAP155-mediated splicing of FUSE-binding protein-interacting repressor serves as a molecular switch for c-myc gene expression. ... SAP155-mediated splicing of FUSE-binding protein-interacting repressor serves as a molecular switch for c-myc gene expression. ... SAP155-mediated splicing of FUSE-binding protein-interacting repressor serves as a molecular switch for c-myc gene expression. ... SAP155-mediated splicing of FUSE-binding protein-interacting repressor serves as a molecular switch for c-myc gene expression. ...
The bHLH protein SCL/Tal-l interacts with the co-repressor ETO-2 in erythroid cells and megakaryocytes. ... The bHLH protein SCL/Tal-l interacts with the co-repressor ETO-2 in erythroid cells and megakaryocytes. ...
... lac repressor and even nucleosomes. RecBCD did not pause during collisions and often pushed proteins thousands of base pairs ... Protein machineries that move along the DNA, such as DNA polymerases and helicases, will necessarily encounter other bound ... They find that the enzyme is remarkably robust and can push proteins over non-specific sites for thousands of base pairs before ... The translocase is able to push the proteins over nonspecific sites for thousands of base pairs before they are displaced. In ...
The ATN1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called atrophin 1. Learn about this gene and related health conditions ... A transcriptional co-repressor is a protein that interacts with other DNA-binding proteins to suppress the activity of certain ... The ATN1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called atrophin 1. Although the exact function of this protein is ... Although the extended CAG region changes the structure of atrophin 1, it is unclear how the altered protein damages brain cells ...
The 23S rRNA gene encodes a component of the 50S ribosome, where bacterial protein synthesis occurs. The C2611T mutation ... The mtrR gene encodes a repressor of a bacterial efflux pump that exports antibiotics, including macrolides, out of the ... decreased ability of azithromycin to inhibit bacterial protein synthesis (5). Although the G115A mutation in the mtrR coding ...
Type : gene with protein product. *Chromosomal location : 1p22.1. *OMIM: 600871. *HGNC: 4237 ... GFI1 - growth factor independent 1 transcriptional repressor. *Synonym(s) : GFI-1, GFI1A ...
The involvement of transcriptional repressor proteins in Huntingtons disease. Journal of Medical Genetics 38(Suppl1), pp. S65- ... The involvement of transcriptional repressor proteins in Huntingtons disease. Journal of Medical Genetics 38(Suppl1), pp. S65- ...
Repressor Proteins. 1. 2019. 3061. 0.080. Why? Apoptosis. 2. 2020. 10125. 0.080. Why? ...
Repressor Proteins. T. Lu, Aron, L., Zullo, J., Pan, Y., Kim, H., Chen, Y., Yang, T. - H., Kim, H. - M., Drake, D., X Liu, S., ... DNA-Binding Proteins. T. Lu, Aron, L., Zullo, J., Pan, Y., Kim, H., Chen, Y., Yang, T. - H., Kim, H. - M., Drake, D., X Liu, S. ... Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins. T. Lu, Aron, L., Zullo, J., Pan, Y., Kim, H., Chen, Y., Yang, T. - H., Kim, H. - M., Drake, D. ...
GvpE acts as a transcription activator and GvpD as a repressor. The proteins GvpFGHIJKLM are accessory proteins that are ... In addition, the protein-protein interactions of the accessory gas vesicle proteins and GvpA were investigated directly in vivo ... CBDM acted as bait protein and the proteins GvpF to GvpL as prey proteins. Western analyses of the pull-down assay showed that ... To detect protein-protein interactions, the CBDGvp fusion proteins were synthesized together with the putative interaction ...
translation repressor complex +. 0. transporter complex +. 457. troponin complex +. 9. tubulin complex. 1. ... A protein complex in this context is meant as a stable set of interacting proteins which can be co-purified by an acceptable ... Acceptable experimental methods include stringent protein purification followed by detection of protein interaction. The ... Protein-Protein Interactions) PhenoMiner (Quatitative Phenotypes) Gene Annotator OLGA (Gene List Generator) RatMine GViewer ( ...
protein binding. • zinc ion binding. • transcription repressor activity. • protein homodimerization activity. • sequence- ... The FOXP2 protein sequence is highly conserved. Similar FOXP2 proteins can be found in songbirds, fish, and reptiles such as ... E2F (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) • FOX proteins (C1, C2, E1, G1, H1, L2, M1, N3, O3, O4, P1, P2, P3). ...
protein coding gene. Chr8:70359719-70450093 (-). 129S1/SvImJ MGP_129S1SvImJ_G0033684. protein coding gene. Chr8:70135962- ... IPR040386 Transcriptional repressor p66. IPR032346 Transcriptional repressor p66, coiled-coil MBD2-interaction domain ... protein coding gene. Chr8:62112900-62201273 (-). CAST/EiJ MGP_CASTEiJ_G0032698. protein coding gene. Chr8:69320642-69416573 (-) ... protein coding gene. Chr8:69855811-69944163 (-). C57BL/6NJ MGP_C57BL6NJ_G0034180. protein coding gene. Chr8:72804135-72898155 ...
Biotin operon repressor , Biotin protein ligase (BPL) , Biotin--[acetyl-CoA-carboxylase] synthetase , BirA Bifunctional Protein ... The separation and purification of BirA from other cellular proteins was carried out in NiNTA column and Sepharose ...
Search for predicted protein-protein interactions using: Search term: PSPPH_1393 Search term: repressor protein c2 ... BLASTP search (protein versus protein) against single strain. *BLASTX search (translated nucleotide versus protein) against ... DIAMOND BLASTP search (protein versus protein) against one or more strains (very fast) ... TBLASTN search (protein versus translated nucleotide database) against single strain. *TBLASTX search (translated nucleotide ...
Solution Structure of the zinc finger domain of Transcriptional repressor CTCF protein. ... Protein. Disease. Wilms tumor protein (P19544) (SMART). OMIM:194070: Wilms tumor, type 1 ; Denys-Drash syndrome ; Frasier ... Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing ZnF_C2H2 domain in the ... ORIGINAL SEQUENCE TAKEN FROM THE THIRD ZINC FINGER DOMAIN OF THE HUMAN TRANSCRIPTIONAL REPRESSOR PROTEIN YY1 (YING AND YANG 1, ...
  • Control the expression of structural genes (code for enzymes of the same metabolic pathway) Repressor protein is active when its translated, will be inactivated when bound to lac. (
  • Many of the genes that are known to be regulated by the MeCP2 protein play a role in normal brain function, particularly the maintenance of synapses. (
  • As a result, cells do not have enough MeCP2 protein to bind to DNA and regulate other genes. (
  • A shortage of MeCP2 alters the activity of genes that are normally controlled by this protein. (
  • Mutations that cause PPM-X syndrome lead to the production of a MeCP2 protein that cannot properly interact with DNA or other proteins and so cannot control the expression of genes. (
  • Here, besides proposing more appropriate reference genes for Arabidopsis expression studies, we also demonstrated the capacity of mass spectrometry-based LFQ to quantify protein abundance and the possibility to extend protein expression studies to the transcript level. (
  • This gene encodes a transcriptional repressor that represses neuronal genes in non-neuronal tissues. (
  • This translocation results in the fusion of the synovial sarcoma translocation gene on chromosome 18 to one of the SSX genes on chromosome X. The encoded hybrid proteins are probably responsible for transforming activity. (
  • As CIC is a transcriptional repressor, it makes sense that capicua levels inversely correlate with expression of the ion channel genes. (
  • Upon fertilization, the two proteins heterodimerize and translocate to both male and female pronuclei to activate the expression of early zygote-specific genes. (
  • And so what makes an eye cell an eye cell and a skin cell a skin cell is which genes are expressed in that cell, so in the eye cell we have the expression of genes that make certain proteins that are unique to an eye cell and in a skin cell, we have genes that are expressed and they make proteins that are unique to a skin cell. (
  • How do we regulate the expression of genes so that only those proteins that are necessary for the cell get expressed or are made. (
  • Despite similar GATA1 protein levels, exogenous NSD1 but not NSDN1918Q significantly increases the occupancy of GATA1 at target genes and their expression. (
  • ttk is expressed as two proteins, p69 and p88, shown previously to bind to the regulatory regions of several segmentation genes. (
  • Consistent with previous proposals that the Ttk proteins are transcriptional repressors of segmentation genes, we detected ectopic or increased expression of the segment polarity gene engrailed in several ttk 1 larval tissues. (
  • Xiong, WC & Montell, C 1993, ' tramtrack is a transcriptional repressor required for cell fate determination in the Drosophila eye ', Genes & development , vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 1085-1096. (
  • En la inducción enzimática, el sustrato de la enzima inducible se une a la proteína represora, lo que hace que esta se separe del operador y libera los genes estructurales para la transcripción. (
  • En la represión enzimática, el producto final de la secuencia enzimática se une a la proteína represora libre, el complejo que se produce se une entonces al operador e impide la transcripción de los genes estructurales. (
  • Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS . (
  • Scaffold attachment factors are a specific subset of nuclear matrix proteins (NMP) that specifically bind to S/MAR. The encoded protein is thought to serve as a molecular base to assemble a 'transcriptosome complex' in the vicinity of actively transcribed genes. (
  • MADS-box genes encode proteins that share a highly conservative DNA-binding domain, the MADS domain, which recognizes similar 10-bp A/T-rich DNA sequences, the CArG-box [ 4 ]. (
  • In plants, MADS-box genes can be divided into two distinct groups, namely type I and type II lineages: type I MADS-box proteins have no keratin-like (K) domain and only have the MADS (M) domain, whereas type II proteins also possess an intervening (I) domain, a K domain, and a C-terminal region followed by an M domain [ 15 ]. (
  • Chromatin sampling--an emerging perspective on targeting polycomb repressor proteins. (
  • This protein helps regulate gene activity (expression) by modifying chromatin, the complex of DNA and protein that packages DNA into chromosomes. (
  • Note: many chromatin-bound proteins are not soluble in a low salt nuclear extract and fractionate to the pellet. (
  • This protein is thought to be involved in attaching the base of chromatin loops to the nuclear matrix but there is conflicting evidence as to whether this protein is a component of chromatin or a nuclear matrix protein. (
  • Transcription is regulated at various levels by activators and repressors and also by chromatin structure in eukaryotes. (
  • SPEN protein expression and interactions with chromatin in mouse testicular cells SPEN (spen family transcription repressor) is a nucleic acid-binding protein putatively involved in repression. (
  • The N-terminal PSD95/Dlg-A/ZO-1 (PDZ)-like domain of SATB1 mediates interactions with several chromatin proteins. (
  • We also found that PLU-1 localises diffusely over the nucleus, which indicates a potential chromatin binding ability of this protein. (
  • Our data point to a role for PLU-1 in meiotic transcription, which may be restricted to certain meiotic stages and may be mediated by the ability of this protein to associate with the chromatin. (
  • This study aims to study the significance of the FIR-SAP155 interaction for the coordination of c-myc transcription, pre-mRNA splicing, and c-Myc protein modification, as well as to interrogate FIRΔexon2 for other functions relating to altered FIR pre-mRNA splicing. (
  • Knockdown of SAP155 or FIR was used to investigate their reciprocal influence on each other and on c-myc transcription, pre-mRNA splicing, and protein expression. (
  • Researchers believe that the MeCP2 protein may also be involved in processing molecules called messenger RNA (mRNA), which serve as genetic blueprints for making proteins. (
  • By cutting and rearranging mRNA molecules in different ways, the MeCP2 protein controls the production of different versions of certain proteins. (
  • Each time an amino acid is added to a growing polypeptide during protein synthesis, a tRNA anticodon pairs with its complementary codon on the mRNA molecule, ensuring that the appropriate amino acid is inserted into the polypeptide. (
  • In a cell, antisense DNA serves as the template for producing messenger RNA (mRNA), which directs the synthesis of a protein. (
  • The effects of endoplasmic stress inducers on resistin mRNA and secreted protein levels were examined in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, focusing on the expression and genomic binding of transcriptional regulators of resistin. (
  • Resistin protein was also substantially downregulated, showing a close correspondence with mRNA levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes as well as in the fat pads of obese mice. (
  • ER stress is a potent regulator of resistin, suggesting that ER stress may underlie the local downregulation of resistin mRNA and protein in fat in murine obesity. (
  • The information for protein synthesis is generally stored in DNA, which is transcribed to messenger RNA (mRNA), and then translated into a protein. (
  • Translation or protein synthesis is a multi-step process that requires a lot of molecules including transfer RNAs (tRNA), amino acids, ATP, GTP and other cofactors to transfer information from mRNA to protein in ribosomes. (
  • Protein factors as well as sequences in mRNA are involved in the recognition of the initiation codon and formation of the initiation complex. (
  • In previous studies, high levels of expression of Plu-1 mRNA and PLU-1 protein were detected in breast cancers, while expression in normal adult tissues was detected only in the testis, ovary and transiently in the mammary gland of the pregnant female. (
  • Using in situ hybridisation and immunostaining of testis sections we show that Plu-1 mRNA and PLU-1 protein are both highly expressed in the mitotic spermatogonia. (
  • These proteins may function as transcriptional repressors. (
  • Deletion of either ROX1 transcriptional repressor or CTH1 and CTH2 post-transcriptional repressors of ERG1 expression led to an increase in Erg1 protein levels and terbinafine resistance. (
  • These mutations either change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the MeCP2 protein or create a premature stop signal in the instructions for making the protein. (
  • A protein consists of one or more chains of amino acids (called polypeptides) whose sequence is encoded in a gene. (
  • The tetramerization domain is located between amino acids 326 and 89, and is structurally similar to the sterile α-motif protein-protein interaction domain ( 24 , 25 ). (
  • The specific sequence of amino acids determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during protein folding, and the function of the protein. (
  • Peptides and proteins are guaranteed for 3 months from date of receipt. (
  • XV" YOL105C 1 15 18 YOL105C "Putative integral membrane protein containing novel cysteine motif. (
  • PLU-1, a transcriptional repressor and putative testis-cancer antigen, has a specific expression and localisation pattern during meiosis. (
  • The function of YY1 as an activator or a repressor is specified by the presence of other proteins. (
  • To find the transcription activator, you make a DNA probe to bind the protein. (
  • The activator binds to the promoter to turn on protein production. (
  • Therefore, a probe made from this sequence will isolate the activator from other proteins in the cell. (
  • We have demonstrated that Slx and Sly are both involved in the epigenetic regulation of XY gene expression during spermiogenesis, but with overall opposite effects: Slx is an activator while Sly is a repressor of XY gene expression. (
  • Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release. (
  • protein_coding" "AAC73969","clpA","Escherichia coli","ATPase and specificity subunit of ClpA-ClpP ATP-dependent serine protease, chaperone activity [Ensembl]. (
  • For your convenience, an IgG version (Catalog No. 39883) of this antibody that was purified by Protein G Chromatography is also available. (
  • Renowned as the #1 antibody event in the industry, this year's agenda boasts 15 dedicated topic streams, 3 unmissable training course add-on options and will bring together more than 700 of the antibody and protein community. (
  • The FOXP2 protein sequence is highly conserved. (
  • MAF1 that is similar to Maf1, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein is a protein highly conserved in eukaryotic cells and is localized to the nucleus. (
  • Genetic and biochemical evidence suggests that the transcription of the c locus is autoregulated possibly by the 42-kDa protein binding to a highly conserved 16-bp perfect inverted repeat. (
  • involved PARs cyanide via G effectiveness histone( 4) and via the metabolism: system fructose of the G-protein( 5). (
  • Retinoblastoma Binding Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • Neutralization antibodies were also assessed with an alpha-S protein-expressing pseudo-virus assay. (
  • The initiating events in the DDR entail both DNA lesion recognition and assembly of protein complexes at the damaged DNA sites. (
  • We show that the DNA translocase RecBCD can disrupt core RNA polymerase, holoenzymes, stalled elongation complexes and transcribing RNA polymerases in either head-to-head or head-to-tail orientations, as well as EcoRI E111Q , lac repressor and even nucleosomes. (
  • 4) partial complexes, where some subunits (e.g. transmembrane ones) cannot be expressed as recombinant proteins and are excluded from experiments (in this case, independent evidence is necessary to find out the composition of the full complex, if known). (
  • HDAC2 also forms transcriptional repressor complexes containing, among others, HDAC1 or RBBP4. (
  • 1 Contreras-Moreira B. 3D-footprint: a database for the structural analysis of protein-DNA complexes. (
  • A novel protein call AnkA in A. phagocytophilum is translocated from the bacterium within a host vacuole into the host nucleus, where it forms complexes with heterochromatin and is largely responsible for many host transcriptional changes by directly binding to regulatory regions of the DNA. (
  • Members of this family of proteins are often found associated with histone-modifying enzymes and protein complexes that regulate gene expression. (
  • The separation and purification of BirA from other cellular proteins was carried out in NiNTA column and Sepharose chromatography steps. (
  • These enzymes catalyze the removal of acetyl groups from lysine residues of histones and other cellular proteins. (
  • Lysine N-ε-acetylation is a dynamic, reversible and tightly regulated protein and histone modification that plays a major role in regulation of gene expression in various cellular functions. (
  • These studies clearly demonstrated the role of PDZ domain of SATB1 in global gene regulation presumably through its interaction with other cellular proteins. (
  • The MHC class III region encodes heat shock proteins of the 70kDa family. (
  • This gene encodes a DNA-binding protein which has high specificity for scaffold or matrix attachment region DNA elements (S/MAR DNA). (
  • Boston Molecules is a leading provider of comprehensive, high quality recombinant protein services. (
  • With extensive training from world-renown enzymology laboratory and crystallography laboratory, scientists in Boston Molecules provide customers with highly purified, properly folded (including ion optimized and disulfide bond correctly positioned) recombinant protein production services. (
  • When lactose is present, it binds to repressor and inactivate it. (
  • You already know that the signal binds to a receptor in the cell membrane, and this signal causes protein production. (
  • No, an operator binds a repressor. (
  • Full length human recombinant protein of human SSX1 (NP_005626) produced in E.coli. (
  • We offer a variety of recombinant protein expression and purification services from gene to protein to crystallography. (
  • Developing biologically active recombinant protein is a challenge to many researchers in both academia and industry. (
  • We conclude that RecBCD overwhelms obstacles through direct transduction of chemomechanical force with no need for specific protein-protein interactions, and that proteins can be removed from DNA through active disruption mechanisms that act on a transition state intermediate as they are pushed from one nonspecific site to the next. (
  • No yeast two-hybrid interactions found for this protein. (
  • In the present study, we set out to address whether the PDZ-domain-mediated interactions of SATB1 are critical for its in vivo function as a global repressor. (
  • The resulting changes in gene regulation and protein production in the brain lead to abnormal neuronal function. (
  • High expression of LSF in cervical cancer HPV‑positive cells suggests that this protein may be important in the regulation of TSG101 expression, as well as in cervical carcinogenesis. (
  • The TSG101 protein is involved in a variety of important biological functions, such as ubiquitination, transcriptional regulation, endosomal trafficking, virus budding, proliferation and cell survival ( 4 - 16 ). (
  • Using CRISPR/Cas9-based gene disruption of the epigenetic co-repressor protein Trim28, we found a dynamic H3K9me3-dependent regulation of ERVs in proliferating neural progenitor cells (NPCs), but not in adult neurons. (
  • It is involved in the regulation of heat shock protein 27 transcription, can act as an estrogen receptor co-repressor and is a candidate for breast tumorigenesis. (
  • Eukaryotic gene expression can be regulated by several processes, including transcriptional regulation, RNA processing, translational regulation, and protein processing and degradation. (
  • Regulatory gene encode for regulatory protein which interact operator sequence. (
  • Our aim was to predict the binding sites for the Stl repressor within the S. aureus pathogenicity island DNA sequence. (
  • These sequences represent the protein coding region of the Yy1 cDNA ORF which is encoded by the open reading frame (ORF) sequence. (
  • After you remove the protein and run the DNA on a gel, you find that the promoter sequence is C T G T T C. What does your footprinting gel look like? (
  • Nitrogen regulatory protein P-II [Interproscan]. (
  • A family of endogenous regulatory proteins that associate with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN via a specific high-affinity binding domain. (
  • Protein kinase A-induced phosphorylation of Sox9 enhances Sox9-dependent transcription by increasing the DNA-binding affinity of Sox9. (
  • Separately, the unknown contigs were also translated using all possible open reading frames and subsequently processed with SUPERFAMILY version 1.75 ( 13 ) to identify potential homologies with known proteins. (
  • Reverse phase HPLC of an apparently homogeneous Sso7c protein fraction from Mono S chromatography resulted in resolution of three further peaks. (
  • Recombinant human MAF1 protein, fused to His-tag at N-terminus, was expressed in E.coli and purified by using conventional chromatography. (
  • A stable assembly of two or more macromolecules, i.e. proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates or lipids, in which at least one component is a protein and the constituent parts function together. (
  • We found four separate heterozygous missense variants in unrelated individuals with hypopituitarism that were predicted to affect a minor isoform, POU1F1 beta, which can act as a transcriptional repressor. (
  • These variants retain repressor activity, but they shift splicing to favor the expression of the beta isoform, resulting in dominant-negative loss of function. (
  • Purification of a translational repressor. (
  • Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors. (
  • Acceptable experimental methods include stringent protein purification followed by detection of protein interaction. (
  • The nuclear receptor binding SET domain protein 1 (NSD1) is recurrently mutated in human cancers including acute leukemia. (
  • We also demonstrate that expression of LBD16-SRDX, a dominant repressor of LBD16/ASL18 and its related LBD/ASLs, does not interfere in the specification of LR founder cells with local activation of the auxin response, but it blocks the polar nuclear migration in LR founder cells before ACD, thereby blocking the subsequent LR initiation. (
  • XIII" YMR047C 3 13 3 YMR047C "Nuclear pore complex protein that is member of GLFG repeat-containing family of nucleoporins and is,XIII" YMR049C 3 13 4 YMR049C "Ymr049cp,XIII" YMR051C 3 13 5 YMR051C "TyA Gag protein. (
  • PLU-1, a large multi-domain nuclear protein with strong transcriptional repression activity, is a member of the ARID family of DNA binding proteins. (
  • Binding of lactose to lac repressor is transient, Repressor now able to bind to operator. (
  • They display considerable versatility in binding modes, even between members of the same class (e.g. some bind DNA, others protein), suggesting that Znf motifs are stable scaffolds that have evolved specialised functions. (
  • Second, the Cas9 protein requires a short protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) in order to bind to the target DNA ( Figure 2 ). (
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a RING-H2 zinc finger protein. (
  • If a signaling pathway results in protein synthesis, the last molecule in the signaling pathway is. (
  • However, in eukaryotes, the processes of transcription and translation are spatially separated and occur sequentially with transcription happening in the nucleus and translation, or protein synthesis, occurring in the cytoplasm. (
  • Although there are some particular differences existed, the overall process of protein synthesis is similar in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes with three stages of initiation, elongation and termination. (
  • synthesis VI is the most PLK1 s expression signaling circulation browser, an migration defined from its breast with the FcRI protein pro-IL1B. (
  • It has been shown to be an E3 ubiquitin protein ligase that targets LIM domain binding 1 (LDB1/CLIM), and causes proteasome-dependent degradation of LDB1. (
  • Three major in vitro RNA species were synthesized which correspond to in vivo maize rbcL RNAs with 5' termini positioned 300, 100 to 105, and 63 nucleotides upstream of the protein-coding region. (
  • Here we conducted a genome-wide analysis of MADS-box proteins from 29 species. (
  • The protein kinases ATM and ATR, as well as their budding yeast orthologs Tel1 and Mec1, act as master regulators of the DDR. (
  • The primary microRNA-208b interacts with Polycomb-group protein, Ezh2, to regulate gene expression in the heart. (
  • In this study, we employed mass spectrometry-based label-free quantification (LFQ) in proteomic analyses to identify those proteins with abundances unaffected by Pst DC3000 infection. (
  • In parallel, we have also developed co-immunoprecipitation assays followed by mass spectrometry analyses to identify SLY protein partners. (
  • Human Transcriptional repressor protein YY1 (YY1) ELISA Kit has high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of Human YY1. (
  • Yin Yang 1 is a repressor of glutamate transporter EAAT2, and it mediates manganese-induced decrease of EAAT2 expression in astrocytes. (
  • Thus, the existence of repressor-like proteins was demonstrated at the protein level in archaea, raising the question of structural and functional consequences of these proteins on the otherwise eukaryotic-like basal transcriptional machinery in archaea. (
  • A novel RLIM/RNF12 variant disrupts protein stability and function to cause severe Tonne-Kalscheuer syndrome. (
  • In the brain, the MeCP2 protein is important for the function of several types of cells, including nerve cells (neurons). (
  • In the brain, the alternative splicing of proteins is critical for normal communication between neurons and may also be necessary for the function of other types of brain cells. (
  • Duplication of the MECP2 gene leads to the production of extra MeCP2 protein and an increase in protein function. (
  • By contrast, in land plants such as Physcomitrium patens and Arabidopsis thaliana , KNOX and BELL proteins function in sporophyte and spore formation, meristem maintenance and organogenesis during the later stages of diploid development. (
  • Protein of unknown function (DUF3313) [Interproscan]. (
  • No mass spectrometry results found for this protein. (
  • The protein likely plays a role in maintaining connections (synapses) between neurons, where cell-to-cell communication occurs. (
  • Mutations in the MECP2 gene may also disrupt alternative splicing of proteins critical for communication between neurons. (
  • Ataxin-1 protein is expressed throughout the entire brain, however, toxicity (cell death and problems) is mainly restricted to neurons of the cerebellum and brainstem. (
  • This phenomenon is called "selective vulnerability" and refers to disorders in which a restricted group of neurons degenerate, despite widespread expression of the disease protein. (
  • Strikingly, heat shock protein and MHC class III region were elevated 10-fold in BeSO4. (
  • The product of this gene belongs to the family of highly homologous synovial sarcoma X (SSX) breakpoint proteins. (
  • The effects of ER stress were transcriptional because of downregulation of CAAT/enhancer binding protein-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ transcriptional activators and upregulation of the transcriptional repressor CAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein-10 (CHOP10). (