Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Operator Regions, Genetic: The regulatory elements of an OPERON to which activators or repressors bind thereby effecting the transcription of GENES in the operon.Lac Repressors: Bacterial repressor proteins that bind to the LAC OPERON and thereby prevent the synthesis of proteins involved in catabolism of LACTOSE. When lactose levels are high lac repressors undergo an allosteric change that causes their release from the DNA and the resumption of lac operon transcription.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Isopropyl Thiogalactoside: A non-metabolizable galactose analog that induces expression of the LAC OPERON.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins: A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Lac Operon: The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Bacteriophage lambda: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Lactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Histone Deacetylases: Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.Enzyme Repression: The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Cyclic AMP Response Element Modulator: Cyclic AMP response element modulator is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that is regulated by CYCLIC AMP. It plays an important role in SPERMATID development in the mammalian TESTIS.Allosteric Regulation: The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Terminator Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences recognized as signals to end GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.PhosphoproteinsCrystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors: A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Helix-Turn-Helix Motifs: The first DNA-binding protein motif to be recognized. Helix-turn-helix motifs were originally identified in bacterial proteins but have since been found in hundreds of DNA-BINDING PROTEINS from both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. They are constructed from two alpha helices connected by a short extended chain of amino acids, which constitute the "turn." The two helices are held at a fixed angle, primarily through interactions between the two helices. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, p408-9)Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Cobalt: A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.Regulon: In eukaryotes, a genetic unit consisting of a noncontiguous group of genes under the control of a single regulator gene. In bacteria, regulons are global regulatory systems involved in the interplay of pleiotropic regulatory domains and consist of several OPERONS.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Co-Repressor Proteins: A subclass of repressor proteins that do not directly bind DNA. Instead, co-repressors generally act via their interaction with DNA-BINDING PROTEINS such as a TRANSCRIPTIONAL SILENCING FACTORS or NUCLEAR RECEPTORS.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.

Induction of apoptosis by overexpression of the DNA-binding and DNA-PK-activating protein C1D. (1/209)

Apoptosis is induced in various tumor cell lines by vector-dependent overexpression of the conserved gene C1D that encodes a DNA-binding and DNA-PK-activating protein. C1D is physiologically expressed in 50 human tissues tested, which points to its basic cellular function. The expression of this gene must be tightly regulated because elevated levels of C1D protein, e.g. those induced by transient vector-dependent expression, result in apoptotic cell death. Cells transfected with C1D-expressing constructs show terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling of DNA ends. Transfections with constructs in which C1D is expressed in fusion with the (enhanced) green fluorescent protein from A. victoria (EGFP) allow the transfected cells to be identified and the morphological changes induced to be traced. Starting from intense nuclear spots, green fluorescence reflecting C1D expression increases dramatically at 12-24 hours post-transfection. Expression of C1D-EGFP protein is accompanied by morphological changes typical of apoptotic cell death, e.g. cytoplasmic vacuolation, membrane blebbing and nuclear disintegration. Cell shrinkage and detachment from extracellular matrix are observed in monolayer cultures while suspension cells become progressively flattened. The facility to differentiate between transfected and non-transfected cells reveals that non-transfected cells co-cultured with transfected cells also show the morphological changes of apoptosis, which points to a bystander effect. C1D-dependent apoptosis is not induced in cells with non-functional p53. Accordingly, C1D-induced apoptosis is discussed in relation to its potential to activate DNA-PK, which has been considered to act as an upstream activator of p53.  (+info)

SMRTER, a Drosophila nuclear receptor coregulator, reveals that EcR-mediated repression is critical for development. (2/209)

The Drosophila ecdysone receptor (EcR)/ultraspiracle (USP) heterodimer is a key regulator in molting and metamorphoric processes, activating and repressing transcription in a sequence-specific manner. Here, we report the isolation of an EcR-interacting protein, SMRTER, which is structurally divergent but functionally similar to the vertebrate nuclear corepressors SMRT and N-CoR. SMRTER mediates repression by interacting with Sin3A, a repressor known to form a complex with the histone deacetylase Rpd3/HDAC. Importantly, we identify an EcR mutant allele that fails to bind SMRTER and is characterized by developmental defects and lethality. Together, these results reveal a novel nuclear receptor cofactor that exhibits evolutionary conservation in the mechanism to achieve repression and demonstrate the essential role of repression in hormone signaling.  (+info)

Differential expression of the Groucho-related genes 4 and 5 during early development of Xenopus laevis. (3/209)

Recently, we demonstrated that the Xenopus Wnt effector XTcf-3 interacts with Groucho-related transcriptional repressors (Roose et al., 1998. Nature 395, 608-612). A long form of the Groucho-related genes, XGrg-4, was shown to repress axis formation in the Xenopus embryo, whereas a short form, XGrg-5, acted as a potentiator. In this study, the temporal and spatial expression of XGrg-4 and XGrg-5 is described in Xenopus laevis embryos. Both genes are maternally expressed. In the gastrula, transcripts of both genes are present in the animal as well as the vegetal region. At later stages, XGrg-4 and XGrg-5 show specific patterns of expression in the central nervous system (CNS), cranial ganglia, eyes, otic vesicles, stomodeal-hypophyseal anlage, cement gland, head mesenchyme, branchial arches, neural crest and derivatives, somites, pronephros, pronephric duct, heart and tailbud. Differences in the expression of XGrg-4 and XGrg-5 were found in the CNS, cranial ganglia, olfactory placodes, stomodeal-pharyngeal anlage, cement gland, head mesenchyme and ectoderm.  (+info)

Disrupted development of the cerebral hemispheres in transgenic mice expressing the mammalian Groucho homologue transducin-like-enhancer of split 1 in postmitotic neurons. (4/209)

Transducin-like Enhancer of split (TLE) 1 is a mammalian transcriptional corepressor homologous to Drosophila Groucho. In Drosophila, Groucho acts together with bHLH proteins of the Hairy/Enhancer of split (HES) family to negatively regulate neuronal differentiation. Loss of the functions of Groucho or HES proteins results in supernumerary central and peripheral neurons. This suggests that mammalian TLE/Groucho family members may also be involved in the regulation of neuronal differentiation. Consistent with this possibility, TLE1 is expressed in proliferating neural progenitor cells of the central nervous system, but its expression is transiently down-regulated in newly generated postmitotic neurons. Based on these observations, we investigated whether persistent TLE1 expression in postmitotic neurons would perturb the normal course of neuronal development. Transgenic mice were derived in which the human TLE1 gene is regulated by the promoter of the Talpha1 alpha-tubulin gene, which is exclusively expressed in postmitotic neurons. In these mice, constitutive expression of TLE1 inhibits neuronal development in the embryonic forebrain leading to increased apoptosis and neuronal loss in the ventral and dorsal telencephalon. These results provide the first direct evidence that TLE1 is an important negative regulator of postmitotic neuronal differentiation in the mammalian central nervous system.  (+info)

Promoter of the gene encoding the 16 kDa DNA-binding and apoptosis-inducing C1D protein. (5/209)

The 5' region of the gene encoding the human 16 kDa DNA-binding and apoptosis-inducing C1D protein was analysed for promoter activity. Sections of this region were cloned into a promoterless vector containing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) as reporter gene. Expressed EGFP was estimated in transfected cells by quantitative fluorescence microscopy. The sequence between mRNA positions ATG -868 and ATG -12 results in relatively highest EGFP expression in transiently transfected human and murine cells. The upstream segment immediately adjacent to the 5' end of the most active fragment was identified as an inverted LINE-1 repeat element. Transient transfection experiments point to the presence of cis-acting repressing sequences on this LINE-1 element which reduce the transcriptional activity of the basal C1D promoter in human and murine cells by more than 95%. This result supports previous evidence suggesting that LINE-1 sequences may function as regulatory elements to control the expression of nearby genes.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and characterization of PELP1, a novel human coregulator of estrogen receptor alpha. (6/209)

Nuclear hormone receptors (NRs) are transcription factors whose activity is regulated by ligands and by coactivators or corepressors. We report the characterization of a new NR coregulator: proline-, glutamic acid-, leucine-rich protein 1 (PELP1), a novel human protein that comprises 1,282 amino acids and is localized on chromosome 17. The primary structure of PELP1 consists of several motifs present in most transcriptional regulators including nine NR-interacting boxes (LXXLL motifs), a zinc finger, and glutamic acid- and proline-rich regions. We demonstrate that PELP1 is a coactivator of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha). PELP1 enhances 17beta-estradiol-dependent transcriptional activation from the estrogen response element in a dose-dependent manner. PELP1 interacts with ERalpha and also with general transcriptional coactivators p300 and cAMP response element-binding protein-binding protein. PELP1 was differentially expressed in various human and murine tissues with the highest expression levels in the testes, mammary glands, and brain. We also provide evidence supporting the developmental regulation of PELP1 expression in murine mammary glands, the detectable expression of PELP1 in human mammary cancer cell lines, and the enhanced expression of PELP1 in human breast tumors. These findings suggest that PELP1 is a novel coregulator of ERalpha and may have a role in breast cancer tumorigenesis.  (+info)

The E2A-HLF oncoprotein activates Groucho-related genes and suppresses Runx1. (7/209)

The E2A-HLF fusion gene, formed by the t(17;19)(q22;p13) chromosomal translocation in leukemic pro-B cells, encodes a chimeric transcription factor consisting of the transactivation domain of E2A linked to the bZIP DNA-binding and protein dimerization domain of hepatic leukemia factor (HLF). This oncoprotein blocks apoptosis induced by growth factor deprivation or irradiation, but the mechanism for this effect remains unclear. We therefore performed representational difference analysis (RDA) to identify downstream genetic targets of E2A-HLF, using a murine FL5.12 pro-B cell line that had been stably transfected with E2A-HLF cDNA under the control of a zinc-regulated metallothionein promoter. Two RDA clones, designated RDA1 and RDA3, were differentially upregulated in E2A-HLF-positive cells after zinc induction. The corresponding cDNAs encoded two WD40 repeat-containing proteins, Grg2 and Grg6. Both are related to the Drosophila protein Groucho, a transcriptional corepressor that lacks DNA-binding activity on its own but can act in concert with other proteins to regulate embryologic development of the fly. Expression of both Grg2 and Grg6 was upregulated 10- to 50-fold by E2A-HLF. Immunoblot analysis detected increased amounts of two additional Groucho-related proteins, Grg1 and Grg4, in cells expressing E2A-HLF. A mutant E2A-HLF protein with a disabled DNA-binding region also mediated pro-B cell survival and activated Groucho-related genes. Among the transcription factors known to interact with Groucho-related protein, only RUNX1 was appreciably downregulated by E2A-HLF. Our results identify a highly conserved family of transcriptional corepressors that are activated by E2A-HLF, and they suggest that downregulation of RUNX1 may contribute to E2A-HLF-mediated leukemogenesis.  (+info)

HES6 acts as a transcriptional repressor in myoblasts and can induce the myogenic differentiation program. (8/209)

HES6 is a novel member of the family of basic helix-loop-helix mammalian homologues of Drosophila Hairy and Enhancer of split. We have analyzed the biochemical and functional roles of HES6 in myoblasts. HES6 interacted with the corepressor transducin-like Enhancer of split 1 in yeast and mammalian cells through its WRPW COOH-terminal motif. HES6 repressed transcription from an N box-containing template and also when tethered to DNA through the GAL4 DNA binding domain. On N box-containing promoters, HES6 cooperated with HES1 to achieve maximal repression. An HES6-VP16 activation domain fusion protein activated the N box-containing reporter, confirming that HES6 bound the N box in muscle cells. The expression of HES6 was induced when myoblasts fused to become differentiated myotubes. Constitutive expression of HES6 in myoblasts inhibited expression of MyoR, a repressor of myogenesis, and induced differentiation, as evidenced by fusion into myotubes and expression of the muscle marker myosin heavy chain. Reciprocally, blocking endogenous HES6 function by using a WRPW-deleted dominant negative HES6 mutant led to increased expression of MyoR and completely blocked the muscle development program. Our results show that HES6 is an important regulator of myogenesis and suggest that MyoR is a target for HES6-dependent transcriptional repression.  (+info)

Cytoplasmic localization of proline, glutamic acid, leucine-rich protein 1 (PELP1) is observed in ∼40% of women with invasive breast cancer. In mouse models, PELP1 overexpression in the mammary gland leads to premalignant lesions and eventually mammary tumors. In preliminary clinical studies, cytoplasmic localization of PELP1 was seen in 36% of women at high risk of developing breast cancer. Here, we investigated whether cytoplasmic PELP1 signaling promotes breast cancer initiation in models of immortalized human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs). Global gene expression analysis was performed on HMEC lines expressing vector control, PELP1-wt, or mutant PELP1 in which the nuclear localization sequence was altered, resulting in cytoplasmic localization of PELP1 (PELP1-cyto). Global gene expression analysis identified that PELP1-cyto expression in HMECs induced NF-κB signaling pathways. Western blotting analysis of PELP1-cyto HMECs showed up-regulation of inhibitor of κB kinase ϵ (IKKϵ) and ...
Purpose:Ovarian cancer remains a major threat to womens health, partly due to difficulty in early diagnosis and development of metastases. A critical need exists to identify novel targets that curb the progression and metastasis of ovarian cancer. In this study, we examined whether the nuclear receptor coregulator PELP1 contributes to progression and metastatic potential of ovarian cancer cells and determined whether blocking of the PELP1 signaling axis had a therapeutic effect. Experimental Design:Ovarian cancer cells stably expressing PELP1-shRNA were established. Fluorescent microscopy, Boyden chamber, invasion assays, wound healing and zymography assays were performed to examine the role of PELP1 in metastasis. Expression analysis of the model cells using was conducted to identify PELP1 target genes. Therapeutic potential of PELP1-siRNA in vivo was determined using a nanoliposomal formulation of PELP1-siRNA-DOPC administered systemically in a xenograft model. Results: PELP1 knockdown caused ...
The Proline-Rich Homeodomain protein (PRH/Hex) is a transcription factor that functions as an important regulator of vertebrate development and many other processes in the adult including haematopoiesis. The Groucho/TLE family of co-repressor proteins also regulate development and modulate the activity of many DNA-binding transcription factors during a range of diverse cellular processes including haematopoiesis. We have shown previously that PRH is a repressor of transcription in haematopoietic cells and that an Eh-1 motif present within the N-terminal transcription repression domain of PRH mediates binding to Groucho/TLE proteins and enables co-repression. Here we demonstrate that PRH regulates the nuclear retention of TLE proteins during cellular fractionation. We show that transcriptional repression and the nuclear retention of TLE proteins requires PRH to bind to both TLE and DNA. In addition, we characterise a trans-dominant negative PRH protein that inhibits wild type PRH activity by ...
5166 Chemoresistance is one of the main causes of failure of cancer chemotherapy. It is characterized by several mechanisms, including over-expression of membrane proteins known as ABC transporters, which actively reject anti-cancer drugs out of the cell. These mechanisms describe the Multidrug Resistance Phenotype (MDR).. We have previously shown that the promoters of MDR1 and MVP, which encode the P-glycoprotein and MVP respectively, two proteins involved in this phenotype, were trans-activated by the Leucine-Rich Protein 130 (LRP130) upon its binding to the invMED1 transcriptional element. Although few data are known, LRP130 has been described to bind RNA; it also appears to play different roles in cellular homeostasis, microtubule integrity, and chromosome activity, while its mutated form is involved in the French-Canadian variant of the Leigh syndrome. We wondered whether LRP130 was implicated in the MDR by other ways than controlling the transcription of MDR-related genes.. In the first ...
T cell development depends on the coordinated interplay between receptor signaling and transcriptional activation/repression. We performed a genetic complementation screen, and identified a novel transcriptional repressor, NKAP. NKAP associates with HDAC3 and is part of a DNA-binding complex, as shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation. NKAP also associates with CIR, a part of the Notch corepressor complex. The expression of NKAP during T cell development inversely correlates with the expression of Notch target genes, implying that NKAP may modulate Notch-mediated transcription. To examine the function of NKAP in T cell development, Lck-cre NKAP conditional knockout mice were generated. Interestingly, loss of NKAP blocks development of alpha/beta but not gamma/delta T cells. In addition, lck-cre NKAP cKO DP T cells express 8- to 20-fold higher levels of Hes1, Deltex1 and CD25, providing in vivo evidence that NKAP functions as a transcriptional repressor, acting at least in part, by repression of ...
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Abstract #601 Back ground: Estradiol (E2) and estrogen receptor (ER) signaling play a key role in development and progression of breast cancer. ER signaling is complex, involves coregulatory proteins and the status of ER coregulators in tumor cells plays an important role in hormonal responsiveness and tumor progression. In addition, ER also participates in non-genomic signaling events in the cytoplasm, however the significance of non-genomic signaling in mammary tumorigenesis remain unknown. PELP1/MNAR is novel ER coregulator that participates in ER genomic and non-genomic actions. PELP1 expression is deregulated in breast tumors and in a subset of tumors PELP1 is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm. Since PELP1 cytoplamsic localization promotes excessive activation of Src and AKT pathways, we hypothesized that PELP1 mediated excessive activation of ER-nongenomic functions may play a role tumorigenesis. To test this, we have generated MMTV-PELP1cyto TG model that uniquely express PELP1 in ...
Complete information for PELP1 gene (Protein Coding), Proline, Glutamate And Leucine Rich Protein 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
YAP (yes-associated protein) and TAZ are oncogenic transcriptional co-activators downstream of the Hippo tumor-suppressor pathway. However, whether...
Fiat is close to launching the U.S. spec Fiat 500 Abarth, and this first teaser video tries to position the car as a rebel and a bad boy.
Having spent the best part of the 1990s living on a drip, Fiat has embarked on a bold mission to resuscitate a bankrupt Chrysler and take over the European operations of its Detroit rival General Motors.
The Fiat 500 is not new news, but stop! (collaborate and listen) there is something in this certain 500 that makes it harp back to its predecessor more than
How to Make a Model Cell. A cell model is a 3-dimensional model showing the parts of a plant or an animal cell. You can make a model cell with things from around your house, or you can buy a few simple items to create a fun, educational...
Review standard and optional interior, exterior, mechanical comfort, entertainment equipment and their warranties for a 2016 500 Easy 2dr Hatchback.
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A Fiat Tipo is not a Nissan Versa, Tipo is a C segment car, the Versa is a B segment vehicle. Main external difference is width, Versa being 169.5 cm...
Radiation from cell phones can possibly cause cancer, according to the World Health Organization. The agency now lists mobile phone use in the same carcinogenic hazard category as lead, engine exhaust and chloroform.
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Bis-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxy-phenyl)-methane (BDDPM) is a bromophenol 1st isolated from 0. The migrated amount of HUVECs. The info proven in the graphs will be the mean SD beliefs of at least three specific tests. ** 0.01 control. 2.3. BDDPM Inhibits Vessel Sprouting in Vitro Following, we utilized spheroid capillary sprouting assay to review the result of BDDPM … Continue reading Bis-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxy-phenyl)-methane (BDDPM) is a bromophenol 1st isolated from 0. The migrated. ...
Transcriptional corepressor that binds to a number of transcription factors. Inhibits NF-kappa-B-regulated gene expression. Inhibits the transcriptional activation mediated by FOXA2, and by CTNNB1 and TCF family members in Wnt signaling. The effects of full-length TLE family members may be modulated by association with dominant-negative AES. Unusual function as coactivator for ESRRG (By similarity).
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PELP1 activation of ribosomal promoter depends on functional nucleolar domains.(A) Schematic representation of PELP1 nucleolar domains. (B) 293T cells were tran
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Fiat Chrysler is recalling over 1.3 million vehicles worldwide to fix malfunctioning alternators that can cause engines to stall or a wiring problem that can make air bags deploy unexpectedly.The wiring recall covers nearly 771,000 Dodge Journey and Fiat F
MiRs influence the PELP1-mediated migratory and invasion potential. A, Boyden chamber analysis of the cell migration potential of the ZR cells transfected with
Opening of the conference and Honoring of the Shortlisted Nominees of the FIAT/IFTA Archive Achievement Awards at The Promised Land 18:30 to 20:00 ...
Last fall we told you about the SCCA’s new B-Spec series, designed to be an affordable gateway into the world of SCCA racing. Cars for the series are purpose-built and include the Kia Rio, the MINI Cooper, the Mazda2, the Ford Fiesta, the Honda Fit and the Fiat 500. By series rules, each car must run the same brand and model of tire, and it’s...
The head of Fiat SpA said it had more than a 50 percent chance of succeeding in its bid for Opel, adding that the other contenders did not have the expertise to save the struggling car maker, according to a newspaper report.
Fiat has officially gained full control of Chrysler after purchasing the remaining stake for over $4 billion. CNBCs Phil LeBeau reports.
Italys Fiat now owns most of Chryslers assets. The deal was closed today, saving the troubled U.S. automaker from liquidation.
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SKIL / SnoN, 0.1 ml. The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the SMAD pathway, which regulates cell growth and differentiation through transforming growth factor-beta (TGFB).
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Evasion of apoptosis is a major contributing factor to the development of chemo- and radiotherapy resistance. Therefore, activation of non-apoptotic programmed cell death (PCD) could be an effective alternative against apoptosis-resistant cancers. In this study, we demonstrated in vitro and in vivo that metformin can induce pyroptosis, a non-apoptotic PCD, in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), a commonly known chemo-refractory cancer, especially at its advanced stages. Proline-, glutamic acid- and leucine-rich protein-1 (PELP1) is a scaffolding oncogene and upregulated PELP1 in advanced stages of ESCC is highly associated with cancer progression and patient outcomes. Intriguingly, metformin treatment leads to gasdermin D (GSDMD)-mediated pyroptosis, which is abrogated by forced expression of PELP1. Mechanistically, metformin induces pyroptosis of ESCC by targeting miR-497/PELP1 axis. Our findings suggest that metformin and any other pyroptosis-inducing reagents could serve as alternative
Pargyline promotes inhibitory epigenetic modifications. (A) MCF-7-PELP1 cells and (B) MCF-7-HER2 cells were treated with pargyline (3 mM), and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis was performed using H3K4me2-specific, H3K9me2-specific or H3K9ac-specific antibodies and the status of epigenetic modifications was analyzed using real-time PCR with the estrogen receptor target gene GREB1C proximal promoter-specific primers (B). Immunohistochemistry analysis of indicated epigenetic marks was done on (C) MCF-7 and (D) MCF-7-PELP1 xenografts that were treated with or without pargyline. Representative images are shown. Quantitation of staining performed as described in Materials and methods. ****P , 0.0001, ***P , 0.001, **P , 0.01, *P , 0.05. PAR, pargyline; PELP1, proline glutamic acid and leucine-rich protein 1. ...
Prostate epithelial cells are exquisitely sensitive to Nuclear Receptor (NR) ligands. These compounds exert anti-proliferative effect over non-malignant cells RWPE-1 while malignant PC-3 cells retain their proliferative ability. The Nuclear Receptor Co-Repressor 1 (NCOR1) complexes with Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) to repress the action of unliganded NRs, hence, inhibiting their transcriptional and phenotypical effects. NCOR1 was found to be over-expressed in PC-3 cells when compared to non-malignant RWPE-1 cells. Chemical inhibition of NCOR1, via the HDAC inhibitor SAHA, or NCOR1 knock-down, via shRNA, restored PC-3 cells sensitivity to NR agonists with exception of Vitamin D and Thyroid Hormone T3. NCOR1-knock down led also to a re-expression of basally repressed genes, as measured via Microfluidic Gene-Card analysis (Q-RTPCRm). CDKN1A was de-repressed by the knock down and its activation via VDR was modeled with a systems biology approach to identify the mechanistic events behind CDKN1A ...
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Fiat Chrysler is recalling over 1.3 million vehicles worldwide to fix malfunctioning alternators or a wiring problem that can make air bags inflate unexpectedly.
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BEN factors are conserved CSL co-repressors in Notch-mediated neural development. Our general goal is to understand how cell signaling pathways mediate accurate...
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@lucifer919: Great Going! Sorry to sort-of-hijack your thread - But a short update on my 1.6 Sport. At about 80000kms on the odo, the car never ceases to thrill me. After 5-6 months of not using the
TNIP2, 0.1 ml. The human TNIP2 (also known as ABIN-2), which is related to proteins ABIN-1 and ABIN-3, was originally identified as an A20-associating cytosolic protein that block nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kB) activation.
Cornea plana congenita (CNA2) is a recessively inherited eye disease affecting development of the cornea, and leading to moderate impairment of visual capacity. The corneal changes are caused by structural abnormalities in keratocan, a leucine-rich protein component of a small proteoglycan, which together with other keratan sulfate proteoglycans is important for the transparency of the cornea. The cornea is thin and unusually flat, corneal limbus is hazy, opacities are frequent in the parenchyma, and arcus senilis developes at an early age. Hyperopia, up to +10 D, is the consequence of corneal changes.
Inding motifs for SRY, an androgen receptor co-repressor . SRY is a sex-determining gene on the Y chromosome, and mutations in this gene can cause abnormal sex
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The Cassino Assembly Plant is a FCA Group plant located in the town of Piedimonte San Germano, three kilometres from Cassino, in the province of Frosinone, Italy. It was built in 1972 and expanded over the years. Today, it has total surface area of two million square metres, of which 400 thousand covered. The plant currently employs around 4,300 people. Over seven million Fiat, Lancia and Alfa Romeo cars have rolled out over time. Models include the Fiat Tipo, Fiat Bravo/Brava, Fiat Tempra, Fiat Croma, Fiat Stilo, Lancia Delta, Alfa Romeo Giulietta and Alfa Romeo Giulia. A big plant was built in 1972 near Cassino to build a little car: the Fiat 126. It would be a successful, long-living model and production will be discontinued only in 2000. The 126 would also be the last Fiat to fit a rear engine. Production continued next to a new Fiat model, the 131, which was introduced in 1974 and would be discontinued in 1983. Production of the Fiat Ritmo, the new Italian mid-size car, was kicked off six ...
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Fiat Chrysler is recalling nearly 1.8 million Ram trucks because they can be shifted out of park without the drivers foot on the brake.
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Alphabet-owned Google has teamed up with Fiat Chrysler to create an in-car infotainment system based on the U.S. search giants Android OS.
Italian mobsters make as much money trafficking narcotics in Italy as Fiat does selling cars, but without having to pay taxes, the anti-mafia prosecutors office said on Wednesday.
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Combine the appeal of a vintage off-roader with the charm of a Fiat Jolly, and you get this: a Ferves Ranger. A rear-mounted engine from the Fiat 500 provided a blistering 18 horsepower, sent either to the rear wheels or all four. The name Ferves comes from Ferrari Veicoli Speciale (Ferrari
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Skeletal muscle mass and strength are crucial determinants of health. Muscle mass loss is associated with weakness, fatigue, and insulin resistance. In fact, it is predicted that controlling muscle atrophy can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with diseases such as cancer cachexia and sarcopenia. We analyzed gene expression data from muscle of mice or human patients with diverse muscle pathologies and identified LMCD1 as a gene strongly associated with skeletal muscle function. We transiently expressed or silenced LMCD1 in mouse gastrocnemius muscle or in mouse primary muscle cells and determined muscle/cell size, targeted gene expression, kinase activity with kinase arrays, protein immunoblotting, and protein synthesis levels. To evaluate force, calcium handling, and fatigue, we transduced the flexor digitorum brevis muscle with a LMCD1-expressing adenovirus and measured specific force and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release in individual fibers. Finally, to explore the relationship between
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Sustained cardiac hypertrophy may lead to heart failure and sudden death. While significant progress has been made in elucidating the underlying molecular mechanisms, it is believed that several molecules that modulate cardiomyocyte growth remain elusive. To identify novel candidates involved in hypertrophic signalling, we conducted a genome-wide screening experiment by subjecting neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCM) to either biomechanical stretch or phenylephrine (PE) stimulation followed by microarray analyses. Among several other molecules (stretch: n=164; PE: n=238), the new LIM protein Dyxin/Lmcd1 was significantly upregulated both by stretch (5.6fold, p,0.001) and PE (2.5 fold, p,0.01). Moreover, Dyxin was markedly induced in hypertrophic hearts of transgenic mice overexpressing the phosphatase calcineurin (3.8fold on mRNA- and 2.9fold on protein level (both p,0.01)). To dissect the putative function of this novel molecule, we adenovirally overexpressed Dyxin in NRCM, which led to marked ...
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Fiat Chrysler is recalling more than 182,000 pickup trucks worldwide to fix an electrical problem that can knock out the power steering.
The move also could disrupt the countrys already-fragile automotive suppliers and scare away Chryslers already-scarce customers.. The plan envisions a partnership between Fiat and the United Auto Workers union, one of the more peculiar ownership structures in Chryslers tortured history. The filing may pave a path for General Motors Corp., whose own U.S.-imposed deadline for reorganization is a month away.. Chryslers Chapter 11 filing -- the sixth-largest ever -- is designed to arrest the decline of a company that popularized the Jeep and the minivan. It marks the latest in a series of government interventions. Earlier, Washington took stakes in troubled banks and insurance giant American International Group Inc.. The administration is determined to protect UAW jobs and salvage the third-largest domestic auto maker, even at the expense of Chryslers secured lenders. Critics among the lender group charged that the deal would upend established bankruptcy practice by putting junior creditors on ...
The Italian government is callingon Fiat to clarify its commitment to Italy after thecarmaker reiterated its multi-billion-euro investment plan forits home country should not be interpreted as an absolutepledge.
today. Things are actually looking up for the truck-engine maker. The stock plunged as much as 4.7 percent on Thursday after the Environmental Protection Agency accused Fiat Chrysler Automobiles…. View this article online at Bloomberg ...
He says whats great about your event is that it matches its name. Whats wrong with it is (he says) that its the eleventh reboot. "When are you going to have a stable system?" Were rebooting the reboots.. He s says hes not into the action vs. words thing because hes a novelist. He also promises to tell us what the next decade looks like culturally. He begins with an anecdote about the chief designer at Fiat who talked about the Fiat since the 500, a very popular car. The designer told an audience that it succeeded because its a 50-yr old design. Bruce asked from the audience: Since the new Fiat 500 is a big success, whats the future for it? Are you going to release the car that came after the F500. (There was such a car.) No, he said. They were looking at post-consumer alterations of the F500 and they were going to "professionalize" that; they were going to move the F500 into "emergent demographic groups." "I thought this was a really clever idea" and that this is going to happen a lot, ...
Over the years, the fractional reserve system and its integrated network of banks backed by a central bank has become the dominantmoney system of the world. At the same time, the fraction of gold backing the debt money has steadily shrunk to nothing.The basic nature of money has changed. In the past the paper dollar was actually a receipt that could be redeemed for a fixed weightof gold or silver. In the present, a paper or digital dollar can only be redeemed for another paper or digital dollar. In the past, privatelycreated bank credit existed only in the form of private bank notes, which people had the choice to refuse, just as we have the choice torefuse someones private check today. In the present, privately created bank credit is legally convertible to government issued fiatcurrency, or the dollars, loonies, and pounds we habitually think of as money.Fiat currency is money created by government fiat, or decree. Legal tender laws declare that citizens must accept this fiat money as payment ...
When you enjoy a car this much, relating that joy into words becomes increasingly difficult. How do I explain that a car - one which has a modest 160 horse...
A true method of NFP. Used to avoid or achieve a pregnancy. The Creighton Model FertilityCare System is relationship building, Leamington Spa, Infertility
Current Topics in Developmental Biology: Volume 56. Including different volumes during this sequence, quantity fifty six offers considerate and forward-looking articles on developmental biology and developmental medication. experiences comprise: * Selfishness moderately: evolutionary good fortune of the yeast plasmid* Nongenomic activities of androgen in sertoli cells* rules of chromatin constitution and gene task by way of Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases* Centromeres and Kinetochores, Who wishes Em? ...
pfam08581 (PSSM ID: 369972): Conserved Protein Domain Family Tup_N, The N-terminal domain of the Tup protein has been shown to interact with the Ssn6 transcriptional co-repressor
NCOR1 - NCOR1 (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCOR1), transcript variant 2 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Fiat S.p.A., or Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino (Italian Automobile Factory of Turin), was an Italian holding company whose original and core activities were in the automotive industry, and that was succeeded by Fiat Chrysler Automobiles NV (FCA). The Fiat Group contained many brands such as Ferrari, Maserati, Fiat, Alfa Romeo, the Chrysler Group, and many more. ...
Fiat-Chrysler CEO Sergio Marchionne reveals a revamped business plan that includes eight new Fiat vehicles and six Alfa Romeos headed for the U.S. market by model-year 16.. Two of those products, the longer-wheelbase Fiat 500L and Alfa Romeo 4C, already have been announced, but Marchionne doesnt reveal details on the remainder of the slate in two conference calls today to discuss year-end earnings with analysts and journalists.. Some of the Fiat-branded cars could be additional variants of the 500 subcompact, as the product blueprint counts the 500 Abarth and the forthcoming 500e electric vehicle as separate models. The forward-looking plan, unlike the previous version revealed in 2010, does not specify at which market segments the vehicles will be aimed.. The influx of Fiats comes as Marchionne seeks to grow profitability of both auto makers. Chrysler earned $1.7 billion in 2012, up from $183 million in 2011. Fiats net profit dropped from €1.651 million ($2.24 billion) in 2011 to €1.411 ...
Therapy-Resistant Schizophrenia by H. Elkis and Publisher S. Karger AG (Switzerland). Save up to 80% by choosing the eTextbook option for ISBN: 9783805595124, 3805595123. The print version of this textbook is ISBN: 9783805595117, 3805595115.
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The post Carmaker Proton Suspends Auto Dealership for Accepting Bitcoin appeared first on CCN It wasnt Malaysian regulators that suspended the dealership
El nue-vo vehícu-lo en-tra a un mer-ca-do ca-da vez más de-sa-rro-lla-do, con una ca-pa-ci-dad pa-ra cua-tro per-so-nas y una mecánica sen-ci-lla
Italian action on Fiat shows why reform of EU testing system is urgently needed Submitted on: Wednesday, February 8, 2017 - 10:14 T&E has got hold of Italys Dieselgate emissions investigation. The report proves that the home carmaker got special treatment, e.g. Fiats cars were tested in carmakers own labs and some even "exempted" from undergoing more demanding tests. This shows what is going to happen if type approval rules are not tightened up and all enforcement continues to sit with national authorities.. Related topics: Air PollutionBriefingCarsVansStandardsEnvironmental policy Learn more ...
Crypto, in most cases, is referred to as digital assets, involves buying and selling cryptocurrency such as Litecoin, Ripple, Bitcoin, with the sole aim of generating again from the short or long term fluctuations in prices. Trading on a crypto platform is exchanging the value of a FIAT or crypto for another cryptocurrency. Trading cryptocurrency on an FX market is a high-risk facility as the process tends to increase and fall at intervals. Holding unto a cryptocurrency in an FX exchange is high volatility, as these risks are attached to leveraging a trade. ...
This means that you do not entertain to produce results any deductibles or co-payments for your medical supplies or equipment. When you estate your next fiat o
Befolkningshistoriska materials underrapportering av kvinnors yrken är känd blandhistoriker men dess omfattning och natur har varit svår att klargöra. För att belysa dennaproblematik och diskutera dess orsaker undersöker studien hur kyrkböcker beskriverkvinnors arbete i Sundsvall 1870-1890 jämfört med andra källor. Även om resultatenförstärker det tvivel som forskare har rest över befolkningshistoriska materials dokumentationav kvinnors yrken, lämnar de viktig information om både kvinnors arbeteoch familj som måste analyseras närmare för att avgöra deras position i historien.. ...
Apidianakis Y, Grbavec D, Stifani S, Delidakis C. (2001) Groucho mediates a Ci-independent mechanism of hedgehog repression in the anterior wing pouch...
Fusion of the SS18 and either one of the SSX genes is a hallmark of human synovial sarcoma. The SS18 and SSX genes encode nuclear proteins that exhibit opposite transcriptional activities. The SS18 protein functions as a transcriptional coactivator and is associated with the SWI/SNF complex, whereas the SSX proteins function as transcriptional corepressors and are associated with the polycomb complex. The domains involved in these opposite transcriptional activities are retained in the SS18-SSX fusion proteins. Here, we set out to determine the direct transcriptional consequences of conditional SS18-SSX2 fusion protein expression using complementary DNA microarray-based profiling. By doing so, we identified several clusters of SS18-SSX2-responsive genes, including a group of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis, which is a general characteristic of malignancy. In addition, we identified a group of SS18-SSX2-responsive genes known to be specifically deregulated in primary synovial sarcomas, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Coronin 2A mediates actin-dependent de-repression of inflammatory response genes. AU - Huang, Wendy. AU - Ghisletti, Serena. AU - Saijo, Kaoru. AU - Gandhi, Meghal. AU - Aouadi, Myriam. AU - Tesz, Greg J.. AU - Zhang, Dawn X.. AU - Yao, Joyee. AU - Czech, Michael P.. AU - Goode, Bruce L.. AU - Rosenfeld, Michael G.. AU - Glass, Christopher K.. PY - 2011/2/17. Y1 - 2011/2/17. N2 - Toll-like receptors (TLRs) function as initiators of inflammation through their ability to sense pathogen-associated molecular patterns and products of tissue damage. Transcriptional activation of many TLR-responsive genes requires an initial de-repression step in which nuclear receptor co-repressor (NCoR) complexes are actively removed from the promoters of target genes to relieve basal repression. Ligand-dependent SUMOylation of liver X receptors (LXRs) has been found to suppress TLR4-induced transcription potently by preventing the NCoR clearance step, but the underlying mechanisms remain enigmatic. ...
This gene encodes an RNA-binding protein that is involved in growth regulation. This protein is present in pre-ribosomal ribonucleoprotein complexes and may be involved in ribosome assembly and the regulation of intermediate and late steps of rRNA processing. This protein can interact with the cytoplasmic domain of the ErbB3 receptor and may contribute to transducing growth regulatory signals. This protein is also a transcriptional co-repressor of androgen receptor-regulated genes and other cell cycle regulatory genes through its interactions with histone deacetylases. This protein has been implicated in growth inhibition and the induction of differentiation of human cancer cells. Six pseudogenes, located on chromosomes 3, 6, 9, 18, 20 and X, have been identified ...
Nuclear Receptor Corepressor NCoR mediates transcriptional repression by certain nuclear receptors. Part of a complex which promotes histone deacetylation and
Veveris M.; Pilmane M.; Kalvins I.; Keivish T.; Aubry A.; Polevaya L.K. Investigations of proline- and RGD-containing prothrombin-derived peptides on ischemia-reperfusion induced heart failure on rats. 29th European Peptide Symposium, September 3-8, 2006. Proceedings, Gdansk, Poland. 2006, 296-297; J. Peptide Sci. 2006, The Official J. of the European Peptide Society. Suppl.12. Tu491, 227 ...
2004-2017 IMCDb.org - Managed by Controgest SPRL - Contact us - Privacy policy. Pictures are property of movie companies owner of the respective movies. Comments are property of their authors.. Page generated in 0.008 sec.. ...
Free flashcards to help memorize facts about STEM Terms from Unit 10: Workplace Skills. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, games, matching, quizes, and tests.
Mercedes, VW, Ferrari, Fiat and others suspend production while plummeting demand points to tough times for automotive companies.
DELLA proteins: Repression of a repressor[edit]. DELLA proteins, such as SLR1 in rice or GAI and RGA in Arabidopsis are ... Targets of DELLA proteins[edit]. Transcription factors[edit]. The first targets of DELLA proteins identified were PHYTOCHROME ... F-box proteins catalyse the addition of ubiquitin to their targets.[52] The addition of ubiquitin to DELLA proteins promotes ... it is thought that DELLA proteins undergo changes in structure that enable their binding to F-box proteins (SLY1 in arabidopsis ...
These proteins may function as transcriptional repressors. They are also capable of eliciting spontaneously humoral and ... Protein SSX1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SSX1 gene.[3][4] ... This article on a gene on the human X chromosome and/or its associated protein is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding ... The encoded hybrid proteins are probably responsible for transforming activity.[4] References[edit]. *^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl ...
These proteins may function as transcriptional repressors. They are also capable of eliciting spontaneously humoral and ... Protein SSX4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SSX4 gene.[5] ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038 ... This protein-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ...
MDM2 is a repressor of protein 53, which itself is a tumor suppressor.[35] On negative diagnosis it was decided to release a ... a repressor group. Fluorescence is only active if the molecules of the substrate are halved. The DNA enzyme simulate logical ... or protein), which may allow organisms to sense magnetic fields. ...
The encoded protein also functions as a calcium-regulated transcriptional repressor, and interacts with presenilins. In ... KCNIP3 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) NCS proteins This article ... "Entrez Gene: KCNIP3 Kv channel interacting protein 3, calsenilin". Burgoyne RD (2007). "Neuronal Calcium Sensor Proteins: ... which belong to the neuronal calcium sensor family of proteins. Members of this family are small calcium binding proteins ...
... protein is found in all cells in the body, including the brain, acting as a transcriptional repressor and activator, ... The MeCP2 protein binds to forms of DNA that have been methylated. The MeCP2 protein then interacts with other proteins to form ... Human proteins MECP2 (this protein), MBD1, MBD2, MBD3, and MBD4 comprise a family of nuclear proteins related by the presence ... The protein seems to be particularly important for mature nerve cells, where it is present in high levels. The MECP2 protein is ...
The Bicoid protein is a morphogen as well. The Nanos protein is a translational repressor protein. Bicoid has a DNA-binding ... Nanos protein forms a gradient at the posterior end. The Bicoid protein blocks translation of caudal mRNA so Caudal protein is ... and Caudal proteins is in the transcriptional regulation of other zygotically expressed proteins. Many of these are the protein ... Nanos protein, in complex with Pumilio protein, binds to the hunchback mRNA and blocks its translation in the posterior end of ...
"WD repeat-containing mitotic checkpoint proteins act as transcriptional repressors during interphase". FEBS Letters. 575 (1-3 ... protein binding. • ankyrin binding. • gamma-catenin binding. • beta-catenin binding. • GTPase activating protein binding. • ... Oneyama C, Nakano H, Sharma SV (March 2002). "UCS15A, a novel small molecule, SH3 domain-mediated protein-protein interaction ... Several proteins such as SNAI1/SNAIL,[58][59] ZFHX1B/SIP1,[60] SNAI2/SLUG,[61][62] TWIST1[63] and DeltaEF1[64] have been found ...
This second pathway is regulated by repressor protein DesT. DesT is also a repressor of fabAB expression for anaerobic ... Two DesR-P proteins will dimerize and bind to the DNA promoters of the des gene and recruit RNA polymerase to begin ... It acts as an activator of fabA and fabB transcription and as a repressor for the β-oxidation regulon. In contrast, FabR acts ... Another pathway uses two proteins, DesC and DesB, together to act as a Δ9-desaturase, which inserts a double bond into a ...
Then there's the repressor protein that turns genes off. The inducer can remove this repressor, turning genes back on. The ... Lastly, the regulatory gene is the gene for the repressor protein. An example of inducible enzyme is COX-2 which is synthesized ... operator is a section of DNA where the repressor binds to shut off certain genes; the promoter is the section of DNA where the ...
Saier, M. H.; Ramseier, T. M. (1996-06-01). "The catabolite repressor/activator (Cra) protein of enteric bacteria". Journal of ... Gupta, Vibhor; Bamezai, Rameshwar N.K. (2010-11-01). "Human pyruvate kinase M2: A multifunctional protein". Protein Science. 19 ... ChREBP is found to be an essential protein in gene transcription of the L isozyme of pyruvate kinase. The domains of ChREBP are ... Allosteric regulation is the binding of an effector to a site on the protein other than the active site, causing a ...
"Thermal denaturation of the core protein of lac repressor". Biochemistry. 24 (15): 3842-3846. doi:10.1021/bi00336a004. ISSN ... Matthews's research focuses on the interactions of protein and DNA, in particular LacI and the Hox gene protein Ultrabithorax. ... She received the William C. Rose Award in 2015 for her work in DNA-binding proteins and her commitment to mentoring young ... Wilson, C. J.; Zhan, H.; Swint-Kruse, L.; Matthews, K. S. (2006). "The lactose repressor system: paradigms for regulation, ...
... the high incidence of Crowder proteins creates an osmotic pressure which brings searcher proteins (e.g. Lac Repressor) closer ... 2013), during the process of protein sliding, the protein searches the entire length of the DNA chain using 3-D and 1-D ... The lac repressor, is an example of a DNA binding protein that displays facilitated diffusion in living cells. Science, 336( ... The carrier protein at the membrane binds to the glucose and alters its shape such that it can easily to be transported from ...
1999). "The STAR protein QKI-6 is a translational repressor". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 (22): 12605-10. Bibcode:1999PNAS ... 2006). "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. ... QKI belongs to a family of RNA-binding proteins called STAR proteins for Signal Transduction and Activation of RNA. They have ... 2003). "Sam68 RNA binding protein is an in vivo substrate for protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1". Mol. Biol. Cell. 14 (1 ...
The KRAB domain is a potent repressor of transcription; thus this protein may function in transcription regulation. Two ... Zinc finger protein 160 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ZNF160 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 7 (4): 273-81. doi: ... Krüppel-related zinc finger protein which is characterized by the presence of an N-terminal repressor domain, the Kruppel- ...
... regulator genes often code for repressor proteins. Repressor proteins bind to operators or promoters, preventing RNA polymerase ... a gene which binds repressor proteins thus inhibiting the translation of RNA to protein via RNA polymerase). In prokaryotes, ... Inducers cause repressor proteins to change shape or otherwise become unable to bind DNA, allowing RNA polymerase to continue ... An example of a regulator gene is a gene that codes for a repressor protein that inhibits the activity of an operator gene ( ...
"Coupling of Site-Specific DNA Binding to Protein Dimerization in Assembly of the Biotin Repressor−Biotin Operator Complex". ... Protein function is dependent on the oligomeric form; therefore, the protein's function can be regulated by shifting the ... Kumagai, H; Sakai, H (1983). "A porcine brain protein (35 K protein) which bundles microtubules and its identification as ... Morpheeins are proteins that can form two or more different homo-oligomers (morpheein forms), but must come apart and change ...
The protein that does this is called a repressor. Repressors bind to operators to prevent transcription. The main operator (O1 ... The repressor protein physically obstructs the RNA polymerase from transcribing the genes. An inducer (small molecule) can ... displace a repressor (protein) from the operator site (DNA), resulting in an uninhibited operon. Alternatively, a corepressor ... can bind to the repressor to allow its binding to the operator site. A good example of this type of regulation is seen for the ...
... is a powerful transcriptional repressor, at least in CpG dense contexts. Transcriptional repression of protein- ... methylated DNA may be bound by proteins known as methyl-CpG-binding domain proteins (MBDs). MBD proteins then recruit ... MethylCpG Binding Proteins (MBPs) and fusion proteins containing just the Methyl Binding Domain (MBD) are used to separate ... DNMT3L is a protein that is homologous to the other DNMT3s but has no catalytic activity. Instead, DNMT3L assists the de novo ...
When a repressor protein binds to the silencer region of DNA, RNA polymerase is prevented from transcribing the DNA sequence ... synaptic vesicle proteins, and channel proteins. A deficiency in the proper development of these proteins can cause the neural ... When a repressor protein is bound to the operator, RNA polymerase cannot bind to the promoter to initiate the transcription of ... Top: lac operon is initially repressed because lactose is not present to inhibit the repressor. Bottom: Repressor LacI is ...
"FLOWERING LOCUS C encodes a novel MADS domain protein that acts as a repressor of flowering". The Plant Cell. 11 (5): 949-56. ... or Type II MADS-domain proteins.[8][13] SRF-like MADS-domain proteins in animals and fungi have a second conserved domain, the ... Two types of MADS-domain proteins are distinguished; the SRF-like or Type I MADS-domain proteins and the MEF2-like (after ... the MEF2-like MADS-domain proteins are also termed MIKC-type proteins referring to their conserved domain structure, where the ...
The repressor protein MetJ, in cooperation with the corepressor protein S-adenosyl-methionine, mediates the repression of ... The degree of repression is determined by the concentrations of the repressor protein and corepressor level.[8] ... Manchester KL (1964). "Sites of Hormonal Regulation of Protein Metabolism". In Munro HN, Allison JB (eds.). Mammalian protein ... Anthranilate synthase is also regulated by feedback inhibition: tryptophan is a co-repressor to the TrpR repressor. ...
This protein complexes with transcriptional co-repressor CTBP. It is also associated with BRCA1 and is thought to modulate the ... Retinoblastoma-binding protein 8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBBP8 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is ... It is found among several proteins that bind directly to retinoblastoma protein, which regulates cell proliferation. ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ...
LexA protein is the repressor of all cellular din genes. Lesions such as single-stranded DNA, depurinic and depytimidinic sites ... RecA protein appears to have further roles in the mutagenic process: first it facilitates cleavage of UmuD protein, thereby ... Taking advantage of the operon fusion placing the lac operon (responsible for producing beta-galactosidase, a protein which ... consisting of 3 proteins, collectively called UvrABC excinuclease. The deletion of this region results in a loss of repair ...
TFs work alone or with other proteins in a complex, by promoting (as an activator), or blocking (as a repressor) the ... Cdx protein family DNA-binding protein Inhibitor of DNA-binding protein Nuclear receptor, a class of ligand activated ... Pairs of transcription factors and other proteins can play antagonistic roles (activator versus repressor) in the regulation of ... Chadwick LH, Wade PA (April 2007). "MeCP2 in Rett syndrome: transcriptional repressor or chromatin architectural protein?". ...
... s are a family of proteins found in complexes with cadherin cell adhesion molecules of animal cells. The first two ... β-catenin becomes a coactivator for TCF and LEF to activate Wnt genes by displacing Groucho and HDAC transcription repressors. ... Mutations in genes encoding these proteins can lead to inactivation of cadherin cell adhesions and elimination of contact ... "Adjuvant immunochemotherapy with protein-bound polysaccharide K for colon cancer in relation to oncogenic β-catenin activation ...
General protein information Go to the top of the page Help Names. transcriptional repressor protein MetJ. YP_002345203.1. *when ... transcriptional repressor protein MetJ. Locus tag. YPO0114. Gene type. protein coding. RefSeq status. REVIEWED. Organism. ... mRNA and Protein(s) * YP_002345203.1 transcriptional repressor protein MetJ [Yersinia pestis CO92] ... metJ transcriptional repressor protein MetJ [ Yersinia pestis CO92 ] Gene ID: 1172961, updated on 30-Jan-2018 ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): Q5E0H6 - Vibrio fischeri (strain ATCC 700601 / ES114) 1 * B1XEA0 - Escherichia ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ... The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Mouse over tracks and labels for more ...
The first property requires that the repressor is a protein, since only proteins are known to possess such spatial specificity ... REGULATION OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS: AN ALTERNATIVE TO THE REPRESSOR-OPERATOR HYPOTHESIS* M. GRUBER and R. N. CAMPAGNE\ The ... The effectors of protein synthesis, or possibly their immediate derivatives, were assumed to interact with a "repressor," ... The second property requires that the repressor is a polynucleotide, since proteins of a reasonable molecular weight cannot ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): P03023 - Escherichia coli (strain K12) 24 * O95103 - Homo sapiens no matching ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ... The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Mouse over tracks and labels for more ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Protein Feature View of PDB entries mapped to a UniProtKB sequence * Number of PDB entries for A8K6H8: no matching PDB entries ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): A8K6H8 - Homo sapiens 0 * Q9DBC8 - Mus musculus no matching PDB entries ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ...
... the chromosomal regions of interest can be visualized with a fluorescently labeled Lac repressor protein, which binds to the ... Cold Spring Harbor Protocols features methods for visualizing protein dynamics. COLD SPRING HARBOR, N.Y. (Wed., Jan. 2, 2008) ... It can be used to detect endogenous proteins as well as the products of transgenes. The immunohistochemistry protocol was ... CSH Protocols features methods for visualizing protein dynamics. 01/02/2008. ...
Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. A0A072Z841. A0A0S2T5F8. R0J9C2. A0A0F6WQV6. ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. A0A072Z841. Q8NP86. A4QET8. A0A1Q6BII1. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. A0A072Z841. Q8NP86. A0A0S2T5F8. R0J9C2. ...
Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q8XZU1. A0A223GLH0. A0A0S4WG98. A0A1Y0FCG8. ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q8XZU1. A0A223GLH0. A0A0S4WG98. A0A1Y0FCG8. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q8XZU1. Q2SVP7. A0A096YM24. A0A2C5V0P6. ...
... repressor proteins include Luciferase Complementation Imaging Assay in Nicotiana benthamiana Leaves for Transiently ... Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific Genes or Operons. Classical repressor ... Luciferase Complementation Imaging Assay in Nicotiana benthamiana Leaves for Transiently Determining Protein-protein ... proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the Operator region of an operon, or the Enhancer sequences of a ...
Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. B5EJ91. B7JBX0. F8XW41. E6QC08. A0A060UTM3. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. B5EJ91. B7JBX0. F8XW41. E6QC08. Acidithiobacillus ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. B5EJ91. Q1QVT7. UPI00054ED7C2. A0A1Q8T939. ...
Protein-protein interaction databases. STRING: functional protein association networks. More...STRINGi. 10116. ... Protein predictedi ,p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the protein ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites. More...InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR011598 ...
Protein predictedi ,p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the protein ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. E5RGQ2. A0A0D9RXX4. UPI00045DC247. UPI00045DCC3C ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. E5RGQ2. A0A0D9RXX4. UPI00045DC247. UPI00045DCC3C ...
... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... PROSITE; a protein domain and family database. More...PROSITEi. View protein in PROSITE. PS50888 BHLH, 1 hit. PS50112 PAS, 1 ... section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes ... Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites. More...InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR039091 ...
"Repressor Proteins" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Repressor Proteins" was a major or minor topic ... Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ... "Repressor Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Repressor Proteins" by people in Profiles. ...
Protein-protein interaction databases. STRING: functional protein association networks. More...STRINGi. 10116. ... Protein predictedi ,p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the protein ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... PROSITE; a protein domain and family database. More...PROSITEi. View protein in PROSITE. PS00028 ZINC_FINGER_C2H2_1, 4 hits. ...
Protein-protein interaction databases. STRING: functional protein association networks. More...STRINGi. 7955.ENSDARP00000092435 ... BRCA2-interacting transcriptional repressor EMSYAdd BLAST. 1173. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes ...
HoloBirA can either transfer the biotinyl moiety to the biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) subunit of acetyl-CoA ... ligase and a biotin-operon repressor. In the presence of ATP, BirA activates biotin to form the BirA-biotinyl-5-adenylate ( ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Pfam protein domain database. More...Pfami. View protein in Pfam. PF02237 BPL_C, 1 hit. PF03099 BPL_LplA_LipB, 1 hit. PF08279 ...
Browse our Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 Protein catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 Proteins available through Novus Biologicals. ... Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 protein, ZNF461 protein, zinc finger protein 213 protein, Zinc finger protein ... Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 Proteins. We offer Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 Peptides ...
An Src homology 3-like domain is responsible for dimerization of the repressor protein KorB encoded by the promiscuous IncP ... Pre-calculated protein structure alignments at the RCSB PDB website. Bioinformatics 26: 2983-2985 ...
Solution Structure of the zinc finger domain of Transcriptional repressor CTCF protein. Miyamoto, K., Koshiba, S., Inoue, M., ... Solution Structure of the zinc finger domain of Transcriptional repressor CTCF protein. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb2CT1/pdb ... Transcriptional repressor CTCF. A. 77. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: CTCF. ...
... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Pfam protein domain database. More...Pfami. View protein in Pfam. PF01726 LexA_DNA_bind, 1 hit. PF00717 Peptidase_S24, 1 hit ... section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes ... Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites. More...InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR006200 ...
... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Protein-protein interaction databases. STRINGi. 37692.ATP_00204. Genome annotation databases. EnsemblBacteriai. CAP18391; ... Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites. More...InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR001034 ... p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.,p>,a ...
Protein target information for LuxO repressor protein (Vibrio cholerae O395). Find diseases associated with this biological ...
Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. A3Q951. B8CUX0. B0TNT3. A8H9S0. UPI000490B52E. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. A3Q951. P0A153. P0A154. A0A179RFM6. I3UQ15. ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Pfam protein domain database. More...Pfami. View protein in Pfam. PF01726. LexA_DNA_bind. 1 hit. PF00717. Peptidase_S24. 1 hit ...
mouse interferon repressor protein: IRP is localized in cell sap and in ribosomal fraction of mouse cells; initially identified ... Proteins: 90489*Transcription Factors: 20597*Repressor Proteins: 32*mouse interferon repressor protein ... mouse interferon repressor protein. Subscribe to New Research on mouse interferon repressor protein ... interferon repressor protein, mouse; IRP protein, mouse; interferon repressing protein, mouse. Networked: 0 relevant articles ( ...
  • Mariño-RamÍrez, L. and Hu, J. C. (2001) Using λ repressor fusions to isolate and characterize self-assembling domains, in Protein-Protein Interactions: A Laboratory Manual , (ed. (springer.com)
  • Using such a system from the marine bacterium Bacillus infantis , we show that OpuAR acts as a repressor of opuA transcription, where several compatible solutes (e.g., choline, glycine betaine, proline betaine) serve as its inducers. (frontiersin.org)
  • It acts as a repressor on the arsRDABC operon when no arsenic is present in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown that the CyaR RNA acts as a repressor of the porin OmpX. (wikipedia.org)
  • These substances-usually compounds of low molecular weight-can elicit or inhibit the co-ordinated synthesis of a group of metabolically related proteins, e.g., the enzymes of a metabolic pathway. (jhu.edu)
  • ARC is originally identified to be a caspase-inhibiting protein and can specifically inhibit the activation of caspase-2 and caspase-8, thereby blocking apoptosis induced by a variety of stimuli requiring the engagement of these caspases ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • APOBEC3G is an antiviral protein that has long been known to inhibit retrovirus replication by hypermutating viral DNA. (nature.com)
  • These findings demonstrate that viral transforming proteins can activate as well as inhibit transcription through coadaptor interactions. (pnas.org)
  • Multiple different mechanisms inhibit Cdks in G1: Cdk inhibitor proteins are expressed, and cyclin gene expression is down-regulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activators such as E2F1, E2F2, E2F3a promote and help carryout the cell cycle, while repressors inhibit the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • These four proteins act to inhibit self-renewal (the cell cycle) and promote differentiation (especially Prospero), which is why GMCs divide into their differentiated progeny instead of more GMCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the absence of oxygen, the nifL protein is in its reduced form (FADH2 as the cofactor ) and is unable to inhibit the action of nifA protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, even after the biochemistry of the protein was eventually elucidated, the molecular role of Cdc20 remained elusive until the discovery of the APC/C in 1995. (wikipedia.org)
  • Displacement of an E-box-binding repressor by basic helix-loop-helix proteins: implications for B-cell specificity of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain enhancer. (asm.org)
  • HES7 is a member of the Hairy and Enhancer of Split families of Basic helix-loop-helix proteins. (wikipedia.org)