Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The regulatory elements of an OPERON to which activators or repressors bind thereby effecting the transcription of GENES in the operon.
Bacterial repressor proteins that bind to the LAC OPERON and thereby prevent the synthesis of proteins involved in catabolism of LACTOSE. When lactose levels are high lac repressors undergo an allosteric change that causes their release from the DNA and the resumption of lac operon transcription.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
A non-metabolizable galactose analog that induces expression of the LAC OPERON.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.
The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Cyclic AMP response element modulator is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that is regulated by CYCLIC AMP. It plays an important role in SPERMATID development in the mammalian TESTIS.
The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
DNA sequences recognized as signals to end GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The first DNA-binding protein motif to be recognized. Helix-turn-helix motifs were originally identified in bacterial proteins but have since been found in hundreds of DNA-BINDING PROTEINS from both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. They are constructed from two alpha helices connected by a short extended chain of amino acids, which constitute the "turn." The two helices are held at a fixed angle, primarily through interactions between the two helices. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, p408-9)
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.
In eukaryotes, a genetic unit consisting of a noncontiguous group of genes under the control of a single regulator gene. In bacteria, regulons are global regulatory systems involved in the interplay of pleiotropic regulatory domains and consist of several OPERONS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
A subclass of repressor proteins that do not directly bind DNA. Instead, co-repressors generally act via their interaction with DNA-BINDING PROTEINS such as a TRANSCRIPTIONAL SILENCING FACTORS or NUCLEAR RECEPTORS.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.

Induction of apoptosis by overexpression of the DNA-binding and DNA-PK-activating protein C1D. (1/209)

Apoptosis is induced in various tumor cell lines by vector-dependent overexpression of the conserved gene C1D that encodes a DNA-binding and DNA-PK-activating protein. C1D is physiologically expressed in 50 human tissues tested, which points to its basic cellular function. The expression of this gene must be tightly regulated because elevated levels of C1D protein, e.g. those induced by transient vector-dependent expression, result in apoptotic cell death. Cells transfected with C1D-expressing constructs show terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling of DNA ends. Transfections with constructs in which C1D is expressed in fusion with the (enhanced) green fluorescent protein from A. victoria (EGFP) allow the transfected cells to be identified and the morphological changes induced to be traced. Starting from intense nuclear spots, green fluorescence reflecting C1D expression increases dramatically at 12-24 hours post-transfection. Expression of C1D-EGFP protein is accompanied by morphological changes typical of apoptotic cell death, e.g. cytoplasmic vacuolation, membrane blebbing and nuclear disintegration. Cell shrinkage and detachment from extracellular matrix are observed in monolayer cultures while suspension cells become progressively flattened. The facility to differentiate between transfected and non-transfected cells reveals that non-transfected cells co-cultured with transfected cells also show the morphological changes of apoptosis, which points to a bystander effect. C1D-dependent apoptosis is not induced in cells with non-functional p53. Accordingly, C1D-induced apoptosis is discussed in relation to its potential to activate DNA-PK, which has been considered to act as an upstream activator of p53.  (+info)

SMRTER, a Drosophila nuclear receptor coregulator, reveals that EcR-mediated repression is critical for development. (2/209)

The Drosophila ecdysone receptor (EcR)/ultraspiracle (USP) heterodimer is a key regulator in molting and metamorphoric processes, activating and repressing transcription in a sequence-specific manner. Here, we report the isolation of an EcR-interacting protein, SMRTER, which is structurally divergent but functionally similar to the vertebrate nuclear corepressors SMRT and N-CoR. SMRTER mediates repression by interacting with Sin3A, a repressor known to form a complex with the histone deacetylase Rpd3/HDAC. Importantly, we identify an EcR mutant allele that fails to bind SMRTER and is characterized by developmental defects and lethality. Together, these results reveal a novel nuclear receptor cofactor that exhibits evolutionary conservation in the mechanism to achieve repression and demonstrate the essential role of repression in hormone signaling.  (+info)

Differential expression of the Groucho-related genes 4 and 5 during early development of Xenopus laevis. (3/209)

Recently, we demonstrated that the Xenopus Wnt effector XTcf-3 interacts with Groucho-related transcriptional repressors (Roose et al., 1998. Nature 395, 608-612). A long form of the Groucho-related genes, XGrg-4, was shown to repress axis formation in the Xenopus embryo, whereas a short form, XGrg-5, acted as a potentiator. In this study, the temporal and spatial expression of XGrg-4 and XGrg-5 is described in Xenopus laevis embryos. Both genes are maternally expressed. In the gastrula, transcripts of both genes are present in the animal as well as the vegetal region. At later stages, XGrg-4 and XGrg-5 show specific patterns of expression in the central nervous system (CNS), cranial ganglia, eyes, otic vesicles, stomodeal-hypophyseal anlage, cement gland, head mesenchyme, branchial arches, neural crest and derivatives, somites, pronephros, pronephric duct, heart and tailbud. Differences in the expression of XGrg-4 and XGrg-5 were found in the CNS, cranial ganglia, olfactory placodes, stomodeal-pharyngeal anlage, cement gland, head mesenchyme and ectoderm.  (+info)

Disrupted development of the cerebral hemispheres in transgenic mice expressing the mammalian Groucho homologue transducin-like-enhancer of split 1 in postmitotic neurons. (4/209)

Transducin-like Enhancer of split (TLE) 1 is a mammalian transcriptional corepressor homologous to Drosophila Groucho. In Drosophila, Groucho acts together with bHLH proteins of the Hairy/Enhancer of split (HES) family to negatively regulate neuronal differentiation. Loss of the functions of Groucho or HES proteins results in supernumerary central and peripheral neurons. This suggests that mammalian TLE/Groucho family members may also be involved in the regulation of neuronal differentiation. Consistent with this possibility, TLE1 is expressed in proliferating neural progenitor cells of the central nervous system, but its expression is transiently down-regulated in newly generated postmitotic neurons. Based on these observations, we investigated whether persistent TLE1 expression in postmitotic neurons would perturb the normal course of neuronal development. Transgenic mice were derived in which the human TLE1 gene is regulated by the promoter of the Talpha1 alpha-tubulin gene, which is exclusively expressed in postmitotic neurons. In these mice, constitutive expression of TLE1 inhibits neuronal development in the embryonic forebrain leading to increased apoptosis and neuronal loss in the ventral and dorsal telencephalon. These results provide the first direct evidence that TLE1 is an important negative regulator of postmitotic neuronal differentiation in the mammalian central nervous system.  (+info)

Promoter of the gene encoding the 16 kDa DNA-binding and apoptosis-inducing C1D protein. (5/209)

The 5' region of the gene encoding the human 16 kDa DNA-binding and apoptosis-inducing C1D protein was analysed for promoter activity. Sections of this region were cloned into a promoterless vector containing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) as reporter gene. Expressed EGFP was estimated in transfected cells by quantitative fluorescence microscopy. The sequence between mRNA positions ATG -868 and ATG -12 results in relatively highest EGFP expression in transiently transfected human and murine cells. The upstream segment immediately adjacent to the 5' end of the most active fragment was identified as an inverted LINE-1 repeat element. Transient transfection experiments point to the presence of cis-acting repressing sequences on this LINE-1 element which reduce the transcriptional activity of the basal C1D promoter in human and murine cells by more than 95%. This result supports previous evidence suggesting that LINE-1 sequences may function as regulatory elements to control the expression of nearby genes.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and characterization of PELP1, a novel human coregulator of estrogen receptor alpha. (6/209)

Nuclear hormone receptors (NRs) are transcription factors whose activity is regulated by ligands and by coactivators or corepressors. We report the characterization of a new NR coregulator: proline-, glutamic acid-, leucine-rich protein 1 (PELP1), a novel human protein that comprises 1,282 amino acids and is localized on chromosome 17. The primary structure of PELP1 consists of several motifs present in most transcriptional regulators including nine NR-interacting boxes (LXXLL motifs), a zinc finger, and glutamic acid- and proline-rich regions. We demonstrate that PELP1 is a coactivator of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha). PELP1 enhances 17beta-estradiol-dependent transcriptional activation from the estrogen response element in a dose-dependent manner. PELP1 interacts with ERalpha and also with general transcriptional coactivators p300 and cAMP response element-binding protein-binding protein. PELP1 was differentially expressed in various human and murine tissues with the highest expression levels in the testes, mammary glands, and brain. We also provide evidence supporting the developmental regulation of PELP1 expression in murine mammary glands, the detectable expression of PELP1 in human mammary cancer cell lines, and the enhanced expression of PELP1 in human breast tumors. These findings suggest that PELP1 is a novel coregulator of ERalpha and may have a role in breast cancer tumorigenesis.  (+info)

The E2A-HLF oncoprotein activates Groucho-related genes and suppresses Runx1. (7/209)

The E2A-HLF fusion gene, formed by the t(17;19)(q22;p13) chromosomal translocation in leukemic pro-B cells, encodes a chimeric transcription factor consisting of the transactivation domain of E2A linked to the bZIP DNA-binding and protein dimerization domain of hepatic leukemia factor (HLF). This oncoprotein blocks apoptosis induced by growth factor deprivation or irradiation, but the mechanism for this effect remains unclear. We therefore performed representational difference analysis (RDA) to identify downstream genetic targets of E2A-HLF, using a murine FL5.12 pro-B cell line that had been stably transfected with E2A-HLF cDNA under the control of a zinc-regulated metallothionein promoter. Two RDA clones, designated RDA1 and RDA3, were differentially upregulated in E2A-HLF-positive cells after zinc induction. The corresponding cDNAs encoded two WD40 repeat-containing proteins, Grg2 and Grg6. Both are related to the Drosophila protein Groucho, a transcriptional corepressor that lacks DNA-binding activity on its own but can act in concert with other proteins to regulate embryologic development of the fly. Expression of both Grg2 and Grg6 was upregulated 10- to 50-fold by E2A-HLF. Immunoblot analysis detected increased amounts of two additional Groucho-related proteins, Grg1 and Grg4, in cells expressing E2A-HLF. A mutant E2A-HLF protein with a disabled DNA-binding region also mediated pro-B cell survival and activated Groucho-related genes. Among the transcription factors known to interact with Groucho-related protein, only RUNX1 was appreciably downregulated by E2A-HLF. Our results identify a highly conserved family of transcriptional corepressors that are activated by E2A-HLF, and they suggest that downregulation of RUNX1 may contribute to E2A-HLF-mediated leukemogenesis.  (+info)

HES6 acts as a transcriptional repressor in myoblasts and can induce the myogenic differentiation program. (8/209)

HES6 is a novel member of the family of basic helix-loop-helix mammalian homologues of Drosophila Hairy and Enhancer of split. We have analyzed the biochemical and functional roles of HES6 in myoblasts. HES6 interacted with the corepressor transducin-like Enhancer of split 1 in yeast and mammalian cells through its WRPW COOH-terminal motif. HES6 repressed transcription from an N box-containing template and also when tethered to DNA through the GAL4 DNA binding domain. On N box-containing promoters, HES6 cooperated with HES1 to achieve maximal repression. An HES6-VP16 activation domain fusion protein activated the N box-containing reporter, confirming that HES6 bound the N box in muscle cells. The expression of HES6 was induced when myoblasts fused to become differentiated myotubes. Constitutive expression of HES6 in myoblasts inhibited expression of MyoR, a repressor of myogenesis, and induced differentiation, as evidenced by fusion into myotubes and expression of the muscle marker myosin heavy chain. Reciprocally, blocking endogenous HES6 function by using a WRPW-deleted dominant negative HES6 mutant led to increased expression of MyoR and completely blocked the muscle development program. Our results show that HES6 is an important regulator of myogenesis and suggest that MyoR is a target for HES6-dependent transcriptional repression.  (+info)

Cytoplasmic localization of proline, glutamic acid, leucine-rich protein 1 (PELP1) is observed in ∼40% of women with invasive breast cancer. In mouse models, PELP1 overexpression in the mammary gland leads to premalignant lesions and eventually mammary tumors. In preliminary clinical studies, cytoplasmic localization of PELP1 was seen in 36% of women at high risk of developing breast cancer. Here, we investigated whether cytoplasmic PELP1 signaling promotes breast cancer initiation in models of immortalized human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs). Global gene expression analysis was performed on HMEC lines expressing vector control, PELP1-wt, or mutant PELP1 in which the nuclear localization sequence was altered, resulting in cytoplasmic localization of PELP1 (PELP1-cyto). Global gene expression analysis identified that PELP1-cyto expression in HMECs induced NF-κB signaling pathways. Western blotting analysis of PELP1-cyto HMECs showed up-regulation of inhibitor of κB kinase ϵ (IKKϵ) and ...
Purpose:Ovarian cancer remains a major threat to womens health, partly due to difficulty in early diagnosis and development of metastases. A critical need exists to identify novel targets that curb the progression and metastasis of ovarian cancer. In this study, we examined whether the nuclear receptor coregulator PELP1 contributes to progression and metastatic potential of ovarian cancer cells and determined whether blocking of the PELP1 signaling axis had a therapeutic effect. Experimental Design:Ovarian cancer cells stably expressing PELP1-shRNA were established. Fluorescent microscopy, Boyden chamber, invasion assays, wound healing and zymography assays were performed to examine the role of PELP1 in metastasis. Expression analysis of the model cells using was conducted to identify PELP1 target genes. Therapeutic potential of PELP1-siRNA in vivo was determined using a nanoliposomal formulation of PELP1-siRNA-DOPC administered systemically in a xenograft model. Results: PELP1 knockdown caused ...
The Proline-Rich Homeodomain protein (PRH/Hex) is a transcription factor that functions as an important regulator of vertebrate development and many other processes in the adult including haematopoiesis. The Groucho/TLE family of co-repressor proteins also regulate development and modulate the activity of many DNA-binding transcription factors during a range of diverse cellular processes including haematopoiesis. We have shown previously that PRH is a repressor of transcription in haematopoietic cells and that an Eh-1 motif present within the N-terminal transcription repression domain of PRH mediates binding to Groucho/TLE proteins and enables co-repression. Here we demonstrate that PRH regulates the nuclear retention of TLE proteins during cellular fractionation. We show that transcriptional repression and the nuclear retention of TLE proteins requires PRH to bind to both TLE and DNA. In addition, we characterise a trans-dominant negative PRH protein that inhibits wild type PRH activity by ...
5166 Chemoresistance is one of the main causes of failure of cancer chemotherapy. It is characterized by several mechanisms, including over-expression of membrane proteins known as ABC transporters, which actively reject anti-cancer drugs out of the cell. These mechanisms describe the Multidrug Resistance Phenotype (MDR).. We have previously shown that the promoters of MDR1 and MVP, which encode the P-glycoprotein and MVP respectively, two proteins involved in this phenotype, were trans-activated by the Leucine-Rich Protein 130 (LRP130) upon its binding to the invMED1 transcriptional element. Although few data are known, LRP130 has been described to bind RNA; it also appears to play different roles in cellular homeostasis, microtubule integrity, and chromosome activity, while its mutated form is involved in the French-Canadian variant of the Leigh syndrome. We wondered whether LRP130 was implicated in the MDR by other ways than controlling the transcription of MDR-related genes.. In the first ...
T cell development depends on the coordinated interplay between receptor signaling and transcriptional activation/repression. We performed a genetic complementation screen, and identified a novel transcriptional repressor, NKAP. NKAP associates with HDAC3 and is part of a DNA-binding complex, as shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation. NKAP also associates with CIR, a part of the Notch corepressor complex. The expression of NKAP during T cell development inversely correlates with the expression of Notch target genes, implying that NKAP may modulate Notch-mediated transcription. To examine the function of NKAP in T cell development, Lck-cre NKAP conditional knockout mice were generated. Interestingly, loss of NKAP blocks development of alpha/beta but not gamma/delta T cells. In addition, lck-cre NKAP cKO DP T cells express 8- to 20-fold higher levels of Hes1, Deltex1 and CD25, providing in vivo evidence that NKAP functions as a transcriptional repressor, acting at least in part, by repression of ...
The Groucho (Gro)/TLE/Grg Family Of Corepressors Operates In Many Signaling Pathways (including Notch And Wnt). Gro/TLE Proteins Recognize A Wide Range Of Transcriptional Repressors By Binding To Divergent Short Peptide Sequences, Including A C-terminal
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Abstract #601 Back ground: Estradiol (E2) and estrogen receptor (ER) signaling play a key role in development and progression of breast cancer. ER signaling is complex, involves coregulatory proteins and the status of ER coregulators in tumor cells plays an important role in hormonal responsiveness and tumor progression. In addition, ER also participates in non-genomic signaling events in the cytoplasm, however the significance of non-genomic signaling in mammary tumorigenesis remain unknown. PELP1/MNAR is novel ER coregulator that participates in ER genomic and non-genomic actions. PELP1 expression is deregulated in breast tumors and in a subset of tumors PELP1 is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm. Since PELP1 cytoplamsic localization promotes excessive activation of Src and AKT pathways, we hypothesized that PELP1 mediated excessive activation of ER-nongenomic functions may play a role tumorigenesis. To test this, we have generated MMTV-PELP1cyto TG model that uniquely express PELP1 in ...
Complete information for PELP1 gene (Protein Coding), Proline, Glutamate And Leucine Rich Protein 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
YAP (yes-associated protein) and TAZ are oncogenic transcriptional co-activators downstream of the Hippo tumor-suppressor pathway. However, whether...
Fiat is close to launching the U.S. spec Fiat 500 Abarth, and this first teaser video tries to position the car as a rebel and a bad boy.
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I owned a 2015 Fiat 500 Abarth ( Automatic) from 3/15 until 6/18 . 25k miles, Not a single problem with it. Lots of character and fairly economical at ~30 mpg (+ or -) .
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Having spent the best part of the 1990s living on a drip, Fiat has embarked on a bold mission to resuscitate a bankrupt Chrysler and take over the European operations of its Detroit rival General Motors.
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Review standard and optional interior, exterior, mechanical comfort, entertainment equipment and their warranties for a 2016 500 Easy 2dr Hatchback.
A Fiat Tipo is not a Nissan Versa, Tipo is a C segment car, the Versa is a B segment vehicle. Main external difference is width, Versa being 169.5 cm...
Radiation from cell phones can possibly cause cancer, according to the World Health Organization. The agency now lists mobile phone use in the same carcinogenic hazard category as lead, engine exhaust and chloroform.
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Bis-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxy-phenyl)-methane (BDDPM) is a bromophenol 1st isolated from 0. The migrated amount of HUVECs. The info proven in the graphs will be the mean SD beliefs of at least three specific tests. ** 0.01 control. 2.3. BDDPM Inhibits Vessel Sprouting in Vitro Following, we utilized spheroid capillary sprouting assay to review the result of BDDPM … Continue reading Bis-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxy-phenyl)-methane (BDDPM) is a bromophenol 1st isolated from 0. The migrated. ...
Transcriptional corepressor that binds to a number of transcription factors. Inhibits NF-kappa-B-regulated gene expression. Inhibits the transcriptional activation mediated by FOXA2, and by CTNNB1 and TCF family members in Wnt signaling. The effects of full-length TLE family members may be modulated by association with dominant-negative AES. Unusual function as coactivator for ESRRG (By similarity).
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We report that neurofibromin, a tumor suppressor and Ras-GAP (GTPase-activating protein), is also an estrogen receptor-α (ER) transcriptional co-repressor through leucine/isoleucine-rich motifs that are functionally independent of GAP activity. GAP activity, in turn, does not affect ER binding. Cons …
Selectively enriched 13C-labeled proline-7 and 13C-labeled leucine-8 ocytocins as probes for analysis of peptide hormone interactions with bovine neurophysin i using 13C nuclear magnetic-resonance spectroscopy ...
PELP1 activation of ribosomal promoter depends on functional nucleolar domains.(A) Schematic representation of PELP1 nucleolar domains. (B) 293T cells were tran
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Fiat Chrysler is recalling over 1.3 million vehicles worldwide to fix malfunctioning alternators that can cause engines to stall or a wiring problem that can make air bags deploy unexpectedly.The wiring recall covers nearly 771,000 Dodge Journey and Fiat F
MiRs influence the PELP1-mediated migratory and invasion potential. A, Boyden chamber analysis of the cell migration potential of the ZR cells transfected with
Opening of the conference and Honoring of the Shortlisted Nominees of the FIAT/IFTA Archive Achievement Awards at The Promised Land 18:30 to 20:00 ...
GOLD Title: Fiat Punto Agency: DArcy Author: Daniel Taylor Creative Director: Nick Hastings Art Director: Dave Godfree Copywriter: Mark Waldron Client: Fiat Auto UK Product: Fiat Punto So as not to alienate either female or male Punto drivers, planning arranged for two separate gender-specific groups to react to the script that railed against their sex. The groups expressed their feelings in detail to the first script. Planning then played the two narrative tapes again, exposing the groups to the other version for the first time. A full group discussion then took place to highlight the pros and cons. The results gave planning and Fiat the confidence not only to make the scripts, but to exploit the opportunity for controversy and exposure. ...
Last fall we told you about the SCCA’s new B-Spec series, designed to be an affordable gateway into the world of SCCA racing. Cars for the series are purpose-built and include the Kia Rio, the MINI Cooper, the Mazda2, the Ford Fiesta, the Honda Fit and the Fiat 500. By series rules, each car must run the same brand and model of tire, and it’s...
The head of Fiat SpA said it had more than a 50 percent chance of succeeding in its bid for Opel, adding that the other contenders did not have the expertise to save the struggling car maker, according to a newspaper report.
Fiat has officially gained full control of Chrysler after purchasing the remaining stake for over $4 billion. CNBCs Phil LeBeau reports.
Italys Fiat now owns most of Chryslers assets. The deal was closed today, saving the troubled U.S. automaker from liquidation.
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SKIL / SnoN, 0.1 ml. The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the SMAD pathway, which regulates cell growth and differentiation through transforming growth factor-beta (TGFB).
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N-methylimidazole-N-methylimidazole-N-methylpyrrole-aminobutyric acid- N-methylpyrrole-N-methylpyrrole-N-methylpyrrole-alanine- ...
Evasion of apoptosis is a major contributing factor to the development of chemo- and radiotherapy resistance. Therefore, activation of non-apoptotic programmed cell death (PCD) could be an effective alternative against apoptosis-resistant cancers. In this study, we demonstrated in vitro and in vivo that metformin can induce pyroptosis, a non-apoptotic PCD, in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), a commonly known chemo-refractory cancer, especially at its advanced stages. Proline-, glutamic acid- and leucine-rich protein-1 (PELP1) is a scaffolding oncogene and upregulated PELP1 in advanced stages of ESCC is highly associated with cancer progression and patient outcomes. Intriguingly, metformin treatment leads to gasdermin D (GSDMD)-mediated pyroptosis, which is abrogated by forced expression of PELP1. Mechanistically, metformin induces pyroptosis of ESCC by targeting miR-497/PELP1 axis. Our findings suggest that metformin and any other pyroptosis-inducing reagents could serve as alternative
TY - JOUR. T1 - MicroRNA-657 promotes tumorigenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting transducin-like enhancer protein 1 through nuclear factor kappa B pathways. AU - Zhang, Lisheng. AU - Yang, Lixin. AU - Liu, Xiyong. AU - Chen, Wei. AU - Chang, Lufen. AU - Chen, Linling. AU - Loera, Sofia. AU - Chu, Peiguo. AU - Huang, Wei Chien. AU - Liu, Yun Ru. AU - Yen, Yun. PY - 2013/5/1. Y1 - 2013/5/1. N2 - Growing evidence indicates that deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) contributes to tumorigenesis. Dysregulation of miR-657 has been observed in several types of cancers, but its biological function is still largely unknown. Our results showed that miR-657 expression can be induced by hepatitis viral proteins and is significantly increased in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues. Moreover, introduction of miR-657 dramatically increases proliferation and colony formation of HCC cells in vitro and induces tumor development in immunodeficient mice. Further studies showed that miR-657 directly ...
Pargyline promotes inhibitory epigenetic modifications. (A) MCF-7-PELP1 cells and (B) MCF-7-HER2 cells were treated with pargyline (3 mM), and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis was performed using H3K4me2-specific, H3K9me2-specific or H3K9ac-specific antibodies and the status of epigenetic modifications was analyzed using real-time PCR with the estrogen receptor target gene GREB1C proximal promoter-specific primers (B). Immunohistochemistry analysis of indicated epigenetic marks was done on (C) MCF-7 and (D) MCF-7-PELP1 xenografts that were treated with or without pargyline. Representative images are shown. Quantitation of staining performed as described in Materials and methods. ****P , 0.0001, ***P , 0.001, **P , 0.01, *P , 0.05. PAR, pargyline; PELP1, proline glutamic acid and leucine-rich protein 1. ...
Cornea plana 2 (CNA2), also known as Cornea plana congenital, is a recessively inherited eye disease affecting development of the cornea, and leading to moderate impairment of visual capacity. The corneal changes are caused by structural abnormalities in keratocan, a leucine-rich protein component of a small proteoglycan, which together with other keratan sulfate proteoglycans is important for the transparency of the cornea. Keratocan is encoded by KERA gene on chromosome 12q22. The cornea is thin and unusually flat, corneal limbus is hazy, opacities are frequent in the parenchyma, and arcus senilis developes at an early age. Hyperopia, up to +10 D, is the consequence of corneal changes. Diagnosis of CNA2 is based on careful ophthalmological examination. A gene test is available for detection of the founder mutation ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - YABBYs and the transcriptional corepressors LEUNIG and LEUNIG_HOMOLOG maintain leaf polarity and meristem activity in Arabidopsis. AU - Stahle, Melissa. AU - Kuehlich, Janine. AU - Staron, Lindsay. AU - Von Amim, Albrecht G. AU - Golz, John. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. UR - M3 - Article. VL - 21. SP - 3105. EP - 3118. JO - Plant Cell. JF - Plant Cell. SN - 1040-4651. ER - ...
Prostate epithelial cells are exquisitely sensitive to Nuclear Receptor (NR) ligands. These compounds exert anti-proliferative effect over non-malignant cells RWPE-1 while malignant PC-3 cells retain their proliferative ability. The Nuclear Receptor Co-Repressor 1 (NCOR1) complexes with Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) to repress the action of unliganded NRs, hence, inhibiting their transcriptional and phenotypical effects. NCOR1 was found to be over-expressed in PC-3 cells when compared to non-malignant RWPE-1 cells. Chemical inhibition of NCOR1, via the HDAC inhibitor SAHA, or NCOR1 knock-down, via shRNA, restored PC-3 cells sensitivity to NR agonists with exception of Vitamin D and Thyroid Hormone T3. NCOR1-knock down led also to a re-expression of basally repressed genes, as measured via Microfluidic Gene-Card analysis (Q-RTPCRm). CDKN1A was de-repressed by the knock down and its activation via VDR was modeled with a systems biology approach to identify the mechanistic events behind CDKN1A ...
Tle1 - Tle1 (GFP-tagged) - Mouse transducin-like enhancer of split 1, homolog of Drosophila E(spl) (Tle1) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
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Sekreti i jetëgjatësisë së 500-t ka qenë gjithmonë në aftësinë e tij për të shkuar përtej dimensionit të vet dhe të bëhet diçka tjetër, duke mbetur besnik vetvetes. Më shumë se vetëm një makinë e thjeshtë, Është një objekt me një kult të mirëfilltë, i cili ka intriguar, ngacmuar dhe ndikuar në kontekstet më të ndryshme në të gjithë globin. Në korrik 4, 500 u bashkua me koleksionin e përhershëm të MoMA dhe luajti gjithashtu në filmin e parë të shkurtër të Fiat. Kjo është një makinë që nuk është vetëm një makinë: Kjo është një makinë që nuk është vetëm një makinë. Shihemi në të ardhmen , ne tribute video ku luan Adrien Brody Arritën në 11 milionë shikime në ueb. Audienca u kap nga 500 trashëgimia dhe 500 vjetorin, Duke shfaqur në fushatën tjetër të aktorit fituese të Oskarit, i cili u bë ikona e një historie dashuri të përjetshme. Ndiqni këtë( link ) për ta parë atë ...
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Fiat Chrysler is recalling over 1.3 million vehicles worldwide to fix malfunctioning alternators or a wiring problem that can make air bags inflate unexpectedly.
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BEN factors are conserved CSL co-repressors in Notch-mediated neural development. Our general goal is to understand how cell signaling pathways mediate accurate...
Has anybody had any experiences changing these? They seem readily available on eBay...not so sure about getting the old ones off will be particularly...
@lucifer919: Great Going! Sorry to sort-of-hijack your thread - But a short update on my 1.6 Sport. At about 80000kms on the odo, the car never ceases to thrill me. After 5-6 months of not using the
TNIP2, 0.1 ml. The human TNIP2 (also known as ABIN-2), which is related to proteins ABIN-1 and ABIN-3, was originally identified as an A20-associating cytosolic protein that block nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kB) activation.
The stronger a protein's interaction with DNA, the higher the salt concentration needed to elute that protein. Planar ... ISBN 978-0-632-02017-1. Bourgeois S, Pfahl M (1976). "Repressors". In Anfinsen CB, Edsall JT, Richards FM (eds.). Advances in ... Hydrophobic interactions between proteins and the chromatographic matrix can be exploited to purify proteins. In hydrophobic ... It is often used in biochemistry in the purification of proteins bound to tags. These fusion proteins are labeled with ...
The Bicoid protein is a morphogen as well. The Nanos protein is a translational repressor protein. Bicoid has a DNA-binding ... Nanos protein forms a gradient at the posterior end. The Bicoid protein blocks translation of caudal mRNA so Caudal protein is ... and Caudal proteins is in the transcriptional regulation of other zygotically expressed proteins. Many of these are the protein ... Nanos protein, in complex with Pumilio protein, binds to the hunchback mRNA and blocks its translation in the posterior end of ...
... regulator genes often code for repressor proteins. Repressor proteins bind to operators or promoters, preventing RNA polymerase ... a gene which binds repressor proteins thus inhibiting the translation of RNA to protein via RNA polymerase). In prokaryotes, ... Inducers cause repressor proteins to change shape or otherwise become unable to bind DNA, allowing RNA polymerase to continue ... An example of a regulator gene is a gene that codes for a repressor protein that inhibits the activity of an operator ( ...
The NHL repeat has also been used to design a family of fully symmetrical 6-blade beta-propeller proteins called "Pizza". These ... Edwards TA, Wilkinson BD, Wharton RP, Aggarwal AK (October 2003). "Model of the brain tumor-Pumilio translation repressor ... The NHL repeats are also found in serine/threonine protein kinase (STPK) in diverse range of pathogenic bacteria. These STPK ... The arthropod 'Brain Tumor' protein (Brat; Q8MQJ9) is one such growth regulator that contains a 6-bladed NHL-repeat beta- ...
The Krüppel protein is a transcription factor, and has been shown to act as a repressor. It functions in collaboration with ... Licht JD, Grossel MJ, Figge J, Hansen UM (July 1990). "Drosophila Krüppel protein is a transcriptional repressor". Nature. 346 ... December 1986). "A conserved family of nuclear proteins containing structural elements of the finger protein encoded by Krüppel ... Knirps acts as a repressor to inhibit expression. This results in Krüppel being expressed in a stripe in the center of the ...
These proteins may function as transcriptional repressors. They are also capable of eliciting spontaneously humoral and ... Protein SSX1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SSX1 gene. The product of this gene belongs to the family of highly ... "Functional domains of the SYT and SYT-SSX synovial sarcoma translocation proteins and co-localization with the SNF protein BRM ... 1995). "Fusion of SYT to two genes, SSX1 and SSX2, encoding proteins with homology to the Kruppel-associated box in human ...
These proteins may function as transcriptional repressors. They are also capable of eliciting spontaneously humoral and ... Protein SSX5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SSX5 gene. The product of this gene belongs to the family of highly ... "The cancer-related protein SSX2 interacts with the human homologue of a Ras-like GTPase interactor, RAB3IP, and a novel nuclear ... protein, SSX2IP". Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer. 34 (3): 285-98. doi:10.1002/gcc.10073. PMID 12007189. Güre AO, Wei IJ, Old LJ, ...
These proteins may function as transcriptional repressors. They are also capable of eliciting spontaneously humoral and ... Protein SSX4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SSX4 gene. The product of this gene belongs to the family of highly ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038 ... 2002). "The cancer-related protein SSX2 interacts with the human homologue of a Ras-like GTPase interactor, RAB3IP, and a novel ...
These proteins may function as transcriptional repressors. They are also capable of eliciting spontaneously humoral and ... SSX family member 6, pseudogene is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SSX6 gene. This gene belongs to the family of ... highly homologous synovial sarcoma X (SSX) breakpoint proteins. ...
Nuclear receptor co-repressor 2, PRKAR2A, and Zinc finger and BTB domain-containing protein 16. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Protein CBFA2T1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RUNX1T1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a putative zinc ... with serine/threonine protein kinases and heat shock protein HSP90 in human hematopoietic cell lines". Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 90 ( ... "Interactions between the leukaemia-associated ETO homologues of nuclear repressor proteins". Eur. J. Haematol. 71 (6): 439-47. ...
The protein it encodes for is 344 amino acids in length. The protein itself is very acidic and is very rich in aspartic acid ... It also interacts with EWSR1, which functions as a transcriptional repressor. CCDC82 is a circulat-responsive gene. Circulat is ... Coiled-Coil Domain Containing protein 82 (CCDC82) is a protein that in humans, is encoded for by the gene of the same name, ... CCDC82 is known to interact with two proteins. It indirectly interacts with VHL, a gene that encodes for a tumor suppressor and ...
"Interactions between the leukaemia-associated ETO homologues of nuclear repressor proteins". Eur. J. Haematol. 71 (6): 439-47. ... Protein CBFA2T2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CBFA2T2 gene. In acute myeloid leukemia, especially in the M2 ... Zhang J, Kalkum M, Yamamura S, Chait BT, Roeder RG (2004). "E protein silencing by the leukemogenic AML1-ETO fusion protein". ... "Interactions between the leukaemia-associated ETO homologues of nuclear repressor proteins". Eur. J. Haematol. 71 (6): 439-47. ...
"Interactions between the leukaemia-associated ETO homologues of nuclear repressor proteins". Eur. J. Haematol. 71 (6): 439-47. ... Protein CBFA2T3 (core-binding factor, runt domain, alpha subunit 2; translocated to, 3) is a protein that in humans is encoded ... "Interactions between the leukaemia-associated ETO homologues of nuclear repressor proteins". Eur. J. Haematol. 71 (6): 439-47. ... CBFA2T3+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CBFA2T3 genome location and ...
"KRAB-Zinc Finger Proteins: A Repressor Family Displaying Multiple Biological Functions". Current Genomics. 14 (4): 268-78. doi: ... The C8orf48 protein is predicted to be a nuclear protein particularly located in the nuclear lamina. This protein does not ... C8orf48 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C8orf48 gene. C8orf48 is a nuclear protein specifically predicted to be ... The protein C8orf48 is 319 amino acids in length. The molecular weight of this protein is 36.9 kDa and the isoelectric point is ...
This gene encodes one member of a family of translation repressor proteins. The protein directly interacts with eukaryotic ... Interaction of this protein with eIF4E inhibits complex assembly and represses translation. This protein is phosphorylated in ... Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (also known as 4E-BP1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by ... Feigenblum D, Schneider RJ (1996). "Cap-binding protein (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E) and 4E-inactivating protein BP-1 ...
"Myogenic repressor I-mfa interferes with the function of Zic family proteins". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 320 (1): 233-40. ... This protein is a transcription factor that negatively regulates other myogenic family proteins. Studies of the mouse homolog, ... "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. 125 (4): ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode:2005Natur. ...
This second pathway is regulated by repressor protein DesT. DesT is also a repressor of fabAB expression for anaerobic ... Two DesR-P proteins will dimerize and bind to the DNA promoters of the des gene and recruit RNA polymerase to begin ... It acts as an activator of fabA and fabB transcription and as a repressor for the β-oxidation regulon. In contrast, FabR acts ... Another pathway uses two proteins, DesC and DesB, together to act as a Δ9-desaturase, which inserts a double bond into a ...
Then there's the repressor protein that turns genes off. The inducer can remove this repressor, turning genes back on. The ... Lastly, the regulatory gene is the gene for the repressor protein. An example of inducible enzyme is COX-2 which is synthesized ... operator is a section of DNA where the repressor binds to shut off certain genes; the promoter is the section of DNA where the ...
Saier MH, Ramseier TM (June 1996). "The catabolite repressor/activator (Cra) protein of enteric bacteria". Journal of ... Gupta V, Bamezai RN (November 2010). "Human pyruvate kinase M2: a multifunctional protein". Protein Science. 19 (11): 2031-44. ... Heterogenous ribonucleotide proteins (hnRNPs) can act on the PKM gene to regulate expression of M1 and M2 isoforms. PKM1 and ... ChREBP is found to be an essential protein in gene transcription of the L isozyme of pyruvate kinase. The domains of ChREBP are ...
"Thermal denaturation of the core protein of lac repressor". Biochemistry. 24 (15): 3842-3846. doi:10.1021/bi00336a004. ISSN ... Matthews's research focuses on the interactions of protein and DNA, in particular LacI and the Hox gene protein Ultrabithorax. ... She received the William C. Rose Award in 2015 for her work in DNA-binding proteins and her commitment to mentoring young ... Wilson, C. J.; Zhan, H.; Swint-Kruse, L.; Matthews, K. S. (2006). "The lactose repressor system: paradigms for regulation, ...
1999). "The STAR protein QKI-6 is a translational repressor". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 (22): 12605-10. Bibcode:1999PNAS ... 2006). "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. ... QKI belongs to a family of RNA-binding proteins called STAR proteins for Signal Transduction and Activation of RNA. They have ... 2003). "Sam68 RNA binding protein is an in vivo substrate for protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1". Mol. Biol. Cell. 14 (1 ...
This protein is likely a transcriptional repressor from the E-box binding factors family TR4/TR2 - These proteins are part of a ... The proteins encoded by the TMPIT proteins are predicted to be transmembrane proteins. However, there is lack of literature to ... It encodes a protein from a family of bacterial proteins with no known function. FHAD1 contains the forkhead-associated domain ... Forkhead-associated domain containing protein 1 (FHAD1) is a protein encoded by the FHAD1 gene. As the name suggests, it has a ...
Interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IRF2BP2 gene. This gene encodes ... Childs KS, Goodbourn S (2003). "Identification of novel co-repressor molecules for Interferon Regulatory Factor-2". Nucleic ... Carneiro FR, Ramalho-Oliveira R, Mognol GP, Viola JP (2011). "Interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein 2 is a new NFAT1 ... "Entrez Gene: Interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein 2". Retrieved 2017-01-06. ...
"The LIM protein FHL3 binds basic Krüppel-like factor/Krüppel-like factor 3 and its co-repressor C-terminal-binding protein 2". ... "C-Terminal binding protein is a transcriptional repressor that interacts with a specific class of vertebrate Polycomb proteins ... Holmes M, Turner J, Fox A, Chisholm O, Crossley M, Chong B (1999). "hFOG-2, a novel zinc finger protein, binds the co-repressor ... The CtBPs bind to many different DNA-binding proteins and also bind to co-repressors that are themselves bound to DNA-binding ...
The protein localizes to the nucleus. It functions as a transcriptional repressor, and expression of E1A inhibits this ... Zinc finger MYND domain-containing protein 11 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ZMYND11 gene. The protein encoded ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ... Wei G, Schaffner AE, Baker KM, Mansky KC, Ostrowski MC (2003). "Ets-2 interacts with co-repressor BS69 to repress target gene ...
"Aberrant interactions of transcriptional repressor proteins with the Huntington's disease gene product, huntingtin". Human ... Sin3A-associated protein, 30kDa, also known as SAP30, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the SAP30 gene. Histone ... Proteins of the SAP30 family (SAP30 proteins) have a functional nucleolar localization signal and they are able to target Sin3A ... The DNA binding of SAP30 proteins is regulated by the nuclear signalling lipids, phosphoinositides (PI). SAP30 proteins provide ...
Several proteins carrying this domain are transcriptional regulators from the biotin repressor family. The transcription ... In molecular biology, the 3H domain is a protein domain named after its three highly conserved histidine residues. The 3H ... Proteins. 67 (1): 247-52. doi:10.1002/prot.21221. PMID 17256761. S2CID 42634714. This article incorporates text from the public ... regulator TM1602 from Thermotoga maritima is a DNA-binding protein thought to belong to a family of de novo NAD synthesis ...
2007). "Novel repressor of the human FMR1 gene - identification of p56 human (GCC)(n)-binding protein as a Krüppel-like ... 1993). "Transcriptional repressor ZF5 identifies a new conserved domain in zinc finger proteins". Nucleic Acids Res. 21 (16): ... Zinc finger protein 161 homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ZFP161 gene. Chromosome 18 (human) Sequence ... Wang J, Kudoh J, Takayanagi A, Shimizu N (2005). "Novel human BTB/POZ domain-containing zinc finger protein ZNF295 is directly ...
Methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2, Nuclear receptor co-repressor 2, OGT, PHF12, Promyelocytic leukemia protein, RBBP4, RBBP7 ... Paired amphipathic helix protein Sin3a is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SIN3A gene. The protein encoded by this ... Yao YL, Yang WM (October 2003). "The metastasis-associated proteins 1 and 2 form distinct protein complexes with histone ... It contains paired amphipathic helix (PAH) domains, which are important for protein-protein interactions and may mediate ...
"Multiple properties of the splicing repressor SRp38 distinguish it from typical SR proteins". Mol. Cell. Biol. 25 (18): 8334-43 ... FUS-interacting serine-arginine-rich protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SFRS13A gene. This gene product is ... which are important in mediating association with other cellular proteins. This protein can influence splice site selection of ... "TLS-ERG leukemia fusion protein inhibits RNA splicing mediated by serine-arginine proteins". Mol. Cell. Biol. 20 (10): 3345-54 ...
... s are a family of proteins found in complexes with cadherin cell adhesion molecules of animal cells. The first two ... β-catenin becomes a coactivator for TCF and LEF to activate Wnt genes by displacing Groucho and HDAC transcription repressors. ... Mutations in genes encoding these proteins can lead to inactivation of cadherin cell adhesions and elimination of contact ... "Adjuvant immunochemotherapy with protein-bound polysaccharide K for colon cancer in relation to oncogenic β-catenin activation ...
protein binding. • enzyme binding. • receptor binding. • lipid binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, ... The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found ... identical protein binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcriptional ... resulting in formation of messenger RNA that is translated by ribosomes to produce specific proteins. ...
TATA-binding protein (TBP) can be recruited in two ways, by SAGA, a cofactor for RNA polymerase II, or by TFIID.[11] When ... Interaction of TATA boxes with a variety of activators or repressors can influence the transcription of genes in many ways[ ... "TATA-binding protein recognition and bending of a consensus promoter are protein species dependent". Biochemistry. 47 (27): ... The TATA-binding protein (TBP) could also be targeted by viruses as a means of viral transcription.[6] ...
... who believed that transcription was activated by protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions on largely naked DNA templates, ... SBF is a transcription factor that is activated in late G1 phase, when it dissociates from its repressor Whi5. This occurs when ... Nuclear protein Ataxia-Telangiectasia (NPAT), also known as nuclear protein coactivator of histone transcription, is a ... The first step of chromatin structure duplication is the synthesis of histone proteins: H1, H2A, H2B, H3, H4. These proteins ...
... induces the targeting of a class of transcription factor repressors known as Aux/IAA proteins for proteasomal degradation. ... The protein degradation processEdit. Ribbon diagram of ubiquitin, the highly conserved protein that serves as a molecular tag ... Proteasomes are protein complexes which degrade unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis, a chemical reaction that breaks ... Proteins are tagged for degradation with a small protein called ubiquitin. The tagging reaction is catalyzed by enzymes called ...
The UBQLN2 gene encodes the protein ubiquilin 2 which is responsible for controlling the degradation of ubiquitinated proteins ... with transcriptional repression via interference of transcription factor binding and recruitment of transcriptional repressors ... As that gene's name suggests, BACE1 is an enzymatic protein that cleaves the Amyloid Precursor Protein into the insoluble ... Mutations in UBQLN2 interfere with protein degradation resulting in neurodegeneration through abnormal protein aggregation.[52] ...
Gene expression can be controlled through the action of repressor proteins that attach to silencer regions of the DNA. These ... In general, proteins fold into discrete units that perform distinct cellular functions, but some proteins are also capable of ... The first way is post translational modification of the amino acids that make up histone proteins. Histone proteins are made up ... thereby reducing that protein's activity. In PSI+ cells, the loss of the Sup35 protein (which is involved in termination of ...
The lacI gene synthesizes LacI repressor protein. The LacI repressor protein represses lacZYA by binding to the operator ... An example of a repressor protein is the methionine repressor MetJ. MetJ interacts with DNA bases via a ribbon-helix-helix (RHH ... lacZYA transcribes the proteins needed for lactose breakdown.[1] lacI synthesizes the repressor of the lacZYA gene.[1] The gene ... In molecular genetics, a repressor is a DNA- or RNA-binding protein that inhibits the expression of one or more genes by ...
protein kinase inhibitor activity. • protein binding. • kinesin binding. • protein kinase binding. • JUN kinase binding. • ... "The Transcriptional Repressor REST Determines the Cell-Specific Expression of the Human MAPK8IP1 Gene Encoding IB1 (JIP-1)". ... "Entrez Gene: MAPK8IP1 mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1".. *^ a b c d e f Yasuda, J; Whitmarsh A J; ... It is highly similar to JIP-1, a mouse protein known to be a regulator of c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (Mapk8). This protein has ...
Mijelin protein nula • Osteonektin • Protein C • Protein S • Proteoglikan • Serum amiloid P komponenta • Sialoglikoprotein ( ... Liu, Fei; Liu Yin; Li Demin; Zhu Yong; Ouyang Weiming; Xie Xin; Jin Boquan (2002). „The transcription co-repressor TLE1 ... Glikoprotein 130 (takođe poznat kao gp130, IL6ST, IL6-beta ili CD130) je transmembranski protein. On je osnivački član klase ... Kolesterilester transfer protein • Klasterin • Faktor stimulacije kolonije • Hemopeksin • Laktoferin • Membranski glikoproteini ...
a b c d e f g h i j k l m Petsko, GA and Ringe, D 2009, 'Protein Structure and Function', Oxford University Press Inc., New ... Mutations in the genes encoding them or their potential activators or repressors can affect any number of functions within an ... It exerts its effect by phosphorylating target proteins such as P53, MDM2 and chk2. Activation of ATM is facilitated by ... This receptor is a protein with an (αβ)2 quaternary structure. The two large α-subunits are extracellular, while the smaller β- ...
In ''negative inducible operons'', a regulatory repressor protein is normally bound to the operator, which prevents the ... repressor. represor. ]] to. ao. the. operador,. operator. que. to. impide. prevent. a. transcription. transcrición. . ... If an [[inducer]] molecule is present, it binds to the repressor and changes its conformation so that it is unable to bind to ...
Rob M Ewing, Chu Peter, Elisma Fred, Li Hongyan, Taylor Paul, et al., Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions ... binds a non-canonical E box and acts as a transcriptional repressor (PDF), in EMBO J., vol. 16, nº 10, maggio 1997, pp. 2892- ... Gazin C, Rigolet M, Briand JP, et al., Immunochemical detection of proteins related to the human c-myc exon 1, in EMBO J., vol ... Q Guo, Xie J, Dang C V, Liu E T, Bishop J M, Identification of a large Myc-binding protein that contains RCC1-like repeats (PDF ...
2002), I.3. Proteins: The Shape and Structure of Proteins *^ Alberts et al. (2002), I.3. Proteins: Protein Function Archived 25 ... changing the repressor's structure such that the repressor binds to the genes. The tryptophan repressor blocks the ... like the fibers formed by the protein collagen. Proteins can bind to other proteins and simple molecules, sometimes acting as ... A single nucleotide difference within DNA can cause a change in the amino acid sequence of a protein. Because protein ...
The 3'-UTR also may have silencer regions that bind repressor proteins that inhibit the expression of a mRNA. ... In fission yeast this complex contains argonaute, a chromodomain protein Chp1, and a protein called Tas3 of unknown function.[ ... This ancestral RNAi system probably contained at least one dicer-like protein, one argonaute, one PIWI protein, and an RNA- ... Left: A full-length argonaute protein from the archaea species Pyrococcus furiosus. Right: The PIWI domain of an argonaute ...
Protein sy'n cael ei godio yn y corff dynol gan y genyn YBX3 yw YBX3 a elwir hefyd yn Y-box binding protein 3 (Saesneg). ... GO:0001078, GO:0001214, GO:0001206 DNA-binding transcription repressor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific. • nucleic acid ... "DNA binding protein A expression and methylation status in hepatocellular carcinoma and the adjacent tissue. ". Int J Oncol. ... "RNAi-mediated downregulation of DNA binding protein A inhibits tumorigenesis in colorectal cancer. ". Int J Mol Med. 2016. PMID ...
... structural proteins, polyamines, and proteins involved in nuclear import.[3] Acetylation of these proteins can alter their ... Protein Chem. Advances in Protein Chemistry. 67: 181-99. doi:10.1016/S0065-3233(04)67007-0. ISBN 9780120342679. PMID 14969728. ... In addition, since contacts between CoA and protein facilitate the formation of favorable histone-protein contacts, it is ... Histones comprise the protein portion of chromatin. There are five different histone proteins: H1, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. A core ...
miR-181 expression has a reverse correlation with Tcl1 protein expression. mir-181 a and b are over-expressed and act as bad ... a repressor of the differentiation process in mammalians and lower organisms). miR-181a, miR-181b, miR-181c and miR-181d are ... It has been shown that miR-181 targets the homeobox protein Hox-A11 and participates in establishing muscle tissue ... They target and modulate protein expression by inhibiting translation and / or inducing degradation of target messenger RNAs. ...
"WD repeat-containing mitotic checkpoint proteins act as transcriptional repressors during interphase". FEBS Letters. 575 (1-3 ... protein binding. • ankyrin binding. • gamma-catenin binding. • beta-catenin binding. • GTPase activating protein binding. • ... Oneyama C, Nakano H, Sharma SV (March 2002). "UCS15A, a novel small molecule, SH3 domain-mediated protein-protein interaction ... Several proteins such as SNAI1/SNAIL,[58][59] ZFHX1B/SIP1,[60] SNAI2/SLUG,[61][62] TWIST1[63] and DeltaEF1[64] have been found ...
Tregs utilize beta-galactoside-binding protein to transiently inhibit PI3K/p21ras activity of human CD8+ T cells to block their ... Suppression of T cell function: a potential role for transcriptional repressor ICER. „J Leukoc Biol". 67 (6), s. 774-779, ... Association of allergen-specific regulatory T cells with the onset of clinical tolerance to milk protein. „J Allergy Clin ... Wasp venom immunotherapy induces activation and homing of CD4(+)CD25(+) forkhead box protein 3-positive regulatory T cells ...
8. 2002). „Integral Membrane Proteins of the Chloroplast Envelope: Identification and Subcellular Localization of New ... The JAZ Family of Repressors is the Missing Link in Jasmonate Signaling". Nature. 448 (7154): 666-71. Bibcode:2007Natur.448.. ... a Novel GTPase of the Chloroplast Protein Translocon". Nature Structural Biology. 9 (2): 95-100. PMID 11753431. doi:10.1038/ ...
protein binding. • transcriptional repressor activity, RNA polymerase II transcription regulatory region sequence-specific ... Protein sy'n cael ei godio yn y corff dynol gan y genyn ETV6 yw ETV6 a elwir hefyd yn ETS variant 6 (Saesneg). Segment o DNA ... protein domain specific binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • ...
"A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. 2005. doi:10.1016/ ... "Defective interplay of activators and repressors with TFIH in xeroderma pigmentosum". Cell. 104 (3): 353-63. 2001. doi:10.1016/ ... "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. 125 (4): ... "Manifold decreased protein levels of matrin 3, reduced motor protein HMP and hlark in fetal Down's syndrome brain". Proteomics ...
F-box proteins target other proteins for degradation via the ubiquitin degradation pathway. When TIR1/ AFB proteins bind to ... In the absence of auxin, ARFs bind to a class of repressors known as Aux/IAAs. Aux/IAA suppress the ability of ARFs to enhance ... This process requires modification of the auxin transporters (PIN proteins).[20] Flowering[edit]. Auxin plays also a minor role ... While PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are vital in transporting auxin in a polar manner,[6][15] the family of AUXIN1/LIKE-AUX1 (AUX/ ...
... the lac repressor. The structure of the fusion proteins looks like this: FP2-LacI-bait and FP1-prey where the bait and prey ... "Yeast Two-Hybrid Protein-Protein Interaction Networks". Proteomics and Protein-Protein Interactions. Protein Reviews. 3. pp. 19 ... an alternative method for detecting protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. *Protein array, a chip-based method for ... The protein fused to the AD may be referred to as the prey protein and can be either a single known protein or a library of ...
ORF36 - vPK - viral protein kinase with multiple roles in replication cycle ORF37 - SOX - dual function protein - DNase ... K8 - transcriptional repressor - modulates chromatin K8.1 - envelope glycoprotein K9 - vIRF1, viral interferon regulatory ... a G protein-coupled receptor, interferon regulatory factor and Flice inhibitory protein (FLIP), as well as DNA synthesis ... ORF45 - tegument protein, interacts with p90 ribosomal S6 kinases (RSKs) to modulate the ERK/RSK MAPK signaling pathway ...
PURB, ETA, purine-rich element binding protein B, purine rich element binding protein B. ... GO:0001078، ‏GO:0001214، ‏GO:0001206 DNA-binding transcription repressor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific. • ربط دي إن إي. ... PURB‏ (Purine rich element binding protein B) هوَ بروتين يُشَفر بواسطة جين PURB في الإنسان.[1][2] ... "Entrez Gene: PURB purine-rich element binding protein B". مؤرشف من الأصل في 05 ديسمبر 2010.. الوسيط ,CitationClass=. تم تجاهله ...
"Smad-interacting protein 1 is a repressor of liver/bone/kidney alkaline phosphatase transcription in bone morphogenetic protein ... Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ZEB2 gene. The ZEB2 protein is a ... a novel zinc finger/homeodomain repressor, interacts with Smad proteins and binds to 5'-CACCT sequences in candidate target ... ZEB2 protein has 8 zinc fingers and 1 homeodomain. The structure of the homeodomain shown on the right. ZEB2 interacts with ...
... the p70S6 kinase and the translation repressor protein 4EBP1).[94][96] The suppression of muscle protein breakdown following ... and inhibiting muscle protein breakdown (MPB).[94][95] The stimulation of muscle protein synthesis by resistance training ... Ingestion of a protein-rich meal at any point during this period will augment the exercise-induced increase in muscle protein ... Many amino acids derived from food protein promote the activation of mTORC1 and increase protein synthesis by signaling through ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): Q57468 - Streptococcus pyogenes 4 * A0A0A7NYJ1 - Saccharomyces cerevisiae ( ... The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Mouse over tracks and labels for more ...
General protein information Go to the top of the page Help Names. transcriptional repressor protein MetJ. YP_002345203.1. *when ... transcriptional repressor protein MetJ. Locus tag. YPO0114. Gene type. protein coding. RefSeq status. REVIEWED. Organism. ... mRNA and Protein(s) * YP_002345203.1 transcriptional repressor protein MetJ [Yersinia pestis CO92] ... metJ transcriptional repressor protein MetJ [ Yersinia pestis CO92 ] Gene ID: 1172961, updated on 30-Jan-2018 ...
The first property requires that the repressor is a protein, since only proteins are known to possess such spatial specificity ... REGULATION OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS: AN ALTERNATIVE TO THE REPRESSOR-OPERATOR HYPOTHESIS* M. GRUBER and R. N. CAMPAGNE\ The ... The effectors of protein synthesis, or possibly their immediate derivatives, were assumed to interact with a "repressor," ... The second property requires that the repressor is a polynucleotide, since proteins of a reasonable molecular weight cannot ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): P03023 - Escherichia coli (strain K12) 24 * O95103 - Homo sapiens no matching ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ... The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Mouse over tracks and labels for more ...
... the chromosomal regions of interest can be visualized with a fluorescently labeled Lac repressor protein, which binds to the ... Cold Spring Harbor Protocols features methods for visualizing protein dynamics. COLD SPRING HARBOR, N.Y. (Wed., Jan. 2, 2008) ... It can be used to detect endogenous proteins as well as the products of transgenes. The immunohistochemistry protocol was ... CSH Protocols features methods for visualizing protein dynamics. 01/02/2008. ...
Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. A0A072Z841. A0A0S2T5F8. R0J9C2. A0A0F6WQV6. ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. A0A072Z841. Q8NP86. A4QET8. A0A1Q6BII1. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. A0A072Z841. Q8NP86. A0A0S2T5F8. R0J9C2. ...
Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q8XZU1. A0A223GLH0. A0A0S4WG98. A0A1Y0FCG8. ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q8XZU1. A0A223GLH0. A0A0S4WG98. A0A1Y0FCG8. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q8XZU1. Q2SVP7. A0A096YM24. A0A2C5V0P6. ...
... repressor proteins include Luciferase Complementation Imaging Assay in Nicotiana benthamiana Leaves for Transiently ... Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific Genes or Operons. Classical repressor ... Luciferase Complementation Imaging Assay in Nicotiana benthamiana Leaves for Transiently Determining Protein-protein ... proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the Operator region of an operon, or the Enhancer sequences of a ...
"Repressor Proteins" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Repressor Proteins" was a major or minor topic ... Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ... "Repressor Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Repressor Proteins" by people in Profiles. ...
... Cell. 2009 Feb 6;136(3):535-50. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2008.12. ... We now identify PHLDA3 as a p53 target gene that encodes a PH domain-only protein. We find that PHLDA3 competes with the PH ...
Browse our Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 Protein catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 Proteins available through Novus Biologicals. ... Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 protein, ZNF461 protein, zinc finger protein 213 protein, Zinc finger protein ... Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 Proteins. We offer Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 Peptides ...
Allostery in lac repressor ligand binding is based upon the ability of the protein to assume alternate ligand-bound ... All repressor proteins produced by mutating His74 and/or Asp278 possess altered ligand binding behavior. Interestingly, only ... Allostery and assembly oflac repressor protein. dc.contributor.advisor. Matthews, Kathleen S.. ... These results demonstrate unequivocally that the tetrameric lac repressor is an extremely stable protein. However, the ...
mouse interferon repressor protein: IRP is localized in cell sap and in ribosomal fraction of mouse cells; initially identified ... Proteins: 90489*Transcription Factors: 20597*Repressor Proteins: 32*mouse interferon repressor protein ... mouse interferon repressor protein. Subscribe to New Research on mouse interferon repressor protein ... interferon repressor protein, mouse; IRP protein, mouse; interferon repressing protein, mouse. Networked: 0 relevant articles ( ...
Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Cell lines and Lysates. Multiplex ...
Proteolysis that is inhibited by hedgehog targets Cubitus interruptus protein to the nucleus and converts it to a repressor.. ... Cell-cell communication at anterior/posterior compartment borders in Drosophila involves Hedgehog (Hh), a protein secreted by ... posterior cells, and Cubitus interruptus (Ci), a protein in the Hh response pathway in anterior cells. Although Ci is thought ...
... a protein in the Hh response pathway in anterior cells. Although Ci is thought to have roles as a transcription factor repressi ... a protein secreted by posterior cells, and Cubitus interruptus (Ci), ... Proteolysis that is inhibited by hedgehog targets Cubitus interruptus protein to the nucleus and converts it to a repressor ... Cell-cell communication at anterior/posterior compartment borders in Drosophila involves Hedgehog (Hh), a protein secreted by ...
HTLV-I trans-activator protein, tax, is a trans-repressor of the human beta-polymerase gene ... HTLV-I trans-activator protein, tax, is a trans-repressor of the human beta-polymerase gene ... HTLV-I trans-activator protein, tax, is a trans-repressor of the human beta-polymerase gene ... HTLV-I trans-activator protein, tax, is a trans-repressor of the human beta-polymerase gene ...
The degradation of specific target proteins is mediated by ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3), which mark their target proteins ... A comprehensive control of protein production includes global co-repressors as the conserved Ssn6(SsnF)-Tup1(RcoA) complex, ... We have identified a novel connection between protein degradation and synthesis through an F-box protein. Fbx15 can be ... The rapid response to environmental changes underlies a well-balanced system of production and degradation of proteins. ...
Expression and Properties of Wild-Type and Mutant Forms of the Drosophila Sex Comb on Midleg (SCM) Repressor Protein. Douglas ... Expression and Properties of Wild-Type and Mutant Forms of the Drosophila Sex Comb on Midleg (SCM) Repressor Protein. Douglas ... Expression and Properties of Wild-Type and Mutant Forms of the Drosophila Sex Comb on Midleg (SCM) Repressor Protein. Douglas ... Expression and Properties of Wild-Type and Mutant Forms of the Drosophila Sex Comb on Midleg (SCM) Repressor Protein ...
Proteins recruited by phosphorylated LIN-1 might reverse the chromatin modifications caused by transcriptional repressors, such ... Conversion of the LIN-1 ETS Protein of Caenorhabditis elegans from a SUMOylated Transcriptional Repressor to a Phosphorylated ... Conversion of the LIN-1 ETS Protein of Caenorhabditis elegans from a SUMOylated Transcriptional Repressor to a Phosphorylated ... Conversion of the LIN-1 ETS Protein of Caenorhabditis elegans from a SUMOylated Transcriptional Repressor to a Phosphorylated ...
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae DAL80 repressor protein binds to multiple copies of GATAA-containing sequences (URSGATA).. T S ... The Saccharomyces cerevisiae DAL80 repressor protein binds to multiple copies of GATAA-containing sequences (URSGATA). ... The Saccharomyces cerevisiae DAL80 repressor protein binds to multiple copies of GATAA-containing sequences (URSGATA). ... The Saccharomyces cerevisiae DAL80 repressor protein binds to multiple copies of GATAA-containing sequences (URSGATA). ...
proteins. exemplified by ArsR-SmtB family repressors D. Osman and J. S. Cavet, Nat. Prod. Rep., 2010, 27, 668 DOI: 10.1039/ ... proteins. . Indeed, in the case of the ArsR-SmtB family, multiple distinct metal-sensing motifs (and one non-metal-sensing ...
Protein kinase A and TORC1 activate genes for ribosomal biogenesis by inactivating repressors encoded by Dot6 and its homolog ... Protein kinase A and TORC1 activate genes for ribosomal biogenesis by inactivating repressors encoded by Dot6 and its homolog ... Protein kinase A and TORC1 activate genes for ribosomal biogenesis by inactivating repressors encoded by Dot6 and its homolog ... Protein kinase A and TORC1 activate genes for ribosomal biogenesis by inactivating repressors encoded by Dot6 and its homolog ...
Members of the HRT family of basic helix-loop-helix proteins act as transcriptional repressors downstream of Notch signaling. ... Members of the HRT family of basic helix-loop-helix proteins act as transcriptional repressors downstream of Notch signaling ... Members of the HRT family of basic helix-loop-helix proteins act as transcriptional repressors downstream of Notch signaling ... Members of the HRT family of basic helix-loop-helix proteins act as transcriptional repressors downstream of Notch signaling ...
We investigated the evolutionary conservation of the dopaminergic repressor function of Zic proteins and show that it is ... Zic-proteins are repressors of dopaminergic forebrain fate in mice and C. elegans Marie-Catherine Tiveron 1 Christophe Beclin 1 ... We investigated the evolutionary conservation of the dopaminergic repressor function of Zic proteins and show that it is ... Zic-proteins are repressors of dopaminergic forebrain fate in mice and C. elegans. Journal of Neuroscience, Society for ...
The amount of protein in the supernatant was measured by protein assay (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA). The proteins were separated by ... In great contrast to the full-length protein, deleting its NH2 terminus enfeebled the repressor activity of FIR (arrows). To ... An Essential Role of Alternative Splicing of c-myc Suppressor FUSE-Binding Protein-Interacting Repressor in Carcinogenesis. ... Recently, an interaction between FUSE-binding protein-interacting repressor (FIR) and TFIIH/p89/XPB helicase was found to ...
Apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC) is an endogenous antiapoptotic protein. Here, we report that ARC ... The apoptotic regulatory protein ARC (apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain) prevents oxidant stress-mediated ... TAT protein transduction into isolated perfused hearts: TAT-apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain is ... Identification of DIABLO, a mammalian protein that promotes apoptosis by binding to and antagonizing IAP proteins. Cell 2000; ...
... we asked whether its repressor, FBP-interacting repressor (FIR) is functionally inactivated and how FIR might affect NSCLC cell ... Because over-expression of DNA-interacting far upstream element binding protein (FBP) supports non-small cell lung cancer ( ... Concomitant expression of far upstream element (FUSE) binding protein (FBP) interacting repressor (FIR) and its splice variants ... binding protein (FBP) interacting repressor (FIR) and its splice variants induce migration and invasion of non-small cell lung ...
DELLA proteins are nuclear growth repressors. In many cases, GA opposes the effects of DELLA proteins by promoting DELLA ... Second, ethylene delayed the GA-induced disappearance of the DELLA protein repressor of ga1-3 from root cell nuclei via a ... Ethylene Regulates Arabidopsis Development via the Modulation of DELLA Protein Growth Repressor Function. Patrick Achard, Wim H ... Total protein was extracted and quantified as described by Silverstone et al. (2001). For each treatment, 20 μg of proteins was ...
RING1 is associated with the polycomb group protein complex and acts as a transcriptional repressor.. D P Satijn, M J Gunster, ... RING1 is associated with the polycomb group protein complex and acts as a transcriptional repressor. ... The Polycomb (Pc) protein is a component of a multimeric, chromatin-associated Polycomb group (PcG) protein complex, which is ... RING1 is associated with the polycomb group protein complex and acts as a transcriptional repressor. ...
  • The repressor was assumed to be the product of a regulator gene which is not necessarily spatially or structurally related to the structural genes ofthe operon. (
  • Whereas genetic analysis has unequivocally demonstrated the existence of regulator genes, i.e., genes which through a cytoplasmic product control the induction or repression process, the identification of this product as a repressor directly interacting with an operator region has not been possible experimentally. (
  • Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific Genes or Operons . (
  • The HTLV-I trans-activator protein Tax can activate the expression of its own long terminal repeat (LTR) and many cellular and viral genes. (
  • Since the DAL and UGA genes are overexpressed and largely inducer independent in dal80 deletion mutants, we have suggested DAL80 protein negatively regulates a wide spectrum of nitrogen-catabolic gene expression, likely in conjunction with a URS element. (
  • Moreover, Dot6 and Tod6 mediate different nutrient signals, with Tod6 responsible for efficient repression of Ribi genes after inhibition of the nitrogen-sensitive TORC1 pathway and Dot6 responsible for repression after inhibition of the carbon-sensitive protein kinase A signaling pathway. (
  • The budding yeast ribosome comprises 79 ribosomal proteins encoded by 138 genes (the RP regulon), and four rRNAs (5S, 5.8S, 18S, and 25S) encoded by ≈150 rDNA tandem repeats. (
  • Moreover, another ≈300 genes encoding nonribosomal proteins are involved in various aspects of ribosome assembly and translational capacity (the ribosome biogenesis, or Ribi, regulon): RNA polymerases I and III subunits, tRNA synthetases, rRNA processing and modifying enzymes, translation factors, etc. ( 6 , 7 ). (
  • The Hairy-related transcription-factor ( HRT ) genes encode three related basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that show sequence similarity to the Hairy and Enhancer of split family of transcriptional repressors. (
  • These findings identify HRT genes as downstream targets for Notch signaling and reveal a negative autoregulatory loop whereby HRT proteins repress their own expression through interference with Notch signaling. (
  • In response to Notch signaling, Su(H) activates transcription of the Hairy / Enhancer of split genes [ H / E(spl) ], which encode a family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcriptional repressors ( 1 , 2 , 4 ). (
  • H/E(spl) proteins then inhibit transcription of their target genes, thereby preventing undifferentiated precursors from achieving differentiated phenotypes. (
  • Based on their embryonic expression patterns and on the importance of bHLH proteins for Notch signaling ( 4 , 10 ), we investigated whether HRT genes might be downstream targets for Notch signaling. (
  • these fusions can be evaluated for repressor activity using direct selection with λ phage, or a variety of reporter genes suitable for library screening. (
  • The Drosophila extra sex combs (esc) protein, a member of the Polycomb group (PcG), is a transcriptional repressor of homeotic genes. (
  • Mutations in the FIE and MEA genes that encode interacting polycomb proteins cause parent-of-origin effects on seed development by distinct mechanisms. (
  • We therefore sought to identify target genes for HEY proteins by microarray expression and ChIPseq analyses in HEK293 cells, cardiomyocytes, and murine hearts. (
  • The SSN6-TUP1 protein complex represses transcription of diversely regulated genes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (
  • Alignments of GbsR proteins and analysis of the genetic context of the corresponding structural genes allowed their assignment into four sub-groups. (
  • In one of these sub-groups of GbsR-type proteins, gbsR -type genes are associated either with OpuA-, OpuB-, or OpuC-type osmostress protectants uptake systems. (
  • Lactose is inhibiting the repressor, allowing the RNA polymerase to bind with the promoter, and express the genes, which synthesize lactase. (
  • In molecular genetics , a repressor is a DNA- or RNA-binding protein that inhibits the expression of one or more genes by binding to the operator or associated silencers . (
  • A DNA-binding repressor blocks the attachment of RNA polymerase to the promoter , thus preventing transcription of the genes into messenger RNA . (
  • When SAM is present, it binds to the MetJ protein, increasing its affinity for its cognate operator site, which halts transcription of genes involved in methionine synthesis. (
  • repressor EthR is.The lac repressor is a DNA-binding protein which inhibits the expression of genes coding for proteins. (
  • Under non‐stressed conditions, transcription of the clpC and clpP genes is negatively regulated by CtsR, the global repressor of clp gene expression. (
  • The protein regulates the expression of plasmid genes whose products are involved in replication, transfer, and stable inheritance of RP4 by binding to palindromic 13-bp DNA sequences (5′-TTTAGC(G/C)GCTAAA-3′) present 12 times in the 60-kb plasmid. (
  • Our study shows that CHD5 is a NuRD-associated transcriptional repressor and identifies WEE1 as one of the CHD5-regulated genes that may link CHD5 to tumor suppression. (
  • The repressor protein binds to Operator region which is present between Promoter region and structural genes. (
  • The lac repressor is a DNA-binding protein that inhibits the expression of genes coding for proteins involved in the metabolism of lactose in bacteria. (
  • Isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) is a commonly used allolactose mimic which can be used to induce transcription of genes being regulated by lac repressor. (
  • The BTB domain in these proteins represses the expression of target genes by the BTB-mediated recruitment of HDAC/corepressor complexes to promoter sites recognized by the C-terminal zinc-finger regions. (
  • MLDP significantly altered the expression patterns of many genes involved in mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPKs) and calcium signaling, transcription factors, primary and secondary metabolism, and other processes in both poplar subgenera. (
  • We show here that Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) HsfB1 and HsfB2b, members of class B, are transcriptional repressors and negatively regulate the expression of heat-inducible Hsf s ( HsfA2 , HsfA7a , HsfB1 , and HsfB2b ) and several heat shock protein genes. (
  • On the other hand, HsfB1 and HsfB2b appear to be necessary for the expression of heat stress-inducible heat shock protein genes under heat stress conditions, which is necessary for acquired thermotolerance. (
  • Heat shock factors (Hsfs) regulate the expression of genes for heat shock proteins (HSPs), which confer thermotolerance. (
  • In this report, we show that two members of class B Hsfs, HsfB1 and HsfB2b, are active repressors of the transcription of HS-inducible genes for Hsfs and HSPs. (
  • Among others, PIL5 induces the expression of the genes encoding the two DELLA proteins GA INSENSITIVE 1 (GAI) and REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA). (
  • The regA protein expressed by the bacteriophage T 4 translationally represses the expression of 30 T4 early genes , including its own gene . (
  • Parathyroid hormone (PTH) or activators of protein kinase A (PKA) up-regulate the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and augment the induction by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 of the expression of target genes (24-hydroxylase and osteopontin) in osteoblastic cells. (
  • Different representatives of each of the sensor families can regulate gene expression in response to different metals, and the residues that form the sensory metal- binding sites have been defined in a number of these proteins . (
  • The lactose proteins have affinity to the repressor proteins,.Mouse Snail family transcription repressors regulate chondrocyte, extracellular. (
  • Numerous insights have been obtained in the last two decades into how homeodomain proteins bind to DNA and increase their specificity by interacting with other proteins to regulate cell- and tissue-specific gene expression. (
  • SpMyb functions as an intramodular repressor to regulate spatial expression of CyIIIa in sea urchin embryos. (
  • Driven by the hypothesis that other proteins might regulate translation by mechanisms analogous to Sxl we set out to biochemically characterize Sxl-related RNA-binding proteins. (
  • While both proteins are able to repress translation via 5' UTR binding sites in a uORF-dependent manner, the ability of Ssx to regulate translation via the msl-2 3' UTR is severely compromised. (
  • The Groucho/TLE family of co-repressor proteins also regulate development and modulate the activity of many DNA-binding transcription factors during a range of diverse cellular processes including haematopoiesis. (
  • We propose that ZAG-1 acts as a transcriptional repressor to regulate multiple, discrete, neuron-specific aspects of terminal differentiation, including cell migration, axonal development and gene expression. (
  • In the cytoplasm, the encoded protein may function to regulate apoptosis. (
  • We offer Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 Peptides and Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 Proteins for use in common research applications: ELISA, Protein Array, Western Blot. (
  • Our Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 Peptides and Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 Proteins can be used in a variety of model species: Human. (
  • Choose from our Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 Peptides and Proteins. (
  • One of the library encoded peptides (C 2 ) is able to form a heterodimer with the target peptide reconstituting the activity of λ repressor. (
  • The Major Histocompatibility Complex presents peptides from foreign proteins to T lymphocytes, crucial to disease immunity. (
  • EGL-27 also binds UBC-9 , an enzyme involved in SUMOylation, and MEP-1 , a zinc-finger protein previously shown to bind LIN-1 . (
  • Prompted by recent studies showing that the yeast protein Dot6 and its homolog Tod6 can bind to a PAC motif sequence in vitro and are required for efficient Ribi gene repression in response to heat shock, we have examined the role of Dot6 and Tod6 in nutrient control of Ribi gene expression in vivo. (
  • To form a lysogen, the repressor of bacteriophage P22 (P22R) must bind and discriminate between its six DNA binding sites on the P22 chromosome. (
  • Eventually, the lactase will digest all of the lactose, until there is none to bind to the repressor. (
  • The repressor will then bind to the operator, stopping the manufacture of lactase. (
  • A corepressor is a molecule that can bind to repressor and make it bind to the operator tightly, which decreases transcription. (
  • These DNA sequences bind to repressors to partially or fully repress the expression of a gene. (
  • operators" where specialized proteins called repressors bind to the DNA just upstream of the start point of transcription and prevent access to the DNA by RNA polymerase. (
  • To gain a better understanding of the precise role of calsenilin in specific cellular compartments, an interactor hunt for proteins that bind to the N-terminal domain of calsenilin was carried out. (
  • Where does the repressor protein bind? (
  • When does the lac repressor protein bind to the operator? (
  • The dominant negative activity of the non-DNA binding mutants suggests sequestration of transformation-specific cofactors and that recruitment of these cellular factors might mediate Evi-1 transforming activity.C-terminal bindingprotein (CtBP) co-repressor family proteins bind PLDLS-like motifs. (
  • We show that the murine Evi-1 repressor domain has two such sites, PFDLT (site a, amino acids 553-559) and PLDLS (site b, amino acids 584-590), which independently can bind CtBP family co-repressor proteins, with site b binding with higher affinity than site a. (
  • We show that transcriptional repression and the nuclear retention of TLE proteins requires PRH to bind to both TLE and DNA. (
  • When does the lac repressor protein bind to the. (
  • The lac repressor (LacI) operates by a helix-turn-helix motif in its DNA-binding domain, binding base-specifically to the major groove of the operator region of the lac operon, with base contacts also made by residues of symmetry-related alpha helices, the "hinge" helices, which bind deeply in the minor groove. (
  • In its changed state, the lac repressor is unable to bind tightly to its cognate operator. (
  • UIA protein uses a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) motif to bind RNA . (
  • in the presence of cAMP-CRP, however, the repressor and activator bind cooperatively to the DNA. (
  • The basic leucine zipper transcription factors characteristically form heterodimers through their leucine zippers with the musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma (Maf) family of proteins yielding NF-E2 transcription factors (reviewed in Ref. 9 ). (
  • The DELLA proteins represent a subfamily of the GRAS plant transcription factors, and are characterized by the N-terminal DELLA domain. (
  • In the nucleus, the encoded protein functions as a potent transcription repressor that binds to sumoylated transcription factors. (
  • Prior to activation of the RTK/Ras/ERK-signaling pathway, LIN-1 functions as a SUMOylated transcriptional repressor that inhibits vulval cell fate. (
  • It is becoming increasingly clear that the hDaxx component of ND10 is also a repressor of IE gene expression and inhibits the initiation of the lytic cycle ( 8 , 47 , 52 , 53 , 60 ). (
  • In addition, we characterise a trans-dominant negative PRH protein that inhibits wild type PRH activity by sequestering TLE proteins to specific sub-nuclear domains. (
  • In this report, we provide new insight into the molecular mechanism of how SLY1 interacts with the DELLA proteins for controlling GA response. (
  • By yeast two-hybrid and in vitro pull-down assays, we demonstrated that SLY1 interacts directly with RGA and GA INSENSITIVE (GAI, a closely related DELLA protein) via their C-terminal GRAS domain. (
  • In vitro DNA-binding experiments reveal that a protein in blastula-stage nuclei interacts specifically with the myb target site. (
  • Calsenilin interacts with transcriptional co-repressor C-terminal binding protein(s). (
  • Zaidi NF, Kuplast KG, Washicosky KJ, Kajiwara Y, Buxbaum JD, Wasco W. Calsenilin interacts with transcriptional co-repressor C-terminal binding protein(s). (
  • It interacts with a wide variety of proteins, such as apoptosis antigen Fas, centromere protein C, and transcription factor erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 1 (ETS1). (
  • Daxx interacts with the TGF-β type II receptor by binding of C-terminal domain of the protein. (
  • Here we demonstrate using the yeast two-hybrid system that SUMOylation of LIN-1 mediates interactions with a protein predicted to be involved in transcriptional repression: the RAD-26 Mi-2β/CHD4 component of the nu cleosome r emodeling and histone d eacetylation (NuRD) transcriptional repression complex. (
  • The HRT family consists of three proteins, HRT1, -2, and -3, which share structural similarity in their bHLH regions and contain a unique carboxyl-terminal domain similar to, but distinct from, the region of H/E(spl) proteins responsible for transcriptional repression ( 5 ). (
  • The Polycomb (Pc) protein is a component of a multimeric, chromatin-associated Polycomb group (PcG) protein complex, which is involved in stable repression of gene activity. (
  • Genetic studies have shown that esc protein is required in early embryos at about the time that other PcG proteins become engaged in homeotic gene repression. (
  • The Far UpStream Element (FUSE)-binding protein-interacting repressor (FIR), a c-myc transcriptional suppressor, is alternatively spliced removing the transcriptional repression domain within exon 2 (FIRΔexon2) in colorectal cancers. (
  • Two proteins of former unknown function, McsA and McsB, which are also encoded by the clpC operon, act as modulators of CtsR repression. (
  • Calsenilin/potassium channel-interacting protein (KChIP)3/ downstream regulatory element sequence antagonist modulator (DREAM) is a neuronal calcium-binding protein that has been shown to have multiple functions in the cell, including the regulation of presenilin processing, repression of transcription and modulation of A-type potassium channels. (
  • Our data also showed a calsenilin-dependent increase in c-fos protein levels in CtBP knockout fibroblasts, suggesting that CtBP may modulate the transcriptional repression of c-fos by calsenilin. (
  • Whether the DNA-binding domain is always needed for direct DNA binding to target gene promoters or interaction of p53 with other proteins through this domain can evoke p53-dependent repression, remains to be elucidated. (
  • We have shown previously that PRH is a repressor of transcription in haematopoietic cells and that an Eh-1 motif present within the N-terminal transcription repression domain of PRH mediates binding to Groucho/TLE proteins and enables co-repression. (
  • The major transcriptional repressor for carbon catabolite repression in Aspergillus nidulans is CreA, and mutational analysis led to the suggestion that a regulatory ubiquitination/deubiquitination pathway is involved. (
  • Its repression can be relieved by the sequestration of this protein into promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies or nucleoli. (
  • RING1 is associated with the polycomb group protein complex and acts as a transcriptional repressor. (
  • The stereospecific interaction with the effector would change the repressor by an allosteric transition [3], thus inducing or destroying its affinity for the operator and thereby preventing or allowing the transcription ofthe operon. (
  • Such a repressor should have two properties which, in our opinion, cannot be ascribed to any single class of substances: (1) The repressor should interact stowspecifically with the effector, and by this interaction should undergo conformational changes. (
  • Recently, an interaction between FUSE-binding protein-interacting repressor (FIR) and TFIIH/p89/XPB helicase was found to repress c-myc transcription and might be important for suppressing tumor formation. (
  • Again, the effect of IE72 on ND10 is mediated via an interaction with PML, although in contrast to results for HSV, IE72 does not appear to promote the degradation of PML, just the relocalization of the protein away from ND10 bodies ( 32 , 61 ). (
  • However, we found that this DELLA domain is not required for protein-protein interaction with SLY1 in yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ), suggesting that its role is in a GA-triggered conformational change of the DELLA proteins. (
  • This effect of sly1-d appears to be caused by an enhanced interaction between sly1-d and the DELLA proteins. (
  • Bunker, C. A. and Kingston, R. E. (1995) Identification of a cDNA for SSRP1, an HMG-box protein, by interaction with the c-Myc oncoprotein in a novel bacterial expression screen. (
  • The esc protein consists primarily of multiple copies of the WD repeat, a motif that has been implicated in protein-protein interaction. (
  • This study aims to study the significance of the FIR-SAP155 interaction for the coordination of c-myc transcription, pre-mRNA splicing, and c-Myc protein modification, as well as to interrogate FIRΔexon2 for other functions relating to altered FIR pre-mRNA splicing. (
  • Finally, we showed that the interaction between REA and TRPM6 is a dynamic process, as short-term 17beta-estradiol treatment disassociates the binding between these proteins. (
  • Using selected examples, we highlight different mechanisms of homeodomain protein-DNA interaction. (
  • Zinc fingers 1, 2 and 6 are required for the interaction with other proteins (Bell et al. (
  • We are studying the interactions of BTB domains with corepressor and cullinbased ubiquitin ligase complexes with the objective of developing protein-protein interaction inhibitors to reverse the biological activities of these oncogene products. (
  • Cooperativity between KorB and either KorA or TrbA repressor proteins is a key element of these circuits and deletion analysis has implicated the conserved C-terminal domain of KorAand TrbAin this interaction. (
  • Studies on mutants showed that tyrosine 84 (or phenylalanine, in some alleles) is dispensable for repressor activity but critical for the specific interaction with KorB in both in vivo reporter gene assays and in vitro electrophoretic mobility shift and co-purification assays. (
  • Daxx, a Death domain-associated protein, was first discovered through its cytoplasmic interaction with the classical death receptor Fas. (
  • Several additional interacting proteins are known, but not always is there an understanding of the specific function and relevance of this interaction. (
  • 2) The repressor should interact se^HeMce-specifically with a rather long polynucleotide sequence. (
  • Once the tagged cell lines have been established, the chromosomal regions of interest can be visualized with a fluorescently labeled Lac repressor protein, which binds to the lac operator sequence. (
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (
  • We, therefore, hypothesized that a third element, an upstream repressor sequence (URS) mediates maintenance of DAL gene expression at a low level when inducer is absent. (
  • 30 GRAS proteins, all of which demonstrate high sequence similarity in their C-terminal GRAS domain ( Arabidopsis Genome Initiative, 2000 ). (
  • Sequence analysis of the DELLA proteins suggested that they are likely transcriptional regulators. (
  • The LacI repressor protein represses lacZYA by binding to the operator sequence lacO . (
  • of the primary protein sequence online at. (
  • Genetic sequence (gene, or cDNA) of foreign proteins. (
  • Targeting is achieved by a fusion protein in which one partner is a protein that binds to a specific DNA sequence. (
  • Acts as a sequence-specific transcriptional repressor in association with BCL6. (
  • Bach2 forms heterodimers with small Maf proteins, including, MafF, MafG, and MafK, allowing binding to Maf recognition elements (MAREs) with the consensus sequence TGCTGA(G/C)TCA(T/C) ( 7 ) ( Fig. 1B ). (
  • See how the repressor protein recognizes the DNA sequence of the lactose operator. (
  • DNA sequence within a gene sequence that codes for a specific protein. (
  • Protein structure will be related to function, evolutionary conservation and multiple-sequence alignments, and drug design. (
  • Pfam is a comprehensive collection of protein domains and families, represented as multiple sequence alignments and as profile hidden Markov models. (
  • This affect is mimicked by activation of protein kinase A (PKA) or by activation of Sch9, the yeast homolog of mammalian Akt/PKB ( 9 ). (
  • Here, we identified the repressor of estrogen receptor activity (REA) as an interacting protein of TRPM6 that binds to the 6(th), 7(th), and 8(th) beta-sheets in its alpha-kinase domain. (
  • Moreover, activation of protein kinase C by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-PMA potentiated the inhibitory effect of REA on TRPM6 channel activity. (
  • McsB, a putative kinase, can inactivate CtsR by modification to remove the repressor from the DNA and to target CtsR for degradation by the ClpCP protease during stress. (
  • Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a crucial regulator of energy metabolic homeostasis and thus a major survival factor in a variety of metabolic stresses and also in the aging process. (
  • AMPK is activated via allosteric regulation of increased AMP concentration and by the phosphorylation of α subunit (Thr172) via the upstream kinases serine/threonine kinase 11 (LKB1), Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ), and transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1. (
  • Distinct classes of TGFβ cytokines signal through similar pathways, involving heteromeric transmembrane Ser/Thr kinase receptor complexes at the cell surface and Smad family proteins as cytoplasmic effectors. (
  • Remarkably, nearly all KRAS deficient cells exhibit phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling and induced sensitivity to PI3K inhibitors. (
  • It exhibits protein kinase activity. (
  • After Fas stimulation, Daxx is activated and plays its role of pro-apoptotic protein in activating the c-JUN-N-Terminal Kinase (JNK) pathway. (
  • These substances-usually compounds of low molecular weight-can elicit or inhibit the co-ordinated synthesis of a group of metabolically related proteins, e.g., the enzymes of a metabolic pathway. (
  • The effectors of protein synthesis, or possibly their immediate derivatives, were assumed to interact with a "repressor," preventing the transcription ofthe operon into RNA. (
  • This concept and its elaboration had a very stimulating effect on research in the field of regulated protein synthesis and created order in a mass of seemingly unrelated phenomena. (
  • The pathways through which the PKA and Sch9 activities impinge on ribosomal RNA and ribosomal protein synthesis have been extensively explored ( 11 ). (
  • The maintenance of the Mg(2+) balance of the body is essential for neuromuscular excitability, protein synthesis, nucleic acid stability, and numerous enzymatic systems. (
  • synthesis can be regulated by the co-expressed LacI repressor. (
  • One major role of AMPK signaling is to respond to metabolic requirements either by stimulating energy production including glucose and lipid catabolism or by inhibiting energy consuming pathways, e.g., synthesis of protein, fatty acids, and cholesterol. (
  • The repressor binds to the operator gene and prevents it from initiating the synthesis of the protein called for by the operon. (
  • specify a protein, called a repressor protein, that binds to the region of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) responsible for directing the synthesis of the enzyme. (
  • We demonstrate that temperature specifically modulates HrcA binding to DNA, with a complete and irreversible temperature‐dependent loss of DNA binding activity at 42°C. Intriguingly, although the reduction of HrcA binding capability is not reversible in vitro , transcriptional analysis showed that HrcA exerts its repressive influence in vivo , even when the de novo repressor synthesis is blocked after the temperature challenge. (
  • Here we present evidence that MIG1, a zinc-finger protein in the EGR1/Zif268 family, recruits SSN6-TUP1 to glucose-repressed promoters. (
  • Ectopic production of the EVI1 transcriptional repressor zinc finger protein is seen in 4-6% of human acute myeloid leukemias. (
  • Here, we show that HRT gene expression in cultured cells is activated by Notch signaling and that HRT proteins interfere with Notch-dependent activation of HRT2 expression, thereby fulfilling a negative autoregulatory loop that tightly regulates HRT expression. (
  • The initial regulation of herpesvirus immediate-early gene expression is associated with proteins found at cellular nuclear domain 10 (ND10) bodies, such as PML, hDaxx, and ATRX. (
  • The research team focused on a repressor protein called SMRT (silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor), which has been shown to repress gene expression in a number of molecular pathways. (
  • If an inducer , a molecule that initiates the gene expression, is present, then it can interact with the repressor protein and detach it from the operator. (
  • Thus, clp gene expression in Gram‐positive bacteria is autoregulated by a novel mechanism of controlled proteolysis, a circuit of down‐regulation by stabilization and protection of a transcription repressor, and induction by presenting the repressor to the protease. (
  • Thus, the gene is mostly off in the absence of inducer and mostly on in the presence of inducer, although the degree of gene expression depends on the number of repressors in the cell and on the repressor's DNA-binding affinity. (
  • The regulator NsrR, which was originally identified as a nitrite-sensitive repressor in Nitrosomonas europaea ( 3 ), has homologues in E. coli and Bacillus subtilis which have been shown to be involved in control of gene expression in response to nitric oxide in these microorganisms ( 4 , 17 ). (
  • Thus, this abundant late product from the ie2 region may play a role in trans-activation in addition to its role as a repressor of α gene expression. (
  • Repressor Proteins/genetics, Tetracycline. (
  • The N termini of GRAS proteins are in general divergent and probably specify their diverse roles in different cellular pathways. (
  • A collection of articles that focus on an array of different scientific topics such as pathways, cancer, transmembrane proteins. (
  • Intracellular and extracellular stress signals can lead to induction of central signalling proteins which generate different downstream effects. (
  • The transcription factor DOF AFFECTING GERMINATION1 (DAG1) is a repressor of seed germination acting downstream of the master repressor PHYTOCROME INTERACTING FACTOR3-LIKE 5 (PIL5). (
  • A certain degree of specificity in the intracellular signal transduction cascade with respect to different TGFβ-like cytokines is reached at the level of the receptor-activated Smad proteins, dividing the ligands into two major subgroups, the BMP and the TGFβ/Activin subfamily. (
  • Quite unexpectedly, we find that KorB-C shows a fold closely resembling the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain, a fold well known from proteins involved in eukaryotic signal transduction. (
  • Here, we show that the phytohormone ethylene regulates plant development at least in part via alteration of the properties of DELLA protein nuclear growth repressors, a family of proteins first identified as gibberellin (GA) signaling components. (
  • DELLA proteins are nuclear growth repressors. (
  • Also, RING1 colocalizes with these vertebrate PcG proteins in nuclear domains of SW480 human colorectal adenocarcinoma and Saos-2 human osteosarcoma cells. (
  • For example, herpesvirus infection is profoundly affected by a number of cellular proteins that accumulate at subnuclear structures called nuclear domain 10 (ND10) bodies ( 1 , 3 , 15 , 16 , 26 , 27 , 31 , 38 , 57 ). (
  • The nuclear DELLA proteins are highly conserved repressors of hormone gibberellin (GA) signaling in plants. (
  • Nuclear factors that interact with receptor-activated Smad proteins have been isolated. (
  • tissue-specific nuclear proteins that interact with the signal transducers have not yet been identified. (
  • Testis-specific DNA binding protein responsible for insulator function, nuclear architecture and transcriptional control, which probably acts by recruiting epigenetic chromatin modifiers. (
  • Synthetic oligonucleotides containing the myb target site were used to purify a protein from sea urchin embryo nuclear extracts by affinity chromatography. (
  • The PRH/Hex repressor protein causes nuclear retention of Groucho/TLE corepressors. (
  • Here we demonstrate that PRH regulates the nuclear retention of TLE proteins during cellular fractionation. (
  • RING1 is a protein that contains the RING finger motif, a specific zinc-binding domain, which is found in many regulatory proteins. (
  • Protein degradation plays a key role in cell physiology of all organisms by regulating the availability of certain short‐lived regulatory proteins or preventing the accumulation of abnormal proteins. (
  • KorB is a regulatory protein encoded by the conjugative plasmid RP4 and a member of the ParB family of bacterial partitioning proteins. (
  • A key unanswered question is if and how this pathway, comprising CreB (deubiquitinating enzyme) and HulA (ubiquitin ligase) and other proteins, is involved in the regulatory mechanism. (
  • In H elicobacter pylori the response to thermic stress is transcriptionally controlled by a regulatory circuit that involves two repressors, HspR and HrcA. (
  • To understand regulatory mechanisms involved, we asked whether the inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER), which serves as a dominant negative regulator of cAMP-induced transcription in other endocrine systems, may similarly play a role in modulation of vitamin D hormone action. (
  • λ repressor consists of distinct and separable domains: the N-terminal domain which has DNA binding activity and the C-terminal domain which mediates dimerization. (
  • [1] lacI synthesizes the repressor of the lacZYA gene. (
  • [1] The lacI gene synthesizes LacI repressor protein. (
  • The Ribose repressor (RbsR) is a bacterial DNA-binding transcription repressor protein and a member of the LacI/GalR protein family. (
  • In Bacillus subtilis, RbsR was shown to interact with Histidine-containing protein (HPr), an allosteric effector of the related LacI/GalR protein Catabolite Control Protein A (CcpA). (
  • Thus, in the regions of lac repressor probed by these substitutions, the inducer-bound form differs from the conformation of the unliganded form. (
  • Interestingly, only the H74W mutant repressor did not display the characteristic ∼1000-fold decrease in operator affinity when bound to inducer. (
  • In the vicinity of the linker region, an aromatic cage is predicted as the inducer-binding site, whose envisioned architecture resembles that present in choline and glycine betaine substrate-binding proteins of ABC transporters. (
  • [1] In the presence of the inducer allolactose , the repressor changes conformation and falls off the operator. (
  • If substrate is present, it acts as an inducer by combining with the repressor so as to prevent its binding to DNA. (
  • When lactose is present, allolactose binds to the lac repressor, causing an allosteric change in its shape. (
  • These results suggest that LIN-1 recruits multiple proteins that repress transcription via both the SUMOylated amino-terminus and the unSUMOylated carboxy-terminus. (
  • A protein known to repress gene transcription at the molecular level in a variety of processes also blocks embryonic neural stem cells from differentiating into neurons, according to a study by University of California, San Diego and Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) researchers published online October 10 in Nature. (
  • Furthermore, the finding that histone deacetylase protein and activity were associated with the calsenilin-CtBP immunocomplex suggests a mechanism by which calsenilin-CtBP may act to repress transcription. (
  • On the other hand, we also observed that reduction and inappropriate localization of HP1a protein in the Kif1b-deficient KSL cells, so, TIF1b and HP1a may collaborate to repress the p21 expression. (
  • Since then, the repressor system has been employed by several laboratories to screen genomic ( 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ) and cDNA libraries ( 6 ) for homotypic or heterotypic interactions. (
  • Repressor fusions are used to detect protein-protein interactions in vivo. (
  • Park, S. H. and Raines, R. T. (2000) Genetic selection for dissociative inhibitors of designated protein-protein interactions. (
  • Mariño-RamÍrez, L. and Hu, J. C. (2001) Using λ repressor fusions to isolate and characterize self-assembling domains, in Protein-Protein Interactions: A Laboratory Manual , (ed. (
  • Edgerton, M. D. and Jones, A. M. (1992) Localization of protein-protein interactions between subunits of phytochrome. (
  • protein-DNA interactions can also be studied by co. tetracycline-resistance. (
  • The KorB-C crystal structure extends the range of protein-protein interactions known to be promoted by SH3 and SH3-like domains. (
  • Transactivation is achieved by interactions with components of the general transcription factor TFIID like the TATA box binding protein (TBP) [ 9 , 10 ] and TAFII31 [ 11 ]. (
  • STRING is a database of known and predicted protein interactions.The interactions include direct (physical) and indirect (functional) associations. (
  • Our research centers on the study of protein structure and molecular recognition, with an emphasis on understanding proteinprotein, protein-peptide and protein-lipid interactions. (
  • We are also studying the thermodynamics of membrane protein folding, and the fundamental properties of protein-lipid and protein detergent interactions. (
  • This confirms that direct and specific protein-protein interactions are responsible for the cooperativity observed between KorB and its corepressors and lays the basis for determining the biological importance of this cooperativity. (
  • Computer modeling was then used to identify other amino acid residues and structural motifs that could be involved in protein:RNA interactions in regA . (
  • These results strongly indicate that cooperative DNA binding of CytR and cAMP-CRP is achieved through protein-protein interactions. (
  • The protein consists of a modified bacterial Tet repressor. (
  • The crystal structure of the anti-CRISPR protein AcrF3 bound to Cas3, an essential component of CRISPR-based immunity, sheds light on how phages have found ways to suppress bacterial immunity. (
  • Our study is the first toward a better understanding of the co-existence between a lysogenic phage and its carrier plant pathogenic bacterial strain by determining the effect of the prophage Rs551 and its repressor on the virulence and competitive fitness of its carrier strain UW551 of R. solanacearum . (
  • Apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC) is an endogenous antiapoptotic protein. (
  • Expression of Apoptosis Repressor with Caspase Recruitment Domain (ARC), An Antiapoptotic Protein, Is Strongly Prognostic in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). (
  • Using a yeast two-hybrid system and co-immunoprecipitation studies, we have identified the transcriptional co-repressor C-terminal binding protein (CtBP)2 as an interactor for calsenilin and have shown that the two proteins can interact in vivo. (
  • This subfamily includes extensively characterized proteins from three divergent animals: vertebrate Elk-1, Drosophila Aop/Yan, and Caenorhabditis elegans LIN-1 . (
  • We propose a model in which LIN-1 recruits multiple transcriptional repressors to inhibit the 1° vulval cell fate, and phosphorylation by ERK converts LIN-1 to a transcriptional activator that promotes the 1° vulval cell fate. (
  • ARC is originally identified to be a caspase-inhibiting protein and can specifically inhibit the activation of caspase-2 and caspase-8, thereby blocking apoptosis induced by a variety of stimuli requiring the engagement of these caspases ( 1 ). (
  • There is no lactose to inhibit the repressor, so the repressor binds to the operator, which obstructs the RNA polymerase from binding to the promoter and making lactase. (
  • APOBEC3G is an antiviral protein that has long been known to inhibit retrovirus replication by hypermutating viral DNA. (
  • Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the Operator region of an operon, or the Enhancer sequences of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release. (
  • The presence or absence of certain repressor molecules determines whether the operon is off or on. (
  • They showed that in vitro the protein bound to DNA containing the lac operon, and it released the DNA when IPTG (an analog of allolactose) was added. (
  • HRT proteins are expressed in specific regions of the developing heart, vasculature, pharyngeal arches and somites, and the periodicity of their expression in somitic precursors mirrors that of Notch signaling-related molecules. (
  • Ectopic expression of HRT proteins also blocked activation of HRT2 expression by Notch1 IC through a mechanism requiring the basic region, but not the conserved carboxyl-terminal YQPW-TEVGAF motif of HRT2. (
  • The FUSE is located 1.5 kb upstream of c-myc promoter P1 and binds the FUSE-binding protein (FBP), a transcription factor stimulating c-myc expression in a FUSE-dependent manner ( 5 - 7 ). (
  • Because over-expression of DNA-interacting far upstream element binding protein (FBP) supports non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) migration, we asked whether its repressor, FBP-interacting repressor (FIR) is functionally inactivated and how FIR might affect NSCLC cell biology. (
  • Knockdown of SAP155 or FIR was used to investigate their reciprocal influence on each other and on c-myc transcription, pre-mRNA splicing, and protein expression. (
  • HEY proteins were found to modulate expression of their target gene to a rather limited extent, but with striking functional interchangeability between HEY factors. (
  • These data clearly establish the three HEY bHLH factors as highly redundant transcriptional repressors in vitro and in vivo, which explains the combinatorial action observed in different tissues with overlapping expression. (
  • We focus here on GbsR-type proteins, named OpuAR by us, that control the expression of opuA -type gene clusters. (
  • In this study we show that IL-10 induces the expression of an ETS family transcriptional repressor, ETV3, and a helicase family corepressor, Strawberry notch homologue 2 (SBNO2), in mouse and human macrophages. (
  • Evaluation of target protein expression level 16. (
  • for tetracycline-inducible bacteriophage-T7-based expression in the LEXSY host T7.Two mutations in the tetracycline repressor. (
  • withthepcDNA6/tetracycline repressor expression vector. (
  • Protein Expression & Production LEXSY protein. (
  • Reintroduction of CHD5 into neuroblastoma cells represses WEE1 expression, demonstrating that CHD5 can function as a repressor in cells. (
  • Increased expression of the gene encoding the basic helix-loop-helix protein HES1 was required for quiescence to be reversible, because HES1 prevented both premature senescence and inappropriate differentiation in quiescent fibroblasts. (
  • NsrR is a repressor in the absence of NO, but norB expression is derepressed by NO in an NsrR-dependent manner. (
  • 44, Last annotation update) DE Aliphatic amidase expression-regulating protein. (
  • However, this does not appear to correlate with protein expression, suggesting that TFPI protein isoform production is regulated during translation. (
  • Luciferase (Luc) reporter assays were established to quantify the effect of exon 2 on TFPI isoform protein expression. (
  • Reverse-phase protein array (RPPA) is a validated and robust proteomic system which can quantitatively determine protein expression and facilitate the selection of molecular-targeted therapies. (
  • Daxx is uniformly expressed throughout the body, except in the testes and thymus, which have especially high expression of the protein. (
  • Exon 2 is a strong translational repressor of TFPIβ production, and a much weaker repressor of TFPIα. (
  • The Saccharomyces cerevisiae DAL80 repressor protein binds to multiple copies of GATAA-containing sequences (URSGATA). (
  • Here we show that DAL80 protein binds to DAL3 and UGA4 upstream DNA sequences, designated URSGATA, consisting of two GATAA-containing sites separated by at least 15 bp. (
  • While class B E-box sequences (CACGYG) clearly represent preferred target sequences, there must be additional and more loosely defined modes of DNA binding since many of the target promoters that are efficiently bound by HEY proteins do not contain an Ebox motif. (
  • patatras.Target cells that express the Tet-On 3G transactivator protein and contain a. sequences located. (
  • This protein is immunoprecipitated by antibodies specific to the evolutionarily conserved myb domain, and amino acid sequences obtained from the purified protein were found to be identical to sequences within the myb domain. (
  • Two of the main sources for generating the new families added to release 27.0 were Protein Data Bank (PDB) structures =-=(8)-=- and human sequences. (
  • We explore the ability of a simple simulated annealing procedure to assemble native-like structures from fragments of unrelated protein structures with similar local sequences using Bayesian scoring functions. (
  • An example of a repressor protein is the methionine repressor MetJ . (
  • The subcellular localization and function of this protein are modulated by post-translational modifications, including sumoylation, phosphorylation and polyubiquitination. (
  • Cell-cell communication at anterior/posterior compartment borders in Drosophila involves Hedgehog (Hh), a protein secreted by posterior cells, and Cubitus interruptus (Ci), a protein in the Hh response pathway in anterior cells. (
  • Evolutionary conservation and predicted structure of the Drosophila extra sex combs repressor protein. (
  • Isolated nucleic acid molecules are disclosed, comprising an alphavirus nonstructural protein gene which, when operably incorporated into a recombinant alphavirus.Thomas Simonson's Research Group. (
  • Carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, proteins, and nucleic acids in JSmol / Jmol in English or español , thanks to BioModel by Angel Herráez. (
  • It describes several tricks to chemically and physically manipulate the embryos so that the antibodies-which detect the protein of interest-can efficiently penetrate the embryonic tissue. (
  • Abcam: antibodies, proteins, kits. (
  • Custom ELISA Kits, Recombinant Proteins and Antibodies can be designed, manufactured and produced according to the researcher's specifications. (
  • The Phos-tag system was used to show that CreA is a phosphorylated protein, but no ubiquitination was detected using anti-ubiquitin antibodies and Western analysis. (
  • Seven proteins bearing mutations that change solvent-exposed side chains have been purified. (
  • We argue that mutations that alter solvent-exposed wild-type side chains define residues that form the operator DNA binding surface of λ repressor whereas completely or partially buried mutations exert their effect by decreasing protein stability. (
  • Hecht, MH , Nelson, HCM & Sauer, RT 1983, ' Mutations in λ repressor's amino-terminal domain: Implications for protein stability and DNA binding ', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 80, no. 9 I, pp. 2676-2680. (
  • 4 Membrane Protein Production in Escherichia coli: Overview and Protocols 91 promoter, which is weakly sensitive to cAMP regulation, associated with a lacO-.La tétracycline se fixe sur la petite sous-unité du ribosome au niveau d'un site proche de la localisation de l'ARNm.Recombinant protein production in eukaryotic systems. (
  • Articles Single amino acid substitutions in the cAMP receptor protein specifically abolish regulation by the CytR repressor in Escherichia coli. (
  • Our results indicate that PAC sites function as Dot6/Tod6-dependent repressor elements in vivo. (
  • The in vivo search model for the lac repressor includes intersegment transfer and hopping as well as crowding by other proteins which make the genome in E.coli cells less accessible for the repressor. (
  • The small G protein Ras2 regulates PKA through activation of adenylyl cyclase in response to the presence of glucose. (
  • Evidence suggests that Bach2 regulates various facets of T cell function by repressing other key transcriptional regulators such as B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1. (
  • SLEEPY1 ( SLY1 ) encodes an F-box-containing protein, and the loss-of-function sly1 mutant has a GA-insensitive dwarf phenotype and accumulates a high level of RGA. (
  • We show here that mutant murine Evi-1 proteins, lacking either the N-terminal zinc finger DNA binding domain or both DNA binding zinc finger clusters, function as dominant negative mutants by reverting the transformed phenotype of Evi-1 transformed Rat1 fibroblasts. (
  • The amino-terminal domains of these mutant repressors are folded and are comparable to the wild-type amino-terminal domain in thermal stability. (
  • In contrast, a purified mutant repressor bearing a substitution in a buried side chain contains an amino-terminal domain with decreased thermal stability. (
  • We now identify PHLDA3 as a p53 target gene that encodes a PH domain-only protein. (
  • The development and differentiation of many neurons require the gene zag-1 , which encodes a δEF1/ZFH-1 Zn-finger-homeodomain protein. (
  • This gene encodes a multifunctional protein that resides in multiple locations in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm. (
  • lacZYA transcribes the proteins needed for lactose breakdown. (
  • Transcription of the opuB and gbsAB operons is under control of the MarR-type regulator GbsR, which acts as an intracellular choline-responsive repressor. (
  • The Proline-Rich Homeodomain protein (PRH/Hex) is a transcription factor that functions as an important regulator of vertebrate development and many other processes in the adult including haematopoiesis. (
  • In this review, we examine our present understanding of the role of Bach2 in T cell function and highlight the growing evidence that this transcriptional repressor functions as a key regulator involved in maintenance of T cell quiescence, T cell subset differentiation, and memory T cell generation. (
  • One such regulator is the transcriptional repressor bric-a-brac, tramtrack, and broad complex and cap'n'collar homology (Bach)2. (
  • Repressors can also have two binding sites: one for the silencer region and one for the promoter. (
  • The protein encoded by this gene binds to the ETS2 promoter and is a strong repressor of ETS2 transcription. (
  • Potent transcriptional repressor that binds to the H1 element of the Ets2 promoter. (
  • These amino acids lie in close proximity on the surface of the CRP tertiary structure in a portion of the protein that is not in contact with the DNA. (
  • Each Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 Peptide and Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 Protein is fully covered by our Guarantee+, to give you complete peace of mind and the support when you need it. (
  • B) Active repressor fusions can be reconstituted when a dimeric peptide/protein is placed at the C terminus. (
  • If you cannot find the target and/or product is not available in our catalog, please click here to contact us and request the product or submit your request for custom elisa kit production , custom recombinant protein production or custom antibody production . (
  • These repressor proteins thus prevent transcription of the gene by physically blocking the action of the RNA polymerase. (
  • This bound repressor can reduce transcription of the Lac proteins by occluding the RNA polymerase binding site or by prompting DNA looping. (
  • It is widely recognized that new methods are needed for the structural study of membrane proteins, and we are addressing the problem of membrane protein crystallization by developing lipopeptide detergents (LPDs), a fundamentally different class of amphiphile designed specifically for the crystallization of membrane proteins. (
  • Targets degraded by ClpXP are exemplified by the stationary phase transcription factor σ S , several phage proteins and the heterodimeric form of the UmuD protein involved in SOS mutagenesis. (
  • While the basic and helix-loop-helix domains exhibit strong similarity, large parts of the proteins are still unique and may serve divergent functions. (
  • Is the Subject Area "Protein domains" applicable to this article? (
  • δEF1/ZFH-1 Zn-finger-homeodomain proteins are distinguished by two arrays of highly similar C2H2-type Zn-finger domains and a centrally located homeodomain, and can act as transcriptional repressors through recruitment of the corepressor C-terminal binding protein (CtBP). (
  • Gfi1 contains six c-terminal C 2 H 2 -type zinc-finger domains and an N-terminal SNAG domain critical for its repressor activity (figure 1). (
  • Pfam is a large collection of protein families and domains. (
  • (1995) solved the crystal structure of T4 regA protein and found that it folds into two structural domains , known as domain I and domain II . (
  • The mechanisms that enable ETS proteins to switch cell fates in response to signaling pathway activation are not fully defined, and to address this important issue it is critical to elucidate the function of these proteins both prior to ERK activation and following phosphorylation by ERK. (