Cnidium: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE. Members contain osthol.Apiaceae: A large plant family in the order Apiales, also known as Umbelliferae. Most are aromatic herbs with alternate, feather-divided leaves that are sheathed at the base. The flowers often form a conspicuous flat-topped umbel. Each small individual flower is usually bisexual, with five sepals, five petals, and an enlarged disk at the base of the style. The fruits are ridged and are composed of two parts that split open at maturity.Diynes: Compounds with two triple bonds. Some of them are CYTOTOXINS.Antipruritics: Agents, usually topical, that relieve itching (pruritus).Coumarins: Synthetic or naturally occurring substances related to coumarin, the delta-lactone of coumarinic acid.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Chromatography, Supercritical Fluid: A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Eczema: A pruritic papulovesicular dermatitis occurring as a reaction to many endogenous and exogenous agents (Dorland, 27th ed).Phytochemicals: A broad range of biologically active compounds which occur naturally in plants having important medicinal and nutritional properties.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Skin DiseasesPhytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Dermatitis, Atopic: A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Counterfeit Drugs: Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.Medicare Assignment: Concept referring to the standardized fees for services rendered by health care providers, e.g., laboratories and physicians, and reimbursement for those services under Medicare Part B. It includes acceptance by the physician.Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)CambodiaPatents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.

Anti-allergic effects of cnidii monnieri fructus (dried fruits of Cnidium monnieri) and its major component, osthol. (1/10)

Anti-allergic effects (types I and IV) of the 70% ethanol extract (CM-ext) obtained from Cnidii Monnieri Fructus (dried fruits of Cnidium monnieri) were investigated on 48 h homologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA), 2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced contact dermatitis and picryl chloride (PC)-induced contact dermatitis in experimental animals. CM-ext showed inhibitory effects on these allergic models. Osthol isolated from CM-ext also had the inhibitory effects. These results suggested that Cnidii Monnieri Fructus might be useful as an agent for allergic diseases and that its anti-allergic effect was partially attributable to a coumarin derivative, osthol.  (+info)

Total coumarins from fruits of Cnidium monnieri inhibit formation and differentiation of multinucleated osteoclasts of rats. (2/10)

AIM: To determine the effects of TCFC (total comarins from the fruits of Cnidium monnieri) on the activity of osteoclasts in vitro. METHODS: Osteoclasts isolated from rat marrow cells were co-cultured with osteoblasts under the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamine D3. The tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) stain was used to identify osteoclast morphology. The activity of TRAP was measured by p-nitrophenyl sodium phosphate assay. The resorption pit area on the bone slices formed by osteoclasts was measured by computer image processing. Calcium concentration in the medium of co-culture of bone slices and osteoclasts was determined by atomic absorption spectra. RESULTS: TCFC 2.5-25 mg/L inhibited osteoclast formation and differentiation. TCFC 0.25-25 mg/L inhibited TRAP activity of osteoclasts and TCFC 25 mg/L decreased the TRAP activity by 26.3 % and 24.1 % after 48 h and 72 h, respectively. TCFC 25 mg/L decreased the osteoclastic bone resorption pit area by 25.05 % and Ca2+ release from bone slices by 41.73 %. CONCLUSION: TCFC reduced the bone lose by decreasing the osteoclast formation, its TRAP activity, and osteoclastic bone resorption.  (+info)

Ethyl acetate soluble fraction of Cnidium officinale MAKINO inhibits neuronal cell death by reduction of excessive nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-treated rat hippocampal slice cultures and microglia cells. (3/10)

In the present work, we found that the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of Cnidium officinale MAKINO (COEA) decreased nitric oxide (NO) production in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 and primary microglia and suppressed expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in BV-2 cells with the same pattern of NO production. In addition, we showed that excessive NO production played an important role in neuronal cell death in LPS-treated rat hippocampal slice cultures. Our data suggest that the COEA inhibits neuronal cell death by reduction of excessive NO production in LPS-treated rat hippocampal slice cultures. The ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of C. officinale reduced propidium iodide uptake and NO production in cultured media at the same time.  (+info)

Enemy-free space maintains swallowtail butterfly host shift. (4/10)

Natural enemies can be significant sources of mortality for herbivorous insects and therefore important agents of natural selection. One might expect selection to favor herbivores that escape from their natural enemies into enemy-free space. Although this is an appealing idea, it has received little empirical support, and no studies have documented enemy-free space as part of a nonagricultural, nonartificial host shift. The Alaskan swallowtail butterfly, Papilio machaon aliaska, uses as host plants a species in the family Apiaceae (Cnidium cnidiifolium) along with two Asteraceae species (Artemisia arctica and Petasites frigidus). I analyzed growth and survival of P. m. aliaska larvae in the field on the three host plants in treatments that either exposed or protected them from predators. I found that, in the presence of predators, larval survival is greater on the novel hosts (Asteraceae) than on the ancestral host (Apiaceae), but that in the absence of predators survival and growth are greater on the ancestral host. These results are a demonstration of enemy-free space as a mechanism for maintaining a naturally occurring host shift.  (+info)

Comparison of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography on fingerprint of Cnidium monnieri. (5/10)

In our studies, micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) was employed in fingerprint analysis of Cnidium monnieri for the first time. Average chromatography of 10 batches Cnidium monnieri from Jiangsu province, China, which have long been considered as the original and genuine herbal medicine, was first established as the characteristic fingerprint. Within 25 min the major effective components were separated by 18 mM borate, 12 mM phosphate and 50 mM SDS (pH 9.2) containing 20% methanol. The relative standard deviations of migration times and peak areas were less than 5%. As a new approach of fingerprint, MKCE was compared to the conventional approach-HPLC in our experiments. The fingerprint developed by HPLC comprised 8 peaks that were collected within 40 min. Relative standard deviation (RSD) values of retention times of corresponding peaks in HPLC analysis were very small (maximum 3% and average 0.9%). In conclusion, each two methods had its advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, besides HPLC, MEKC as a feasible method, could be used in the development of fingerprint of Cnidium monnieri.  (+info)

Therapeutic effect of osthole on hyperlipidemic fatty liver in rats. (6/10)

AIM: To study the effects of osthole on hyperlipidemic fatty liver and investigate the possible mechanisms. METHODS: A rat model with hyperlipidemic fatty liver was successfully established by feeding fatty milk for 6 weeks. The experimental rats were then treated with 5-20 mg/kg osthole for 6 weeks. The mouse hyperlipidemic model was induced by feeding fatty milk when they were treated with 10-20 mg/kg osthole for 3 weeks. RESULTS: After treatment with osthole, the levels of rat serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol significantly decreased as compared with the fatty liver model group (P< 0.05 or P< 0.01). Hepatic weight and its coefficient, the hepatic tissue contents of TC, TG, and malondialdehyde, also significantly decreased (P< 0.05 or P< 0.01). In fatty milk-induced hyperlipidemic mice, the post-heparin plasma activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), hepatic lipase (HL), and total lipase (TL) significantly increased after treatment with 10-20 mg/kg osthole for 3 weeks (P< 0.05 or P< 0.01). Importantly, the histological evaluation of rat liver demonstrated that osthole dramatically decreased lipid accumulation (P< 0.01). CONCLUSION: Osthole was found to have therapeutic effects on fatty milk-induced rat fatty liver; the mechanisms might be associated with its anti-oxidation and the elevation of the activities of LPL and HL.  (+info)

Molecular identification of "Chuanxiong" by nucleotide sequence and multiplex single base extension analysis on chloroplast trnK gene. (7/10)

Chloroplast trnK gene sequences of Cnidium officinale and Ligusticum chuanxiong were determined to establish an effective method for identifying Japanese Senkyu and Chinese Chuanxiong, the two which have the same drug name in Chinese characters, similar external feature, but different botanical origins. Three sites of nucleotide differences were found between these 2 species at positions 767,924 and 964 from upstream in trnK gene sequence, allowing molecular identification of the two plants and crude drugs. Further, three kinds of specific primers of 14 mer, 23 mer and 30 mer long were designed to detect these 3 sites of marker nucleotides. By using multiplex single base extension (MSBE) analysis with the 3 specific primers, C. officinale and L. chuanxiong could be distinguished clearly by the electrophoretograms, where 3 peaks with different color of ddTMP, ddCMP and ddTMP were observed in case of C. officinale and those of ddGMP, ddAMP and ddGMP in L. chuanxiong. Moreover, trnK gene sequence of "Dongxiong," a kind of Chuanxiong cultivated in Northeast China, suggested that its botanical origin was C. officinale.  (+info)

Enhanced antitumor efficacy of cisplatin in combination with HemoHIM in tumor-bearing mice. (8/10)

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  • It's not surprising that cnidium is a common ingredient in Chinese lotions, creams, and ointments. (webmd.com)
  • In TCM, Cnidium monnieri is considered a bitter (supports liver health), acrid (antispasmodic) and warm (promotes various physiological functions) herb. (nootriment.com)
  • Commonly called Cnidium monnieri, this herb is often used in traditional Chinese medicine to aid with erectile dysfunction, Examine claims. (dietspotlight.com)
  • Cnidium is an annual herb, height leaf is alternate, ellipsoidal, 2-4 mm long, about 2 mm in diameter. (alibaba.com)
  • It's not surprising that cnidium is a common ingredient in Chinese lotions, creams, and ointments. (webmd.com)
  • In a study of mice, published in the Japanese journal Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin in 2000, cnidium was shown to significantly reduce the itch-scratch response in rodents. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Mango Root Bark of Hibiscus Syriacus, Common Cnidium, Distilled Water and Coconut Oil. (amhgeveltechniek.nl)
  • Also known as Yi-Gan San (抑肝散) in China, the formula contains powdered herbs: 4 parts Atractylodis lanceae root, 4 parts Poria , 3 parts Cnidium root, 3 parts Uncaria uncis cum ramulus, 3 parts Angelica root, 3 parts Bupleurum root, and 1.5 parts Glycyrrhiza root, all blended and dosed at 2.5 grams TID. (ndnr.com)
  • People take cnidium by mouth for increasing sexual performance and sex drive , and for treating erectile dysfunction (ED). Cnidium is also used for difficulty having children ( infertility ), bodybuilding , cancer , weak bones ( osteoporosis ), and fungal and bacterial infections . (webmd.com)
  • According to Pure Bulk, "Cnidium fruits are traditionally used for anti-viral properties, skin rashes and breakouts, as pro-erectile agents (in men) and gynecoprotective (in women), anti-osteoporotic as well as antidiabetic and sometimes anti-inflammatory. (nootriment.com)
  • when testing a variety of traditional herbs (n=33 in total, 6 found to be effective) touted to suppress skin irritation, Cnidium appears to be the most effective in inhibiting substance-P induced itching behaviour in mice. (yuhuibio.com)
  • Honeysuckle flower and cnidium seed are Chinese herbs recommended frequently. (google.com)
  • Cnidium monnieri has properties similar to commonly-prescribed PDE-5 inhibitor drugs - like sildenafil (Viagra:1998), tadalafil (Cialis: 2003), vardenafil (Levitra: 2003) and avanafil (Stendra: 2012). (nootriment.com)
  • Size consists of a synergistic complex of natural ingredients that include Cnidium, Arginine, Catuaba, Tribulus, Maca, and Yohimbe - to name only a few - that support improved blood flow, increased sexual desire and enhanced stamina. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Cnidium is applied directly to the skin for itchiness, rashes , eczema , and ringworm . (webmd.com)
  • A possible link between cnidium and osteoporosis was examined in two rodent studies published in the Chinese journal Chung-kuo Yao Li Hsueh Pao in 1994 and 1997. (encyclopedia.com)