Cnidarian Venoms: Venoms from jellyfish; CORALS; SEA ANEMONES; etc. They contain hemo-, cardio-, dermo- , and neuro-toxic substances and probably ENZYMES. They include palytoxin, sarcophine, and anthopleurine.Cnidaria: A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.Hydrozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA which alternates between polyp and medusa forms during their life cycle. There are over 2700 species in five orders.Sea Anemones: The order Actiniaria, in the class ANTHOZOA, comprised of large, solitary polyps. All species are carnivorous.Crotalid Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.Hydra: A genus of freshwater polyps in the family Hydridae, order Hydroida, class HYDROZOA. They are of special interest because of their complex organization and because their adult organization corresponds roughly to the gastrula of higher animals.Nematocyst: A double-walled capsule found in jellyfish and other CNIDARIA whose functions include prey capture, defense, locomotion, and attachment. Nematocysts contain toxic CNIDARIAN VENOMS which are injected into the victim via a barbed tubule.Bee Venoms: Venoms obtained from Apis mellifera (honey bee) and related species. They contain various enzymes, polypeptide toxins, and other substances, some of which are allergenic or immunogenic or both. These venoms were formerly used in rheumatism to stimulate the pituitary-adrenal system.Venoms: Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.Cobra Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.Viper Venoms: Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.Wasp Venoms: Venoms produced by the wasp (Vespid) family of stinging insects, including hornets; the venoms contain enzymes, biogenic amines, histamine releasing factors, kinins, toxic polypeptides, etc., and are similar to bee venoms.Scyphozoa: The class of true jellyfish, in the phylum CNIDARIA. They are mostly free-swimming marine organisms that go through five stages in their life cycle and exhibit two body forms: polyp and medusa.Elapid Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.Spider Venoms: Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.Ctenophora: Phylum of marine colenterates characterized by eight comb rows of fused cilia on the body surface. In contrast to CNIDARIA they lack stinging cells, but they are voracious predators and possess sticky cells (colloblasts) for capturing prey. Most species are transparent and many exhibit bioluminescence.Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Scorpion Venoms: Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.Arthropod Venoms: Venoms from animals of the phylum Arthropoda. Those most investigated are from scorpions and spiders of the class Arachnidae and from ant, bee, and wasp families of the Insecta order Hymenoptera. The venoms contain protein toxins, enzymes, and other bioactive substances and may be lethal to man.Dinoflagellida: Flagellate EUKARYOTES, found mainly in the oceans. They are characterized by the presence of transverse and longitudinal flagella which propel the organisms in a rotating manner through the water. Dinoflagellida were formerly members of the class Phytomastigophorea under the old five kingdom paradigm.Placozoa: A phylum of primitive invertebrate animals that exemplify a simple body organization. Trichoplax adhaerens is considered a key species for early metazoan evolution.Cubozoa: The class of box jellyfish, in the phylum CNIDARIA, characterized by their cube shape, and considered the most venomous jellyfish.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Myxozoa: Single-celled, aquatic endoparasitic worms that are currently considered belonging to the phylum CNIDARIA. They have a complex life cycle and parasitize a wide range of hosts including FISHES; ANNELIDA; and BRYOZOA.Bothrops: A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)Antivenins: Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Fish Venoms: Venoms produced by FISHES, including SHARKS and sting rays, usually delivered by spines. They contain various substances, including very labile toxins that affect the HEART specifically and all MUSCLES generally.Porifera: The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.Ant Venoms: Venoms from the superfamily Formicoidea, Ants. They may contain protein factors and toxins, histamine, enzymes, and alkaloids and are often allergenic or immunogenic.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Elapidae: A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)Mollusk Venoms: Venoms from mollusks, including CONUS and OCTOPUS species. The venoms contain proteins, enzymes, choline derivatives, slow-reacting substances, and several characterized polypeptide toxins that affect the nervous system. Mollusk venoms include cephalotoxin, venerupin, maculotoxin, surugatoxin, conotoxins, and murexine.Bites and StingsMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Snakes: Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Scorpions: Arthropods of the order Scorpiones, of which 1500 to 2000 species have been described. The most common live in tropical or subtropical areas. They are nocturnal and feed principally on insects and other arthropods. They are large arachnids but do not attack man spontaneously. They have a venomous sting. Their medical significance varies considerably and is dependent on their habits and venom potency rather than on their size. At most, the sting is equivalent to that of a hornet but certain species possess a highly toxic venom potentially fatal to humans. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, p417; Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p503)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Agkistrodon: A genus of venomous snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae. Twelve species of this genus are found in North and Central America and Asia. Agkistrodon contortrix is the copperhead, A. piscivorus, the cottonmouth. The former is named for its russet or orange-brown color, the latter for the white interior of its mouth. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336; Moore, Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p75)Amphibian Venoms: Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.Animal Structures: Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Metamorphosis, Biological: Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.Annelida: A phylum of metazoan invertebrates comprising the segmented worms, and including marine annelids (POLYCHAETA), freshwater annelids, earthworms (OLIGOCHAETA), and LEECHES. Only the leeches are of medical interest. (Dorland, 27th ed)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Morpholinos: Synthetic analogs of NUCLEIC ACIDS composed of morpholine ring derivatives (MORPHOLINES) linked by phosphorodimidates. One standard DNA nucleic acid base (ADENINE; GUANINE; CYTOSINE; OR THYMINE) is bound to each morpholine ring.Gastrulation: A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.Snake Bites: Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)Opsins: Photosensitive proteins in the membranes of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS such as the rods and the cones. Opsins have varied light absorption properties and are members of the G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS family. Their ligands are VITAMIN A-based chromophores.Conus Snail: A genus of cone-shaped marine snails in the family Conidae, class GASTROPODA. It comprises more than 600 species, many containing unique venoms (CONUS VENOMS) with which they immobilize their prey.Trimeresurus: A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. About 30 species are currently recognized, found in southeast Asia and adjacent island chains. The Okinawa habu frequently enters dwellings in search of rats and mice; the Chinese habu is often found in suburban and agricultural areas. They are quite irritable. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p136)Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Chordata, Nonvertebrate: A portion of the animal phylum Chordata comprised of the subphyla CEPHALOCHORDATA; UROCHORDATA, and HYPEROTRETI, but not including the Vertebrata (VERTEBRATES). It includes nonvertebrate animals having a NOTOCHORD during some developmental stage.Neurotoxins: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Inteins: The internal fragments of precursor proteins (INternal proTEINS) that are autocatalytically removed by PROTEIN SPLICING. The flanking fragments (EXTEINS) are ligated forming mature proteins. The nucleic acid sequences coding for inteins are considered to be MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Inteins are composed of self-splicing domains and an endonuclease domain which plays a role in the spread of the intein's genomic sequence. Mini-inteins are composed of the self-splicing domains only.Phospholipases A2: Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.Bungarus: A genus of poisonous snakes of the subfamily Elapinae of the family ELAPIDAE. They comprise the kraits. Twelve species are recognized and all inhabit southeast Asia. They are considered extremely dangerous. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p120)Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Crotoxin: A specific complex of toxic proteins from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake). It can be separated into a phospholipase A and crotapotin fragment; the latter consists of three different amino acid chains, potentiates the enzyme, and is specifically neurotoxic.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Genome, Mitochondrial: The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.Russell's Viper: A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. It is distributed in West Pakistan, most of India, Burma, Ceylon, Thailand, southeast China, Taiwan, and a few islands of Indonesia. It hisses loudly when disturbed and strikes with great force and speed. Very prolific, it gives birth to 20-60 young. This viper is the leading cause of snakebite in India and Burma. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p127)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.

Cellular and ionic basis for T-wave alternans under long-QT conditions. (1/271)

BACKGROUND: T-wave alternans (TWA), an ECG phenomenon characterized by beat-to-beat alternation of the morphology, amplitude, and/or polarity of the T wave, is commonly observed in the acquired and congenital long-QT syndromes (LQTS). This study examines the cellular and ionic basis for TWA induced by rapid pacing under conditions mimicking the LQT3 form of the congenital LQTS in an arterially perfused canine left ventricular wedge preparation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Transmembrane action potentials from epicardial, M, and endocardial cells and 6 to 8 intramural unipolar electrograms were simultaneously recorded together with a transmural ECG and isometric tension development. In the presence of sea anemone toxin (ATX-II; 20 nmol/L), an increase in pacing rate (from a cycle length [CL] of 500 to 400 to 250 ms) produced a wide spectrum of T-wave and mechanical alternans. Acceleration to CLs of 400 to 300 ms produced mild to moderate TWA principally due to beat-to-beat alternation of repolarization of cells in the M region. Transmural dispersion of repolarization during alternans was exaggerated during alternate beats. Acceleration to CLs of 300 to 250 ms caused more pronounced beat-to-beat alternation of action potential duration (APD) of the M cell, resulting in a reversal of repolarization sequence across the ventricular wall, leading to alternation in the polarity of the T wave. The peak of the negative T waves coincided with repolarization of the M region, whereas the end of the negative T wave coincided with the repolarization of epicardium. In almost all cases, electrical alternans was concordant with mechanical alternans. Torsade de pointes occurred after an abrupt acceleration of CL, which was associated with marked TWA. Both ryanodine and low [Ca2+]o completely suppressed alternans of the T wave, APD, and contraction, suggesting a critical role for intracellular Ca2+ cycling in the maintenance of TWA. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that TWA observed at rapid rates under long-QT conditions is largely the result of alternation of the M-cell APD, leading to exaggeration of transmural dispersion of repolarization during alternate beats, and thus the potential for development of torsade de pointes. Our data also suggest that unlike transient forms of TWA that damp out quickly and depend on electrical restitution factors, the steady-state electrical and mechanical alternans demonstrated in this study appears to be largely the result of beat-to-beat alternans of [Ca2+]i.  (+info)

ATX II, a sodium channel toxin, sensitizes skeletal muscle to halothane, caffeine, and ryanodine. (2/271)

BACKGROUND: The function or expression of subtypes of the sodium ion (Na+) channel is altered in biopsies or cultures of skeletal muscle from many persons who are susceptible to malignant hyperthermia (MH). ATX II, a specific Na+ channel toxin from a sea anemone, causes delayed inactivation of the channel similar to that seen in cell cultures of MH muscle. ATX II was added to skeletal muscle to determine whether altered Na+ channel function could increase the sensitivity of normal skeletal muscle to agents (halothane, caffeine, ryanodine) to which MH muscle is hypersensitive. METHODS: Studies were performed of fiber bundles from the vastus lateralis muscle of persons who were deemed not MH susceptible (MH-) or MH susceptible (MH+) according to the MH diagnostic test and of strips of diaphragm muscle from rats. Preparations in a tissue bath containing Krebs solution were connected to a force transducer. ATX II was introduced 5 min before halothane, caffeine, or ryanodine. RESULTS: ATX II increased the magnitude of contracture to halothane in preparations from most MH-, but not MH+, human participants. After ATX II treatment, preparations from 9 of 24 MH- participants generated contractures to halothane, 3%, that were of the same magnitude as those from MH+ participants. Preparations from four of six ATX II-treated healthy participants also gave responses of the same magnitude as those of MH-susceptible participants to a graded halothane challenge (0.5-3%). The contractures to bolus doses of halothane in specimens from male participants were more than three times larger than the contractures in specimens from female participants. In rat muscle, ATX II increased the magnitude of contracture to caffeine (2 mM) and decreased the time to produce a 1-g contracture to ryanodine (1 microM). CONCLUSIONS: ATX II, which causes delayed inactivation of the Na+ channel in cell cultures similar to that reported in cultures of MH+ skeletal muscle, increased the sensitivity of normal muscle to three agents to which MH+ muscle is hypersensitive. The increased sensitivity to halothane, 3%, occurred in most (79%), but not all, MH- participants, and this effect was most evident in male participants. Therefore, abnormal function of the Na+ channel, even if it is a secondary event in MH, may contribute to a positive contracture test result for MH.  (+info)

Structural conservation of the pores of calcium-activated and voltage-gated potassium channels determined by a sea anemone toxin. (3/271)

The structurally defined sea anemone peptide toxins ShK and BgK potently block the intermediate conductance, Ca(2+)-activated potassium channel IKCa1, a well recognized therapeutic target present in erythrocytes, human T-lymphocytes, and the colon. The well characterized voltage-gated Kv1.3 channel in human T-lymphocytes is also blocked by both peptides, although ShK has a approximately 1,000-fold greater affinity for Kv1.3 than IKCa1. To gain insight into the architecture of the toxin receptor in IKCa1, we used alanine-scanning in combination with mutant cycle analyses to map the ShK-IKCa1 interface, and compared it with the ShK-Kv1.3 interaction surface. ShK uses the same five core residues, all clustered around the critical Lys(22), to interact with IKCa1 and Kv1.3, although it relies on a larger number of contacts to stabilize its weaker interactions with IKCa1 than with Kv1.3. The toxin binds to IKCa1 in a region corresponding to the external vestibule of Kv1.3, and the turret and outer pore of the structurally defined bacterial potassium channel, KcsA. Based on the NMR structure of ShK, we deduce the toxin receptor in IKCa1 to have x-y dimensions of approximately 22 A, a diameter of approximately 31 A, and a depth of approximately 8 A; we estimate that the ion selectivity lies approximately 13 A below the outer lip of the toxin receptor. These dimensions are in good agreement with those of the KcsA channel determined from its crystal structure, and the inferred structure of Kv1.3 based on mapping with scorpion toxins. Thus, these distantly related channels exhibit architectural similarities in the outer pore region. This information could facilitate development of specific and potent modulators of the therapeutically important IKCa1 channel.  (+info)

Cysteine-scanning mutagenesis of an eukaryotic pore-forming toxin from sea anemone: topology in lipid membranes. (4/271)

Equinatoxin II is a cysteineless pore-forming protein from the sea anemone Actinia equina. It readily creates pores in membranes containing sphingomyelin. Its topology when bound in lipid membranes has been studied using cysteine-scanning mutagenesis. At approximately every tenth residue, a cysteine was introduced. Nineteen single cysteine mutants were produced in Escherichia coli and purified. The accessibility of the thiol groups in lipid-embedded cysteine mutants was studied by reaction with biotin maleimide. Most of the mutants were modified, except those with cysteines at positions 105 and 114. Mutants R144C and S160C were modified only at high concentrations of the probe. Similar results were obtained if membrane-bound biotinylated mutants were tested for avidin binding, but in this case three more mutants gave a negative result: S1C, S13C and K43C. Furthermore, mutants S1C, S13C, K20C, K43C and S95C reacted with biotin only after insertion into the lipid, suggesting that they were involved in major conformational changes occurring upon membrane binding. These results were further confirmed by labeling the mutants with acrylodan, a polarity-sensitive fluorescent probe. When labeled mutants were combined with vesicles, the following mutants exhibited blue-shifts, indicating the transfer of acrylodan into a hydrophobic environment: S13C, K20C, S105C, S114C, R120C, R144C and S160C. The overall results suggest that at least two regions are embedded within the lipid membrane: the N-terminal 13-20 region, probably forming an amphiphilic helix, and the tryptophan-rich 105-120 region. Arg144, Ser160 and residues nearby could be involved in making contacts with lipid headgroups. The association with the membrane appears to be unique and different from that of bacterial pore-forming proteins and therefore equinatoxin II may serve as a model for eukaryotic channel-forming toxins.  (+info)

Increased hindrance on the chiral carbon atom of mexiletine enhances the block of rat skeletal muscle Na+ channels in a model of myotonia induced by ATX. (5/271)

1 The antiarrhythmic drug mexiletine (Mex) is also used against myotonia. Searching for a more efficient drug, a new compound (Me5) was synthesized substituting the methyl group on the chiral carbon atom of Mex by an isopropyl group. Effects of Me5 on Na+ channels were compared to those of Mex in rat skeletal muscle fibres using the cell-attached patch clamp method. 2 Me5 (10 microM) reduced the maximal sodium current (INa) by 29.7+/-4.4 % (n=6) at a frequency of stimulation of 0.3 Hz and 65.7+/-4.4 % (n=6) at 1 Hz. At same concentration (10 microM), Mex was incapable of producing any effect (n=3). Me5 also shifted the steady-state inactivation curves by -7. 9+/-0.9 mV (n=6) at 0.3 Hz and -12.2+/-1.0 mV (n=6) at 1 Hz. 3 In the presence of sea anemone toxin II (ATX; 5 microM), INa decayed more slowly and no longer to zero, providing a model of sodium channel myotonia. The effects of Me5 on peak INa were similar whatever ATX was present or not. Interestingly, Me5 did not modify the INa decay time constant nor the steady-state INa to peak INa ratio. 4 Analysis of ATX-induced late Na+ channel activity shows that Me5 did not affect mean open times and single-channel conductance, thus excluding open channel block property. 5 These results indicate that increasing hindrance on the chiral atom of Mex increases drug potency on wild-type and ATX-induced noninactivating INa and that Me5 might improve the prophylaxis of myotonia.  (+info)

Mapping the functional anatomy of BgK on Kv1.1, Kv1.2, and Kv1.3. Clues to design analogs with enhanced selectivity. (6/271)

BgK is a peptide from the sea anemone Bunodosoma granulifera, which blocks Kv1.1, Kv1.2, and Kv1.3 potassium channels. Using 25 analogs substituted at a single position by an alanine residue, we performed the complete mapping of the BgK binding sites for the three Kv1 channels. These binding sites included three common residues (Ser-23, Lys-25, and Tyr-26) and a variable set of additional residues depending on the particular channel. Shortening the side chain of Lys-25 by taking out the four methylene groups dramatically decreased the BgK affinity to all Kv1 channels tested. However, the analog K25Orn displayed increased potency on Kv1.2, which makes this peptide a selective blocker for Kv1.2 (K(D) 50- and 300-fold lower than for Kv1.1 and Kv1.3, respectively). BgK analogs with enhanced selectivity could also be made by substituting residues that are differentially involved in the binding to some of the three Kv1 channels. For example, the analog F6A was found to be >500-fold more potent for Kv1.1 than for Kv1.2 and Kv1.3. These results provide new information about the mechanisms by which a channel blocker distinguishes individual channels among closely related isoforms and give clues for designing analogs with enhanced selectivity.  (+info)

Structure-function studies of tryptophan mutants of equinatoxin II, a sea anemone pore-forming protein. (7/271)

Equinatoxin II (EqtII) is a eukaryotic cytolytic toxin that avidly creates pores in natural and model lipid membranes. It contains five tryptophan residues in three different regions of the molecule. In order to study its interaction with the lipid membranes, three tryptophan mutants, EqtII Trp(45), EqtII Trp(116/117) and EqtII Trp(149), were prepared in an Escherichia coli expression system [here, the tryptophan mutants are classified according to the position of the remaining tryptophan residue(s) in each mutated protein]. They all possess a single intrinsic fluorescent centre. All mutants were less haemolytically active than the wild-type, although the mechanism of erythrocyte damage was the same. EqtII Trp(116/117) resembles the wild-type in terms of its secondary structure content, as determined from Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and its fluorescent properties. Tryptophans at these two positions are buried within the hydrophobic interior of the protein, and are transferred to the lipid phase during the interaction with the lipid membrane. The secondary structure of the other two mutants, EqtII Trp(45) and EqtII Trp(149), was altered to a certain extent. EqtII Trp(149) was the most dissimilar from the wild-type, displaying a higher content of random-coil structure. It also retained the lowest number of nitrogen-bound protons after exchange with (2)H(2)O, which might indicate a reduced compactness of the molecule. Tryptophans in EqtII Trp(45) and EqtII Trp(149) were more exposed to water, and also remained as such in the membrane-bound form.  (+info)

Differential effects of beta-adrenergic agonists and antagonists in LQT1, LQT2 and LQT3 models of the long QT syndrome. (8/271)

OBJECTIVES: To define the cellular mechanisms responsible for the development of life-threatening arrhythmias in response to sympathetic activity in the congenital and acquired long QT syndromes (LCQTS). METHODS: Transmembrane action potentials (AP) from epicardial (EPI), M and endocardial (ENDO) cells and a transmural electrocardiogram were simultaneously recorded from an arterially perfused wedge of canine left ventricle. We examined the effect of beta-adrenergic agonists and antagonists on action potential duration (APD90), transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) and the development of Torsade de Pointes (TdP) in models of LQT1, LQT2 and LQT3 forms of LQTS. RESULTS: I(Ks) block with chromanol 293B (LQT1) homogeneously prolonged APD90 of the three cell types without increasing TDR. Addition of isoproterenol prolonged QT and APD90 of M but abbreviated that of EPI and ENDO, causing a persistent increase in TDR; Torsade de Pointes developed or could be induced only in the presence of isoproterenol. I(Kr) block with d-sotalol (LQT2) and augmentation of late I(Na) with ATX-II (LQT3) prolonged APD90 of M more than EPI and ENDO, causing increases in QT and TDR. TdP developed in the absence of isoproterenol. In LQT2 isoproterenol initially prolonged, then abbreviated, the APD90 of M but always abbreviated EPI, thus transiently increasing TDR and the incidence of TdP. In LQT3, isoproterenol always abbreviated APD90 of the three cell types, causing a persistent decrease in TDR and suppression of TdP. The arrhythmogenic as well as protective actions of isoproterenol were reversed by propranolol. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that beta-adrenergic stimulation induces TdP by increasing transmural dispersion of repolarization in LQT1 and LQT2 but suppresses TdP by decreasing dispersion in LQT3. The data indicate that beta-blockers are protective in LQT1 and LQT2 but may facilitate TdP in LQT3.  (+info)

Cnidarian Venoms: Venoms from jellyfish; CORALS; SEA ANEMONES; etc. They contain hemo-, cardio-, dermo- , and neuro-toxic substances and probably ENZYMES. They include palytoxin, sarcophine, and anthopleurine.
The human ether-à-go-go channel (hEag1 or KV10.1) is a cancer-relevant voltage-gated potassium channel that is overexpressed in a majority of human tumors. Peptides that are able to selectively inhibit this channel can be lead compounds in the search for new anticancer drugs. Here, we report the activity-guided purification and electrophysiological characterization of a novel KV10.1 inhibitor from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. Purified sea anemone fractions were screened for inhibitory activity on KV10.1 by measuring whole-cell currents as expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes using the two-microelectrode voltage clamp technique. Fractions that showed activity on Kv10.1 were further purified by RP-HPLC. The amino acid sequence of the peptide was determined by a combination of MALDI- LIFT-TOF/TOF MS/MS and CID-ESI-FT-ICR MS/MS and showed a high similarity with APETx1 and APETx3 and was therefore named APETx4. Subsequently, the peptide was electrophysiologically characterized on KV10.1. The
The human ether-à-go-go channel (hEag1 or KV10.1) is a cancer-relevant voltage-gated potassium channel that is overexpressed in a majority of human tumors. Peptides that are able to selectively inhibit this channel can be lead compounds in the search for new anticancer drugs. Here, we report the activity-guided purification and electrophysiological characterization of a novel KV10.1 inhibitor from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. Purified sea anemone fractions were screened for inhibitory activity on KV10.1 by measuring whole-cell currents as expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes using the two-microelectrode voltage clamp technique. Fractions that showed activity on Kv10.1 were further purified by RP-HPLC. The amino acid sequence of the peptide was determined by a combination of MALDI- LIFT-TOF/TOF MS/MS and CID-ESI-FT-ICR MS/MS and showed a high similarity with APETx1 and APETx3 and was therefore named APETx4. Subsequently, the peptide was electrophysiologically characterized on KV10.1. The
1. Feeding can be initiated in Anemonia sulcata by mechanical, chemical or electrical stimulation of the tentacles provided the stimulus sets up sufficiently prolonged excitation. Owing to rapid adaptation, mechanical stimuli rarely set up enduring excitation and inert objects are therefore usually rejected. Chemical stimuli set up prolonged excitation and food objects are therefore usually accepted. A series of electrical stimuli can produce rejection or feeding according to whether it is brief or prolonged.. 2. The sensitivity of the tentacles varies greatly a different foods. It is greatest to animal foods. There is great sensitivity to certain kinds of mucus.. 3. The active substances of natural foods are closely associated with protein. They fail to pass through a membrane which retains colloids. A feeding reaction can be obtained to food substances which appear to be insoluble in water.. 4. Though the active substances of many natural foods are not in free solution, soluble derivatives of ...
The effect of sea anemone toxins from Parasicyonis actinostoloides and Anemonia sulcata on the Na conductance in crayfish giant axons was studied under voltage-clamp conditions. The toxin slowed the Na inactivation process without changing the kinetics of Na activation or K activation in an early stage of the toxin effect. An analysis of the Na current profile during the toxin treatment suggested an all-or-none modification of individual Na channels. Toxin-modified Na channels were partially inactivated with a slower time course than that of the normal inactivation. This slow inactivation in steady state decreased in its extent as the membrane was depolarized to above -45 mV, so that practically no inactivation occurred at the membrane potentials as high as +50 mV. In addition to inhibition of the normal Na inactivation, prolonged toxin treatment induced an anomalous closing in a certain population of Na channels, indicated by very slow components of the Na tail current. The observed kinetic ...
Antho-KAamide (L-3-phenyllactyl-Phe-Lys-Ala-NH2) and Antho-RIamide (L-3-phenyllactyl-Tyr-ArgIle-NH2) are novel neuropeptides isolated from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. They both inhibited spontaneous contractions of isolated muscle preparations from a wide variety of anemone species (threshold around 10-7 m ). Their actions were universal in that they inhibited every muscle preparation tested, regardless of whether the muscle group was located in the ectoderm or endoderm, or was oriented in a circular or longitudinal direction. Injection of Antho-KAamide or Antho-RIamide into the coelenteron of intact sea anemones resulted in a marked expansion of the animals. Similar shape changes followed feeding or exposure to soluble food extracts. Therefore, we hypothesize that nerve cells that release Antho-KAamide and Antho-RIamide are involved in the expansion phase of feeding behaviour in sea anemones. ...
We purified a new cytolysin (HMgIII) from the sea anemone, Heteractis magnifica. HMgIII, which has a molecular mass of ~19 kDa, functions as both a cytolysin and a hemolysin. The full-length HMg III cDNA was obtained by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, using primers designed from its N-terminal amino acid sequence and an internal conserved region of two other sea anemone cytolysins: equinatoxin II (EqT II) and cytolysin III. The cDNA contained an open reading frame of 633 bp, which encodes a protein of 211 amino acids. The nascent HMg III protein contained a prepropeptide of 34 amino acids, which includes a signal peptide of 19 amino acids. The mature HMg III has a predicted molecular mass of 19 kDa and a pI of 9.1, and shares 91%, 89%, 65% and 63% amino acid sequence similarity with cytolysin III, cytolysin ST I, tenebrosin-C and equinatoxin (EqT II), respectively. The predicted secondary structure of the mature HMg III comprises 16% α-helix, 23% extended strand and 60% random ...
Title:Analgesic and CNS Depressant Activities of Sea Anemone Heteractis aurora Nematocyst Toxin. VOLUME: 16 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):Sengapillai Thangaraj, Subramanian Bragadeeswaran, Natarajah Srikumaran and Anbukkarasu Suguna. Affiliation:Marine Biotoxinology Lab. Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University, Parangipettai - 608 502, Tamil Nadu, India.. Keywords:Analgesic activity, CNS depressant activity, Heteractis aurora, Haemolytic activity, Sea anemone.. Abstract:Marine organisms are the excellent sources for biologically active compounds. Cnidarian venoms are potentially valuable materials used for biomedical research and drug development. The present work was carried out to analyse haemolytic, analgesic and CNS depressant activity of sea anemone Heteractis aurora. In haemolytic assay, among the five different RBC blood cells, the chicken blood exhibited maximum hemolytic activity of 64 Hemolytic Unit (HU). The maximum Analgesic Ratio (AR) of 5 ...
1BDS: Determination of the three-dimensional solution structure of the antihypertensive and antiviral protein BDS-I from the sea anemone Anemonia sulcata: a study using nuclear magnetic resonance and hybrid distance geometry-dynamical simulated annealing.
1BDS: Determination of the three-dimensional solution structure of the antihypertensive and antiviral protein BDS-I from the sea anemone Anemonia sulcata: a study using nuclear magnetic resonance and hybrid distance geometry-dynamical simulated annealing.
Background: Gain-of-function mutations of the nociceptive voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7 lead to inherited pain syndromes, such as paroxysmal extreme pain disorder (PEPD). One characteristic of these mutations is slowed fast-inactivation kinetics, which may give rise to resurgent sodium currents. It is long known that toxins from Anemonia sulcata, such as ATX-II, slow fast inactivation and skin contact for example during diving leads to various symptoms such as pain and itch. Here, we investigated if ATX-II induces resurgent currents in sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRGs) and how this may translate into human sensations. Results: In large A-fiber related DRGs ATX-II (5 nM) enhances persistent and resurgent sodium currents, but failed to do so in small C-fiber linked DRGs when investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Resurgent currents are thought to depend on the presence of the sodium channel beta 4-subunit. Using RT-qPCR experiments, we show that small DRGs ...
Neurones of the motor nerve net of the jellyfish Cyanea capillata were axotomized, and voltage-clamped using the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique.. Outward currents were blocked by a combination of extracellular 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and intracellular Cs+, tetraethylammonium (TEA+) and 4-AP.. Under normal conditions, the inward current consisted of a fast, transient current which could be abolished by removal of extracellular Na+ and whose reversal potential was dependent on the extracellular Na+ concentration.. This current was completely insensitive to tetrodotoxin (TTX), saxitoxin (STX) and conotoxin GIIIA but could be blocked by extracellular Cd2+, lidocaine, W7 [N-(6 aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-napthalenesulphonamide] and verapamil.. Inactivation was voltage-dependent with a Vh of −15mV, and was unaffected by veratridine, batrachotoxin (BTX), sea anemone toxin and scorpion (Leiurus) venom. Reactivation required repolarization to a negative membrane potential for 12 ms for ...
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The lethal marine toxin, palytoxin, first extracted from the polyps of soft-bodied zoanthids of the genus Palythoa (Moore and Scheuer, 1971), is a potentially useful tool for elucidating the molecular reactions by which the Na/K-ATPase stoichiometrically transports Na+ and K+ ions in opposite directions across the cell surface membrane. Palytoxin was found to depolarize mammalian cells (e.g., Weidmann, 1977) by causing small-conductance (∼10 pS) relatively nonselective cation channels to appear in their surface membranes (e.g., Ikeda et al., 1988; Muramatsu et al., 1988). That the Na/K-ATPase is the target for palytoxin action was initially surmised (Habermann, 1989) largely from antagonism of toxin action by cardiotonic steroids, like ouabain, or by K+ ions. Two experimental approaches have since confirmed that proposal. The first exploited the absence of endogenous Na/K pumps from yeast and showed that palytoxin could elicit ouabain-sensitive cation flux in yeast expressing both α and β ...
Bunodosine 391 (BDS 391), a low molecular weight compound isolated from the sea anemone Bunodosoma cangicum, increases the nociceptive threshold and inhibits inflammatory hyperalgesia. Serotonin receptors are involved in those effects. In this study, we have expanded the characterization of the antinociceptive effect of BDS 391 demonstrating that, in rats: (a) the compound inhibits (1.2-12 ng/paw) overt pain, in the formalin test, and mechanical hyperalgesia (0.6-6.0 ng/paw) detected in a model of neuropathic pain; (b) intraplantar administration of ondansetron, a selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, blocks the effect of BDS 391, whereas ketanserin, a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, partially reversed this effect, indicating the involvement of peripheral 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors in BDS 391 antinociception; and (c) in binding assay studies, BDS 391 was not able to displace the selective 5-HT receptor antagonists, suggesting that this compound does not directly bind to these receptors ...
Two cytolysins, designated as magnificalysins I and II, were purified from a tropical sea anemone, Heteractis magnifica (formerly Radianthus ritteri). The purification steps involved Sephadex G-50 and CM-Sepharose chromatography followed by Mono S and Phenyl-Superose Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography. The relative mol. wt of magnificalysins I and II, determined by SDS-PAGE, was approximately 19,000, while their isoelectric points, determined by isoelectric focusing in immobilized pH gradients, were 9.4 and 10.0, respectively. Those toxins were found to have haemolytic and lethal activities. The haemolytic activities of magnificalysins I and II were 3.6 x 104 HU/mg and 3.3 x 104 HU/mg, while their LD50 (i.v., mice) values were approximately 0.14 μg/g and 0.32 μg/g, respectively. The amino acid composition and N-terminal sequences of magnificalysins I and II were also obtained. They do not possess any cysteine or cystine residue, but are rich in basic and hydrophobic amino acids. The N-terminal ...
New study reveals that a synthetic compound ShK-186, which comes from a sea anemone toxin can be used to treat obesity and insulin resistance.
Sulcatas come from some of the Sahel, the hottest, driest area in Africa. Some regions may not get rain for years. To make the most of available moisture, their skin is resistant to fluid loss but, when exposed to moisture, may become highly permeable. Towards this end, they will excavate pallets or burrows in the ground to get to areas with higher moisture levels; in the wild, they may spend the hottest part of the day in these microhabitats. Burrows may average 30 inches in depth; some dig tunnel systems extending 10 feet or more underground. Sulcatas are, like most turtles and tortoises native to dry areas, extremely efficient in their use of water. A sulcata may urinate just 0.64 ml a day, significantly less than their spur-thighed cousins living in the relatively lush Mediterranean countries who may urinate 1-2 ml a day. A danger, then, in captivity is that too much water may be given or made accessible which may lead to health problems including skin and shell infections and kidney problems ...
Sulcatas come from some of the Sahel, the hottest, driest area in Africa. Some regions may not get rain for years. To make the most of available moisture, their skin is resistant to fluid loss but, when exposed to moisture, may become highly permeable. Towards this end, they will excavate pallets or burrows in the ground to get to areas with higher moisture levels; in the wild, they may spend the hottest part of the day in these microhabitats. Burrows may average 30 inches in depth; some dig tunnel systems extending 10 feet or more underground. Sulcatas are, like most turtles and tortoises native to dry areas, extremely efficient in their use of water. A sulcata may urinate just 0.64 ml a day, significantly less than their spur-thighed cousins living in the relatively lush Mediterranean countries who may urinate 1-2 ml a day. A danger, then, in captivity is that too much water may be given or made accessible which may lead to health problems including skin and shell infections and kidney problems ...
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Looking for Noctiluca? Find out information about Noctiluca. a genus of protozoa of the class Mastigophora of the order Dinoflagellata. The spherical body is 2 to 3 mm in diameter and has a mobile, contractive... Explanation of Noctiluca
When the sea anemone is in the larval stage it swims. As adults, the sea anemone stands with one end on the sea floor and uses long tentacles on its upper end to catch small animals which they stuff into the only body opening in the middle of the ring of tentacles.. "Based on the appearance of the adult animals, the lower end of these animals has traditionally been called the foot and the upper end the head", explains Rentzsch.. What the research group found out was that in the sea anemone the "head gene" function is located at the end that corresponds to the "foot" of the adult animals. The key was to study the larvae of the sea anemones when they still move around.. "The larvae swims with the "foot" end forward and this end carries their main sense organ, so at this stage it looks more like this might be their head", says Rentzsch. And indeed, the "head genes" function on this side of the animals.. Sea anemones and all higher animals, including humans, share a common brainless ancestor which ...
Pore-forming protein that forms cations-selective hydrophilic pores of around 1 nm and causes cytolysis. Pore formation is a multi-step process that involves specific recognition of membrane sphingomyelin (but neither cholesterol nor phosphatidylcholine) using aromatic rich region and adjacent phosphocholine (POC) binding site, firm binding to the membrane (mainly driven by hydrophobic interactions) accompanied by the transfer of the N-terminal region to the lipid-water interface and finally pore formation after oligomerization of monomers.
The results completely change the way we think of the origin of germ layers. It means that endoderm in sea anemones and vertebrates, although they are called the same, are actually not evolutionary related adds Ulrich Technau. If the mouth ectoderm of the sea anemone and not the endoderm corresponds to the vertebrate gut and pancreas, then what is the vertebrate correlate of the sea anemone endoderm? When Steinmetz and Technau dwelled deeper into this question, they found strong similarities between the cnidarian endoderm and the intermediate mesoderm layer: both share a large number of regulatory genes, and both give rise to similar cell types such as muscle or gonad cells. The sea anemone thus shows a clear correlate of mesoderm, but not in an intermediate position as found in three-layered animals. Positioning, and not novel emergence, of tissue in-between the gut and skin was thus the key event that led to the evolution of three-layered animals. An overwhelming majority of animals ...
Reuben went over how to properly design a scientific experiment and the statistics involved with analyzing the results. Afterwards each group met with Sally, Sarah, Su, Liz, and Reuben to pitch their project idea. Our project (Rachel, Kenzie, and Jake) is studying the effects of temperature and feeding on the regeneration and survival of Anthopleura elegantissima. They liked our ideas but some of the logistics had to be changed. This is an important aspect of learning about the scientific process. It often takes lots of thinking and rethinking about the project design to come to a final workable design. Theres always a trade-off between the best design and whats actually feasible with the resources and time available. Friday evening was also the due date for our project proposals, which included an introduction on the topic, materials and methods, expected results and significance. Proposals are an important part of the process of conducting a scientific experience. If you need funding you ...
Reuben went over how to properly design a scientific experiment and the statistics involved with analyzing the results. Afterwards each group met with Sally, Sarah, Su, Liz, and Reuben to pitch their project idea. Our project (Rachel, Kenzie, and Jake) is studying the effects of temperature and feeding on the regeneration and survival of Anthopleura elegantissima. They liked our ideas but some of the logistics had to be changed. This is an important aspect of learning about the scientific process. It often takes lots of thinking and rethinking about the project design to come to a final workable design. Theres always a trade-off between the best design and whats actually feasible with the resources and time available. Friday evening was also the due date for our project proposals, which included an introduction on the topic, materials and methods, expected results and significance. Proposals are an important part of the process of conducting a scientific experience. If you need funding you ...
The second goal? "Simply to document whats down there," says Adkins.. "In one sense, the deep ocean is less explored than Mars," he adds. "So every time you go to look down there you see new things, magical things.". Among the "magical things" seen on this trip were - a new species of carnivorous sea squirt that "looks and behaves like a Venus fly trap," says Adkins; - new species of barnacles (some of which Adkins says may even belong to an entirely new family); and - a new species of sea anemone that Adkins calls "the bane of our existence," because it looks just like the coral they were trying to collect.. The sea anemone was particularly vexing for the researchers, because they were hoping to find deep-sea (or abyssal) samples of the fossilized coral, but were unable to find the coral much below 2,400 meters (nearly 7,800 feet). The look-alike sea anemone, on the other hand, kept popping up all over the place on the deep-sea floor, raising--and then dashing--the scientists hopes.. "Not ...
Mouse neuroblastoma N-18 cells, which evoked a mixed Na+ and Ca2+ action potential under appropriate tissue culture conditions, were used to study the electrophysiological pharmacology of a polypeptide neurotoxin (ATX-II) from a sea anemone. When applied extracellularly, ATX-II in concentrations as low as 10-7 M increased reversibly the electrical excitability of N-18 cells, e.g., the toxin caused spontaneous firing in which the duration and the maximal rate of rise of each action potential were increased. A set of results obtained in this work strongly suggests that this effect of the toxin was mainly due to its interaction with the inactivation gate of the Na+ channel of N-18 cells, i.e., ATX-II inhibited both the time-dependent and the steady-state processes of Na+ channel inactivation. Accordingly, this toxin is a useful tool for elucidating the molecular structure of the voltage-sensitive inactivation gate of the Na+ channel.. ...
About ten years ago while working in a hospital i saw the most horrific sight . A group of girls, i think college age, all from Brazil, had come here and i guess didnt know much about box jellies or stinger suits. All 7 of them were swimming in irukandji infested waters in just their bikinis and all 7 of them got stung multiple times. ive never seen such suffering. when i first saw them, they were laying on the floor of the emergency room waiting area where they had collapsed after being brought in. the screaming and moaning filled the halls and you could hear them from the second floor. There were lying there, on the floor piled around each other, writhing in pain, still in their swimsuits and soaked with sweat. I remember at least three of the girls were violently bucking, thrashing and kicking their legs around like they were being drowned in acid. i remember being unsettled by how the girls legs and bodies writhed around against each other and yet they were completely oblivious of their ...
Cloning of GFP - posted in Molecular Cloning: Hi there, So I recently ligated my gene into a Pet32a vector using restriction sites using EcoR1 and Xho1. From another Pet vector I have to create primers for the GFP insert containing BgII and EcoR1 sites. Just wondering, once I amplify my GFP (using BgII/EcoR1 sites), how do I ligate it into my original construct..Do I cut my original constuct with EcoR1 and BgII (because looking at the vector map, Pet32a has a BgII site and ligate?) Che...
Define Edwardsia: a genus (the type of the family Edwardsiidae) of sea anemones having eight mesenteries and living in tubes in the sand
Title:Crude Venom from Nematocysts of the Jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca as a Tool to Study Cell Physiology. VOLUME: 15 ISSUE: 2. Author(s):Rossana Morabito, Giuseppina L. Spada, Rosalia Crupi, Emanuela Esposito and Angela Marino. Affiliation:Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Viale F. Stagno DAlcontres 31, 98166 Messina, Italy.. Keywords:Biological assays, crude venom, jellyfish, nematocysts, Pelagia noctiluca.. Abstract:Marine animals represent a source of novel bioactive compounds considered as a good research model, whose mechanism of action is intriguing and still under debate. Among stinging animals, Cnidarians differentiated highly specialized cells, termed nematocytes, containing a capsule fluid with toxins and an inverted tubule, synergistically responsible for mechanisms of defence and predation. Such compounds include proteins and secondary metabolites with toxic action. With the aim of better elucidating the effects of Cnidarian venom upon cell targets, this short ...
Relatively few studies have investigated the genetic population structure of sea anemones. This is particularly true for sea anemones that host some of the most iconic fishes on coral reefs, the anemonefishes. One of the main reasons for this knowledge gap is the lack of appropriate genetic markers. We developed and characterized a total of 47 novel polymorphic microsatellite markers for four host sea anemone species from the Indo-Pacific: Entacmaea quadricolor (n = 16 microsatellite markers), Heteractis magnifica (n = 8), Stichodactyla mertensii (n = 13), and Stichodactyla gigantea (n = 10). Here, we report genetic diversity statistics from two different sampling locations for each anemone species. Overall, we found that most markers were highly polymorphic. On average, we found a mean of seven alleles per locus. Observed and expected heterozygosities displayed high variation among loci, ranging from 0.033 to 0.980 and from 0.038 to 0.927, respectively. Only four loci showed deviations of ...
Luminescent Jellyfish, Pelagia Noctiluca, France, Mediterranean Sea Photographic Print by Reinhard Dirscherl. Find art you love and shop high-quality art prints, photographs, framed artworks and posters at Art.com. 100% satisfaction guaranteed.
The dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans (Noctiluca) has the ability to reproduce sexually, which may help to increase or restore its population size during periods of blooms or environmental stress. Here, we documented for the first time a marine ciliate Strombidium sp. that feeds on Noctilucas progametes undergoing stages 5 to 9 of nuclear division. This ciliate frequently swam on or around gametogenic and some vegetative Noctiluca cells. The ciliates associated with gametogenic cells had significantly lower swimming speed and changed direction more frequently than those associated with vegetative cells, which overall increased their time spent around the food patches (progametes). This trophic interaction constitutes an upside-down predator -prey link, in which ciliates within the typical size range of Noctiluca prey, become the predators. Based on the phylogenetic tree (maximum-likelihood), there are 14 environmental clones similar to Strombidium sp. found in other coastal waters, where ...
Healthy thalli of Parmelia sulcata Taylor were transplanted to 8 localities in the surroundings of a power station (La Robla, Leon, Spain), the sole pollution source in the region. Changes in chlorophyll a fluorescence were monitored in the transplants 12 months, 18 months and 24 months after transplantation. Statistically significant differences were observed in the ratio of variable to maximal fluorescence, non-photochemical fluorescence quenching and vitality index. The decrease in fluorescence parameters was higher in the localities of Cuadros and Rabanal de Fenar, which are situated a few kilometres away from the power station and in the same direction as the prevailing winds ...
Looking for online definition of palytoxin in the Medical Dictionary? palytoxin explanation free. What is palytoxin? Meaning of palytoxin medical term. What does palytoxin mean?
Bell and trailing tentacles of a box jellyfish (Cubozoa). Box jellyfish are relatives of true jellyfish, but have a cubic bell and tentacles extending from each lower corner. Unlike true jellyfish they have complex eyes and are active swimmers, avoiding obstacles and chasing after prey. They feed mainly on small fish, which they catch with their stinging tentacles. Some species of box jellyfish have a sting that is rapidly fatal to humans. Filmed in the Gulf of Thailand, near Koh Pha Ngan Island. - Stock Video Clip K004/8614
The jellyfish venom essence creamgel is concentrated in natural ingredients from the sea such as fibrilin. It is a very effective anti-age natural.
Decrypt anemones, Decrypt letters anemones, Word Decoder for anemones, Word generator using the letters anemones, Word Solver anemones, Possible Crypter words with anemones, Anagram of anemones
|div|The Saddle Anemone, |i|Stichodactyla haddoni|/i|, is commonly referred to as Haddons Anemone, Saddle Carpet Anemone, or the Saddleback Anemone. It features short and blunt stinging tent
Sodium channels expressed in cardiac muscle cells are resistant to nanomolar concentrations of TTX, and require micromolar concentrations for inhibition. On the other hand, these channels are more sensitive to inhibition by lidocaine than are CNS channels.. The receptor sites for these toxins are formed by amino acid residues in the pore loops and immediately on the extracellular side of the pore loops at the outer end of the pore. Neurotoxin receptor site 2 binds a family of lipid-soluble toxins, including batrachotoxin, veratridine, aconitine, and grayanotoxin, which enhance activation of sodium channels. Photoaffinity labeling and mutagenesis studies implicate transmembrane segments IS6 and IVS6 in the receptor site for batrachotoxin [815]. Neurotoxin receptor site 3 binds the alpha-scorpion toxins and sea anemone toxins, which slow the coupling of sodium channel activation to inactivation. These peptide toxins bind to a complex receptor site that includes the S3-S4 loop at the outer end of ...
You searched for: Contributor McPeak, Ronald H. Remove constraint Contributor: McPeak, Ronald H. Genre slides (photographs) Remove constraint Genre: slides (photographs) Topic Sea anemones Remove constraint Topic: Sea anemones Place Santa Rosa Island (Calif.) Remove constraint Place: Santa Rosa Island (Calif.) Format Still Image Remove constraint Format: Still Image ...
Portier and Richet first coined the term anaphylaxis in 1902 when a second vaccinating dose of sea anemone toxin caused a dogs death. The term is derived from the Greek words ana - (
Portier and Richet first coined the term anaphylaxis in 1902 when a second vaccinating dose of sea anemone toxin caused a dogs death. The term is derived from the Greek words ana - (
This course seeks to give the participant the necessary tools to start and/or continue studies on the taxonomy and diversity of sea anemones in a broad sense, i.e. including the order Actiniaria (sea anemones sensu stricto), Corallimorpharia (mushroom anemones) and Zoanthidea (matt anemones). The course will last twelve days, with five days dedicated to taxonomic training, including the characteristics and identification of the various actiniarian suborders, superfamilies and families; the orders Corallimorpharia and Zoanthidea will be also considered. Three days will be dedicated to learning colleting, fixation and preservation methods, histological techniques necessary for sea anemone identification as well as cnidae preparation and identification. Common taxa at Bocas del Toro will be identified to species. We will conduct surveys of sea anemones at several field sites near the Bocas Research Station to collect baseline data for conservation and for future studies. The remaining three days ...
Stinging cells can be used as tiny needles to inject drugs into the skin - sea anemone face creams should be available to buy next year
Box jellyfish stings are excruciating and occasionally deadly. Scientists have now identified a common, cheap drug that is already on the market and which could be a treatment candidate with further
Dear Friends & Neighbors, (Please click on red links & note magenta) Weve driven past the Tibet-Butler Preserve on C.R. 535 on Winter Garden-Vineland Road multiple times, but it wasnt until our daughter visited.... ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An examination of the cardiovascular effects of an Irukandji jellyfish, Alatina nr mordens. AU - Winter, Kelly. AU - Isbister, Geoffrey. AU - Schneider, Jennifer. AU - Konstantakopoulos, Nicki. AU - SEYMOUR, J. AU - Hodgson, Wayne. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Irukandji syndrome is usually characterized by delayed severe abdominal, back and chest pain associated with autonomic effects including diaphoresis, hypertension and, in severe cases, myocardial injury and pulmonary oedema. It is most often associated with envenoming by the jellyfish Carukia barnesi, but a number of other jellyfish, including Alatina mordens, are now known to produce Irukandji syndrome. In the present study, nematocyst-derived venom from A. nr mordens (150-250 ?g/kg, i.v.) produced a long-lasting pressor effect in anaesthetised rats. This pressor response (250 ?g/kg, i.v.) was significantly inhibited by prior administration of the ?-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (200 ?g/kg, i.v.) but not by CSL box ...
A sea creature sting can usually be treated with first aid. But if serious symptoms develop, such as severe pain, swelling or difficulty breathing, dial 999 for an ambulance.
Cruise summary report for RV Pelagia PE319 (GA02 Leg1) - produced from a first level inventory of measurements and samples collected at sea that provides information on who has collected what, where and when. Assembled initially from cruise plans and then updated from other sources including the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) Cruise Summary Report (ROSCOP) forms submitted to BODC for each UK research cruise. Provides a useful resource of cruise activities to scientists, programme managers and data managers.
Beaded sea anemone, green, Reef Frontiers is dedicated to bring the best information to marine reef aquarium hobbyists , with friendly forums filled with experienced reef keepers to libraries, webinars, galleries and much more. Come join us
Experience the beauty and diversity of South African National Parks, Travel and explore South Africa! Nature Conservation, Accommodation, Activities, Reservations
Experience the beauty and diversity of South African National Parks, Travel and explore South Africa! Nature Conservation, Accommodation, Activities, Reservations
Hi Matt,. Thanks for the comment and question. Just from my personal experience I have been treating all my anemones ever since I started doing this treatment a few months ago. I am currently on day 4 of my next LTA. I have also been able to save a Lime BTA a month ago since I got lazy and figured it looked healthy enough with a tight mouth at the store but seemed to have started rotting on one edge and losing tentacles after having it for a week. What appeared healthy at the store can still have a hard time transitioning into your system and thats when I think they are susceptible the most.. Like quarantining fish and dipping corals I have learned the hard way that if I could prevent it I should do it. Its always the one time I dont do it that something bad happens. I would say if you do treat the anemone it would have a more than just a 50/50 shot chance of survival.. As far as splits from fellow reefers I think those are still hardier, just like LPS/SPS frags, tend to be hardier since they ...
In Governing for the Long Term, Alan M. Health download sleeping with anemone verges Canada sad sure commercial frequency and for national usage. totally-inappropriate self-organization gives new list. Stephen Curry: My advantageous to Success.
Painted by Natasha Wescoat, Blue Anemone wall mural from Murals Your Way will add a distinctive touch to any room. Choose a pre-set size, or customize to your wall.
At 9 days old, uZair is able to turn by himself. I placed him on his tummy in his cot. Few minutes later I came in the room and he was no longer on his tummy ...
I absolutely agree with this. I am determined for people not to see me with granny goggles. Its shocking how early it starts, too. Thats why I detest the whole identifying women as "over 40" thing. As if once over 40 youre part of this huge, undifferentiated mass of old chicks. Like 20, 30, OLD. LOL. Not that there is anything whatever the matter with being older. Its just that identifying women who are middle aged and older as "over 40" strikes me as oddly dehumanizing. Ive also noticed with age how everyone is so hung up on age. To hear the 28 year olds going on about how they have two years before theyre old is just silly. Everyone always needs to know how old you are, as well. I dont like mentioning my age, personally. It always elicits gasps and parlor guessing games. I imagine this type of behavior is uniquely American as well. By the way Im 46, and I look 15 years younger, if what people say is any indication. I am told I should be proud of my age. Why? For continuing to beat fate ...
Box jellyfish (class Cubozoa) are cnidarian invertebrates distinguished by their cube-shaped medusae. Some species of box jellyfish produce extremely potent venom: Chironex fleckeri, Carukia barnesi and Malo kingi. Stings from these and a few other species in the class are extremely painful and can be fatal to humans. "Box jellyfish" and "sea wasp" are common names for the highly venomous Chironex fleckeri. However, these terms are ambiguous, as "sea wasp" and "marine stinger" are sometimes used to refer to other jellyfish. The medusa form of a box jellyfish has a squarish, box-like bell. From each of the four lower corners of this hangs a short pedalium or stalk which bears one or more long, slender, hollow tentacles. The rim of the bell is folded inwards to form a shelf known as a velarium which restricts the bells aperture and creates a powerful jet when the bell pulsates. As a result, box jellyfish can move more rapidly than other jellyfish; speeds of up to six meters per minute have been ...
HABITAT: An arid country species. RANGE: Central Africa from Mauritania and Senegal to Ethiopia. SUBSPECIES: None. FEATURES: This is the largest mainland tortoise, with some adults reaching over 24 inches (50cms) in length and weighing over 100 lbs (50 kilos). The carapace is serrated; the anal scutes are split with the females having a wider opening than the males. The animal has a wide, rather fl attened carapace, yellow or pale brown in colour. Both limbs and the moderately large head are of the same colour as the carapace. The legs have thick scales and two or three strong gular spurs. The hatchlings have pale yellow carapaces with narrow brown bordered scutes. A 5 year old roughly weighs 40 lbs (20 kilos). Males are larger than females; copulation takes place during the rainy season with the males uttering grunting sounds. Clutches are usually large (between 15 and 30 eggs or even more) and have long incubation times (3-5 months depending on the temperature in the nesting ...
Unlike many jellyfish, the multiple-tentacled box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri is a fast and agile swimmer and is rarely ever found washed up on beaches. It can swim at up to three knots and manoeuvre around pylons and piers. Although Carukia barnesi is also a box jellyfish, it is not as proficient at swimming as Chironex fleckeri. All cubozoans have eyes so that they can hunt prey and avoid objects in the water. Each jellyfish has 24 eyes clustered into four groups of six on each side of its box-shaped body. There are two types of eye in each cluster two complex eyes similar to human eyes (with retinas, lenses and corneas) and two simple pit eyes and two slit eyes. Although cubozoan jellyfish do not a have a brain (they have neurons concentrated in four nerve centres), recent studies indicate that they can form images ...
... (0 comments): i cant believe i got a jellyfish sting!!! it itched so bad until i want into the ocean...
The jellyfish are coming!. According to the Marine Conservation Society, increasing numbers of jellyfish - presumably encouraged by the hot weather - are currently bobbing along Britains coastline.. This probably means many bathers will be having a painful aquatic encounter in the next couple of weeks - and some unlucky punters will probably get treated in a novel way.. Help on tap. Thats because lots of people still believe its a good idea to wee on someone whos been stung by a jellyfish.. Bizarre as it sounds, this is true. As temperatures soar this weekend, hundreds of British beachgoers will have their hands poised on their zippers, gunslinger-style, ready to pull down at a moments notice and help anyone running from the water in pain.. Dangerous cure. The hoary old myth that urinating on jellyfish stings lessens the pain is still surprisingly popular in the UK, despite medically making no sense at all. (Really, think about it. Its like saying you should vomit on someone with ...
Adults inhabit lagoon and seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). Each group of fish consists of a breeding pair and 0-4 non-breeders. Within each group there is a size-based hierarchy: the female is largest, the male is second largest, and the non-breeders get progressively smaller as the hierarchy is descended. If the female dies, the male changes sex and becomes the breeding female, while the largest non-breeder becomes the breeding male. The maintenance of size differences may avoid conflicts, because subordinates do not become a threat to their dominants (Ref. 47841). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205). Maybe found in shallower depths than A. ocellaris. Associated with the anemones: Heteractis crispa, Heteractis magnifica, and Stichodactyla gigantea (Ref. 5911). This species has been reared in captivity (Ref. 35404, 35413, 35420). ...
Adults inhabit lagoon and seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). Each group of fish consists of a breeding pair and 0-4 non-breeders. Within each group there is a size-based hierarchy: the female is largest, the male is second largest, and the non-breeders get progressively smaller as the hierarchy is descended. If the female dies, the male changes sex and becomes the breeding female, while the largest non-breeder becomes the breeding male. The maintenance of size differences may avoid conflicts, because subordinates do not become a threat to their dominants (Ref. 47841). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205). Maybe found in shallower depths than A. ocellaris. Associated with the anemones: Heteractis crispa, Heteractis magnifica, and Stichodactyla gigantea (Ref. 5911). This species has been reared in captivity (Ref. 35404, 35413, 35420). ...
Stock Photo of Jimble Box Jellyfish Carybdea rastoni. High Quality Jimble Box Jellyfish Images and Gloss Prints are available from Oceanwide Images Stock Photo Library.
Stock Photo of Box Jellyfish Chironex fleckeri. High Quality Box Jellyfish Images and Gloss Prints are available from Oceanwide Images Stock Photo Library.
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When Kozmik looked for box jellyfish genes that are involved in sight, he found that their opsin protein is also similar to the versions found in vertebrate eyes. With further tests, Kozmik confirmed that the jellyfishs opsin is a fully functioning visual protein. It sticks to retinal and is particularly sensitive to blue-green light. The similarities didnt stop there. Kozmik found that the chain of proteins that carry the message passed on by opsin, are again similar to those used by vertebrates. And just as our eyes use the dark pigment melanin, so do those of the box jellyfish. Amid its genome, Kozmik found the jellyfish versions of human gene called Oca2 and Mitf that are essential for creating melanin. The genes are switched on in a part of the jellyfish eye thats littered with granules of pigment, which were identified as melanin through chemical tests. Parallel or conserved? Despite the massive evolutionary gulf that separates jellyfish and vertebrates, both groups construct their eyes ...
Last weekend, my friend Heidi and her husband, Rich, invited the kids and I to join them for tidepooling at Leo Carrillo Beach, just north of Malibu. It was so much fun, and I hadnt done that since I was a teenager. We saw sea anemones, hermit crabs, starfish, and (gasp!) we all got to hold an octopus! You know, I have heard that sea anemones sting, but one of the best things about tidepooling when I was a kid was to touch a sea anemone and watch it curl up. I used to put seashells in the center of the anemones to watch them grab them, presumably to devour them. But then a minute or two later, you watch them spit the shells out. So, I tentatively touched one this time, and lo and behold they still dont sting! So I taught my kids how to touch them so they could have the experience of watching them curl up, too. Now, I would say that 10% of the time, the kids explored the tidepools, and 90% of the time they played Star Wars with Jacob and Connor on the beach, but I loved being there to watch ...
These data describe the genetics of recruiting Dascyllus trimaculatus. We first placed two rows of 8 anemones in a region (the west side of the bay of Opunohu) previously devoid of anemones. Anemones are 10 meters apart, the two rows are 100 meters apart. The row close to the reef crest is called crest , or OUT, row, the row away from the crest and close to the boat channel is called channel, or IN, row. The project started with the placement of the anemones in the fall of 2000. Since then, we regularly clear the anemones of Dascyllus and then collect newly settled fishes every morning. These fishes are later typed by sequencing the mitochondrial control region. Fishes are labeled as follows: DTR IN 01010205. This is a Dascyllus Trimaculatus collected on the channel row, first anemone, on January 2nd 2005. Anemones are numbered 1 to 8, from west to east.. These data are published in Bernardi, G., R. Beldade, S.J. Holbrook and R.J. Schmitt. 2012. Full-sibs in cohorts of newly settled coral reef ...
These data describe the abundance of settler-stage three-spot dascyllus (Dascyllus trimaculatus), a planktivorous damselfish to their juvenile microhabitat, the sea anemone Heteractis magnifica. Surveys were begun in 1993, and, except for 1994, have been conducted daily each year between June and September on a reef adjacent to the UC Berkeley Gump Research Station in Cooks Bay on the north shore of the island of Moorea in French Polynesia. This time series completed in 2012.. ...
Jellies dont get nearly as much love as their cousins, the corals, but they deserve credit for providing homes to some creatures, dinner to others and more. Theyre an integral part of the oceans.
ID A7S545_NEMVE Unreviewed; 564 AA. AC A7S545; DT 02-OCT-2007, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 02-OCT-2007, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 72. DE SubName: Full=Predicted protein {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EDO41140.1}; GN ORFNames=v1g206949 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EDO41140.1}; OS Nematostella vectensis (Starlet sea anemone). OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Cnidaria; Anthozoa; Hexacorallia; Actiniaria; OC Edwardsiidae; Nematostella. OX NCBI_TaxID=45351 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001593}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EDO41140.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001593} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=CH2 X CH6 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001593}; RX PubMed=17615350; DOI=10.1126/science.1139158; RA Putnam N.H., Srivastava M., Hellsten U., Dirks B., Chapman J., RA Salamov A., Terry A., Shapiro H., Lindquist E., Kapitonov V.V., RA Jurka J., Genikhovich G., Grigoriev I.V., Lucas S.M., Steele R.E., RA Finnerty J.R., Technau U., Martindale M.Q., Rokhsar D.S.; RT "Sea anemone genome ...
Commensalism - a form of symbiosis in which one organism helps the other organism, but there is no benefit or harm done in return (e.g. A clown fish lives inside a sea anemone and is protected by it. The sea anemone derives no benefit or harm from the relationship ...
Decaploid A. agropyroides had near-autopolyploid karyotype structure and contained characteristic sequence motifs of nrDNA repeats not encountered in any of the diploids studied. Special repeat types found in one of its accessions (Crete) showed that A. agropyroides originated from a diploid species with a hybrid background. One of the genomes involved was close to both that of extant species (Avenula aetolica, Avenula compressa, Avenula hookeri, Avenula schelliana, Avenula versicolor) distributed mostly in the eastern Mediterranean to Asia and North America and also to the west Mediterranean (Avenula bromoides). The other resembled that of exclusively western Mediterranean species (Avenula albinervis, Avenula levis, Avenula marginata, Avenula sulcata). Main conclusions ...
Removed from the synonymy of Pseudoeurycea sulcata (= Pseudoeurycea cephalica) by Bogert, 1967, Am. Mus. Novit., 2314: 3-5, where it had been placed by Brame, 1963 1962, Herpetologica, 18: 241-245. In the Pseudoeurycea cephalica group of Wake and Lynch, 1976, Sci. Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 25: 61. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 275-276, provided a brief account, photograph, and map. See photograph, map, description of geographic range and habitat, and conservation status in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 587.. ...
One of my favorite recent additions to the garden, the Japanese Anemone (Anemone x hybrida) produces exquisite fall blooms. To me they are as delicate as an orchid, as statuesque as a daisy and as carefree as a cone ...
The name of this weeks garden perennial is the Japanese Anemone Honorine Jobert also called Windflower. Its botanical name is Anemone x hybrida Honorine Jobert
The Plants Database includes the following 2 subspecies of Cyanea grimesiana . Click below on a thumbnail map or name for subspecies profiles ...
ANEMONE DISEASES Leaf spots may cause various spots on the leaves. No chemical control is listed. Rhizome rot causes rhizome decay then plant death.
A fuzzy green anemone eating a bird many times its size shows that you cant take anything for granted when it comes to which animals can eat each other.
This species is found in rocky shores among algae, and in association with the sea anemone. It is observed at depths of 0 to 50 m (Ref. 85342). Members of the order Mysida are gonochoric. Mating behavior: Male inserts the penis into the marsupium and releases sperm; eggs are then released from the oviducts into the marsupium where fertilization occurs. Life cycle: Eggs are brooded in the marsupium and later hatch into miniature adults, no postlarva (Ref. 833). ...
Animal systems like fruit flies and sea anemones help investigate how epithelial cells maintain order while getting jostled by cell division, say researchers.
Dec 13, 2017 - Entire home/apt for $435. Villa Blue key is overlooking on top of a hill the Agia Pelagia Bay , a place like a piece of art made by nature. Earth and sky collide offering an...
Japan-born, Iowa City-based artist Sayuri Sasaki Hemann creates underwater worlds with fabrics and felt in installations. Projects like "Urban Aquarium," which started in 2009 and appeared throughout Portland, recreate jellyfish and other sea inhabitants in places them in an airport and other unexpected places. ...
Christina Keskini; Anne L Coleman; M. Roy Wilson; Alon Harris; Fei Yu; Panayiota Founti; Eleftherios Anastasopoulos; Anna-Bettina Haidich; Theofanis Pappas; Nikolaos Dervenis; Angelakis Malamas; Pelagia Kalouda; Vasileios Kilintzis; Angeliki Salonikiou; Archimidis Koskosas; Fotis ...
Sortnamn: Robinsoniana. Höjd: 20 cm. Färg: Ljusblå. Blomtid: Juli-September. Läge: Sol-Halvskugga. Växtsätt: Marktäckande. Förökning: Genom att dela rotsystemet. ...
To prevent poaching, NIRMI does not provide the location of any endangered, threatened, or otherwise protected species found within any of our plots. All lists, charts, and calculations (richness, FQI, etc.) therefore exclude these species as well ...
when I was 15dpo (beta 1) is was 44 almost the same as you at the same time, and then 7 days later I was 959 (you are 840). You were probably a late implanter like me, and you will probably find that your baby measures about 5-6 days behind where it should be according to a due date using your egg retrieval as a guide...I am guessing you wait for u/s now too? At my first u/s, I did not see a hb, again because I was a late implanter and a few days behind...so don;t freak out if that happens! I didnt see the hb until seven and a half weeks...and everything turned out just fine ...
I took the Plan B pill 2 days after my period ended. 4 days later I got my period back. My period usually lasts 5 days but so far I am on my 7th day. Is this normal?
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Larva stage (planula) of a box jellyfish (Carybdea alata). This box jellyfish belongs to the Cubozoa group of Cnidarians. The larval stage of Cnidarians is called the planula and it is a free swimming developmental stage. Cubozoan planulae are pear-shaped, have pigment spots that may be sensitive to light, and swim for a few days using cilia. After a planula settles, it grows into a polyp. The cubozoan polyp can crawl around and bud off more polyps. Like all cnidarians, cubozoans possess nematocysts, cells that fire a barb and transfer venom. When a nematocyst contacts something that might be prey or predator, the barb uncoils and fires from the capsule along with toxic venom. Magnification x200 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/4164
Jellyfish Stings Symptoms and Treatments in Dogs and Cats - The warm, salty waters of the East, West, Chesapeake bar, and Gulf coast United States are home to a variety of boneless sea creatures collectively referred to as jellyfish.
The potentially fatal Irukandji syndrome is relatively common in tropical waters throughout the world. It is caused by the sting of the Irukandji jellyfish, a family of box jellyfish that are almost impossible to detect in the water owing to their small size and transparency. Using collated medical records of stings and local weather conditions, we show that the presence of Irukandji blooms in coastal waters can be forecast on the basis of wind conditions. On the Great Barrier Reef, blooms largely coincide with relaxation of the prevailing southeasterly trade winds, with average conditions corresponding to near zero alongshore wind on the day prior to the sting ...
Corals, sea anemones and jellyfish belong to a group of animals called cnidarians (pronounced nid-air-e-ans). There are two others in the cnidarian group: hydroids, known collectively as sea firs; and siphonophores, such as the Portuguese man-of-war, which are not single creatures, but colonies of many specialised individuals.. With 1,048 marine species, cnidarians are one of the largest groups of invertebrates in New Zealand waters. Although they may look quite different from each other, they share a common ancestry.. A feature of cnidarians is that they may have two forms. In one, the medusa or jellyfish phase, it is free swimming; in the other, it attaches to a surface and is called a polyp.. Cnidarians have a simple sac-like body, with a single opening surrounded by a ring of tentacles. Their body is made of two distinct layers of tissue, separated by a thick gelatinous substance called mesoglea.. All cnidarians have specialised stinging or nettle cells in their tentacles (their name comes ...
The nosestripe clownfish or nosestripe anemonefish,skunk clownfish, Amphiprion akallopisos, is an anemonefish (also called clownfish) that lives in association with sea anemones. A. akallopisos is found in the Indian Ocean. It resides in shallow inshore reefs as deep as 15 m with a moderate to strong current. The skunk clownfish can also be kept in captivity by aquarists. The skunk clownfish is identified by a light orange color, with a single, narrow, white stripe running from the mouth to the caudal peduncle, and can grow as large as 11 cm in length.[1] Like other anemonefish, the skunk clownfish is a protandrous hermaphrodite, and maintains a hierarchy within the host anemone that consists of a mating pair, of which the female is the largest, and non-mating males which get progressively smaller in size. A. akallopisos does not have a melanistic variation when associated with Stichodactyla mertensii unlike some other species of anemonefish, including A. chrysogaster, A. chrysopterus, A. ...
Irukandji syndrome is caused by the jellyfishs sting. At first it feels like little more than a mosquito bite, but the symptoms grow increasingly severe over the next 30 minutes or so. Eventually there are severe pains and headaches, terrible cramps in the arms and legs, sweating, vomiting, increase in heart rate and blood pressure, and even a "feeling of impending doom ...
Terrestrial hermit crabs begin their lives in the sea but, through a series of molts, develop the ability to breathe air. After the last developmental molt, the young hermit crab will drown if left in water for an indefinite period of time. Their link with the sea is never entirely broken, however, as hermit crabs carry a small amount of water in their shells at all times to keep their abdomen moist and their modified gills hydrated.. For some larger marine hermit crab species, having one or more sea anemones (a group of water dwelling, predatory animals of the order Actiniaria) growing on the shell can be very useful, because the anemones tend to scare away fish and other marine predators which might otherwise attack the crab. The sea anemone also benefits because it is well-positioned to consume loose fragments of the hermit crabs meals. Because of this mutualism (a biological interaction between individuals of two different species), sea anemones can be, and sometimes are, transferred to a ...
It has been reported that serine peptidase activities of Trypanosoma cruzi play crucial roles in parasite dissemination and host cell invasion and therefore their inhibition could affect the progress of Chagas disease. The present study investigates the interference of the Stichodactyla helianthus Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor (ShPI-I), a 55-amino acid peptide, in T. cruzi serine peptidase activities, parasite viability, and parasite morphology. The effect of this peptide was also studied in Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes and it was proved to be a powerful inhibitor of serine proteases activities and the parasite viability. The ultrastructural alterations caused by ShPI-I included vesiculation of the flagellar pocket membrane and the appearance of a cytoplasmic vesicle that resembles an autophagic vacuole. ShPI-I, which showed itself to be an important T. cruzi serine peptidase inhibitor, reduced the parasite viability, in a dose and time dependent manner. The maximum effect of ...
Aiptasia. Small, 2 to 4 cm. Excellent for demonstrating feeding and tactile response, asexual reproduction, and regeneration. Very hardy. Feed brine shrimp or marine rotifers. Culture contains 20 to 25 anemones. With instructions.
Background: Coral reef ecosystems are declining in response to global climate change and anthropogenic impacts. Yet patterns of standing genetic variation within cnidarian species, a major determinant of adaptive potential, are virtually unknown at genome-scale resolution. We explore patterns of genome-wide polymorphism and identify candidate loci under selection in the sea anemone Aiptasia, an important laboratory model system for studying the symbiosis between corals and dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium. Results: Low coverage genome sequencing revealed large genetic distances among globally widespread lineages, novel candidate targets of selection, and considerably higher heterozygosity than previously reported for Aiptasia. More than 670,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified among 10 Aiptasia individuals including two pairs of genetic clones. Evolutionary relationships based on genome-wide polymorphism supported the current paradigm of a genetically distinct ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Coronary occlusion and reperfusion promote early afterdepolarizations and ventricular tachycardia in a canine tissue model of type 3 long QT syndrome. AU - Ueda, Norihiro. AU - Zipes, Douglas P.. AU - Wu, Jiashin. PY - 2006/2. Y1 - 2006/2. N2 - Although long QT syndrome (LQTS) and coronary occlusion-reperfusion (O/R) are arrhythmogenic, they affect ventricular action potential duration (APD) differently. In contrast to the prolonged APD in LQTS, ischemia abbreviates APD after a transient prolongation. Thus we hypothesized that the dynamic interactive effects of ischemia and LQTS on APD and its dispersion would affect ventricular arrhythmogenicity. We mapped transmural distribution of action potentials in 6 groups of 10 isolated wedges of canine ventricular walls: LQTS-O/R, LQTS only, and O/R only, with separate groups for pacing cycle lengths (PCL) of 1,000 and 2,000 ms. We created type 3 LQTS with anemone toxin (ATX) II followed ,30 min later by arterial occlusion (40 min) and ...
Venom from animals such as cnidarians, scorpions and spiders may be species-specific. A substance that is weakly toxic for ... This prevents the cnidarian from stinging itself although sloughed off cnidae can be induced to fire independently. Over 30 ... Other cnidarians, such as the jellyfish Cyanea capillata (the "Lion's Mane" made famous by Sherlock Holmes) or the siphonophore ... Brinkman D, Burnell J (November 2007). "Identification, cloning and sequencing of two major venom proteins from the box ...
... wasp venoms MeSH D23.946.833.230 --- cnidarian venoms MeSH D23.946.833.370 --- fish venoms MeSH D23.946.833.590 --- mollusk ... cnidarian venoms MeSH D23.946.580.370 --- fish venoms MeSH D23.946.580.450 --- holothurin MeSH D23.946.580.565 --- lyngbya ... arthropod venoms MeSH D23.946.833.065.055 --- ant venoms MeSH D23.946.833.065.115 --- bee venoms MeSH D23.946.833.065.115.060 ... viper venoms MeSH D23.946.833.850.960.200 --- crotalid venoms MeSH D23.946.833.850.960.200.050 --- ancrod MeSH D23.946.833.850. ...
UHMedNow, "Angel Yanagihara's box jellyfish venom research leads to sting treatment", March 4, 2011 PBS Nova, Venom: Nature's ... Box jellyfish (class Cubozoa) are cnidarian invertebrates distinguished by their cube-shaped medusae. Some species of box ... the venom contained in their tentacles. Its effectiveness was demonstrated in the PBS NOVA documentary Venom: Nature's Killer, ... The venom of cubozoans is distinct from that of scyphozoans, and is used to catch prey (small fish and invertebrates, including ...
Pelagic cnidarians have nematocysts that eject a tightly coiled venomous thread very rapidly. These threads penetrate the ... surface of their target and release a venom. Copepod Plankton Meroplankton Australian Museum Online Anderson, Genny. "Marine ...
... and only cnidarians, have specialized harpoon cells called cnidocytes, which they often use to capture and/or inject venom into ... even though the slugs aren't cnidarians. But it turns out that the slug eats jellyfish and passes the jellyfish's commandeered ...
Prey of cnidarians ranges from plankton to animals several times larger than themselves.[34][37] Some cnidarians are parasites ... Nematocysts inject venom into prey, and usually have barbs to keep them embedded in the victims. Most species have nematocysts. ... Recent phylogenetic analyses support monophyly of cnidarians, as well as the position of cnidarians as the sister group of ... The position of Anthozoa nearest the beginning of the cnidarian family tree also implies that Anthozoa are the cnidarians most ...
Cnidarians[edit]. Cnidarians, such as jellyfish, sea anemones, Hydra and coral have numerous hair-like tentacles. Cnidarians ... The longer tentacles are equipped with cnidocytes whose venom paralyses and kills prey. The smaller tentacles guide food into ... "CNIDARIANS: SIMPLE ANIMALS WITH A STING!". oceanicresearch.org. Oceanic Research Group. Archived from the original on 7 July ...
Cnidarians and ctenophoresEdit. Cnidarians, such as jellyfish, sea anemones, Hydra and coral have numerous hair-like tentacles ... The longer tentacles are equipped with cnidocytes whose venom paralyses and kills prey. The smaller tentacles guide food into ... Cnidarians have huge numbers of cnidocytes on their tentacles. In medusoid form, the body floats on water so that the tentacles ... "CNIDARIANS: SIMPLE ANIMALS WITH A STING!". oceanicresearch.org. Oceanic Research Group. Archived from the original on 7 July ...
... wasp venoms MeSH D20.888.230 --- cnidarian venoms MeSH D20.888.370 --- fish venoms MeSH D20.888.590 --- mollusk venoms MeSH ... arthropod venoms MeSH D20.888.065.055 --- ant venoms MeSH D20.888.065.115 --- bee venoms MeSH D20.888.065.115.060 --- apamin ... viper venoms MeSH D20.888.850.960.200 --- crotalid venoms MeSH D20.888.850.960.200.050 --- ancrod MeSH D20.888.850.960.200.105 ... elapid venoms MeSH D20.888.850.325.139 --- bungarotoxins MeSH D20.888.850.325.220 --- cobra venoms MeSH D20.888.850.325.220.190 ...
The venom is injected through the hollow filament to immobilise the prey; the tentacles then manoeuvre the prey to the mouth. ... Corals are sessile animals in the class Anthozoa and differ from most other cnidarians in not having a medusa stage in their ... These cells carry venom which they rapidly release in response to contact with another organism. A dormant nematocyst ... Many corals, as well as other cnidarian groups such as Aiptasia (a sea anemone) form a symbiotic relationship with a class of ...
The venom is a mix of toxins, including neurotoxins, that paralyzes the prey so the anemone can move it to the mouth for ... Unlike other cnidarians, anemones (and other anthozoans) entirely lack the free-swimming medusal stage of their lifecycle; the ... As cnidarians, sea anemones are related to corals, jellyfish, tube-dwelling anemones, and Hydra. Unlike jellyfish, sea anemones ... The muscles and nerves are much simpler than those of most other animals, although more specialised than in other cnidarians, ...
Prey of cnidarians ranges from plankton to animals several times larger than themselves. Some cnidarians are parasites, mainly ... A tough capsule, the cnida, which houses the thread, its payload and a mixture of chemicals that may include venom or adhesives ... Hence, cnidarians and ctenophores have traditionally been labelled diploblastic, along with sponges. However, both cnidarians ... The position of Anthozoa nearest the beginning of the cnidarian family tree also implies that Anthozoa are the cnidarians most ...
The proteins closest in structure to the macins are a superfamily of proteins derived from scorpion venom, dubbed the scorpion ... Hydramacin-1 was first isolated from epithelial cells of the cnidarian Hydra, a small (almost-microscopic) freshwater animal ...
In some slow-moving radially symmetrical marine animals such as ctenophores and cnidarians (including sea anemones and ... They have mouthparts called chelicerae which are often connected to venom glands as most spiders are venomous. They have a ... the gelatinous cuticle of cnidarians (polyps, sea anemones, jellyfish) and the collagenous cuticle of annelids. The outer ...
The tentacles are armed with nematocysts, venom-containing cells which can be fired harpoon-fashion to snare and subdue prey. ... Anthozoa is the largest taxon of cnidarians; over six thousand solitary and colonial species have been described. They range in ... the zooxanthellae benefit by using nitrogenous waste and carbon dioxide produced by the host while the cnidarian gains ...
Because Glaucus concentrates the venom, it can produce a more powerful and deadly sting than the Man o' War on which it feeds. ... This sea slug stores stinging nematocysts from the cnidarian within its own tissues as defense against predation. Humans ...
Thus each gram of the offending zoanthid contained enough venom to kill at least 125 grown men. Palytoxin has also been known ... Zoanthids (order Zoantharia also called Zoanthidea or Zoanthiniaria) are an order of cnidarians commonly found in coral reefs, ...
In biology, a medusa (plural: medusae) is a form of cnidarian in which the body is shaped like an umbrella, in contrast with ... Fresh water is not usually used if the sting occurs in salt water, as changes in tonicity can release additional venom. Rubbing ... This term refers exclusively to the non-polyp life-stage which occurs in many cnidarians, which is typified by a large ... Salps are chordates, and as such are actually more closely related to humans than they are to cnidarians and comb jellies. ...
Cnidarians and ctenophores have simple nervous systems, and their cell layers are bound by internal connections and by being ... there is no evidence that they use venom. Most known carnivorous sponges have completely lost the water flow system and ... Like cnidarians (jellyfish, etc.) and ctenophores (comb jellies), and unlike all other known metazoans, sponges' bodies consist ... It has been suggested that they were produced by: sponges; cnidarians; algae; foraminiferans; a completely separate phylum of ...
The marine invertebrate fauna of Puerto Rico is composed of 61 sponges, 171 cnidarians, 8 nemerteans, 1,176 mollusks, 129 ... Javier A. Rodriguez Robles; Richard Thomas (1992). "Venom function in the Puerto Rican Racer, Alsophis portoricensis" (PDF). ... secretes venom. These species belong to 3 families and 4 genera: Typhlopidae (Typhlops genus), Boidae (Epicrates) and ...
Like cnidarians (jellyfish, etc.) and ctenophores (comb jellies), and unlike all other known metazoans, sponges' bodies are ... there is no evidence that they use venom.[11] ...
Like cnidarians (jellyfish, etc.) and ctenophores (comb jellies), and unlike all other known metazoans, sponges' bodies consist ... there is no evidence that they use venom.[37] ... Cnidarians and ctenophores[23]. Nervous system. No. Yes, simple ... cnidarians and bilaterians). Since choanoflagellates are thought to be animals' closest single-celled relatives, a team of ... cnidarians; algae; foraminiferans; a completely separate phylum of animals, Archaeocyatha; or even a completely separate ...
The stinging, venom-filled nematocysts in the tentacles of the Portuguese man o' war can paralyze small fish and other prey. ... The name "man o' war" comes from the man-of-war, an 18th-century armed sailing ship, and the cnidarian's supposed resemblance ... A small fish, Nomeus gronovii (the man-of-war fish or shepherd fish), is partially immune to the venom from the stinging cells ... The blanket octopus is immune to the venom of the Portuguese man o' war; young individuals carry broken man o' war tentacles, ...
Venom[edit]. Further information: Venom and Evolution of snake venom. Many smaller predators such as the box jellyfish use ... most cnidarians (e.g., jellyfish, hydroids), ctenophora (comb jellies), echinoderms (e.g., sea stars, sea urchins, sand dollars ... venom to subdue their prey,[86] and venom can also aid in digestion (as is the case for rattlesnakes and some spiders).[87][88] ... However, when the prey is capable of killing the predator (as can a coral snake with its venom), there is no opportunity for ...
Cnidarians can be compared to Ctenophores (comb jellyfish), which although are both jellyfish, have very different nervous ... Unlike Cnidarians, Ctenophores have neurons that use electrochemical signaling. This was perplexing because the phylum ... The other theory states that the nervous system arose independently twice, one basal to Cnidarians and one basal to Ctenophores ... Snake venom. Tempo and modes. *Gradualism/Punctuated equilibrium/Saltationism. *Micromutation/Macromutation. *Uniformitarianism ...
VenomEdit. Further information: Venom and Evolution of snake venom. Many smaller predators such as the box jellyfish use venom ... most cnidarians (e.g., jellyfish, hydroids), ctenophora (comb jellies), echinoderms (e.g., sea stars, sea urchins, sand dollars ... However, when the prey is capable of killing the predator (as can a coral snake with its venom), there is no opportunity for ... A more symmetric arms race may occur when the prey are dangerous, having spines, quills, toxins or venom that can harm the ...
... are probably extremely reduced cnidarians).[17] ... Snake venom. Tempo and modes. *Gradualism/Punctuated ...
Venoms from jellyfish; CORALS; SEA ANEMONES; etc. They contain hemo-, cardio-, dermo- , and neuro-toxic substances and probably ... Venom, Chironex; Venom, Cnidarian; Venom, Jellyfish; Venom, Portuguese Man-of-War; Venom, Sea Anemone; Venoms, Chironex; Venoms ... Chironex Venom; Cnidarian Venom; Jellyfish Venom; Portuguese Man-of-War Venom; Sea Anemone Venom; Portuguese Man of War Venom; ... Cnidarian; Venoms, Jellyfish; Venoms, Nematocyst; Venoms, Sea Anemone; Chironex Venoms; Jellyfish Venoms; Nematocyst Venoms; ...
Several cnidarian venoms have been found to have cytotoxic properties and have been also shown to cause hemolytic effects. Some ... During the last decades, the mechanisms of cell injury caused by cnidarian venoms have been studied utilizing extracts from ... The review aims to emphasize the up-to-date knowledge about this subject taking in consideration the importance of such venoms ... established cell lines or primary cultures have been employed to test cnidarian extracts or derivatives. ...
All cnidarians extracts tested inhibited the hemorrhagic activity induced by B. moojeni venom at a ratio of 1:30 w/w, showing ... However, all cnidarian extracts except M. alcicornis inhibited the coagulant activity induced by B. jararacussu venom at the ... Cnidarian extracts were able to neutralize clotting induced by Bothrops jararacussu snake venom, except M. alcicornis. All ... The cnidarian extracts analyzed showed relevant in vitro inhibitory potential over the activities induced by Bothrops venoms; ...
Utilizing specialized penetrating nematocysts, cnidarians inject the nematocyst content or ... Cnidarians are the oldest extant lineage of venomous animals. Despite their simple anatomy, they are capable of subduing or ... venom; enzymes; pore forming toxins; neurotoxins; vasodilatory biogenic amines; human envenomation cnidarians; venom; enzymes; ... In addition, certain cnidarian venoms contain or induce the release of host vasodilatory biogenic amines such as serotonin, ...
Hemolytic venoms from marine cnidarian jellyfish - an overview. July 23, 2014adminJournal of Venom Research, Volume 5 ... Enzymatic analysis of venom from Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus junceus. July 22, 2015adminJournal of Venom Research, Volume 6 ... Neuromuscular activity of Bothrops fonsecai snake venom in vertebrate preparations. June 18, 2014adminJournal of Venom Research ... Peptides with in vitro anti-tumor activity from the venom of the Eastern green mamba, Dendroaspis angusticeps (Elapidae). June ...
Cnidarian Venoms / Crotalid Venoms Limits: Animals Language: English Journal: J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis Journal ... Animals , Male , Rats , Antivenins/toxicity , Cnidarian Venoms/pharmacology , Crotalid Venoms/immunology , Bothrops , Neoplasms ... All cnidarian extracts were able to inhibit hemorrhagic activity induced by Bothrops moojeni venom. Only the C. gigantea (body ... The cnidarian extracts analyzed showed relevant in vitro inhibitory potential over the activities induced by Bothrops venoms; ...
All cnidarian extracts were able to inhibit hemorrhagic activity induced by Bothrops moojeni venom. Only the C. gigantea (body ... The cnidarian extracts analyzed showed relevant in vitro inhibitory potential over the activities induced by Bothrops venoms; ... Cnidarian extracts were able to neutralize clotting induced by Bothrops jararacussu snake venom, except M. alcicornis. ... these results may contribute to elucidate the possible mechanisms of interaction between cnidarian extracts and snake venoms. ...
0 (Cnidarian Venoms); 0 (Luminescent Proteins); 0 (Proteome); 0 (ShK neurotoxin); 0 (red fluorescent protein); EC 1.11.1.15 ( ... Zinc Metalloproteinase was previously reported in the venom of other jellyfish species. Besides the proteins described above, ...
0 (Cnidarian Venoms); 0 (Nerve Tissue Proteins); 0 (Neurotoxins). [Em] M s de entrada:. 1702. ... The total amount of venom discharged into sting-site tissues, sometimes referred to as "venom load", has been previously shown ... Its venom is a complex mixture of biologically active compounds that are used to catch prey. In order to evaluate the activity ... The crude venom and a fraction were observed to affect crustaceans and showed at least two types of bioactivity in oocytes ...
Some cnidarian venoms have little effect on humans. Others are extremely toxic. The venom of the Portuguese man-of-war ( ... Small anemone-like cnidarians like Hydra sp. are also found in freshwater lakes and streams. Cnidarians range in size from tiny ... Cnidarians have a slightly more organized body plan, and have tissues, but no organs. Most cnidarians have two tissue layers. ... Many cnidarians take two main structural forms during their life cycles, a polyp form and a medusa form. The polyp form has a ...
Cytotoxic and Cytolytic Cnidarian Venoms. A Review on Health Implications and Possible Therapeutic Applications Gian Luigi ... Neuromuscular Activity of Micrurus laticollaris (Squamata: Elapidae) Venom in Vitro Alejandro Carbajal-Saucedo,Rafael Stuani ... AaeAP1 and AaeAP2: Novel Antimicrobial Peptides from the Venom of the Scorpion, Androctonus aeneas: Structural Characterisation ...
Cnidarian Venoms and Alternative Research Methods: From Cell Damage to Possible Applications => pp. 257-276 (Gian Luigi ... Cnidarian jellyfish are among the most elegant and dazzling organisms inhabiting the global aquatic environment, due to their ...
In most Cnidarians, a "nettle" has evolved for effective injection of venom into the prey. Such a device is found in jellyfish ... Understanding and utilising mammalian venom via a platypus venom transcriptome. J. Proteomics 2009, 72, 155-164. [Google ... The Cnidarian Short Proteome. Currently, there are over 83,000 known proteins for the different branches of Cnidaria. Most of ... Several venom components evolved via convergent evolution [43]. Our study confirms that the phenomenon of genetic expansion and ...
Toxin peptides from other cnidarian venoms, like sea anemones, target sodium and potassium voltage-gated channels. In this ... A Purified Palythoa Venom Fraction Delays Sodium Current Inactivation in Sympathetic Neurons Toxicon : Official Journal of the ... Little is known on the pharmacological and biochemical properties of the venom components of this animal group. ... study, we tested the activity of a low molecular weight fraction from the venom of P. caribaeorum on voltage-gated sodium ...
Venom from animals such as cnidarians, scorpions and spiders may be species-specific. A substance that is weakly toxic for ... This prevents the cnidarian from stinging itself although sloughed off cnidae can be induced to fire independently. Over 30 ... Other cnidarians, such as the jellyfish Cyanea capillata (the "Lions Mane" made famous by Sherlock Holmes) or the siphonophore ... Brinkman D, Burnell J (November 2007). "Identification, cloning and sequencing of two major venom proteins from the box ...
Natural Compounds and Drug Discovery: Can Cnidarian Venom Play a Role? Volume: 19 Issue: 2 Pp: 114-118 Gian Luigi Mariottini* ...
In many cnidarians, these nematocysts contain powerful venoms that can be used for defense or to capture prey. ... Cnidarians are characterized by radial symmetry and the presence of stinging cells called cnidocytes that are used for the ... Cnidarians are have two true tissue layers (an outer epidermis and an inner gastrodermis) separated by a connective tissue ... Two body types are seen in cnidarians; the polyp is a sessile, cylindrical form in which the oral end (mouth and tentacles) is ...
Natural Compounds and Drug Discovery: Can Cnidarian Venom Play a Role?. Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry ...
Like all cnidarians, cubozoans possess nematocysts, cells that fire a barb and transfer venom. When a nematocyst contacts ... The larval stage of Cnidarians is called the planula and it is a free swimming developmental stage. Cubozoan planulae are pear- ... something that might be prey or predator, the barb uncoils and fires from the capsule along with toxic venom. Magnification ... This box jellyfish belongs to the Cubozoa group of Cnidarians. ... Like all cnidarians, cubozoans possess nematocysts, cells that ...
The actives inhibit venom induced hemolysis of all cnidarian venoms tested (Chironex, carbydeids, Cyanea physalia etc). The ... Angel Yanagihara is a research professor at the University of Hawaii and has been studying the venom of box jellyfish for over ... Her own life-threatening encounter in 1997 prompted her interest in box jelly venoms. "I got stung, and there was no useful ...
Cnidarian Venoms. Papers overview. Semantic Scholar uses AI to extract papers important to this topic. ...
... wasp venoms MeSH D23.946.833.230 --- cnidarian venoms MeSH D23.946.833.370 --- fish venoms MeSH D23.946.833.590 --- mollusk ... cnidarian venoms MeSH D23.946.580.370 --- fish venoms MeSH D23.946.580.450 --- holothurin MeSH D23.946.580.565 --- lyngbya ... arthropod venoms MeSH D23.946.833.065.055 --- ant venoms MeSH D23.946.833.065.115 --- bee venoms MeSH D23.946.833.065.115.060 ... viper venoms MeSH D23.946.833.850.960.200 --- crotalid venoms MeSH D23.946.833.850.960.200.050 --- ancrod MeSH D23.946.833.850. ...
Cnidarian venoms produce a wide spectrum of envenoming syndromes in humans ranging from minor local irritation to death. Here, ... The venom of C. fleckeri was found to be more lethal against Artemia sp. than the venom of the other species, consistent with ... Carybdea xaymacana; Chiropsalmus sp.; Chironex fleckeri; Cnidarian venoms; haemolysis; jellyfish; lethality; verapamil. ... Haemolytic activity was observed for all venoms, with C. xaymacana venom displaying the greatest activity. These activities are ...
The venom, F1, F2 and F 3 showed significant anti-proliferative activity in time-dependent manner. Our results also suggest ... Overall, Pelagia noctiluca venom may has the potential to serve as a template for future anticancer-drug development. ... To conclude, we have demonstrated for the first time that Pelagia noctiluca venom and its fractions especially (F1 and F2) ... In our study, we have investigated the efficiency of the venom from the Mediterranean jellyfish, Pelagia noctiluca and its ...
Cnidarians are diverse and come in many shapes and sizes but there are some basic anatomical features that most members of the ... Nematocysts, when discharged, deliver a stinging venom that serves to paralyze prey and enable the cnidarian to ingest its ... Cnidocytes are specialized cells located in the epidermis of all cnidarians. These cells are unique to cnidarians, no other ... cnidocytes which are specialized cells unique to cnidarians which in some cnidarians contain stinging structures, mucus- ...
  • The stinging cells, or cnidocysts, of sea anemones, jellyfish and other cnidarians contain a coiled hollow thread that unravels rapidly when triggered by physical contact - so rapidly that the pressure on the tip can theoretically reach nearly 7 gigapascals (PDF) , higher than the pressure needed to form diamonds within the Earth's mantle. (newscientist.com)
  • Unlike some of the better known groups of venomous animals such as snakes and spiders, however, or even their fellow cnidarians the Australian box jellyfish or Irukandji, which (quite appropriately) attract considerable public attention [ 8 , 9 ], the potentially harmful consequences of contact with sea anemones are relatively unknown. (mdpi.com)
  • Cnidarians , such as jellyfish , sea anemones , Hydra and coral have numerous hair-like tentacles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cnidaria (Gr., cnidae , nettle) is a phylum of mostly marine Metazoa distinguished by cnidocysts, subcellular capsules containing an inverted tubule capable of everting and, in some cases, discharging venom. (els.net)
  • Again, since box jelly venom contains these pore-forming proteins that act very quickly to break open blood cells, releasing epinephrine, and is not an IgE-based allergy, use of an EpiPen (for injecting epinephrine or adrenaline to treat serious allergic reactions) is reportedly contraindicated and can lead to dangerous paradoxical effects. (midweek.com)
  • Western blot analysis using CSL box jellyfish antivenom indicated several antigenic proteins in A. nr mordens venom, however, it did not detect all proteins present in the venom. (edu.au)
  • And while there's still more to learn, last week, a research team from Queensland, Australia published the most extensive analysis of Chironex venom proteins to date, revealing some of the diverse arsenal that these gelatinous killers are equipped with. (discovermagazine.com)
  • The team's goal was to perform the most in-depth analysis of Chironex venom to date, producing both a proteome (a library of the proteins present) and a transcriptome (a library of which genes are expressed). (discovermagazine.com)
  • While they could have used either the genetic or proteomic approaches to look at venom proteins, the combination was particularly powerful. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Over 73% (96 proteins) showed homology to venom proteins from assassin bugs (Reduviidae), including 21% (28 proteins from seven families) not known from other sources. (springer.com)
  • Beyond the level of sequence mutation, dramatic changes in venom activity and composition may reflect rapid changes in expression levels of toxin-encoding genes, i.e., in the recruitment of new proteins into venom or their loss or downregulation. (springer.com)
  • and Hydrozoa , a diverse group that includes all the freshwater cnidarians as well as many marine forms, and has both sessile members, such as Hydra , and colonial swimmers, such as the Portuguese Man o' War . (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, whole genome sequences became available for two cnidarians, Hydra magnipapillata and Nematostella vectensis , and large expressed sequence tag (EST) datasets are available for these and for the coral Acropora millepora . (biomedcentral.com)
  • A canonical Toll/TLR pathway is present in representatives of the basal cnidarian class Anthozoa, but neither a classic Toll/TLR receptor nor a conventional nuclear factor (NF)-κB could be identified in the anthozoan Hydra . (biomedcentral.com)
  • previously shown to be clinically effective toward dermatitis caused by venomous jellyfishes, was studied as to its ability to neutralize toxic activities of jellyfish venoms. (curehunter.com)
  • The present study aimed to determine the toxic activity and assess the antitumor and antiparasitic potential of Palythoa caribaeorum venom by evaluating its in vitro toxicity on several models including human tumor cell lines and against the parasite Giardia intestinalis. (bvsalud.org)
  • The venom was toxic to insects and showed activity against G. intestinalis in a dose-dependent manner by possibly altering its membrane osmotic equilibrium. (bvsalud.org)
  • The present study investigated the toxic effects of B. lienhardi venom, at the histological, hematological, biochemical and motor skill levels following a subcutaneous injection of different doses of venom. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The poison is found in the fish's muscle tissue which is as toxic as the blue-ringed octopus' venom. (howstuffworks.com)
  • This underscores the need of characterizing the biochemical and immunological properties of the main toxic components of Micrurus venoms, aiming to improve the limited para-specific coverage of current antivenoms. (bvsalud.org)
  • This is responsible for the stings delivered by a cnidarian. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other cnidarians, such as the jellyfish Cyanea capillata (the "Lion's Mane" made famous by Sherlock Holmes) or the siphonophore Physalia physalis (Portuguese man o' war, "Bluebottle") can cause extremely painful and sometimes fatal stings. (wikipedia.org)
  • These organelles contain irritating poisons, and are armed with sharp hollow threads that deliver venom causing painful stings. (biomedcentral.com)
  • With one exception, systemic signs of envenoming following cnidarian stings occur more or less immediately after the sting. (vapaguide.info)
  • Independent of the aetiology, common to all serious cnidarian stings is the possibility that a critical, life-threatening situation may arise within a very short time following the sting. (vapaguide.info)
  • One strategy to solve this problem is to train paramedics in the initial treatment of cnidarian stings . (vapaguide.info)
  • Natural Compounds and Drug Discovery: Can Cnidarian Venom Play a Role? (eurekaselect.com)
  • Conclusion: These results suggest that P. caribaeorum venom contains compounds with potential therapeutic value against microorganisms and cancer. (bvsalud.org)
  • Pain-inducing or "algesic" venom compounds have proven invaluable to our understanding of how physiological nociceptive neural networks operate. (edu.au)
  • Venomics-Accelerated Cone Snail Venom Peptide Discovery. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Cone snail venoms have separately evolved for predation and defense. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The aim of this study was to characterise the pharmacological activity of two novel linear conorfamides (conorfamide_As1a and conorfamide_As2a) and their non-amidated counterparts (conopeptide_As1b and conopeptide_As2b) that were isolated from the venom of the Mexican cone snail Conus austini. (atgcchecker.com)
  • Cnidarians have a slightly more organized body plan, and have tissues, but no organs. (hawaii.edu)
  • The total amount of venom discharged into sting-site tissues, sometimes referred to as "venom load", has been previously shown to correlate with tentacle contact length and sequelae severity. (pubfacts.com)
  • A. nr mordens venom (25 ?g/ml) produced a contractile response in rat electrically stimulated vas deferens which was markedly reduced in tissues pre-treated with reserpine (0.1 mM) or guanethidine (0.1 mM). (edu.au)
  • The pharmacology of Malo maxima jellyfish venom extract in isolated cardiovascular tissues: A probable cause of the Irukandji syndrome in Western Australia. (medscape.com)
  • Cardiovascular actions of the venom from the Irukandji (Carukia barnesi) jellyfish: effects in human, rat and guinea-pig tissues in vitro and in pigs in vitro. (medscape.com)
  • Some animals that look similar to cnidarians are actually not part of the same phylum. (hawaii.edu)
  • Cnidarians comprise an old and diverse animal phylum, and possess a wide variety of biologically active substances. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cnidarians were formerly grouped with ctenophores in the phylum Coelenterata , but increasing awareness of their differences caused them to be placed in separate phyla. (wikipedia.org)
  • The jellyfish are grouped under Cnidarian phylum, whose characteristic feature is the presence of a gelatinous and a non-living body embedded between the epithelial layers. (momjunction.com)
  • They are plankton from the phylum Cnidarian and Scyphozoan class. (momjunction.com)
  • Cubozoans (box jellyfish) are cnidarians that have evolved a number of distinguishing features. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, we annotated a large set of candidate genes putatively involved in venom, vision and sex, providing an initial molecular characterization of these complex features in cubozoans. (beds.ac.uk)
  • This new genomic resource and the candidate gene dataset are valuable for further investigating the evolution of distinctive features of cubozoans, and of cnidarians more broadly. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Like other cnidarians , cubozoans are composed of two layers of cells, ectoderm and endoderm . (berkeley.edu)
  • Finally, it is worth mentioning in case you go on to read more about cubozoans (or any other cnidarians for that matter) that the plains of symmetry in a cubozoan have special names. (berkeley.edu)
  • Inside the cnidocyst, there is an inverted tubule, venom and a huge osmotic pressure. (cmas.org)
  • Nematostella vectensis , a member of the cnidarian class Anthozoa, has been established as a promising model system in developmental biology, but while information about the genetic regulation of embryonic development is rapidly increasing, little is known about the cellular organization of the various cell types in the adult. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although both ctenophores and cnidarians have similar bodies with thin tissue layers enclosing a middle layer of jellylike material, scientists now group them separately. (hawaii.edu)
  • Hence, cnidarians and ctenophores have traditionally been labelled diploblastic , along with sponges. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, both cnidarians and ctenophores have a type of muscle that, in more complex animals, arises from the middle cell layer . (wikipedia.org)
  • The composition of cnidarian venoms remains incompletely elucidated. (scielo.br)
  • I did a basic literature search for biochemical publications and was surprised that little was known about the potentially lethal box jellyfish venom or its composition. (midweek.com)
  • Scientists have been trying to determine the composition of box jelly venom for decades, but have only uncovered some of its potent constituents . (discovermagazine.com)
  • In contrast, trophic switches to blood-feeding (e.g. in Triatominae and Cimicidae) or reversions to plant-feeding (e.g., in Pentatomomorpha) were accompanied by rapid changes in the composition of venom/saliva, including the loss of many protein families. (springer.com)
  • The composition of an animal's venom evolves dynamically within its larger ecological context. (springer.com)
  • Complete loss or gain of venom use (i.e., changes in whether a secretion is used for envenomation or not) unsurprisingly entails marked consequences for the evolution of its composition over time. (springer.com)
  • Heteropteran insects are an ideal group in which to explore how large changes in trophic strategy-for example between phytophagy, entomophagy, and haematophagy, and including complete loss or gain of venom use-co-evolve with the composition of a venom/saliva secretion. (springer.com)
  • While some venoms are of relatively simple composition, many contain hundreds to thousands of individual components with distinct pharmacological activity. (edu.au)
  • The larval stage of Cnidarians is called the planula and it is a free swimming developmental stage. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Like many cnidarians, cubozoan life history includes a swimming planula larva that ultimately settles onto a substrate to become an asexually reproducing polyp. (beds.ac.uk)
  • All cnidarian extracts showed indirect hemolytic activity, but only S. helianthus induced direct hemolysis and neurotoxic effect. (scielo.br)
  • In P. Gopalakrishnakone (Ed.), Scorpion venoms (pp. 547-561) Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. (edu.au)
  • The LD50 of B. lienhardi scorpion venom was found to be 0.27 mg/Kg by subcutaneous injection route. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Here, the effect of two venom fractions of the scorpion Centruroides limpidus was assessed on T lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production. (bvsalud.org)
  • In addition, certain cnidarian venoms contain or induce the release of host vasodilatory biogenic amines such as serotonin, histamine, bunodosine and caissarone accelerating the pathogenic effects of other venom enzymes and porins. (mdpi.com)
  • Our experiments have indicated that the separation of the Mediterranean jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca crude venom extract by sephadex G-75 chromatography led to four fractions (F1, F2, F3, and F4). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Separation by sephadex G-75 chromatography give rise to more active fractions than the crude venom extract. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Characterization of the innate immune repertoire of extant cnidarians is of both fundamental and applied interest - it not only provides insights into the basic immunological 'tool kit' of the common ancestor of all animals, but is also likely to be important in understanding the global decline of coral reefs that is presently occurring. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We describe the isolation and characterization of α-conotoxin MilIA, the first conopeptide from the venom of Conus milneedwardsi. (bvsalud.org)
  • In severe cases, the venom causes systemic effects, including acute cardiovascular collapse and death in a matter of minutes or more delayed but potentially deadly symptoms - a condition known as Irukandji Syndrome. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Cnidarian envenomations are the leading cause of severe and lethal human sting injuries from marine life. (pubfacts.com)
  • Heated Debates: Hot-Water Immersion or Ice Packs as First Aid for Cnidarian Envenomations? (nih.gov)
  • Phylogenomics provides a robust topology of the major cnidarian lineages and insights on the origins of key organismal traits. (ufl.edu)
  • To overcome the limitations of the traditional low-throughput bio-discovery approaches, multi-omics systems approaches have been introduced to accelerate venom peptide discovery and characterisation. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Novel conorfamides from Conus austini venom modulate both nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and acid-sensing ion channels. (atgcchecker.com)
  • NOTE: Fire-coral venom is known to have dermonecrotic effects. (diversalertnetwork.org)
  • Micrurus tschudii tschudii, the 'Desert coral snake' from Perú, displays an extreme 3FTx-predominant venom phenotype, with â ¼95% of its proteome belonging to this protein family. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cnidarian jellyfish are among the most elegant and dazzling organisms inhabiting the global aquatic environment, due to their various and sometimes striking colours as well as their long and dense tentacle structures. (novapublishers.com)
  • these results may contribute to elucidate the possible mechanisms of interaction between cnidarian extracts and snake venoms. (scielo.br)
  • Cnidarian venoms and extracts have shown a broad variety of biological activities including cytotoxic, antibacterial and antitumoral effects. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cytotoxic and Cytolytic Cnidarian Venoms. (mdpi.com)
  • Cnidarians may negatively impact human activities and public health but concomitantly their venom represents a rich source of bioactive substances. (pubfacts.com)
  • The venom of C. fleckeri was found to be more lethal against Artemia sp. (edu.au)
  • Venom has evolved to arm many otherwise defenseless animals with a lethal weapon ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The complexity of venom components represents a unique therapeutic challenge and probably reflects the ancient evolutionary history of the cnidarian venom system. (mdpi.com)
  • These results also offer preliminary insights into the evolutionary history of venom glands in the Siluriformes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Expression profiles and gene tree reconstruction provided a number of preliminary insights into the putative sites of nematogenesis and venom production, regions of phototransduction activity and fertilization dynamics in A. alata . (beds.ac.uk)
  • I was greatly surprised to be funded because I had never worked in the field of marine biochemistry or venoms before. (midweek.com)