Venoms from jellyfish; CORALS; SEA ANEMONES; etc. They contain hemo-, cardio-, dermo- , and neuro-toxic substances and probably ENZYMES. They include palytoxin, sarcophine, and anthopleurine.
A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA which alternates between polyp and medusa forms during their life cycle. There are over 2700 species in five orders.
The order Actiniaria, in the class ANTHOZOA, comprised of large, solitary polyps. All species are carnivorous.
Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
A genus of freshwater polyps in the family Hydridae, order Hydroida, class HYDROZOA. They are of special interest because of their complex organization and because their adult organization corresponds roughly to the gastrula of higher animals.
A double-walled capsule found in jellyfish and other CNIDARIA whose functions include prey capture, defense, locomotion, and attachment. Nematocysts contain toxic CNIDARIAN VENOMS which are injected into the victim via a barbed tubule.
Venoms obtained from Apis mellifera (honey bee) and related species. They contain various enzymes, polypeptide toxins, and other substances, some of which are allergenic or immunogenic or both. These venoms were formerly used in rheumatism to stimulate the pituitary-adrenal system.
Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.
Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.
Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.
Venoms produced by the wasp (Vespid) family of stinging insects, including hornets; the venoms contain enzymes, biogenic amines, histamine releasing factors, kinins, toxic polypeptides, etc., and are similar to bee venoms.
The class of true jellyfish, in the phylum CNIDARIA. They are mostly free-swimming marine organisms that go through five stages in their life cycle and exhibit two body forms: polyp and medusa.
Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.
Phylum of marine colenterates characterized by eight comb rows of fused cilia on the body surface. In contrast to CNIDARIA they lack stinging cells, but they are voracious predators and possess sticky cells (colloblasts) for capturing prey. Most species are transparent and many exhibit bioluminescence.
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.
Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.
Venoms from animals of the phylum Arthropoda. Those most investigated are from scorpions and spiders of the class Arachnidae and from ant, bee, and wasp families of the Insecta order Hymenoptera. The venoms contain protein toxins, enzymes, and other bioactive substances and may be lethal to man.
Flagellate EUKARYOTES, found mainly in the oceans. They are characterized by the presence of transverse and longitudinal flagella which propel the organisms in a rotating manner through the water. Dinoflagellida were formerly members of the class Phytomastigophorea under the old five kingdom paradigm.
A phylum of primitive invertebrate animals that exemplify a simple body organization. Trichoplax adhaerens is considered a key species for early metazoan evolution.
The class of box jellyfish, in the phylum CNIDARIA, characterized by their cube shape, and considered the most venomous jellyfish.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Single-celled, aquatic endoparasitic worms that are currently considered belonging to the phylum CNIDARIA. They have a complex life cycle and parasitize a wide range of hosts including FISHES; ANNELIDA; and BRYOZOA.
A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)
Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.
Animals that have no spinal column.
Venoms produced by FISHES, including SHARKS and sting rays, usually delivered by spines. They contain various substances, including very labile toxins that affect the HEART specifically and all MUSCLES generally.
The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.
Venoms from the superfamily Formicoidea, Ants. They may contain protein factors and toxins, histamine, enzymes, and alkaloids and are often allergenic or immunogenic.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)
Venoms from mollusks, including CONUS and OCTOPUS species. The venoms contain proteins, enzymes, choline derivatives, slow-reacting substances, and several characterized polypeptide toxins that affect the nervous system. Mollusk venoms include cephalotoxin, venerupin, maculotoxin, surugatoxin, conotoxins, and murexine.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Arthropods of the order Scorpiones, of which 1500 to 2000 species have been described. The most common live in tropical or subtropical areas. They are nocturnal and feed principally on insects and other arthropods. They are large arachnids but do not attack man spontaneously. They have a venomous sting. Their medical significance varies considerably and is dependent on their habits and venom potency rather than on their size. At most, the sting is equivalent to that of a hornet but certain species possess a highly toxic venom potentially fatal to humans. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, p417; Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p503)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A genus of venomous snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae. Twelve species of this genus are found in North and Central America and Asia. Agkistrodon contortrix is the copperhead, A. piscivorus, the cottonmouth. The former is named for its russet or orange-brown color, the latter for the white interior of its mouth. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336; Moore, Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p75)
Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.
Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
A phylum of metazoan invertebrates comprising the segmented worms, and including marine annelids (POLYCHAETA), freshwater annelids, earthworms (OLIGOCHAETA), and LEECHES. Only the leeches are of medical interest. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
Synthetic analogs of NUCLEIC ACIDS composed of morpholine ring derivatives (MORPHOLINES) linked by phosphorodimidates. One standard DNA nucleic acid base (ADENINE; GUANINE; CYTOSINE; OR THYMINE) is bound to each morpholine ring.
A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.
Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)
Photosensitive proteins in the membranes of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS such as the rods and the cones. Opsins have varied light absorption properties and are members of the G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS family. Their ligands are VITAMIN A-based chromophores.
A genus of cone-shaped marine snails in the family Conidae, class GASTROPODA. It comprises more than 600 species, many containing unique venoms (CONUS VENOMS) with which they immobilize their prey.
A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. About 30 species are currently recognized, found in southeast Asia and adjacent island chains. The Okinawa habu frequently enters dwellings in search of rats and mice; the Chinese habu is often found in suburban and agricultural areas. They are quite irritable. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p136)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A portion of the animal phylum Chordata comprised of the subphyla CEPHALOCHORDATA; UROCHORDATA, and HYPEROTRETI, but not including the Vertebrata (VERTEBRATES). It includes nonvertebrate animals having a NOTOCHORD during some developmental stage.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
The internal fragments of precursor proteins (INternal proTEINS) that are autocatalytically removed by PROTEIN SPLICING. The flanking fragments (EXTEINS) are ligated forming mature proteins. The nucleic acid sequences coding for inteins are considered to be MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Inteins are composed of self-splicing domains and an endonuclease domain which plays a role in the spread of the intein's genomic sequence. Mini-inteins are composed of the self-splicing domains only.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
A genus of poisonous snakes of the subfamily Elapinae of the family ELAPIDAE. They comprise the kraits. Twelve species are recognized and all inhabit southeast Asia. They are considered extremely dangerous. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p120)
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
A specific complex of toxic proteins from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake). It can be separated into a phospholipase A and crotapotin fragment; the latter consists of three different amino acid chains, potentiates the enzyme, and is specifically neurotoxic.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.
A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. It is distributed in West Pakistan, most of India, Burma, Ceylon, Thailand, southeast China, Taiwan, and a few islands of Indonesia. It hisses loudly when disturbed and strikes with great force and speed. Very prolific, it gives birth to 20-60 young. This viper is the leading cause of snakebite in India and Burma. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p127)
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.

Cellular and ionic basis for T-wave alternans under long-QT conditions. (1/271)

BACKGROUND: T-wave alternans (TWA), an ECG phenomenon characterized by beat-to-beat alternation of the morphology, amplitude, and/or polarity of the T wave, is commonly observed in the acquired and congenital long-QT syndromes (LQTS). This study examines the cellular and ionic basis for TWA induced by rapid pacing under conditions mimicking the LQT3 form of the congenital LQTS in an arterially perfused canine left ventricular wedge preparation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Transmembrane action potentials from epicardial, M, and endocardial cells and 6 to 8 intramural unipolar electrograms were simultaneously recorded together with a transmural ECG and isometric tension development. In the presence of sea anemone toxin (ATX-II; 20 nmol/L), an increase in pacing rate (from a cycle length [CL] of 500 to 400 to 250 ms) produced a wide spectrum of T-wave and mechanical alternans. Acceleration to CLs of 400 to 300 ms produced mild to moderate TWA principally due to beat-to-beat alternation of repolarization of cells in the M region. Transmural dispersion of repolarization during alternans was exaggerated during alternate beats. Acceleration to CLs of 300 to 250 ms caused more pronounced beat-to-beat alternation of action potential duration (APD) of the M cell, resulting in a reversal of repolarization sequence across the ventricular wall, leading to alternation in the polarity of the T wave. The peak of the negative T waves coincided with repolarization of the M region, whereas the end of the negative T wave coincided with the repolarization of epicardium. In almost all cases, electrical alternans was concordant with mechanical alternans. Torsade de pointes occurred after an abrupt acceleration of CL, which was associated with marked TWA. Both ryanodine and low [Ca2+]o completely suppressed alternans of the T wave, APD, and contraction, suggesting a critical role for intracellular Ca2+ cycling in the maintenance of TWA. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that TWA observed at rapid rates under long-QT conditions is largely the result of alternation of the M-cell APD, leading to exaggeration of transmural dispersion of repolarization during alternate beats, and thus the potential for development of torsade de pointes. Our data also suggest that unlike transient forms of TWA that damp out quickly and depend on electrical restitution factors, the steady-state electrical and mechanical alternans demonstrated in this study appears to be largely the result of beat-to-beat alternans of [Ca2+]i.  (+info)

ATX II, a sodium channel toxin, sensitizes skeletal muscle to halothane, caffeine, and ryanodine. (2/271)

BACKGROUND: The function or expression of subtypes of the sodium ion (Na+) channel is altered in biopsies or cultures of skeletal muscle from many persons who are susceptible to malignant hyperthermia (MH). ATX II, a specific Na+ channel toxin from a sea anemone, causes delayed inactivation of the channel similar to that seen in cell cultures of MH muscle. ATX II was added to skeletal muscle to determine whether altered Na+ channel function could increase the sensitivity of normal skeletal muscle to agents (halothane, caffeine, ryanodine) to which MH muscle is hypersensitive. METHODS: Studies were performed of fiber bundles from the vastus lateralis muscle of persons who were deemed not MH susceptible (MH-) or MH susceptible (MH+) according to the MH diagnostic test and of strips of diaphragm muscle from rats. Preparations in a tissue bath containing Krebs solution were connected to a force transducer. ATX II was introduced 5 min before halothane, caffeine, or ryanodine. RESULTS: ATX II increased the magnitude of contracture to halothane in preparations from most MH-, but not MH+, human participants. After ATX II treatment, preparations from 9 of 24 MH- participants generated contractures to halothane, 3%, that were of the same magnitude as those from MH+ participants. Preparations from four of six ATX II-treated healthy participants also gave responses of the same magnitude as those of MH-susceptible participants to a graded halothane challenge (0.5-3%). The contractures to bolus doses of halothane in specimens from male participants were more than three times larger than the contractures in specimens from female participants. In rat muscle, ATX II increased the magnitude of contracture to caffeine (2 mM) and decreased the time to produce a 1-g contracture to ryanodine (1 microM). CONCLUSIONS: ATX II, which causes delayed inactivation of the Na+ channel in cell cultures similar to that reported in cultures of MH+ skeletal muscle, increased the sensitivity of normal muscle to three agents to which MH+ muscle is hypersensitive. The increased sensitivity to halothane, 3%, occurred in most (79%), but not all, MH- participants, and this effect was most evident in male participants. Therefore, abnormal function of the Na+ channel, even if it is a secondary event in MH, may contribute to a positive contracture test result for MH.  (+info)

Structural conservation of the pores of calcium-activated and voltage-gated potassium channels determined by a sea anemone toxin. (3/271)

The structurally defined sea anemone peptide toxins ShK and BgK potently block the intermediate conductance, Ca(2+)-activated potassium channel IKCa1, a well recognized therapeutic target present in erythrocytes, human T-lymphocytes, and the colon. The well characterized voltage-gated Kv1.3 channel in human T-lymphocytes is also blocked by both peptides, although ShK has a approximately 1,000-fold greater affinity for Kv1.3 than IKCa1. To gain insight into the architecture of the toxin receptor in IKCa1, we used alanine-scanning in combination with mutant cycle analyses to map the ShK-IKCa1 interface, and compared it with the ShK-Kv1.3 interaction surface. ShK uses the same five core residues, all clustered around the critical Lys(22), to interact with IKCa1 and Kv1.3, although it relies on a larger number of contacts to stabilize its weaker interactions with IKCa1 than with Kv1.3. The toxin binds to IKCa1 in a region corresponding to the external vestibule of Kv1.3, and the turret and outer pore of the structurally defined bacterial potassium channel, KcsA. Based on the NMR structure of ShK, we deduce the toxin receptor in IKCa1 to have x-y dimensions of approximately 22 A, a diameter of approximately 31 A, and a depth of approximately 8 A; we estimate that the ion selectivity lies approximately 13 A below the outer lip of the toxin receptor. These dimensions are in good agreement with those of the KcsA channel determined from its crystal structure, and the inferred structure of Kv1.3 based on mapping with scorpion toxins. Thus, these distantly related channels exhibit architectural similarities in the outer pore region. This information could facilitate development of specific and potent modulators of the therapeutically important IKCa1 channel.  (+info)

Cysteine-scanning mutagenesis of an eukaryotic pore-forming toxin from sea anemone: topology in lipid membranes. (4/271)

Equinatoxin II is a cysteineless pore-forming protein from the sea anemone Actinia equina. It readily creates pores in membranes containing sphingomyelin. Its topology when bound in lipid membranes has been studied using cysteine-scanning mutagenesis. At approximately every tenth residue, a cysteine was introduced. Nineteen single cysteine mutants were produced in Escherichia coli and purified. The accessibility of the thiol groups in lipid-embedded cysteine mutants was studied by reaction with biotin maleimide. Most of the mutants were modified, except those with cysteines at positions 105 and 114. Mutants R144C and S160C were modified only at high concentrations of the probe. Similar results were obtained if membrane-bound biotinylated mutants were tested for avidin binding, but in this case three more mutants gave a negative result: S1C, S13C and K43C. Furthermore, mutants S1C, S13C, K20C, K43C and S95C reacted with biotin only after insertion into the lipid, suggesting that they were involved in major conformational changes occurring upon membrane binding. These results were further confirmed by labeling the mutants with acrylodan, a polarity-sensitive fluorescent probe. When labeled mutants were combined with vesicles, the following mutants exhibited blue-shifts, indicating the transfer of acrylodan into a hydrophobic environment: S13C, K20C, S105C, S114C, R120C, R144C and S160C. The overall results suggest that at least two regions are embedded within the lipid membrane: the N-terminal 13-20 region, probably forming an amphiphilic helix, and the tryptophan-rich 105-120 region. Arg144, Ser160 and residues nearby could be involved in making contacts with lipid headgroups. The association with the membrane appears to be unique and different from that of bacterial pore-forming proteins and therefore equinatoxin II may serve as a model for eukaryotic channel-forming toxins.  (+info)

Increased hindrance on the chiral carbon atom of mexiletine enhances the block of rat skeletal muscle Na+ channels in a model of myotonia induced by ATX. (5/271)

1 The antiarrhythmic drug mexiletine (Mex) is also used against myotonia. Searching for a more efficient drug, a new compound (Me5) was synthesized substituting the methyl group on the chiral carbon atom of Mex by an isopropyl group. Effects of Me5 on Na+ channels were compared to those of Mex in rat skeletal muscle fibres using the cell-attached patch clamp method. 2 Me5 (10 microM) reduced the maximal sodium current (INa) by 29.7+/-4.4 % (n=6) at a frequency of stimulation of 0.3 Hz and 65.7+/-4.4 % (n=6) at 1 Hz. At same concentration (10 microM), Mex was incapable of producing any effect (n=3). Me5 also shifted the steady-state inactivation curves by -7. 9+/-0.9 mV (n=6) at 0.3 Hz and -12.2+/-1.0 mV (n=6) at 1 Hz. 3 In the presence of sea anemone toxin II (ATX; 5 microM), INa decayed more slowly and no longer to zero, providing a model of sodium channel myotonia. The effects of Me5 on peak INa were similar whatever ATX was present or not. Interestingly, Me5 did not modify the INa decay time constant nor the steady-state INa to peak INa ratio. 4 Analysis of ATX-induced late Na+ channel activity shows that Me5 did not affect mean open times and single-channel conductance, thus excluding open channel block property. 5 These results indicate that increasing hindrance on the chiral atom of Mex increases drug potency on wild-type and ATX-induced noninactivating INa and that Me5 might improve the prophylaxis of myotonia.  (+info)

Mapping the functional anatomy of BgK on Kv1.1, Kv1.2, and Kv1.3. Clues to design analogs with enhanced selectivity. (6/271)

BgK is a peptide from the sea anemone Bunodosoma granulifera, which blocks Kv1.1, Kv1.2, and Kv1.3 potassium channels. Using 25 analogs substituted at a single position by an alanine residue, we performed the complete mapping of the BgK binding sites for the three Kv1 channels. These binding sites included three common residues (Ser-23, Lys-25, and Tyr-26) and a variable set of additional residues depending on the particular channel. Shortening the side chain of Lys-25 by taking out the four methylene groups dramatically decreased the BgK affinity to all Kv1 channels tested. However, the analog K25Orn displayed increased potency on Kv1.2, which makes this peptide a selective blocker for Kv1.2 (K(D) 50- and 300-fold lower than for Kv1.1 and Kv1.3, respectively). BgK analogs with enhanced selectivity could also be made by substituting residues that are differentially involved in the binding to some of the three Kv1 channels. For example, the analog F6A was found to be >500-fold more potent for Kv1.1 than for Kv1.2 and Kv1.3. These results provide new information about the mechanisms by which a channel blocker distinguishes individual channels among closely related isoforms and give clues for designing analogs with enhanced selectivity.  (+info)

Structure-function studies of tryptophan mutants of equinatoxin II, a sea anemone pore-forming protein. (7/271)

Equinatoxin II (EqtII) is a eukaryotic cytolytic toxin that avidly creates pores in natural and model lipid membranes. It contains five tryptophan residues in three different regions of the molecule. In order to study its interaction with the lipid membranes, three tryptophan mutants, EqtII Trp(45), EqtII Trp(116/117) and EqtII Trp(149), were prepared in an Escherichia coli expression system [here, the tryptophan mutants are classified according to the position of the remaining tryptophan residue(s) in each mutated protein]. They all possess a single intrinsic fluorescent centre. All mutants were less haemolytically active than the wild-type, although the mechanism of erythrocyte damage was the same. EqtII Trp(116/117) resembles the wild-type in terms of its secondary structure content, as determined from Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and its fluorescent properties. Tryptophans at these two positions are buried within the hydrophobic interior of the protein, and are transferred to the lipid phase during the interaction with the lipid membrane. The secondary structure of the other two mutants, EqtII Trp(45) and EqtII Trp(149), was altered to a certain extent. EqtII Trp(149) was the most dissimilar from the wild-type, displaying a higher content of random-coil structure. It also retained the lowest number of nitrogen-bound protons after exchange with (2)H(2)O, which might indicate a reduced compactness of the molecule. Tryptophans in EqtII Trp(45) and EqtII Trp(149) were more exposed to water, and also remained as such in the membrane-bound form.  (+info)

Differential effects of beta-adrenergic agonists and antagonists in LQT1, LQT2 and LQT3 models of the long QT syndrome. (8/271)

OBJECTIVES: To define the cellular mechanisms responsible for the development of life-threatening arrhythmias in response to sympathetic activity in the congenital and acquired long QT syndromes (LCQTS). METHODS: Transmembrane action potentials (AP) from epicardial (EPI), M and endocardial (ENDO) cells and a transmural electrocardiogram were simultaneously recorded from an arterially perfused wedge of canine left ventricle. We examined the effect of beta-adrenergic agonists and antagonists on action potential duration (APD90), transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) and the development of Torsade de Pointes (TdP) in models of LQT1, LQT2 and LQT3 forms of LQTS. RESULTS: I(Ks) block with chromanol 293B (LQT1) homogeneously prolonged APD90 of the three cell types without increasing TDR. Addition of isoproterenol prolonged QT and APD90 of M but abbreviated that of EPI and ENDO, causing a persistent increase in TDR; Torsade de Pointes developed or could be induced only in the presence of isoproterenol. I(Kr) block with d-sotalol (LQT2) and augmentation of late I(Na) with ATX-II (LQT3) prolonged APD90 of M more than EPI and ENDO, causing increases in QT and TDR. TdP developed in the absence of isoproterenol. In LQT2 isoproterenol initially prolonged, then abbreviated, the APD90 of M but always abbreviated EPI, thus transiently increasing TDR and the incidence of TdP. In LQT3, isoproterenol always abbreviated APD90 of the three cell types, causing a persistent decrease in TDR and suppression of TdP. The arrhythmogenic as well as protective actions of isoproterenol were reversed by propranolol. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that beta-adrenergic stimulation induces TdP by increasing transmural dispersion of repolarization in LQT1 and LQT2 but suppresses TdP by decreasing dispersion in LQT3. The data indicate that beta-blockers are protective in LQT1 and LQT2 but may facilitate TdP in LQT3.  (+info)

Here are some common types of bites and stings and their symptoms:

1. Insect bites: These can cause redness, swelling, itching, and pain at the site of the bite. Some people may experience an allergic reaction to insect venom, which can be severe and potentially life-threatening. Common insect bites include mosquito bites, bee stings, wasp stings, hornet stings, and fire ant bites.
2. Spider bites: Spiders can also cause a range of symptoms, including redness, swelling, pain, and itching. Some spider bites can be serious and require medical attention, such as the black widow spider bite or the brown recluse spider bite. These bites can cause necrotic lesions, muscle cramps, and breathing difficulties.
3. Animal bites: Animal bites can be serious and can cause infection, swelling, pain, and scarring. Rabies is a potential risk with animal bites, especially if the animal is not up to date on its vaccinations. Common animal bites include dog bites, cat bites, and bat bites.
4. Allergic reactions: Some people may experience an allergic reaction to insect or animal bites or stings, which can be severe and potentially life-threatening. Symptoms of an allergic reaction include hives, itching, difficulty breathing, swelling of the face, tongue, or throat, and a rapid heartbeat.
5. Infections: Bites and stings can also cause infections, especially if the wound becomes infected or is not properly cleaned and cared for. Symptoms of an infection include redness, swelling, pain, warmth, and pus.

It's important to seek medical attention immediately if you experience any of these symptoms after a bite or sting, as they can be serious and potentially life-threatening. A healthcare professional can assess the severity of the injury and provide appropriate treatment.

The venom from snake bites contains a variety of toxins that can affect different parts of the body, including the cardiovascular, nervous, and muscular systems. Some common symptoms of snake bites include:

* Pain and swelling at the bite site
* Blurred vision or difficulty seeing
* Slurred speech or difficulty speaking
* Weakness, numbness, or tingling in the face, arms, or legs
* Seizures or convulsions
* Difficulty breathing or swallowing
* Rapid heartbeat or slow heart rate
* Low blood pressure or high blood pressure
* Nausea and vomiting

In severe cases, snake bites can cause respiratory failure, cardiac arrest, and other life-threatening complications.

The diagnosis of a snake bite is typically made based on the symptoms and medical history of the patient. In some cases, imaging tests like X-rays or CT scans may be ordered to confirm the presence of venom in the body.

Treatment for snake bites usually involves administering antivenin (also known as antivenom) to neutralize the venom and manage symptoms. Antivenin is a type of medicine that contains antibodies specifically designed to counteract the effects of snake venom. In severe cases, patients may require hospitalization and intensive care to monitor and treat any complications.

Prevention is key in avoiding snake bites, and this includes avoiding areas where snakes are known to live, wearing protective clothing and footwear when in these areas, and using repellents or other deterrents to discourage snakes from approaching. Education and awareness about snake behavior and safety measures can also help reduce the risk of snake bites.

Insects such as mosquitoes, wasps, bees, and hornets are common culprits of bites and stings that cause minor to severe reactions in humans. These reactions may cause pain, redness, swelling, itching, and burning sensations at the site of the bite or sting.

Most insect bites and stings can be treated with over-the-counter medications such as antihistamines, hydrocortisone creams, or calamine lotion. Severe allergic reactions may require medical attention and epinephrine injections to prevent anaphylaxis.

Cnidarian Toxins and Venoms. 54 (8): 1071-1074. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2009.02.027. ISSN 0041-0101. PMID 19268681. da Silva, ... Venoms are often complex mixtures of toxins of differing types. Toxins from venom are used to treat a wide range of medical ... Snake venom may have originated with duplication of genes that had been expressed in the salivary glands of ancestors. Venom is ... Venoms cause their biological effects via the many toxins that they contain; some venoms are complex mixtures of toxins of ...
Venom from animals such as cnidarians, scorpions and spiders may be species-specific. A substance that is weakly toxic for ... This prevents the cnidarian from stinging itself although sloughed off cnidae can be induced to fire independently. Over 30 ... Other cnidarians, such as the jellyfish Cyanea capillata (the "Lion's Mane" made famous by Sherlock Holmes) or the siphonophore ... Brinkman D, Burnell J (November 2007). "Identification, cloning and sequencing of two major venom proteins from the box ...
All cnidarians lack a centralised venom system and in replace produce numerous venom tissues throughout the body, using 2 ... They are present in all cnidarians and produce highly complex venom filled organelles. The most functional and common venom ... which allows for the opportunity for the reach of the venom to extend. In general, the venom of an Enthemonae are harmless to ... The venom that is found within these tissues are a complex combination of proteins, polypeptides and other non-protein based ...
... wasp venoms MeSH D23.946.833.230 - cnidarian venoms MeSH D23.946.833.370 - fish venoms MeSH D23.946.833.590 - mollusk venoms ... cnidarian venoms MeSH D23.946.580.370 - fish venoms MeSH D23.946.580.450 - holothurin MeSH D23.946.580.565 - lyngbya toxins ... arthropod venoms MeSH D23.946.833.065.055 - ant venoms MeSH D23.946.833.065.115 - bee venoms MeSH D23.946.833.065.115.060 - ... viper venoms MeSH D23.946.833.850.960.200 - crotalid venoms MeSH D23.946.833.850.960.200.050 - ancrod MeSH D23.946.833.850. ...
UHMedNow, "Angel Yanagihara's box jellyfish venom research leads to sting treatment", March 4, 2011 PBS Nova, Venom: Nature's ... Cnidarians of the Pacific Ocean, Cnidarians of the Indian Ocean). ... the venom contained in their tentacles. Its effectiveness was demonstrated in the PBS Nova episode "Venom: Nature's Killer", ... "Molecular dissection of box jellyfish venom cytotoxicity highlights an effective venom antidote". Nature Communications. 10 (1 ...
Venom is a key ecological adaptation found across all taxa of life. Venom toxins are produced by specialized tissues that cause ... The most commonly recognized venomous animals includes reptiles, amphibians and cnidarians, though venomous mammals have rarely ... The delivery of venom from modified salivary glands has two components: the secretion of modified salivary proteins (the venom ... In some instances, venom is utilized for intraspecific competition or to facilitate offspring survival. Eulipotyphylan venoms ...
Pelagic cnidarians (jellyfish and related species) have nematocysts on their tentacles that eject a coiled microscopic thread ... These threads penetrate the surface of their target and release a series of complicated, biologically advanced venoms. Their ...
The venom is injected through the hollow filament to immobilise the prey; the tentacles then manoeuvre the prey into the ... Coral reefs are extremely diverse marine ecosystems hosting over 4,000 species of fish, massive numbers of cnidarians, molluscs ... These cells carry venom which they rapidly release in response to contact with another organism. A dormant nematocyst ... Peel, John S. (2017). "A problematic cnidarian (Cambroctoconus; Octocorallia?) from the Cambrian (Series 2-3) of Laurentia". ...
... wasp venoms MeSH D20.888.230 - cnidarian venoms MeSH D20.888.370 - fish venoms MeSH D20.888.590 - mollusk venoms MeSH D20.888. ... arthropod venoms MeSH D20.888.065.055 - ant venoms MeSH D20.888.065.115 - bee venoms MeSH D20.888.065.115.060 - apamin MeSH ... viper venoms MeSH D20.888.850.960.200 - crotalid venoms MeSH D20.888.850.960.200.050 - ancrod MeSH D20.888.850.960.200.105 - ... snake venoms MeSH D20.888.850.325 - elapid venoms MeSH D20.888.850.325.139 - bungarotoxins MeSH D20.888.850.325.220 - cobra ...
After many tests on frogs, it was determined that A. aurita has a proteinaceous venom that causes muscle twitching by inducing ... cnidarian), Scyphozoan genera, Cnidarians of the Atlantic Ocean, Cnidarians of the Pacific Ocean, Ulmaridae). ... "Preliminary Results of the in Vivo and in Vitro Characterization of a Tentacle Venom Fraction from the Jellyfish Aurelia aurita ...
Leung, TCN; Qu, Z; Nong, W; Hui, JHL; Ngai, SM (21 December 2020). "Proteomic Analysis of the Venom of Jellyfishes Rhopilema ... Cnidarians of the Pacific Ocean). ... Proteomic Analysis revealed that the R. esculentum venom ...
A stronger venom would also allow C. bronzie to feed on fish, while their diet is limited to smaller prey, like shrimp. More ... Cnidarians of the Pacific Ocean). ... The venom of C. bronzie may be very similar to that of Chironex ... The venom contained in C. bronzie's cnidocytes is much less potent than other cubozoans, as there has been no evidence that C. ... However, studies have shown that the venom of C. bronzie has adversely affected the cardiovascular system of anesthetized rats ...
Cnidarians, such as jellyfish, sea anemones, Hydra and coral have numerous hair-like tentacles. Cnidarians have huge numbers of ... The longer tentacles are equipped with cnidocytes whose venom paralyses and kills prey. The smaller tentacles guide food into ... Bird J (5 June 2007). "CNIDARIANS: SIMPLE ANIMALS WITH A STING!". oceanicresearch.org. Oceanic Research Group. Archived from ...
The venom contains, among other components, numerous ion channel-blocking peptides. In 1995, a group led by Olga Castaneda and ... HMP2 and PMP-1 are astacin metalloproteinases from the Cnidarian Hydra vulgaris and the jellyfish Podocoryne carnea that ... These proteins are involved in mammalian reproduction as well as in the venoms of some snakes. In both cases, the mechanism is ... Yamazaki Y, Morita T (September 2004). "Structure and function of snake venom cysteine-rich secretory proteins". Toxicon. 44 (3 ...
The venom is a mix of toxins, including neurotoxins, that paralyzes the prey so the anemone can move it to the mouth for ... Unlike other cnidarians, anemones (and other anthozoans) entirely lack the free-swimming medusal stage of their life cycle; the ... As cnidarians, sea anemones are related to corals, jellyfish, tube-dwelling anemones, and Hydra. Unlike jellyfish, sea anemones ... The muscles and nerves are much simpler than those of most other animals, although more specialised than in other cnidarians, ...
Like many cnidarians, they rely on nematocysts for protection and to capture prey. They are not difficult to care for, and can ... The nematocyte venom of A. mutabilis contains at least one or more toxins with powerful cytolytic activity. However, conditions ... Like most nematocysts found in cnidarians, the nematocysts of A. mutabilis injects a tubule of venomous substances as a respose ... Marino, A.; Morabito, R.; La Spada, G. (March 2009). "Factors altering the haemolytic power of crude venom from Aiptasia ...
Prey of cnidarians ranges from plankton to animals several times larger than themselves. Some cnidarians are parasites, mainly ... A tough capsule, the cnida, which houses the thread, its payload and a mixture of chemicals that may include venom or adhesives ... Hence, cnidarians and ctenophores have traditionally been labelled diploblastic, along with sponges. However, both cnidarians ... Recent phylogenetic analyses support monophyly of cnidarians, as well as the position of cnidarians as the sister group of ...
Castañeda O, Harvey AL (December 2009). "Discovery and characterization of cnidarian peptide toxins that affect neuronal ... It is purified from the venom of Bunodosoma caissarum. This toxin is derived from the sea anemone Bunodosoma caissarum of the ...
Cnidarians of the Atlantic Ocean, Cnidarians of the Caribbean Sea, Animals described in 1768). ... "Therapeutic Value Of Peptides From Animal Venoms". Comprehensive Natural Products II, 2010, pp. 287-303.. .William R. Kem, ... 2017). Peptide therapeutics from venom: Current status and potential. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 26. 10.1016/j.bmc. ... "Coelenteron , Cnidarian Anatomy". Encyclopedia Britannica, 2020, https://www.britannica.com/science/coelenteron ."Stichodactyla ...
Scientists have just recently figured out how the venom of the Malo maxima affects the heart. The venom causes a concentration- ... Cnidarians of Australia, Carukiidae, Animals described in 2005). ... The venom also stimulates the sensory nerve CGRP to release in ... Only two types of species have the venom to cause Irukandji syndrome, the Irukandji Jellyfish and the Box Jelly. The Box Jelly ... It appears that the venom does not activate the parasympathetic nervous system, but the sympathetic nervous system. ...
Other preyed upon animals are paralysed with venom before being eaten; venom can also be used to start digesting the animal. ... 1018 molluscs and 1016 cnidarians, for a total of 1021 wild animals. It has been estimated that there are 2.25 times more wild ... 264 Paley also contended that venom is a merciful way for poisonous animals to kill the animals that they predate. The problem ...
Cnidarians of the Atlantic Ocean, Cnidarians of the Indian Ocean, Cnidarians of the Pacific Ocean, Cnidarians of the Caribbean ... The stinging, venom-filled nematocysts in the tentacles of the Portuguese man o' war can paralyze small fish and other prey. ... the two basic body plans of cnidarians. Both of these body plans comprise entire individuals in non-colonial cnidarians (for ... The blanket octopus is immune to the venom of the Portuguese man o' war; young individuals have been observed to carry broken ...
It is a type of "box jellyfish" that is known for producing potent venom and is known for inflicting the Irukandji syndrome. ... Cnidarians of Australia, Animals described in 1967). ... These cells are also capable of producing venom that changes ... C. barnesi feeds by stinging its prey through nematocysts and injecting venom. Once the prey is paralyzed and in captivity, ... Studies with SDS gel- electrophoresis have found that the protein composition of the venom increased as these jellyfish altered ...
The proteins closest in structure to the macins are a superfamily of proteins derived from scorpion venom, dubbed the scorpion ... Hydramacin-1 was first isolated from epithelial cells of the cnidarian Hydra, a small (almost-microscopic) freshwater animal ...
This structure is believed to carry most of the venom within the entire nematocyst. The umbrella-shaped fleshy body of C. ... Burke, William (2002). "Cnidarians and human skin". Dermatologic Therapy. 15: 18-25. doi:10.1046/j.1529-8019.2002.01508.x. ... Chiropsoides buitendijki has potent venom that can harm human skin. Several reported cases of human injury have been reported ...
The venom, which is released through the nematocysts, has been identified in other species in the family Carukiidae. Bentlage, ... Cnidarians of the Pacific Ocean, Animals described in 1910). ... it has not yet been confirmed if they contain the toxic venom ...
The amount of venom in one animal is said to be enough to kill 60 adult humans. Chironex fleckeri was named after North ... Cnidarians of Australia). ... The venom causes cells to become porous enough to allow ... Wilcox, Christie (9 April 2014). "Should we stop using vinegar to treat box jelly stings? Not yet-Venom experts weigh in on ... A 2014 study demonstrated in vitro that while vinegar deactivates unfired nematocysts, there was also an increase in venom ...
Being cnidarians, they do possess distinctive harpoon-like injection stinging cells, and like many scyphozoans their ... Research also shows that pouring saltwater into stings significantly increases flow of venom into body. Browne, J., 2011, ... Toxins and Venoms; also Systemic Side Effects from Eye Medications (4th ed.). Charles C Thomas Publisher. p. 870. ISBN 978-0- ...
The venom does not appear to affect other major organs. Fautin, Daphne (2013). "Phyllodiscus semoni Kwietniewski, 1897". WoRMS ... Monotypic cnidarian genera, Hexacorallia genera). ... Phyllodiscus semoni and it is the first sea anemone whose venom ...
... and throes were observed following venom injection. S. cyanea venom also contains some antibacterial activity. Human accidents ... "A report of 49 cases of cnidarian envenoming from southeastern Brazilian coastal waters". Toxicon. 40 (10): 1445-1450. ... The venom of Conus is a conotoxin, whose action occurs by blocking muscle and neural receptors. Two cases were recorded by ... Phoneutria nigriventer venom contains two fractions PhTx-1 and PhTx-2 which are potent for primates, however, the spider has ...
... or larvae that resemble the planulas of cnidarians. However, some form a pilidium larva, in which the developing juvenile has a ... which lies in the rhynchocoel when inactive but everts to emerge just above the mouth to capture the animal's prey with venom. ...
Cnidarians of the Atlantic Ocean, Cnidarians of the Pacific Ocean, Animals described in 1758, Taxa named by Carl Linnaeus). ... Australian Venom Research Unit. Alexander Agassiz's Illustrated Catalogue of the Museum of Comparative Zoology North American ...
While Carybdea use their venom to act as predators, they are also preyed on by turtles and various fish. They feed on plankton ... Cnidarian genera). ... However, the research of the venom in this genus needs to be ... Sea turtles that eat C. alata are affected by the venom as other predators would be. Humans are often unintentional predators ... These cells contain a coiled barb that when in contact with something will uncoil and fire, and release venom. Nematocysts are ...
Cnidarians and ctenophores have simple nervous systems, and their cell layers are bound by internal connections and by being ... there is no evidence that they use venom. Most known carnivorous sponges have completely lost the water flow system and ... Like cnidarians (jellyfish, etc.) and ctenophores (comb jellies), and unlike all other known metazoans, sponges' bodies consist ... It has been suggested that they were produced by: sponges; cnidarians; algae; foraminiferans; a completely separate phylum of ...
... use nematocysts as a defense mechanism; they releases a venom from the tips of their nematocysts, producing the ... Cnidarian families, All stub articles, Medusozoan stubs). ...
November 2020). "Adaptive venom evolution and toxicity in octopods is driven by extensive novel gene formation, expansion, and ... May 2019). "The genome of the jellyfish Clytia hemisphaerica and the evolution of the cnidarian life-cycle". Nature Ecology & ... December 2013). "The king cobra genome reveals dynamic gene evolution and adaptation in the snake venom system". Proceedings of ... May 2014). "Spider genomes provide insight into composition and evolution of venom and silk". Nature Communications. 5: 3765. ...
Examples include the crotamine toxin in snake venom, many scorpion toxins, some sea anemone toxins, and one of the toxins in ... "Evolution of cnidarian trans-defensins: Sequence, structure and exploration of chemical space". Proteins. 87 (7): 551-560. doi: ... There appear to have been multiple evolutionary recruitments of defensins to be toxin proteins used in the venoms of animals; ... June 2008). "Defensins and the convergent evolution of platypus and reptile venom genes". Genome Research. 18 (6): 986-94. doi: ...
Like other sea nettles, its sting is painful, but not generally dangerous unless there is an allergic reaction to the venom. C ... Cnidarians of the Atlantic Ocean, All stub articles, Scyphozoan stubs). ...
The marine invertebrate fauna of Puerto Rico is composed of 61 sponges, 171 cnidarians, 8 nemerteans, 1,176 mollusks, 129 ... Javier A. Rodriguez Robles; Richard Thomas (1992). "Venom function in the Puerto Rican Racer, Alsophis portoricensis" (PDF). ... secretes venom. These species belong to 3 families and 4 genera: Typhlopidae (genus Typhlops), Boidae (Epicrates) and ...
The tentacles are armed with nematocysts, venom-containing cells which can be fired harpoon-fashion to snare and subdue prey. ... Anthozoa is the largest taxon of cnidarians; over six thousand solitary and colonial species have been described. They range in ... the zooxanthellae benefit by using nitrogenous waste and carbon dioxide produced by the host while the cnidarian gains ...
"Venom evolution widespread in fishes: a phylogenetic road map for the bioprospecting of piscine venoms". Meighen EA (1999). " ... cnidarians, echinoderms, cephalopods, and crustaceans. Also found in single-cell ciliate. A similar structure is also found in ... Toxic agent, serine protease BLTX, in the venom produced by two distinct species, the North American short-tailed shrew ( ... some anthozoan cnidarians, bryozoans, calcareous algae and some bivalves (rudist bivalves). Magnetite for orientation, ...
The venom contains a sodium channel modulator. The sting is moderately irritating; the severe syndrome is delayed for 5-120 ... Cnidarians of Australia, Invertebrate common names). ... "You can increase the venom load in your victim by 50 per cent ... Very little is known about the life cycle and venom of Irukandji jellyfish. This is partly because they are very small and ... Irukandji syndrome is produced by a small amount of venom and induces excruciating muscle cramps in the arms and legs, severe ...
Common triggers include venom from insect bites or stings, foods, and medication. Foods are the most common trigger in children ... Suput, Dusan (2011). "Interactions of Cnidarian Toxins with the Immune System". Inflammation & Allergy - Drug Targets. 10 (5): ... Venom from stinging or biting insects such as Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps) or Triatominae (kissing bugs) may cause ... Immunotherapy with Hymenoptera venoms is effective at desensitizing 80-90% of adults and 98% of children against allergies to ...
The nematocyst venom of the N. nomurai is composed of complex, toxic mixtures of proteins. Further research is in progress to ... the largest cnidarian in the world. It is edible but not considered high quality. It is the only species in the monotypic genus ... Yue Y, Yu H, Li R, Liu S, Xing R, Li P (March 2019). "Insights into individual variations in nematocyst venoms from the giant ... Cnidarians of the Pacific Ocean, Rhizostomatidae, Animals described in 1922, Potentially dangerous food). ...
v t e v t e (Articles needing additional references from February 2022, All articles needing additional references, Cnidarian ... with venom. These four long oral arms, hang from the center of the underside, where the mouth of the jellyfish is located. In ... anatomy, Scyphozoa, All stub articles, Cnidarian stubs, Animal anatomy stubs, Scyphozoan stubs). ...
Like other sea nettles, its sting is painful, but not generally dangerous unless there is an allergic reaction to the venom. C ... Cnidarians of the Atlantic Ocean, All stub articles, Scyphozoan stubs). ...
Suput, D. In vivo effects of cnidarian toxins and venoms. Toxicon 2009, 54, 1190-1200. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] ... Lee, H.; Jung, E.S.; Kang, C.; Yoon, W.D.; Kim, J.S.; Kim, E. Scyphozoan jellyfish venom metalloproteinases and their role in ... Messerli, S.M.; Greenberg, R.M. Cnidarian toxins acting on voltage-gated ion channels. Mar. Drugs 2006, 4, 70-81. [Google ... Yu, H.; Liu, X.; Dong, X.; Li, C.; Xing, R.; Liu, S.; Li, P. Insecticidal activity of proteinous venom from tentacle of ...
As is the case for most cnidarian stings, recommended medical protocols in response to such stings lack rigorous scientific ... Cnidarian Venoms / toxicity* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Size of venom-induced hemolytic zone after 12 h using the TSBAA model (sheeps blood agarose) when C. capillata tentacles were ... Impact of Scyphozoan Venoms on Human Health and Current First Aid Options for Stings. Remigante A, Costa R, Morabito R, La ...
MeSH Terms: Animals; Capillary Permeability/drug effects; Cnidarian Venoms/toxicity*; Cromolyn Sodium/pharmacology; Histamine/ ... Title: The action of equinatoxin, a peptide from the venom of the sea anemone, Actinia equina, on the isolated lung. ...
Chironex Venom Chironex Venoms Cnidarian Venom Jellyfish Venom Jellyfish Venoms Nematocyst Venoms Portuguese Man-of-War Venom ... 95; was COELENTERATE VENOMS 1978-94. Online Note. use CNIDARIAN VENOMS to search COELENTERATE VENOMS 1978-94. History Note. 95 ... Cnidarian Venoms Preferred Concept UI. M0004707. Registry Number. 0. Scope Note. Venoms from jellyfish; CORALS; SEA ANEMONES; ... Sea Anemone Venom Narrower Concept UI. M0004710. Registry Number. 0. Terms. Sea Anemone Venom Preferred Term Term UI T008883. ...
Sea Anemone Venom. Sea Anemone Venoms. Venom, Chironex. Venom, Cnidarian. Venom, Jellyfish. Venom, Portuguese Man-of-War. Venom ... Cnidarian Venom. Jellyfish Venom. Jellyfish Venoms. Nematocyst Venoms. Portuguese Man of War Venom. Portuguese Man-of-War Venom ... Venoms, Chironex. Venoms, Cnidarian. Venoms, Jellyfish. Venoms, Nematocyst. Venoms, Sea Anemone. Tree number(s):. D20.888.230. ... Cnidarian Venoms Entry term(s). Cnidarian Venom Venom, Cnidarian Venoms, Cnidarian Sea Anemone Venom - Narrower Concept UI. ...
Chironex Venom Chironex Venoms Cnidarian Venom Jellyfish Venom Jellyfish Venoms Nematocyst Venoms Portuguese Man-of-War Venom ... 95; was COELENTERATE VENOMS 1978-94. Online Note. use CNIDARIAN VENOMS to search COELENTERATE VENOMS 1978-94. History Note. 95 ... Cnidarian Venoms Preferred Concept UI. M0004707. Registry Number. 0. Scope Note. Venoms from jellyfish; CORALS; SEA ANEMONES; ... Sea Anemone Venom Narrower Concept UI. M0004710. Registry Number. 0. Terms. Sea Anemone Venom Preferred Term Term UI T008883. ...
Cnidarian Venoms *Fish Venoms *Holothurin *Lyngbya Toxins *Mollusk Venoms *Conotoxins *omega-Conotoxins *omega-Conotoxin GVIA * ...
Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.. Temporal Muscle. A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion ...
Megalopygids have recruited aerolysin-like proteins as venom toxins convergently with centipedes, cnidarians, and fish. This ... We show that megalopygid venom is produced in secretory cells that lie beneath the cuticle and are connected to the venom ... produce defensive venoms that cause severe pain. Here, we present the anatomy, chemistry, and mode of action of the venom ... Doratifera vulnerans Contrary to dogma that defensive venoms are simple in composition, D. vulnerans produces a complex venom ...
N0000006585 Clozapine N0000169213 Clupeine N0000169198 Clusterin N0000166416 CME-Carbodiimide N0000171458 Cnidarian Venoms ... Human Immunodeficiency Virus N0000006403 Warfarin N0000179501 Warfarin Sodium N0000171464 Wasp Venoms N0000006428 Water ... Annexin A5 N0000169584 Annexin A6 N0000169586 Annexin A7 N0000169583 Annexins N0000170303 Anserine N0000171468 Ant Venoms ... Firefly Luciferin N0000178921 Fish Liver Oils N0000006223 Fish Oils N0000168688 Fish Proteins N0000171457 Fish Venoms ...
Jellyfish Venoms use Cnidarian Venoms Jellyfish, Box use Cubozoa Jellyfish, Moon use Scyphozoa ...
Nematocysts contain toxic CNIDARIAN VENOMS which are injected into the victim via a barbed tubule. HN - 2011 FX - Cnidarian ... Venoms MH - Nematodirus UI - D057808 MN - B1.50.500.500.294.700.775.600.550 MS - A genus of roundworms in the family ...
But I found that in the summer even these Caspar the friendly Cnidarians didnt hesitate to release their venom. I discovered ... They were the free-roaming Cnidarians.. The Cnidarians were round, globular, gelatinous creatures and used a single cavity to ... One day a guest and I stepped out on the deck and saw, as far as the eye could see, pulsing, translucent Cnidarians. They ... Plus, however much scientists work as the propaganda department of the Cnidarians world-domination efforts, many humans just ...
... albeit the toxicological research on cnidarian venoms was scarcely developed until the 1980s. This is in part due to the fact ... albeit the toxicological research on cnidarian venoms was scarcely developed until the 1980s. This is in part due to the fact ... Conversely, in the Mediterranean Sea extensive studies about the morphology, the biology, and the ecology of cnidarians were ... Conversely, in the Mediterranean Sea extensive studies about the morphology, the biology, and the ecology of cnidarians were ...
... amphibians and the venom of the platypus; that I was aware of toxins secreted by unicellular organisms and of the co-opting of ... cnidarian weaponry by Aeolidioidea, but that I did not know of any poisonous birds (and that I found this a bit strange).. Just ...
A study on nematocyst crude venom effects of Cnidarians (Anthozoa): Aiptasia diaphana from the brackish pond Faro (Messina) and ... Toxicity of crude venom from the Scyphozoan Pelagia noctiluca. 48 Melatonin ameliorates anion exchange capability through Band ... Crude venom from the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) affects Regulatory Volume Decrease in HEK 293 cells 27 ... Crude Venom from Nematocysts of the Jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca as a Tool to Study Cell Physiology 41 ...
Cnidarian envenomations carry significant health-related consequences. In some cases, they can be lethal. Here we go over ... According to the published literature, cnidarian venoms and toxins are heat labile at temperatures safe for human application, ... Abstract about cnidarian envenomations. Dealing with cnidarian envenomations is a public health concern. From the article, ... Cnidarians are a group of aquatic organisms that are largely able to envenom. These include a range of creatures, from ...
Animals use venom for defense or to subdue prey, and they deliver these toxic substances by biting or stinging. Venom often ... Certain types of cnidarian can cause life-threatening effects in humans. The Australian box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, can ... Hemotoxic venom interferes with blood clotting, which can cause abnormal bleeding. Myotoxic venom effects cause extensive ... The venom on their spines can cause intense burning pain, redness, and swelling of the injured areas. Rare reports of illness ...
Siphonophores are colonial cnidarians, composed of genetically-identical animals, called zooids. Zooids are separated by ... Man-of-War venom, and the discovery of anaphylaxis. January 14, 2019. April 14, 2020. Posted in Cnidaria, Venom ... Since this Nobel Prize work, venom remains a powerful tool in the study of medicine. Venoms show us how our own bodies work by ... toxin from sea anemone venom). Richet and Portiers hypothesis was that small injections of jellyfish or anemone venom might ...
The long-chain protein molecules in the venom can do no more harm once they have been deactivated in this manner. ... The acidity in the vinegar naturally tends to denature toxins associated with envenomation from cnidarians such as jellyfish ... Secondly, it will break down the complex proteins in the venom, providing immediate relief from the pain of the stings. ...
Cnidarian Venoms Cnidium Co-Repressor Proteins Coagulants Coagulase Coagulation Protein Disorders Coal Coal Ash Coal Industry ... Bee Venoms Beekeeping Beer Bees Beetles Beggiatoa Beginning of Human Life Begomovirus Begoniaceae Behavior Behavior and ... Crotalid Venoms Crotalus Croton Croton Oil Crotonates Crotoxin Croup Crowding Crowdsourcing Crown Compounds Crown Ethers Crown ... Elapid Venoms Elapidae Elasmobranchii Elastic Cartilage Elastic Modulus Elastic Tissue Elasticity Elasticity Imaging Techniques ...
I love 16 Aug 2011 Dogora is like no other monster -its a giant celestial cnidarian that feeds on carbon! Cnidarian? A ... The wasp venom finally took full effect, and Dogora was no more. The Best Shows and Movies on Amazon Prime in April. Arsenio ... 16 May 2020 Dogora Ouvrons les yeux Dogora Open our eyes is a 2004 film directed The venom of wasps, finally took full force, ...
... is a term that describes the phenomenon by which predators consume cnidarian prey and sequester the cnidocytes from ... Considering cnidocytes are packed with venom, its not surprising that a predator would harvest these cellular weapons for ... Goodheart, J.A. and Bely, A.E. (2017), Sequestration of nematocysts by divergent cnidarian predators: mechanism, function, and ...
Cnidarian Center. cnidarian fact sheets. Coatimundi. colorful crayfish. Coloring Books. Colossal Squid. colubrid center. Colugo ... Deadliest venom. Declining Populations. deep sea creatures. Defender Glossary. degu. Dermestid Beetle. desert iguana. Dhole. ...
The sea anemone, a cnidarian, has no brain. It does have a nervous system, and its body has a clear axis, with a mouth on one ... The barb has a type of venom they will help paralyze the prey and the sea anemone will slowly draw the prey item into its mouth ... The largest sea anemones-also the largest cnidarians-are of the genus Stichodactyla. ...
to currently researching venom changes in off-sea anemones! He also discusses the hidden curriculum, mentorship in academia and ... Angeleno microbial ecologist, Emily, studies algal-bacterial symbiosis in the emerging cnidarian system, Aiptasia pallida, ...
cause of the accident by determination of specific venom antigen and venom concentration in the serum using the ELISA method ( ... If these do not occur within 15-30 min after the bite, it is highly likely that no venom was injected. Important exceptions to ... The symptoms and degree of envenoming depend not only on the amount of venom injected and numerous other variables, but also on ... Following crotalid bites, whose venom is known to cause defibrinogenation, there may be a delay of several hours before this ...
Venom apparatus. The most common type of venom apparatus is the fin ray with grooves on both sides. A venom gland is located in ... Range of venom effects. See the Clinical flowchart for Venomous fish.. Way of life. Most medically relevant species of venomous ... 4.20 Venom apparatus in various venomous fishes (adapted from Halstead 1988).. a Tail spine of a stingray. On the ventral side ... b Dorsal spine of a lionfish (Pterois sp.). There is a narrow venom gland on both sides of the slender spine. The spine and ...
XY sex determination in a cnidarian. Ruoxu Chen, Steven M. Sanders, Zhiwei Ma, Justin Paschall, E. Sally Chang, Brooke M. ... Intra-colony venom diversity contributes to maintaining eusociality in a cooperatively breeding ant ... Snakes on a plain: biotic and abiotic factors determine venom compositional variation in a wide-ranging generalist rattlesnake ... Genomic and transcriptomic analyses support a silk gland origin of spider venom glands ...
The tentacles are armed with nematocysts, venom-containing cells which can be fired harpoon-fashion to snare and subdue prey. ... Anthozoa is the largest taxon of cnidarians; over six thousand solitary and colonial species have been described. They range in ... the zooxanthellae benefit by using nitrogenous waste and carbon dioxide produced by the host while the cnidarian gains ...
  • Megalopygid venoms consist of large aerolysin-like pore-forming toxins, which we have named megalysins, and a small number of peptides. (bvsalud.org)
  • We show that the megalysins were recruited as venom toxins in the Megalopygidae following horizontal transfer of genes from bacteria to the ancestors of ditrysian Lepidoptera. (bvsalud.org)
  • Megalopygids have recruited aerolysin-like proteins as venom toxins convergently with centipedes, cnidarians, and fish. (bvsalud.org)
  • An article in Toxins about the most effective treatments for cnidarian envenomations has attracted attention in the first-aid community. (mdpi.com)
  • According to the published literature, cnidarian venoms and toxins are heat labile at temperatures safe for human application, which supports the use of hot-water immersion of the sting area(s). (mdpi.com)
  • The acidity in the vinegar naturally tends to denature toxins associated with envenomation from cnidarians such as jellyfish and anemones, providing quick relief. (seahorse.com)
  • The action of equinatoxin, a peptide from the venom of the sea anemone, Actinia equina, on the isolated lung. (nih.gov)
  • His findings emerged directly from work on the venom of P. physalis and later the sea anemone, Actinia sp. (gelatinoussting.com)
  • These anemones were common along the shores of France, so large numbers could be collected to obtain the volume of venom needed for their experiments (and later to isolate actinoporin, a cytolytic (cell-bursting) toxin from sea anemone venom). (gelatinoussting.com)
  • Richet and Portier's hypothesis was that small injections of jellyfish or anemone venom might inoculate their subjects against later exposure and reduce symptoms, maybe even increasing their resilience to future stings, like vaccines. (gelatinoussting.com)
  • Using the same technique of dissolving the sea anemone venom into glycerol, they injected pigeons and guinea pigs, but eventually moved to dogs because of their higher resistance to the toxin. (gelatinoussting.com)
  • The barb has a type of venom they will help paralyze the prey and the sea anemone will slowly draw the prey item into its mouth. (click4aya.com)
  • The sea anemone, a cnidarian, has no brain. (click4aya.com)
  • After their journey at sea, Richet and Portier continued working on the effects of venom using sea anemones of the Genus Actinia . (gelatinoussting.com)
  • The largest sea anemones-also the largest cnidarians-are of the genus Stichodactyla . (click4aya.com)
  • Effects of crude venom from Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) nematocysts on SO4= uptake and on the intracellular GSH content in human erythrocytes. (unime.it)
  • The venom and the toxicity of Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). (unime.it)
  • He dislikes them being pulled on, since it hurts and also might damage the instigator since the nematocysts on them excrete venom that causes a reaction similar to allergies, and maybe even death if there is prolonged exposure. (ocfancy.com)
  • The most common type of venom apparatus is the fin ray with grooves on both sides. (vapaguide.info)
  • The venom system differs markedly from those of previously studied venomous zygaenoids of the family Limacodidae, suggestive of an independent origin. (bvsalud.org)
  • Limacodidae is a family with worldwide distribution, many of which are venomous in the larval stage, but the composition and mode of action of their venom is unknown. (bvsalud.org)
  • The fact that a patient has been bitten by a known venomous snake and the presence of bite marks do not automatically allow the conclusion that a clinically relevant injection of venom has taken place. (vapaguide.info)
  • Fig. 4.20 Venom apparatus in various venomous fishes (adapted from Halstead 1988). (vapaguide.info)
  • Kleptocnidy is a term that describes the phenomenon by which predators consume cnidarian prey and sequester the cnidocytes from their meal (klepto = steal, cnidy = cnidocytes). (babonislab.com)
  • Jaw muscles are strong and after biting its prey it will not release, giving venom time to work. (brianeyes21comcast.net)
  • Glands in the lower jaws secrete the venom into grooves in its teeth which mixes with saliva killing or disabling its prey. (brianeyes21comcast.net)
  • Although vinegar, the 40-year field standard of first aid for the removal of adherent tentacles, completely inhibited cnidae firing in TSA and TSBAA ex vivo models, the most striking inhibition of both tentacle firing and subsequent venom-induced hemolysis was observed using newly-developed proprietary formulations (Sting No More™) containing copper gluconate, magnesium sulfate, and urea. (mdpi.com)
  • Each animal would become paralyzed when injected with venom-infused glycerol from the tentacles of the Man-of-War. (gelatinoussting.com)
  • On the ventral side there are 2 venom glands arranged in pairs. (vapaguide.info)
  • A venom gland is located in each groove, and these glands range from poorly to well evolved (Fig. 4.20 b and c ). (vapaguide.info)
  • If the spine penetrates the flesh of the attacker or of a careless person, the integument is pushed downwards, and under the resulting pressure the venom glands discharge their contents along the grooves and into the wound. (vapaguide.info)
  • Secondly, it will break down the complex proteins in the venom, providing immediate relief from the pain of the stings. (seahorse.com)
  • Here, we present the anatomy, chemistry, and mode of action of the venom systems of caterpillars of two megalopygid species, the Southern flannel moth Megalopyge opercularis and the black-waved flannel moth Megalopyge crispata. (bvsalud.org)
  • Plus, however much scientists work as the propaganda department of the Cnidarians' world-domination efforts, many humans just don't listen to scientists. (alaskaforreal.com)
  • What makes snake or bee venom [ t0 humans and how? (solvedlib.com)
  • Venom is very painful to humans but does not usually result in death. (brianeyes21comcast.net)
  • Vinegar safely prevents both chemically- and pressure-induced cnidae discharge and does not increase venom load, but decreases it, as demonstrated by a live red blood cell agar assay. (mdpi.com)
  • Larvae of the genus Megalopyge (Lepidoptera: Zygaenoidea: Megalopygidae), known as asp or puss caterpillars, produce defensive venoms that cause severe pain. (bvsalud.org)
  • Siphonophores are colonial cnidarians, composed of genetically-identical animals, called zooids. (gelatinoussting.com)
  • Conversely, in the Mediterranean Sea extensive studies about the morphology, the biology, and the ecology of cnidarians were carried out, albeit the toxicological research on cnidarian venoms was scarcely developed until the 1980s. (unige.it)
  • Effects of Pelagia noctiluca crude venom on cell viability and volume regulation. (unime.it)
  • He worked in collaboration with Paul Portier and Georges Richard, brought together by the Prince, to study the toxic effects of Man-of-War venom that frequently tormented fishermen. (gelatinoussting.com)
  • This study highlights the role of horizontal gene transfer in venom evolution. (bvsalud.org)
  • Megalopygid venom potently activates mammalian sensory neurons via membrane permeabilization and induces sustained spontaneous pain behavior and paw swelling in mice. (bvsalud.org)
  • After conducting a systematic review of the evidence for the use of heat or ice in the treatment of cnidarian envenomations, we conclude that the majority of studies to date support the use of hot-water immersion for pain relief and improved health outcomes. (mdpi.com)
  • Following North American crotalid bites, strong local pain, swelling, discolouration of the skin and occasionally hyposensitivity in the region of the bite are early signs of a relevant injection of venom. (vapaguide.info)
  • Cnidarian envenomations are an important public health problem, responsible for more deaths than shark attacks annually. (mdpi.com)
  • We report the use and results of these assays to evaluate the efficacy of topical first-aid approaches to inhibit tentacle firing and venom activity. (mdpi.com)
  • In particular following bites by crotalids, whose venoms possess only direct fibrinogen-coagulating activity ("thrombin-like" activity), the haemostatic defect usually only manifests itself in the form of abnormal clotting test results and not clinically (Kitchens 1991, pers. (vapaguide.info)
  • The symptoms and degree of envenoming depend not only on the amount of venom injected and numerous other variables, but also on the time that has elapsed since the bite. (vapaguide.info)
  • Further, evidence points to the efficacy of a new copper gluconate based cream to reduce venom based destruction of red blood cells and tissue. (mdpi.com)
  • We show that megalopygid venom is produced in secretory cells that lie beneath the cuticle and are connected to the venom spines by canals. (bvsalud.org)
  • A massive bony ray with a large venom gland on both sides that is surrounded by a sturdy integument. (vapaguide.info)