Cnidaria: A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.Hydrozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA which alternates between polyp and medusa forms during their life cycle. There are over 2700 species in five orders.Sea Anemones: The order Actiniaria, in the class ANTHOZOA, comprised of large, solitary polyps. All species are carnivorous.Hydra: A genus of freshwater polyps in the family Hydridae, order Hydroida, class HYDROZOA. They are of special interest because of their complex organization and because their adult organization corresponds roughly to the gastrula of higher animals.Scyphozoa: The class of true jellyfish, in the phylum CNIDARIA. They are mostly free-swimming marine organisms that go through five stages in their life cycle and exhibit two body forms: polyp and medusa.Cubozoa: The class of box jellyfish, in the phylum CNIDARIA, characterized by their cube shape, and considered the most venomous jellyfish.Anemone: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE that contains triterpene saponins. The root of Anemone raddeana is the source of a Chinese folk medicine, zhu jie xian fu. The common name of liverwort is also used with other plants. This genus is unrelated to SEA ANEMONES.Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Nematocyst: A double-walled capsule found in jellyfish and other CNIDARIA whose functions include prey capture, defense, locomotion, and attachment. Nematocysts contain toxic CNIDARIAN VENOMS which are injected into the victim via a barbed tubule.Ctenophora: Phylum of marine colenterates characterized by eight comb rows of fused cilia on the body surface. In contrast to CNIDARIA they lack stinging cells, but they are voracious predators and possess sticky cells (colloblasts) for capturing prey. Most species are transparent and many exhibit bioluminescence.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Placozoa: A phylum of primitive invertebrate animals that exemplify a simple body organization. Trichoplax adhaerens is considered a key species for early metazoan evolution.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Cnidarian Venoms: Venoms from jellyfish; CORALS; SEA ANEMONES; etc. They contain hemo-, cardio-, dermo- , and neuro-toxic substances and probably ENZYMES. They include palytoxin, sarcophine, and anthopleurine.Porifera: The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.RNA, Ribosomal, 28S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Metamorphosis, Biological: Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Polyps: Discrete abnormal tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the DIGESTIVE TRACT or the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Polyps can be spheroidal, hemispheroidal, or irregular mound-shaped structures attached to the MUCOUS MEMBRANE of the lumen wall either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Firefly Luciferin: A benzothaizole which is oxidized by LUCIFERASES, FIREFLY to cause emission of light (LUMINESCENCE).Urtica dioica: A plant species of the genus Urtica, family URTICACEAE. Roots have been used to treat PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA. Leaves are edible after the stinging quality is eliminated by brief heating.Animal Shells: The hard rigid covering of animals including MOLLUSCS; TURTLES; INSECTS; and crustaceans.Hawaii: A group of islands in Polynesia, in the north central Pacific Ocean, comprising eight major and 114 minor islands, largely volcanic and coral. Its capital is Honolulu. It was first reached by Polynesians about 500 A.D. It was discovered and named the Sandwich Islands in 1778 by Captain Cook. The islands were united under the rule of King Kamehameha 1795-1819 and requested annexation to the United States in 1893 when a provisional government was set up. Hawaii was established as a territory in 1900 and admitted as a state in 1959. The name is from the Polynesian Owhyhii, place of the gods, with reference to the two volcanoes Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, regarded as the abode of the gods. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p493 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p2330)Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.FloridaMarine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)DirectoryDinoflagellida: Flagellate EUKARYOTES, found mainly in the oceans. They are characterized by the presence of transverse and longitudinal flagella which propel the organisms in a rotating manner through the water. Dinoflagellida were formerly members of the class Phytomastigophorea under the old five kingdom paradigm.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Bahamas: A chain of islands, cays, and reefs in the West Indies, lying southeast of Florida and north of Cuba. It is an independent state, called also the Commonwealth of the Bahamas or the Bahama Islands. The name likely represents the local name Guanahani, itself of uncertain origin. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p106 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p45)Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Adosterol: A sterol usually substituted with radioactive iodine. It is an adrenal cortex scanning agent with demonstrated high adrenal concentration and superior adrenal imaging.Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.

Molecular determination of species boundaries in corals: genetic analysis of the Montastraea annularis complex using amplified fragment length polymorphisms and a microsatellite marker. (1/405)

Analyses of DNA have not been widely used to distinguish coral sibling species. The three members of the Montastraea annularis complex represent an important test case: they are widely studied and dominate Caribbean reefs, yet their taxonomic status remains unclear. Analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and a microsatellite locus, using DNA from sperm, showed that Montastraea faveolata is genetically distinct. One AFLP primer yielded a diagnostic product (880 bp in M. faveolata 920 bp in M. franksi and M. annularis) whose homology was established by DNA sequencing. A second primer revealed a 630 bp band that was fixed in M. faveolata, and rare in M. franksi and M. annularis; in this case homologies were confirmed by Southern hybridizations. A tetranucleotide microsatellite locus with several alleles exhibited strong frequency differences between M. faveolata and the other two taxa. We did not detect comparable differences between M. annularis and M. franksi with either AFLPs (12 primers screened) or the microsatellite locus. Comparisons of AFLP patterns obtained from DNA from sperm, somatic tissues, and zooxanthellae suggest that the technique routinely amplifies coral (animal) DNA. Thus analyses based on somatic tissues may be feasible, particularly after diagnostic differences have been established using sperm DNA.  (+info)

Atypically low rate of cytochrome b evolution in the scleractinian coral genus Acropora. (2/405)

Unexpectedly low levels of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b sequence divergence are found between species of the scleractinian coral genus Acropora. Comparison of 964 positions of the cytochrome b gene of two out of the three Caribbean Acropora species with seven of their Pacific congeners shows only 0.3-0.8% sequence difference. Species in these biogeographic regions have been evolving independently for at least three million years (since the rise of the Isthmus of Panama) and this geological date is used to estimate nucleotide divergence rates. The results indicate that the Acropora cytochrome b gene is evolving at least 10-20 times slower than the 'standard' vertebrate mtDNA clock and is one of the most slowly evolving animal mitochondrial genes described to date. The possibility is discussed that, unlike higher animals, cnidarians may have a functional mtDNA mismatch repair system.  (+info)

Evidence of a cyclooxygenase-related prostaglandin synthesis in coral. The allene oxide pathway is not involved in prostaglandin biosynthesis. (3/405)

Certain corals are rich natural sources of prostaglandins, the metabolic origin of which has remained undefined. By analogy with the lipoxygenase/allene oxide synthase pathway to jasmonic acid in plants, the presence of (8R)-lipoxygenase and allene oxide synthase in the coral Plexaura homomalla suggested a potential metabolic route to prostaglandins (Brash, A. R., Baertshi, S. W., Ingram, C.D., and Harris, T. M. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 15829-15839). Other evidence, from the Arctic coral Gersemia fruticosa, has indicated a cyclooxygenase intermediate in the biosynthesis (Varvas, K., Koljak, R., Jarving, I., Pehk, T., and Samel, N. (1994) Tetrahedron Lett. 35, 8267-8270). In the present study, active preparations of G. fruticosa have been used to identify both types of arachidonic acid metabolism and specific inhibitors were used to establish the enzyme type involved in the prostaglandin biosynthesis. The synthesis of prostaglandins and (11R)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid was inhibited by mammalian cyclooxygenase inhibitors (indomethacin, aspirin, and tolfenamic acid), while the formation of the products of the 8-lipoxygenase/allene oxide pathway was not affected or was increased. The specific cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, nimesulide, did not inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins in coral. We conclude that coral uses two parallel routes for the initial oxidation of polyenoic acids: the cyclooxygenase route, which leads to optically active prostaglandins, and the lipoxygenase/allene oxide synthase metabolism, the role of which remains to be established. An enzyme related to mammalian cyclooxygenases is the key to prostaglandin synthesis in coral. Based on our inhibitor data, the catalytic site of this evolutionary early cyclooxygenase appears to differ significantly from both known mammalian cyclooxygenases.  (+info)

The protein phosphatase inhibitor cantharidin induces head and foot formation in buds of Cassiopea andromeda (Rhizostomae, Scyphozoa). (4/405)

The polyps of Cassiopea andromeda produce spindle shaped, freely swimming buds which do not develop a head (a mouth opening surrounded by tentacles) and a foot (a sticky plate at the opposite end) until settlement to a suited substrate. The buds, therewith, look very similar to the planula larvae produced in sexual reproduction. With respect to both, buds and planulae, several peptides and the phorbolester TPA have been found to induce the transformation into a polyp. Here it is shown that cantharidin, a serine/threonine protein phosphatase inhibitor, induces head and foot formation in buds very efficiently in a 30 min treatment, the shortest yet known efficient treatment. Some resultant polyps show malformations which indicate that a bud is ordinary polyp tissue in which preparatory steps of head and foot formation mutually block each other from proceeding. Various compounds related to the transfer of methyl groups have been shown to affect head and foot formation in larvae of the hydrozoon Hydractinia echinata. These compounds including methionine, homocysteine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid and cycloleucine are shown to also interfere with the initiation of the processes which finally lead to head and foot formation in buds of Cassiopea andromeda.  (+info)

Coral grafting supplemented with bone marrow. (5/405)

Limited success in regenerating large bone defects has been achieved by bridging them with osteoconductive materials. These substitutes lack the osteogenic and osteoinductive properties of bone autograft. A direct approach would be to stimulate osteogenesis in these biomaterials by the addition of fresh bone-marrow cells (BMC). We therefore created osteoperiosteal gaps 2 cm wide in the ulna of adult rabbits and either bridged them with coral alone (CC), coral supplemented with BMC, or left them empty. Coral was chosen as a scaffold because of its good biocompatibility and resorbability. In osteoperiosteal gaps bridged with coral only, the coral was invaded chiefly by fibrous tissue. It was insufficient to produce union after two months. In defects filled with coral and BMC an increase in osteogenesis was observed and the bone surface area was significantly higher compared with defects filled with coral alone. Bony union occurred in six out of six defects filled with coral and BMC after two months. An increase in the resorption of coral was also observed, suggesting that resorbing cells or their progenitors were present in bone marrow and survived the grafting procedure. Our findings have shown that supplementation of coral with BMC increased both the resorption of material and osteogenesis in defects of a clinical significance.  (+info)

Reproductive and genetic evidence for a reticulate evolutionary history of mass-spawning corals. (6/405)

Reef-building corals, which reproduce through simultaneous multispecies spawning, are thought to hybridize frequently, and it is hypothesized that they have evolved in repeated rounds of species separation and fusion. We conducted cross-fertilization experiments and molecular analyses with a number of mass-spawning coral species in the genus Acropora. A high rate of interspecific fertilization occurred between some species despite very different morphologies. The hybrid larvae developed normally and contained an allelic sequence transmitted from each parent, suggesting common diploid hybridization. Molecular phylogenetic analyses provided strong evidence for a gene pool shared between the hybridizing species. These reproductive and genetic characteristics are consistent with a species complex formed under the separation/fusion processes predicted for a reticulate evolutionary history.  (+info)

Purification and catalytic activities of the two domains of the allene oxide synthase-lipoxygenase fusion protein of the coral Plexaura homomalla. (7/405)

The conversion of fatty acid hydroperoxides to allene epoxides is catalyzed by a cytochrome P450 in plants and, in coral, by a 43-kDa catalase-related hemoprotein fused to the lipoxygenase that synthesizes the 8R-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (8R-HPETE) substrate. We have expressed the separate lipoxygenase and allene oxide synthase (AOS) domains of the coral protein in Escherichia coli (BL21 cells) and purified the proteins; this system gives high expression (1.5 and 0.3 micromol/liter, respectively) of catalytically active enzymes. Both domains show fast reaction kinetics. Catalytic activity of the lipoxygenase domain is stimulated 5-fold by high concentrations of monovalent cations (500 mM Na(+), Li(+), or K(+)), and an additional 5-fold by 10 mM Ca(2+). The resulting rates of reaction are approximately 300 turnovers/s, 1-2 orders of magnitude faster than mammalian lipoxygenases. This makes the coral lipoxygenase well suited for partnership with the AOS domain, which shows maximum rates of approximately 1400 turnovers/s in the conversion of 8R-HPETE to the allene oxide. Some unusual catalytic activities of the two domains are described. The lipoxygenase domain converts 20.3omega6 partly to the bis-allylic hydroperoxide (10-hydroperoxyeicosa-8,11,14-trienoic acid). Metabolism of the preferred substrate of the AOS domain, 8R-HPETE, is inhibited by the enantiomer 8S-HPETE. Although the AOS domain has homology to catalase in primary structure, it is completely lacking in catalatic action on H(2)O(2); catalase itself, as expected from its preference for small hydroperoxides, is ineffective in allene oxide synthesis from 8R-HPETE.  (+info)

Are there mechanical limits to size in wave-swept organisms? (8/405)

Hydrodynamic forces imposed by ocean waves are thought to limit the size of nearshore plants and animals, but it has proved difficult to determine the mechanism. Explanations based on the scaling mismatch between hydrodynamic accelerational forces and the strength of organisms do not work. Mechanisms that incorporate the allometry of drag and strength accurately predict the maximal size of intertidal algae but not of animals, and internally imposed inertial forces may explain the limits to size in large kelps. The general question of size in wave-swept organisms remains open and intriguing.  (+info)

By using immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassays, several substances resembling vertebrate or invertebrate neuropeptides have been found in the nervous systems of coelenterates. The most abundant neuropeptides were those related to the molluscan neuropeptide Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-amide (FMRFamide). Of antisera against different fragments of FMRFamide, those against RFamide were superior in recognizing the coelenterate peptide. Incubation of whole mounts with these RFamide antisera visualized the coelenterate nervous system in such a detail as has previously not been possible. By using a radioimmunoassay with a RFamide antiserum and [J-125]-YFMRFamide as tracer, the RFamide-like peptide from sea anemones was isolated. After cation-exchange chromatography, gelfiltration and HPLC, this peptide was obtained in a pure form ...
Several tetracosapolyenoic acids (TPA) were detected in lipids of different marine coelenterates. Two of these acids were isolated and their structures were confirmed by chemical and spectral methods as all-cis-6,9,12,15,18-tetracosapentaenoic and all-cis-6,9,12,15,18,21-tetracosahexaenoic acid. Their distribution among lipids of a number of species of different classes of coelenterates from the northern and tropical seas, among neutral and polar lipids of these organisms was investigated. Significant quantities of TPA were found in all of the Octacorallia species studied. In some cases the sum of TPA reaches the level of 20% of total lipid fatty acids. The fatty acid composition of different coelenterates is also discussed. © 1991 ...
What is the difference between Coelenterates and Platyhelminthes? Coelenterates are diploblastic invertebrates; Platyhelminthes are triploblastic invertebrates
Traditional skull and facial bone reconstructions with hard tissues have a long history with good clinical outcomes. However, they have certain disadvantages. The benefits of synthetic materials are the avoidance of donor-site morbidity and scars, but also shorter hospitalization time, lower expenses and known composition. Custom-made skull bone implant can produced based on patients clinical need utilizing rapid prototyping technologies. This will result in very high accuracy of the form of the skull defect.. Polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA) is one of the most widely used alloplastic material in surgery. Bioactive glass S53P4 (BAG) particles have been used in various clinical indications. BAG was added to composite implant of PMMA with glass fibre reinforcement to enhance bone ingrowth to implant, and to utilize BAG`s antimicrobial effects. Ten patients cranial defects are treated with composite implants. ...
Background Apoptosis, one of many types of programmed cell loss of life, is conducted and regulated with a organic proteins network. vertebrate, nematode, and insect genomes, got multiple paralogs in the cnidarian-bilaterian ancestor. Different people of the ancestral Apaf-1 family members resulted in the extant protein in nematodes/pests and in deuterostomes, detailing significant functional differences between proteins that until had been thought to be orthologous today. Similarly, 173220-07-0 IC50 the advancement from the Bcl-2 and caspase proteins families appears 173220-07-0 IC50 amazingly complicated and evidently included significant gene reduction in nematodes and pests and expansions in deuterostomes. Bottom line The rising picture from the evolution from the apoptosis network is certainly among a succession of lineage-specific expansions and loss, which combined with limited amount of apoptotic proteins families, led to apparent commonalities between systems in different ...
Cnidaria (Gr., cnidae, nettle) is a phylum of mostly marine Metazoa distinguished by cnidocysts, subcellular capsules containing an inverted tubule capable of everting and, in some cases, discharging venom
The toxicity of Cnidaria is a subject of concern for its influence on human activities and public health. During the last decades, the mechanisms of cell injury caused by cnidarian venoms have been studied utilizing extracts from several Cnidaria that have been tested in order to evaluate some fundamental parameters, such as the activity on cell survival, functioning and metabolism, and to improve the knowledge about the mechanisms of action of these compounds. In agreement with the modern tendency aimed to avoid the utilization of living animals in the experiments and to substitute them with in vitro systems, established cell lines or primary cultures have been employed to test cnidarian extracts or derivatives. Several cnidarian venoms have been found to have cytotoxic properties and have been also shown to cause hemolytic effects. Some studied substances have been shown to affect tumour cells and microorganisms, so making cnidarian extracts particularly interesting for their possible therapeutic
Brooding in the octocoral Xenia macrospiculata is described. Young planulae of X. macrospiculatawere found in brooding pouches located below the anthocodia among the polyps cavities. These cavities...
Cnidarians disdinguising feature is their cnidocytes, which are specialized cells that are used for capturing prey. Their bodies are made of mesoglea, a gelatinous substance, which is layered in between to layers of epithelial tissue, which are one cell-layer thick. Cnidaria have a very simple digestive tract known as the gastrovascular cavity. The gastrovascular cavity is located at the center of the sac-like body and is accessed by a single opening. This opening serves as the mouth and anus. Cnidarians also have tentacles with stinging cells. These cells are used to subdue prey, and some contain toxins irritating or poisonous to humans. Cnidarians exist as one of two types. The first is a polyp, which has a barrel shape and attaches to the sea floor via its body. Extending upwards off of the body are the tentacles. Some species of polyps can propagate vegetatively, meaning that they reproduce asexually through methods such as budding (an outgrowth of the parent separates to form a new ...
Cnidarian, also called coelenterate, any member of the phylum Cnidaria (Coelenterata), a group made up of more than 9,000 living species. Mostly marine animals, the cnidarians include the corals, hydras,…
Cnidarian comes from the Greek word "knide," which means nettle, which is something which delivers a sting. They sting because they have nematocysts which are like little capsules of stinging liquid with a sharp needle-like point which pieces the skin, letting out a thin hollow thread to deliver the liquid under the skin ...
View Notes - 2011L Lec4 Cnidaria Spr08 from BIO bsc2011L at FSU. Phylum Cnidaria-bearing stingers (cnidae)- The major lineages of evolution in animals Fundamental evolutionary divergence among
Study Flashcards On Cnidaria at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
The majority of animals more complex than jellyfish and other Cnidarians are split into two groups, the protostomes and deuterostomes. Chordates (which include all the vertebrates) are deuterostomes.[8] It seems likely that the 555 million year old Kimberella was a member of the protostomes.[9][10] That implies that the protostome and deuterostome lineages split some time before Kimberella appeared - at least 558 million years ago, and hence well before the start of the Cambrian 541 million years ago,[8] i.e. during the later part of the Ediacaran Era (circa 635-542 Mya, around the end of global Marinoan glaciation in the late Neoproterozoic). The oldest discovered proposed deuterostome is Saccorhytus coronarius, which lived approximately 540 million years ago.[2][11] The researchers that made the discovery believe that the Saccorhytus is a common ancestor to all previously-known deuterostomes.[11]. Fossils of one major deuterostome group, the echinoderms (whose modern members include sea stars, ...
I was reading about invertebrates, and noted that Ctenophores and Cnidarians have a gel-like, acellular layer separating their ecto and gastrodermis, termed the mesoglea. I know these two phyla are diploblastic, and that acoelomorphs, ecdysozoans, lophotrochozans, and deuterostomes (the bilaterians) are all triploblastic, thus they have three primary tissue layers during embryonic development (epi, endo, and mesoderm) as opposed to two. Is it plausible to hypothesize that perhaps the mesodermic layer of the bilaterians evolved from the mesoglea of our diploblastic ancestors? I know the mesoglea functions mainly in support, and read that the mesoderm gives rise to many cell types, including bone and muscle cells. I searched online for any articles examining the evolutionary relationship between the two, but couldnt find anything. Im kind of new to evolutionary bio, so sorry if this is way off the mark ...
Voltage-gated ion channels generate electrical activity in excitable cells. As such, they are essential components of neuromuscular and neuronal systems, and are targeted by toxins from a wide variety of phyla, including the cnidarians. Here, we review cnidarian toxins known to target voltage-gated ion channels, the specific channel types targeted, and, where known, the sites of action of cnidarian toxins on different channels.
Millepore, (Millepora), any of a genus of invertebrate marine animals comprising the order Milleporina (phylum Cnidaria). Millepores are common in shallow tropical seas to depths of 30 metres (about 100 feet). Unlike the true corals, which belong to the class Anthozoa, millepores are closely
Cnidarians are diverse and come in many shapes and sizes but there are some basic anatomical features that most members of the group share in common.
Nerve Net je studiové album britského multi-instrumentalisty Briana Eno. Vyšlo v září 1992 u vydavatelství All Saints Records a jeho producentem byl Brian Eno. Album vyšlo i v Československu u vydavatelství Popron.[2] Na albu se Eno vrátil k rockovějšímu stylu s prvky jazzu. Jako doprovodní hudebníci se zde představili například Robert Fripp (King Crimson) nebo John Paul Jones (Led Zeppelin). V roce 2014 vyšla reedice alba.[3][4] ...
Invertebrates / St. Thomas Bubble (per Polyp) / Discosoma sanctithomae / Wild Polyps, Mushroom . Quality Marine offers a great variety of corals and invertebrates, and is very supportive of numerous aquaculture efforts around the globe from which we offer the retailer and the hobbyist an environmentally sensitive alternative to wild harvest.
The top of this ring blooms into an intricately undulating surface, inspired by the frilly arms of a jellyfish. Floraform is inspired by the biomechanics of growing leaves and blooming flowers. Each piece emerges from a computational simulation of differential growth, a surface that grows at different rates in different location. The flowering structures expand fastest along their edges, evolving from simple surfaces to flexuous forms that fill space with curves, folds, and ruffles. Read more about Floraform ...
Some of the most interesting and enigmatic cnidarians are classified within the hydrozoan subclass Trachylina. Despite being relatively depauperate in species richness, the clade contains four taxa typically accorded ordinal status: Actinulida,Limnomedusae, Narcomedusae and Trachymedusae. We bring molecular data (mitochondrial 16S and nuclear small and large subunit ribosomal genes) to bear on the question of phylogenetic relationships within Trachylina. Surprisingly, we find that a diminutive polyp form, Microhydrula limopsicola (classified within Limnomedusae) is actually a previously unknown life stage of a species of Stauromedusae. Our data confirm that the interstitial form Halammohydra sp. (Actinulida) is derived from holopelagic direct developing ancestors, likely within the trachymedusan family Rhopalonematidae. Trachymedusae is shown to be diphyletic, suggesting that the polyp stage has been lost independently at least two times within trachyline evolution. Narcomedusae is supported as ...
The Abnormal Biology of A Baby Joseph was an unhappy baby. He didnt sleep for long periods and appeared to cry all a time. Hed best if he had been held and rocked, or walked. He spit after feeding and was negatively compared to other babies in the family. His parents gently called him their "high care" child. … Continue reading "Sponges and Cnidarians ...
Cairns, S.D., and Bayer, F.M., 2009. Octocorallia (Cnidaria) of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 321-331 in Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico-Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M Press, College Station, Texas ...
Cnidaria,Hydroid,Rhysia,Rhysia fletcheri,Garry Fletcher,Invertebrate taxonomy, Dr. Anita Brinckmann-Voss,Marine Protected Area, Race Rocks
With all this in hand, lets look at symmetry. Since the Cnidarian medusa forms have a well-defined radial symmetry around their oral/aboral axis, well start with that. If we imagine a glove with poles, latitude, longitude, and an equator, lets break the equator into four equal sections, broken at 0°, 90°, 180°, and 270°. Well define a primary mirror image at each break line, so each section looks identical to its reflection in each mirror. Well also define a second set of mirrors intermediate to the the first, at 45°-225° and 135°-315°. Each section, then, is identical to every other, and to its reflection across the primary mirror line. Each sections halves are also identical but inverted across the secondary mirror line running down its middle. This is radial symmetry with an index of four. A simple square has this sort of symmetry. It can be divided into four identical sections, reflected in the two mirror axes, with each section having identical but inverted "left" and "right" ...
askIITians offers revision notes on Animal Kingdom including classification of phylums protozoa, cnidaria, nematoda, mollusca for NEET (AIPMT) & Medical Exams. Download here:
Cnidarians, such as jellyfish, are animals that reside solely in aquatic environments. Learn more about Cnidarians at HowStuffWorks.
H. Watanabe, A. Kuhn, M. Fushiki, K. Agata, Y. Kocag z, S. zbek, T. Fujisawa & T.W. Holstein: Sequential actions of -catenin and Bmp pattern the oral nerve net in Nematostella vectensi. Nature Communication 5:5536 (23 December 2014), doi:10.1038/ ...
Scientists at Heidelberg University and the Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies (HITS) have discovered an unusually elastic protein in one of the most ancient groups of animals, the over 600-million-year-old cnidarians. The protein is a part of the "weapons system" that the cnidarians use: a kind of harpoon launched from their body at extremely high…. Details ...
With all this in hand, lets look at symmetry. Since the Cnidarian medusa forms have a well-defined radial symmetry around their oral/aboral axis, well start with that. If we imagine a glove with poles, latitude, longitude, and an equator, lets break the equator into four equal sections, broken at 0°, 90°, 180°, and 270°. Well define a primary mirror image at each break line, so each section looks identical to its reflection in each mirror. Well also define a second set of mirrors intermediate to the the first, at 45°-225° and 135°-315°. Each section, then, is identical to every other, and to its reflection across the primary mirror line. Each sections halves are also identical but inverted across the secondary mirror line running down its middle. This is radial symmetry with an index of four. A simple square has this sort of symmetry. It can be divided into four identical sections, reflected in the two mirror axes, with each section having identical but inverted "left" and "right" ...
Ax, P. 1989. Basic phylogenetic systematization of Metazoa. Pp. 453-470 in K. B. B. Fernholm and H. Jornvall (eds.). The Hierarchy of Life. Elsevier, Amsterdam.. Bridge, D., C. W. Cunningham, R. DeSalle, and L. W. Buss. 1995. Class-level relationships in the phylum Cnidaria: Molecular and morphological evidence. Molec. Biol. Evol. 12:679-689. Bridge, D., C. W. Cunningham, B. Schierwater, R. DeSalle, and L. W.. Buss. 1992. Class-level relationships in the phylum Cnidaria: Evidence from mitochondrial genome structure. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 89:8750-8753. Brusca, C. B. and G. J. Brusca. 1990. Invertebrates. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland MA.. Dunn, D. F. 1982. Cnidaria. Pp. 669-705 in S. P. Parker (ed.) Synopsis and Classification of Living organisms. McGraw-Hill, New York.. Fautin, D. G. and R. N. Mariscal. 1991. Cnidaria: Anthozoa. Pp. 267-358 in F. W. Harrison and J. A. Westfall (eds.) Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates, volume 2: Placozoa, Porifera, Cnidaria, and Ctenophora. Wiley-Liss, ...
Ax, P. 1989. Basic phylogenetic systematization of Metazoa. Pp. 453-470 in K. B. B. Fernholm and H. Jornvall (eds.). The Hierarchy of Life. Elsevier, Amsterdam.. Bridge, D., C. W. Cunningham, R. DeSalle, and L. W. Buss. 1995. Class-level relationships in the phylum Cnidaria: Molecular and morphological evidence. Molec. Biol. Evol. 12:679-689. Bridge, D., C. W. Cunningham, B. Schierwater, R. DeSalle, and L. W.. Buss. 1992. Class-level relationships in the phylum Cnidaria: Evidence from mitochondrial genome structure. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 89:8750-8753. Brusca, C. B. and G. J. Brusca. 1990. Invertebrates. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland MA.. Dunn, D. F. 1982. Cnidaria. Pp. 669-705 in S. P. Parker (ed.) Synopsis and Classification of Living organisms. McGraw-Hill, New York.. Fautin, D. G. and R. N. Mariscal. 1991. Cnidaria: Anthozoa. Pp. 267-358 in F. W. Harrison and J. A. Westfall (eds.) Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates, volume 2: Placozoa, Porifera, Cnidaria, and Ctenophora. Wiley-Liss, ...
The hydromedusa Polyorchis penicillatus is a good model system to study neurotransmission in coelenterates. Using a radioimmunoassay for the peptide sequence Arg-Phe-NH2 (RFamide), two peptides have now been purified from acetic acid extracts of this medusa. The structure of one of these peptides was established as pyroGlu-Leu-Leu-Gly-Gly-Arg-Phe-NH2, and was named Pol-RFamide. This peptide belongs to the same peptide family as a recently isolated neuropeptide from sea anemones (pyroGlu-Gly-Arg-Phe-NH2). Using antisera to Pol-RFamide, the peptide was found to be exclusively localized in neurones of Polyorchis, among them neurones associated with smooth-muscle fibres. This suggests that Pol-RFamide might be a transmitter or modulator at neuromuscular junctions ...
The Scyphozoa is a class of the phylum Cnidaria, sometimes referred to as the "true jellyfish". There are 200 species. The name Scyphozoa comes from a Greek word which refers to the cup shape of the jellyfish. The medusa form is the dominant life form, as opposed to the polyp. They eat plankton, small crustaceans and fish larvae, which they capture using stinging cells called nematocysts. The nematocysts are attached to the tentacles that hang down from the edge of the umbrella dome. Scyphozoans have an internal jelly-like material. They have no hard parts, no head, and no specialized organs for respiration or excretion. Unlike other types of jellyfish, scyphozoans lack a velum, a circular membrane which propels other jellyfish through the water. Scyphozoans move through the water by contracting and relaxing the muscles of their umbrella. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Bayer, F. M. 1956. Octocorallia. Pp. F166-F230 in: R. C. Moore (ed.), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology Part F: Coelenterata. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, Lawrence.. Bayer, F. M., M. Grasshoff, and J. Verseveldt. 1983. Illustrated trilingual glossary of morphological and anatomical terms applied to Octocorallia. E. J. Brill / Dr. W.Backhuys, Leiden. 75 pp.. Berntson, E. A., S. C. France, and L. S. Mullineaux. 1999. Phylogenetic relationships within the Class Anthozoa (Phylum Cnidaria) based on nuclear 18S rDNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 13: 417-433.. Bridge, D., C. W. Cunningham, R. deSalle, and L. W. Buss. 1995. Class-level relationships in the phylum Cnidaria: Molecular and morphological evidence. Molecular Biology and Evolution 12: 679-689.. Chen, C. A., D. M. Odorico, M. ten Lohuis, J. E. N. Veron, and D. J. Miller. 1995. Systematic relationships within the Anthozoa (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) using the 5-end of the 28S rDNA. Molecular ...
The body plans cnidarians generally have radial symmetry (Fig. 3.25 A). Because the tentacles of corals, jellyfish, and sea anemones have this radial structure, they can sting and capture food coming from any direction.. Many cnidarians take two main structural forms during their life cycles, a polyp form and a medusa form. The polyp form has a body shaped like a hollow cylinder or a bag that opens and closes at the top (Fig. 3.25 A). Tentacles form a ring around a small mouth at the top of the bag. The mouth leads to a central body cavity, the gastrovascular cavity (Fig. 3.24 B). Polyps attach to hard surfaces with their mouths up. Because they are sessile organisms, they can only capture food that touches their tentacles. Their mesoglea layer is very thin. Corals and sea anemones are polyps. Most of these animals are small, but a few sea anemones can grow as large as 1 meter in diameter. The second structural form that cnidarians have is called the medusa form. Medusa bodies are shaped like an ...
Green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) and calcium-activated photoproteins of the aequorin/clytin family, now widely used as research tools, were originally isolated from the hydrozoan jellyfish Aequora victoria. It is known that bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) is possible between these proteins to generate flashes of green light, but the native function and significance of this phenomenon is unclear. Using the hydrozoan Clytia hemisphaerica, we characterized differential expression of three clytin and four GFP genes in distinct tissues at larva, medusa and polyp stages, corresponding to the major in vivo sites of bioluminescence (medusa tentacles and eggs) and fluorescence (these sites plus medusa manubrium, gonad and larval ectoderms ...
During embryonic development, early neurogenesis can be divided into several components, such as the origin, proliferation and movement of neural stem cells and progenitor cells, which are regulated by conserved genes and signalling pathways. These fundamental aspects of neurogenesis have been extensively studied in only a few bilaterian model organisms, leaving many questions regarding the evolution of this process open. The cnidarian and bilaterian lineages are sister groups that separated approximately 600 million years ago. Cnidarians have an informative position to study the early evolution of cellular and molecular aspects of neurogenesis and to understand common principles of neural development. Nematostella vectensis is a sea anemone, member of the phylum Cnidaria. They possess epithelial neural progenitor cells that express NvSoxB(2) and Atonal-like transcription factors. The Notch signalling pathways regulates the number of progenitor cells and achaete-scute is involved in further ...
Reef-building corals and many other cnidarians are symbiotic with dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. It has long been known that the endosymbiotic algae transfer much of their photosynthetically fixed carbon to the host and that this can provide much of the hosts total energy. However, it has remained unclear which metabolite(s) are directly translocated from the algae into the host tissue. We reexamined this question in the small sea anemone Aiptasia using labeling of intact animals in the light with 13C-bicarbonate, rapid homogenization and separation of animal and algal fractions, and analysis of metabolite labeling by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We found labeled glucose in the animal fraction within 2 min of exposure to 13C-bicarbonate, whereas no significant labeling of other compounds was observed within the first 10 min. Although considerable previous evidence has suggested that glycerol might be a major translocated metabolite, we saw no significant labeling of ...
The mold, protozoan, and coelenterate mitochondrial code and the mycoplasma/spiroplasma code is the genetic code used by various organisms, in some cases with slight variations, notably the use of UGA as a tryptophan codon rather than a stop codon. AAs = FFLLSSSSYY**CCWWLLLLPPPPHHQQRRRRIIIMTTTTNNKKSSRRVVVVAAAADDEEGGGG Starts = --MM---------------M------------MMMM---------------M------------ Base1 = TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG Base2 = TTTTCCCCAAAAGGGGTTTTCCCCAAAAGGGGTTTTCCCCAAAAGGGGTTTTCCCCAAAAGGGG Base3 = TCAGTCAGTCAGTCAGTCAGTCAGTCAGTCAGTCAGTCAGTCAGTCAGTCAGTCAGTCAGTCAG Bases: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T) or uracil (U). Amino acids: Alanine (Ala, A), Arginine (Arg, R), Asparagine (Asn, N), Aspartic acid (Asp, D), Cysteine (Cys, C), Glutamic acid (Glu, E), Glutamine (Gln, Q), Glycine (Gly, G), Histidine (His, H), Isoleucine (Ile, I), Leucine (Leu, L), Lysine (Lys, K), Methionine (Met, M), Phenylalanine (Phe, F), Proline (Pro, P), ...
Hydrozoa(Hydroids) Phylum CnidariaClass HydrozoaNumber of families 114Thumbnail description Invertebrates with a body plan that is comprised of a medusa with velum, a muscular projection from the subumbrellar margin that partially closes the subumbrellar cavity, and polyps; life cycles always involve the presence of a planula larva Source for information on Hydrozoa (Hydroids): Grzimeks Animal Life Encyclopedia dictionary.
Expression of ParaHox and Mox genes in Clytia hemisphaerica.A-C: CheGsx expression; A: general view of the medusa; B: higher magnification of the distal part
Study Flashcards On Biology, Cnidarians, Porifera, anthozoans, worms at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Science 10 (Block 2) ** Comprehension check tomorrow **. Practice all compounds - 34. Mixed Compounds Worksheet. Human Biology (Block 1). Circulatory and Respiratory research - 25. The Circulatory and Respiratory Systems Research Project. Oceans 11 (Block 4). Introduction to Porifera - 17. Marine Invertebrates - Porifera. Introduction to Cnidaria - 18. Marine Invertebrates - Cnidaria. Porifera and Cnidaria assignment - 19. Porifera and Cnidaria Assignment. ...
The expression of bilaterian-mesodermal genes changes the epithelial properties of the endomesoderm during the embryogenesis of the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis.
Just the sound of it demands respect. This invertebrate, infamous for its extremely powerful and painful sting belongs to the Cnidaria phylum and is a member of the Hydrozoa class. Cnidaria includes jellyfish, hydras, jellyfishes, anemones, and corals. This ancient phylum, which is at least 500 million years old contains about 9,000 marine species and some of the most beautiful, interesting, and perhaps most dangerous (marine) invertebrates (Wallace and Taylor, 1997). Hydrozoans usually prefer shallow water where their colonies (associations of individuals that share food often and or divide up ecological roles) can contribute heavily to surface growth on submerged objects (Meglitsch and Schram, 1991). The Portuguese man-of-war is likely one of the most complex and specialized hydrozoans (Wallace and taylor, 1997).. Portuguese man-of-wars are easily recognized by their nitrogen-filled, iridescent float. This structure may reach three to 12 inches in length and can extend as much as six inches ...
Ctenophores have traditionally been treated as eumetazoans, but some recent whole genome studies have revived the idea that they are, rather, the sister group to all other metazoans. This deep branching position implies either that nervous systems have evolved twice, in Ctenophora and in Eumetazoa, or that an ancestral metazoan nervous system has been lost in sponges and placozoans. We caution, however, that phylogenetic-tree construction artifacts may have placed ctenophores too deep in the metazoan tree. We discuss nervous system origins under these alternative phylogenies and in light of comparative data of ctenophore and eumetazoan nervous systems. We argue that characters like neuropeptide signaling, ciliary photoreceptors, gap junctions and presynaptic molecules are consistent with a shared ancestry of nervous systems. However, if ctenophores are the sister group to all other metazoans, this ancestral nervous system was likely very simple. Further studies are needed to resolve the deep phylogeny
Background: Anthozoan cnidarians are amongst the simplest animals at the tissue level of organization, but are surprisingly complex and vertebrate-like in terms of gene repertoire. As major components of tropical reef ecosystems, the stony corals are anthozoans of particular ecological significance. To better understand the molecular bases of both cnidarian development in general and coral-specific processes such as skeletogenesis and symbiont acquisition, microarray analysis was carried out through the period of early development - when skeletogenesis is initiated, and symbionts are first acquired.. Results: Of 5081 unique peptide coding genes, 1084 were differentially expressed (P ≤ 0.05) in comparisons between four different stages of coral development, spanning key developmental transitions. Genes of likely relevance to the processes of settlement, metamorphosis, calcification and interaction with symbionts were characterised further and their spatial expression patterns investigated using ...
See Acta Errata.. Mills, C.E. and M.F. Strathmann, 1987. Phylum Cnidaria, Class Hydrozoa. pp. 44-71 In Reproduction and Development of Marine Invertebrates of the Northern Pacific Coast (M.F. Strathmann, ed.) University of Washington Press, Seattle and London.. This chapter includes a general summary of reproduction and development in marine Hydrozoa, followed by specific practical information on the use of material found along the northern Pacific Coast of the United States and Canada. Topics covered include identification, collection and maintenance, collecting newly released medusae, collecting gametes, insemination, culture set-ups, isolation or fusion of embryo parts, vital staining, dissociation and reaggregation of blastomeres, and centrifugation of eggs. This section is followed by specific information on selected local species including 17 Anthomedusae or athecate hydroids, 14 Leptomedusae or thecate hydroids, 2 species of Limnomedusae, one (Trachyline) Narcomedusa, one stylasterine ...
The evolution of the nervous system in metazoan animals has been a topic of great interest. It is thought that the first nerve cell (neuron) evolved in a common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians, because neuronal cell types are absent in their sister group, the sponges (Galliot et al., 2009). Although putative sensory cells do exist in the sponge, these cells do not form synapses and do not possess dendrites and axons (Richards et al., 2008). Although cnidarians typically have a diffuse nerve net, some regionalization patterns of neurons and their neurites have been identified in several types of cnidarians (Galliot et al., 2009; Watanabe et al., 2009). It is possible that these cnidarian nerve rings might represent a primitive organized nervous system. After the divergence of cnidarians and bilaterians, a centralized nervous system evolved in the bilaterian lineage (Arendt et al., 2008; Holland, 2003). The evolutionary origin of the central nervous system (CNS) in bilaterian animals has ...
Two patterns of macrociliary growth occur in Beroe. Early differentiation described previously (Tamm & Tamm, 1988) leads to the first pattern of ciliogenesis. A tuft of 10-20 single cilia initially grows out from basal bodies that have migrated to the cell surface and are axially aligned. Ciliary membranes then begin to fuse along their length, except at the base, resulting in thicker groups of cilia on each cell. Progressive fusion of ciliary membranes, together with addition and elongation of new axonemes, finally results in mature macrocilia, 5 microns thick and 40 microns long, enclosed by a single membrane distally. The second pattern of ciliogenesis begins with the simultaneous appearance of several hundred ciliary buds on the apical surface. The short cilia possess individual membranes with bulbous tips, and are not axially aligned. Subsequent elongation is accompanied by progressive fusion of neighbouring ciliary membranes, except at the base, leading to flat-topped stumps surrounded ...
Definition of hydroid - a coelenterate of an order which includes the hydras. They are distinguished by the dominance of the polyp phase.
Background: Adhesion mediated through the integrin family of cell surface receptors is central to early development throughout the Metazoa, playing key roles in cell-extra cellular matrix adhesion and modulation of cadherin activity during the convergence and extension movements of gastrulation. It has been suggested that Caenorhabditis elegans, which has a single β and two α integrins, might reflect the ancestral integrin complement. Investigation of the integrin repertoire of anthozoan cnidarians such as the coral Acropora millepora is required to test this hypothesis and may provide insights into the original roles of these molecules.. Results: Two novel integrins were identified in Acropora. AmItgα1 shows features characteristic of α integrins lacking an I-domain, but phylogenetic analysis gives no clear indication of its likely binding specificity. AmItgβ2 lacks consensus cysteine residues at positions 8 and 9, but is otherwise a typical β integrin. In situ hybridization revealed that ...
Hydra are freshwater organisms, only a few millimeters in length, and belong to the phylum Cnidaria, which also includes jellyfish and coral. Cnidarians split from their bilateral counterparts roughly 750 million years ago and maintain a much simpler body plan and nervous system than many of todays model organisms.. Their tubular bodies are comprised of two layers of muscle, each composed of a different cell type and separated by two nerve nets. The muscle cells generate movement by exerting force on protein fibers, which run longitudinally (from the mouth to the base of the tube foot) in one muscle layer, and circumferentially (around the horizontal axis) in the other layer. When the longitudinal fibers are pulled, the body column gets short and fat; when the circumferential ones are pulled, it gets long and skinny. Given that the muscle fibers run perpendicular to one another, it was long thought that they held opposing roles, and that both layers of muscle cells could not be activated and ...
ID A7S545_NEMVE Unreviewed; 564 AA. AC A7S545; DT 02-OCT-2007, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 02-OCT-2007, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 72. DE SubName: Full=Predicted protein {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EDO41140.1}; GN ORFNames=v1g206949 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EDO41140.1}; OS Nematostella vectensis (Starlet sea anemone). OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Cnidaria; Anthozoa; Hexacorallia; Actiniaria; OC Edwardsiidae; Nematostella. OX NCBI_TaxID=45351 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001593}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EDO41140.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001593} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=CH2 X CH6 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001593}; RX PubMed=17615350; DOI=10.1126/science.1139158; RA Putnam N.H., Srivastava M., Hellsten U., Dirks B., Chapman J., RA Salamov A., Terry A., Shapiro H., Lindquist E., Kapitonov V.V., RA Jurka J., Genikhovich G., Grigoriev I.V., Lucas S.M., Steele R.E., RA Finnerty J.R., Technau U., Martindale M.Q., Rokhsar D.S.; RT "Sea anemone genome ...
Journal of Marine Biology is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of marine biology.
24 Nov., à 14h en salle TB : " Impact of Wnt signalling on multipotent stem cell dynamics during Clytia hemisphaerica embryonic and larval development"Composition du jury : Agnes Audibert Pr. - Présidente du Jury ; Dr. Fabian Rentzsch - Rapporteur ;
ID A7SJF6_NEMVE Unreviewed; 259 AA. AC A7SJF6; DT 02-OCT-2007, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 02-OCT-2007, sequence version 1. DT 07-JUN-2017, entry version 52. DE SubName: Full=Predicted protein {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EDO36153.1}; DE Flags: Fragment; GN ORFNames=v1g120521 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EDO36153.1}; OS Nematostella vectensis (Starlet sea anemone). OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Cnidaria; Anthozoa; Hexacorallia; Actiniaria; OC Edwardsiidae; Nematostella. OX NCBI_TaxID=45351 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001593}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EDO36153.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001593} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=CH2 X CH6 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001593}; RX PubMed=17615350; DOI=10.1126/science.1139158; RA Putnam N.H., Srivastava M., Hellsten U., Dirks B., Chapman J., RA Salamov A., Terry A., Shapiro H., Lindquist E., Kapitonov V.V., RA Jurka J., Genikhovich G., Grigoriev I.V., Lucas S.M., Steele R.E., RA Finnerty J.R., Technau U., Martindale M.Q., Rokhsar D.S.; RT ...
New records of the genera Leptogorgia, Pacifigorgia and Eugorgia (Octocorallia: Gorgoniidae) from Ecuador, with a description of a new species
Explore the underwater world of the Cnidarians, an ancient yet successful group of animals that includes colorful corals, strange sea anemones, and elegant jellyfish. Detailed …
Despite the wide distribution of zoanthids, little is known about their pattern of reproduction. Here we investigate the reproductive biology of two Mediterranean species, the common Parazoanthus axinellae (Schmidt) and the rare Savalia savaglia (Bertoloni). For both species, samples were collected during an annual cycle, from January to December 2005, in the Western Mediterranean (Ligurian Sea, Italy). Both species are gonochoric. In P. axinellae the sex-ratio (n colonies = 30) showed a slight predominance of male colonies (M/F = 1.35), whereas in the population of S. savaglia (n colonies = 15) a predominance of females was found (M/F = 0.3). In P. axinellae the first gametocytes were visible in March, whereas in S. savaglia they became visible in May. Both species reproduce at the end of autumn when seawater temperature begins to decrease. Parazoanthus axinellae (10 m depth) spawns eggs and sperms in November, whereas S. savaglia (67 m depth) spawns in December. In P. axinellae sexes were ...
Parent Directory - Favosites-hamiltoniae/ 19-Jul-2014 16:58 - Favosites-turbinatus/ 19-Jul-2014 16:58 - Lithostrotionella-cu.., 19-Jul-2014 16:58 - Nemaia-simplex/ 19-Jul-2014 16:58 - Paraconularia/ 19-Jul-2014 16:58 - Streptelasma/ 19-Jul-2014 16:58 ...
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. ...
Terms You should have a working knowledge of the following terms: amoebocyte anterior anthozoan cephalization choanocyte cnidae cnidarian cnidocyte flatworm ganglion (pl. ganglia) gastrovascular cavity hydrozoan medusa nematocyst osculum (pl. oscula) plan
Jellyfish are beautiful deep sea animals from the Cnidaria family. Jellyfish can be considered both deadly and helpful. Read through to know some facts like these about jellyfish.
My current research as a postdoctoral scholar in Dr. Ann Tarrants lab at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution utilizes the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, to study the evolution and transcriptional regulation of stress response pathways. Nematostella is a useful, emerging model species to study these questions for at least three reasons: 1) as a cnidarian, this anemone is evolutionarily well-positioned as a representative outgroup to traditional studies in vertebrates and insects, 2) the genome has been sequenced and extensive molecular tools, including gene expression profiling, in situ hybridization, and knock downs, have been developed, and 3) it is a broadly distributed, estuarine specialist occupying high marsh environments; thus, it is naturally exposed to habitat perturbations and point sources of contaminants. I am currently pursing three research directions that address a suite of questions and use a diverse set of techniques. Research Direction 1. Transcriptional ...
Apoptosis is one form of programmed cell death found in the Metazoa. It is a highly conserved, critical process in tissue morphogenesis and homeostasis and in the elimination of damaged or infected cells (Raff, 1998). It is characterized by an orderly, proscribed set of events that leads to cell death. Once the cascade is initiated, morphological alterations include cell shrinkage, fragmentation of DNA, condensation of chromatin and the formation of apoptotic bodies that contain packaged cellular debris. Apoptosis in vertebrates is highly complex and includes initiation and execution stages, which involve multiple different and interacting pathways. Initiation can be triggered by either extrinsic or intrinsic signals. The centerpiece of the cascade is the caspases, a family of proteases that carry out the majority of the cell death process (Raff, 1998). Caspases and other apoptosis genes, are present in Cnidarians (Cikala et al., 1999; Dunn et al., 2006; Richier et al., 2006), and apoptosis is ...
COVER: "Asterios" most likely comes from the word "asteria," which is a gemstone cut to show "asterism," itself meaning a small group of stars. "Polyp" is, according to Merriam-Websters dictionary, either a "coelenterate (as a coral) that has typically a hollow cylindrical body closed and attached at one end and opening at the other by a central mouth surrounded by tentacles armed with nematocysts" or a "growth projecting from a mucous membrane (as of the colon or vocal cords)." One could see Asterios himself as fitting either defnition, as he views himself in the "subjective reality" world as a hollow cylindrical body, and he never stops talking. One could say hes a very stellar talker with an insubstantial or not-very-attractive personality ...
COVER: "Asterios" most likely comes from the word "asteria," which is a gemstone cut to show "asterism," itself meaning a small group of stars. "Polyp" is, according to Merriam-Websters dictionary, either a "coelenterate (as a coral) that has typically a hollow cylindrical body closed and attached at one end and opening at the other by a central mouth surrounded by tentacles armed with nematocysts" or a "growth projecting from a mucous membrane (as of the colon or vocal cords)." One could see Asterios himself as fitting either defnition, as he views himself in the "subjective reality" world as a hollow cylindrical body, and he never stops talking. One could say hes a very stellar talker with an insubstantial or not-very-attractive personality ...
Exif Keywords: Natur, nature, animals, Tiere, Meer, Meerestier, Meerestiere, Niedere Tiere, Wirbellose, Invertebrata, Invertebrate, Invertebrates, Korallenriff, coral reef, Koralle, Anemonen, Hohltiere, Gorgonien, coral, gorgonians, rose, Cnidarians, Cnidaria, schwamm, ...
The method corals use for building their homes is worlds away from the way humans have been making cement and concrete, but one company has developed an innovative method for using seawater (which corals also utilize to make calcium) to both make cement and sequester carbon dioxide.
David, Charles N. (1980): Control of stem cell proliferation in Hydra attenuata. In: Tardent, Pierre (ed.) : Developmental and Cellular Biology of Coelenterates. Amsterdam: Elsevier. ...
http://www.eurekalert.org/pubreleases/2003-04/ns-wbd040903.php. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/miqa3931/is200305/ain9299679. http://www.linkgrinder.com/tutorials/Chemistry20291Chemistryarticle.html. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/...coralproteins2.html. http://www.nightsea.com. http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/04deepscope/welcome.html. http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/.../imaging/imaging.html. http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/.../aug22/aug22.html. http://www.sciencentral.com/articles/...id=218391789&cat=2_7. Delvoye, L., 1995. The histological basis of tissue fluorescence in the hermatypic coral Agaricia agaricites (Linnaeus, 1758), in Proc. Sixth Intl. Conf. on Coelenterate Biology, pp. 143-150. Doubilet, David, 1997. A new light in the sea. National Geographic, August, 192: 32-43.. Drafahl, Jack, and Sue Drafahl, 1999. Photographing fluorescent corals. Skin Diver, April, 24:25.. Fuchs, E., and C. H. Mazel, 1998. An experimental method to separate ...
Senescence is a deteriorative process that increases the probability of death of an organism with increasing age. This has been found in all animals so far. Cnidaria are one of the earliest diverging groups from the metazoans. Hydra is a member of this group and researchers think that they may be immortal. They are capable of refreshing the tissue of their bodies. Within a study by Daniel E. Martinez, he was able to test for the presence or absence of aging. This included following three cohorts of Hydra for a period of four years, which suggests that there is no evidence of aging. He found that mortality rates remained extremely low and that there were no apparent signs of decline in reproductive rates. (Martinez 1998). Hydra has a very simple body plan. It consists of a foot or basal disk at one end and a head on a tube at the other end. The head has two parts: the apical hypostome, or mouth region, surrounded by the tentacle zone, which around six tentacles emerge. Two epithelial layers ...
https://www.vichighmarine.ca/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/Ctenophore-Cydippid-Larva.jpg 480 600 adam.james https://www.vichighmarine.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/logo-300x253.png adam.james2017-02-13 20:33:542019-09-16 02:21:45Ctenophore Larva - Cyddipid Larva ...
Members of the class Scyphozoa are gonochoric. Life cycle: Egg is laid by the adult medusa which later develops into a free-living planula, then to a scyphistoma to a strobila, and lastly to a free-living young medusa (Ref. 833). ...
By peering deep into evolutionary history, scientists at the University of California, Santa Barbara have discovered the origins of photosensitivity in animals. The scientists studied the aquatic animal Hydra, a member of Cnidaria, which are animals that have existed for hundreds of millions of years.
Ctnenophores are a group of marine, jelly like, comb bearing metazoans. This phylum consists of an estimated 100-°©‐200 species (Mills CE, 2012). Ctenophores are similar to cnidarians in that they have a homologous mesoderm consisting of a jelly like substance called mesoglea. They differ in that they do not have venomous ...
A study of a simple marine animal suggests that the common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians may have had three germ layers instead of two.. 0 Comments. ...
A study of a simple marine animal suggests that the common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians may have had three germ layers instead of two.. 0 Comments. ...
The development of CARTOS, a system for Computer-Aided Reconstruction by Tracing Serial Sections, has been directed by efforts to investigate some rather specific biological questions. We want to study the detailed structure of simple nerve nets so that the anatomy of individual nerve cells and their fibers can be recorded in three dimensions and the morphologically visible synapses connecting them noted. Furthermore, we would like to carry out these morphological studies as a function of time during embryological development in organisms which reproduce clonally so that, except for mutations, all individuals within a clone have the same genes. The specific questions we have been trying to answer are: a) To what extent is there variation in the morphology of particular cells when they are examined in different but genetically identical animals raised under identical environmental conditions? b) To what extent can morphological variation be induced by changes in the environmental conditions during
Timothy Hughes Rare & Early Newspapers offers the largest inventory of original historic newspapers for sale, all guaranteed authentic and all at great prices.
Zoofachhandel-Etiketten für die Meerwasseraquaristik. Von Anemonenfischen bis zu Zwerkkaisern, Anemonen & Korallen, Acropora multiacuta, Korallen und Anemomen. Wählen Sie die passenden Etiketten für Ihre Verkaufsanlage.
gonophore: A structure bearing or consisting of a reproductive organ or part, such as a reproductive polyp or bud in a hydroid colony.
Plasmid pet 3d double tentacle delete CP from Dr. John Coopers lab contains the insert capping protein alpha 1 (deletion 28 amino acids) beta 1 (deletion 34 amino acids) and is published in Curr Biol. 2003 Sep 2. 13(17):1531-7. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information ...
10 minutes ago, Cup-of-cake said: I prefer tentacles that arent inside people, thank you very much hentai! Tentacles...
38 Answers - Posted in: effexor xr, withdrawal, weight - Answer: Pansy, hes crazy. Youre like me, have been depressed forever. Stopping ...
The Rothschilds have been in control of the world for a very long time, their tentacles reaching into many aspects of our daily lives, as is documented ...
Corals, sea anemones and jellyfish belong to a group of animals called cnidarians (pronounced nid-air-e-ans). There are two others in the cnidarian group: hydroids, known collectively as sea firs; and siphonophores, such as the Portuguese man-of-war, which are not single creatures, but colonies of many specialised individuals.. With 1,048 marine species, cnidarians are one of the largest groups of invertebrates in New Zealand waters. Although they may look quite different from each other, they share a common ancestry.. A feature of cnidarians is that they may have two forms. In one, the medusa or jellyfish phase, it is free swimming; in the other, it attaches to a surface and is called a polyp.. Cnidarians have a simple sac-like body, with a single opening surrounded by a ring of tentacles. Their body is made of two distinct layers of tissue, separated by a thick gelatinous substance called mesoglea.. All cnidarians have specialised stinging or nettle cells in their tentacles (their name comes ...
Story Summary: Present addresses: Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, John Innes Centre, Norwich NR4 7UH, UK (P. A. W. ); Institute of Human Genetics, University of Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany (A. -K. Here we report the genome of Hydra magnipapillataand compare it to the genomes of the anthozoan Nematostella vectensis6and other animals. Comparisons of the Hydragenome to the genomes of other animals shed light on the evolution of epithelia, contractile tissues, developmentally regulated transcription factors, the Spemann-Mangold organizer, pluripotency genes and the neuromuscular junction. The genomic basis of cnidarian evolution has so far been viewed from the perspective of an anthozoan, the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis6. Hydrais a medusozoan that diverged from anthozoans at least 540 millions year ago. We generated draft assemblies of the Hydra magnipapillatagenome using a whole-genome shotgun approach (Supplementary Information sections 1-3and Supplementary Figs ...
Longevity and competence were studied in planulae of several species of Red Sea soft corals, including the zooxanthellate planulae of Litophyton arboreum, Nephthea sp. and Xenia umbellata, and the azooxanthellate planulae of Parerythropodium fulvum fulvum and Dendronephthya hemprichi. The relationship between presence of zooxanthellae in the planulae and their competence, longevity and caloric content was examined. Planulae of X. umbellata and D. hemprichi had the longest competency of 76 and 74 d, respectively, planulae of P. f. fulvum were competent for a maximal period of 64 d, and planulae of L. arboreum and Nephthea sp. showed a similar competency of 57 d. The highest longevity of 155 d was found in planulae of X. umbellata. Planulae of P. f. fulvum, D. hemprichi and L. arboreum had maximum longevities of 76, 81 and 92 d, respectively. No significant differences existed between the competence or longevity of the zooxanthellate and azooxanthellate planulae. The ratio of the maximum values of ...
The Trapezia Pocillopora/Acropora Crab, or Acro Crab for short, is a small commensal crustacean which lives its whole life within the branches of Pocillopora corals and Acropora Corals if no Pocilloporid corals are available, aiding in the proper water flow between the branches to keep these areas clean. In a symbiotic relationship with its host coral, the Trapezia Pocillopora/Acropora Crab is thought to feed on particulates trapped by the coral polyps, fallen detritus, and the corals secreted mucus. In turn, the crabs guard the coral from invaders and fend off predators. The importance of the Trapezia Pocillopora/Acropora Crabs role within a larger reef ecosystem is just now being recognized. Previously considered by hobbyists to be a coral "pest," the Trapezia Pocillopora/Acropora Crab may actually improve your success with SPS husbandry. Since the crabs constantly clean and defend their hosts, corals hosting Trapezia sp. have higher survival rates and stronger growth. In the home aquarium, ...
The phylum Ctenophora,[1] the comb jellies, is a phylum of marine invertebrates. They are part of the plankton, and there are also pelagic species. The phylum includes the sea gooseberry (Pleurobrachia pileus) and Venus girdle (Cestum veneris). The phylum was grouped with Cnidaria (jellyfish) in the former Coelenterata phylum. Ctenophores are the most basal known type of animals.[2] Even though they look like jellyfish, they are zoologically not related to them. They lack the characteristic nematocysts (stinging cells), but have colloblasts, sticky cells that snare small victims. They have eight rows of cilia which look like the teeth of a comb, hence Ctenophore = comb-bearer. Ctenophores have connective tissues and a nervous system. There are about 150 described species of ctenophora spread throughout the worlds oceans, from shallow estuarine waters to the deep sea. Although there are a few benthic species, most are gelatinous zooplankton and form a considerable proportion of the entire ...
Abstract: Cnidarians are the most primitive invertebrates alive today to possess eyes. The complex eyes of the cubozoan jellyfish Carybdea marsupialis exhibit many similarities to the camera-type eyes of higher metazoans including the presence of a cornea, lens, and retina of ciliated photoreceptors. It is these similarities that make understanding the evolution and development of eyes in basal cnidarians important, as they may lead to a better understanding of eye evolution. During the transformation of the polyp to the eye-bearing medusa, the development and arrangement of several components were followed including the neuropeptide FMRFamide, UV opsin-like protein (indicates photoreceptor formation), J1-crystallin (indicates lens formation), and shielding pigment formation. The first ocelli to appear were the complex eyes followed by the simple ocelli; the small complex eye was the first to exhibit pigment formation (melanin) as well as photoreceptor maturation. J1-crystallin was located in ...
Cnidarian sexual reproduction often involves a complex life cycle with both polyp and medusa stages. For example, in Scyphozoa (jellyfish) and Cubozoa (box jellies) a larva swims until it finds a good site, and then becomes a polyp. This grows normally but then absorbs its tentacles and splits horizontally into a series of disks that become juvenile medusae, a process called strobilation. The juveniles swim off and slowly grow to maturity, while the polyp re-grows and may continue strobilating periodically. The adults have gonads in the gastroderm, and these release ova and sperm into the water in the breeding season.[9][10]. This phenomenon of succession of differently organized generations (one asexually reproducing, sessile polyp, followed by a free-swimming medusa or a sessile polyp that reproduces sexually)[24] is sometimes called "alternation of asexual and sexual phases" or "metagenesis", but should not be confused with the alternation of generations as found in plants.. Shortened forms ...
Hydroids exhibit rapid rates of recovery from disturbance through repair, asexual reproduction and larval colonization. Sparks (1972) reviewed the regeneration abilities and rapid repair of injuries. Fragmentation of the hydroid provides a route for short distance dispersal, for example, each fragmented part of Sertularia cupressina can regenerate itself following damage (Berghahn & Offermann, 1999). New colonies of the same genotype may therefore arise through damage to existing colonies (Gili & Hughes, 1995). Many hydroid species also produce dormant, resting stages that are very resistant of environmental perturbation (Gili &Hughes 1995). Although colonies may be removed or destroyed, the resting stages may survive attached to the substratum and provide a mechanism for rapid recovery (Cornelius, 1995a; Kosevich & Marfenin, 1986). The lifecycle of hydroids typically alternates between an attached solitary or colonial polyp generation and a free-swimming medusa generation. Planulae larvae ...
On May 23, 2012 during observation of the spring plankton in the Rugozerskaya Bay, Dr. Andrei Prudkovskiy, PhD (Biology)and a research fellow of the Invertebrate Zoology department, found a new hydrozoan medusa, previously never seen in this area - Hybocodon prolifer. Now this species will be added to the Catalogue of Biota of the MSU White Sea Biological Station.. -----------------. About the finding of the hydrozoan Hybocodon prolifer (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Anthomedusae, Capitata, Tubulariidae)in the vicinity of WSBS MSU. Dr. A. Prudkovskiy, PhD, MSU Department of Invertebrate Zoology. [email protected] Previously, this species of hydrozoan medusae, also known as Tubularia prolifer, has been found sporadically in the Mezen Bay, the Neck and in the Basin of the White Sea (Pertsova, 1979). Such occurrence allowed to assume that this hydrozoan species was brought from the Barents Sea. However, on May 23, 2012, the Hybocodon prolifer medusa was caught in the vicinity of the Biological Station ...
Ruppert, E.E.; Fox, R.S. & Barnes, R.D. (2004). "Cnidaria". Invertebrate Zoology (7th ed.). Brooks / Cole. pp. 112-124. ISBN 0- ... ISBN 0-03-025982-7. Hinde, R.T. (1998). "The Cnidaria and Ctenophora". In Anderson, D.T. Invertebrate Zoology. Oxford ...
The gastrovascular cavity is the primary organ of digestion and circulation in two major animal phyla: the Cnidaria (including ... Slobodkin, Lawrence; Bossert, Patricia (2010). "Cnidaria". In Thorp, James H.; Covich, Alan P. Ecology and Classification of ...
"Cnidaria". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 23 January 2009. "Hydramacin-1 (2K35)". Protein Data Bank. ... Like other members of the Phylum Cnidaria, Hydra possesses specialized defensive epithelial cells called cnidocytes that shoot ...
Campell & Reece[page needed] Daubert, G. P. (2008). Cnidaria Envenomation. eMedicine. Currie, B.J.; and S.P. Jacups (2005). ... Cnidaria: Cubozoa: Chirodropidae)". Zootaxa. 2030: 59-65. Hamner, W. (1994). "Australia's box jellyfish: a killer down under". ...
2007). "The phylum Cnidaria: A review of phylogenetic patterns and diversity 300 years after Linnaeus" (PDF). Zootaxa (1668): ... Gershwin, L. A.; Alderslade, P (2006). "Chiropsella bart n. sp., a new box jellyfish (Cnidaria: Cubozoa: Chirodropida) from the ... nov., a new box jellyfish (Cnidaria: Cubozoa) from South Africa" (PDF). Zootaxa. 2088: 41-50. Gershwin L (2009). "Staurozoa, ... Gershwin, L (2007). "Malo kingi: A new species of Irukandji jellyfish (Cnidaria: Cubozoa: Carybdeida), possibly lethal to ...
Cnidaria: Cubozoa: Chirodropida)". Zootaxa. 2030: 59-65. ISSN 1175-5326. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2009/f/z02030p065f.pdf ...
Fossil Cnidaria, 10 (2), 16-30. Hill, D., 1984. The Great Barrier Reef Committee, 1922-1982: The first thirty years. Historical ... Fossil Cnidaria, 9(2), 27-38. Hill, D., 1981. Rugosa and Tabulata. In: Teichert, C. (ed.), Treatise on invertebrate ... Cnidaria - general features. In : Treatise on invertebrate palaeontology. Part F, Coelenterata, Moore, R.C. (ed.), Geological ...
Such complications are associated also with toxins of other cnidaria. The toxin is also harmful to the eyes; contact with a ... Daphne Gail Fautin (2002). "Reproduction of Cnidaria". Canadian Journal of Zoology. 80 (10): 1735-1754. doi:10.1139/z02-133. ...
Cnidaria: Cubozoa: Chirodropida)" (PDF). Zootaxa. 2030: 59-65. ISSN 1175-5334. Oba, A.; Hidaka, M.; Iwanaga, S.: Nematocyst ...
ISBN 0-19-551368-1. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Hinde, R. T., (1998). "The Cnidaria and Ctenophora". In ... "Placozoans are eumetazoans related to Cnidaria". bioRxiv: 200972. doi:10.1101/200972. http://www.cell.com/current-biology/pdf/ ...
... is a family of soft corals, a member of the subclass Octocorallia in the phylum Cnidaria. Nearly all the genera and ...
Ctenophores have been purported to be the sister lineage to the Bilateria, sister to the Cnidaria, sister to Cnidaria, Placozoa ... Hinde, R.T., (1998). "The Cnidaria and Ctenophora". In Anderson, D.T. Invertebrate Zoology. Oxford University Press. pp. 28-57 ... some cnidaria-eating nudibranchs similarly incorporate nematocytes into their bodies for defense. The tentilla of Euplokamis ... that ctenophores are either sister to Cnidaria, Placozoa and Bilateria or sister to all other animal phyla. Several more recent ...
ISBN 0-03-025982-7. Hinde, R.T. (2001). "The Cnidaria and Ctenophora". In Anderson, D.T. Invertebrate Zoology. Oxford ...
Fossil Cnidaria, 15 (1.1). (Additions and corrections: 1987, v. 16, no. 1, p. 49-53). 15 July 1907: born Philadelphia, ... Hill, D., and Wells, J.W. (1956) Cnidaria-general features. Section F5, Coelenterata. In: Moore, R.C., ed., Treatise on ... and the International Association for the Study of Fossil Cnidaria. He was made a member of the National Academy of Sciences in ...
Hinde, Rosalind T. (2001). "The Cnidaria and Ctenophora". In Anderson, D. T. Invertebrate Zoology (2nd ed.). Melbourne; New ... but are now thought to be heavily modified members of the Cnidaria. Jímenez-Guri, Eva; Philippe, Hervé; Okamura, Beth; Holland ...
ISBN 0-03-025982-7. Hinde, R. T. (1998). "The Cnidaria and Ctenophora". In Anderson, D. T. Invertebrate Zoology. Oxford ... some cnidaria-eating nudibranchs similarly incorporate cnidocytes into their bodies for defense. The tentilla of Euplokamis ...
ISBN 0-19-551368-1. Hinde, R.T. (2001). "The Cnidaria and Ctenophora". In Anderson, D.T. Invertebrate Zoology. Oxford ...
ISBN 0-07-229641-0. He, J,; Zheng, L,; Zhang, W,; Lin, Y (2015). "Life Cycle Reversal in Aurelia sp.1 (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa)". ... ISBN 0-412-45110-7. Rees, W. J. (1966). The Cnidaria and Their Evolution. London: Academic Press. pp. 77-104. Solomon, E. P.; ... Dawson, M. N. (2003). "Macro-morphological variation among cryptic species of the moon jellyfish, Aurelia (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa ... Cnidaria) in Saanich Inlet, British Columbia". Marine Biology. 99 (3): 409-414. doi:10.1007/BF02112134. Towanda, T.; Thuesen, E ...
Cnidaria triadica, 1921 - Triassic Cnidaria. Lamellibranchiata triadica, 1923 - Triassic Lamellibranchiata. Grundzüge der ...
Associations with Cnidaria, Cteuophora and Radiolaria". Deep-Sea Research. 24 (5): 465-488. doi:10.1016/0146-6291(77)90484-2. ...
Ctenophora and Cnidaria). Other: this code is also used for the kinetoplast DNA (maxicircles, minicircles). Kinetoplasts are ...
... corals and other cnidaria; octopuses, cuttlefish, sea snails and other mollusks; amphibians; jellyfish; marine plants and ...
Medusozoans (Cnidaria: Cubozoa, Scyphozoa, and Hydrozoa) of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 369-379 in Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds ... Phylum Cnidaria: corals, medusae, hydroids, myxozoans. in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2009). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 1 ...
"Placozoans are eumetazoans related to Cnidaria". bioRxiv: 200972. doi:10.1101/200972. Ryan, Joseph F.; Pang, Kevin; Mullikin, ...
It was recently found that Ctenophora have a through-gut, seemingly similar as in most Bilateria and possibly some Cnidaria. ... This is surprising because Placozoa, Cnidaria and Xenacoelomorpha do not, so it was presumed a through-gut only developed in ... cladistically include the Triploblasts/Bilateria as sister of the Cnidaria. The way the germ layers themselves developed is ... "Placozoans are eumetazoans related to Cnidaria". bioRxiv: 200972. doi:10.1101/200972. Eitel, Michael; Francis, Warren; Osigus, ...
2007). "The phylum Cnidaria: A review of phylogenetic patterns and diversity 300 years after Linnaeus" (PDF). Zootaxa (1668): ... Gershwin, L. A.; Alderslade, P (2006). "Chiropsella bart n. sp., a new box jellyfish (Cnidaria: Cubozoa: Chirodropida) from the ... nov., a new box jellyfish (Cnidaria: Cubozoa) from South Africa" (PDF). Zootaxa. 2088: 41-50. Gershwin L (2009). "Staurozoa, ... Gershwin, L (2007). "Malo kingi: A new species of Irukandji jellyfish (Cnidaria: Cubozoa: Carybdeida), possibly lethal to ...
... is that Cnidaria and Bilateria are more closely related to each other than either is to Ctenophora. This grouping of Cnidaria ... Fisheries Institute A Cnidaria homepage maintained by University of California, Irvine Cnidaria page at Tree of Life Fossil ... because it suggests that the earliest Bilateria were similar to the planula larvae of Cnidaria. Within the Cnidaria, the ... Many species of Cnidaria may spawn simultaneously in the same location, so that there are too many ova and sperm for predators ...
Cnidaria (/naɪˈdɛəriə/[4]) is a phylum containing over 10,000[5] species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater ... is that Cnidaria and Bilateria are more closely related to each other than either is to Ctenophora. This grouping of Cnidaria ... Cnidaria. Retrieved May 15, 2013.. *^ a b Zhang, Z.-Q. (2011). "Animal biodiversity: An introduction to higher-level ... D. G. Fautin: Reproduction of Cnidaria. . in: Canadian Journal of Zoology. Ottawa Ont. 80.2002, p. 1735. (PDF, online) ISSN ...
Cnidaria at Encyclopedia of Life. *↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 Ruggiero MA, Gordon DP, Orrell TM, Bailly N, Bourgoin T, Brusca RC, et al. ( ... Cnidaria at the Tree of Life Web Project. * ... Cnidaria on Wikimedia Commons.Wikimedia Commons. *Cnidaria at ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Cnidaria&oldid=48968849" ...
Cnidaria Cnidaria is one of the more primitive animal phyla. It includes aquatic organisms such as jellyfish, sea anemones, ... Cnidaria Animal Sciences COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. Cnidaria. Cnidaria is one of the more primitive animal phyla. It ... Many cnidaria have a life cycle that alternates between a sessile polyp stage and a swimming medusa. The polyp may consist of a ... Cnidaria (nīdâr´ēə) or Coelenterata (səlĕntərä´tə), phylum of invertebrate animals comprising the sea anemones, corals, ...
... Sea anemones, corals, jellyfish, sea pens, hydra. Daphne G. Fautin and Sandra L. Romano Click on an image to view ... Cnidaria Home Page. University of California, Irvine. Title Illustrations. Click on an image to view larger version & data in a ... Cnidaria, therefore, is a well circumscribed taxon; it is considered by many to be a sister group of all metazoans other than ... The Cnidaria and their Evolution (The Proceedings of a Symposium held at The Zoological Society of London on 3 and 4 March 1965 ...
Fossilworks PaleoDB link: Cnidaria Hatschek 1888 †. *World Register of Marine Species link: Cnidaria Verrill, 1865 (+ list ... Pages in category "Cnidaria". This category contains only the following page. V. *Commons:Valued images by topic/Life forms/ ... Anthozoa, Cubozoa, Hydrozoa, Myxozoa, Scyphozoa, Staurozoa, Cnidaria incertae sedis. Included classes (for NCBI, 8 December ... Anthozoa, Cnidaria incertae sedis, Cubozoa, Hydrozoa, Myxozoa, Polypodiozoa (temporary name. integrated in Hydrozoa for other ...
Cnidarianīdâr´ēə [key] or Coelenteratasəlĕntərä´tə [key], phylum of invertebrate animals comprising the sea anemones, corals, ... Two body forms and two lifestyles are characteristic of the Cnidaria (see polyp and medusa ). The sessile hydroid, or polyp, ...
Cnidaria Cnidaria. Introduction Cnidaria nīdâr´ēə [key] or Coelenterata səlĕntərä´tə [key], phylum of invertebrate animals ... Two body forms and two lifestyles are characteristic of the Cnidaria (see polyp and medusa ). The sessile hydroid, or polyp, ...
Approximately 9000 species of Cnidaria are known; roughly 100 are toxic to humans. ... Cnidaria (formerly Coelenterata) is a phylum of aquatic invertebrates responsible for more envenomations than any other marine ... encoded search term (Cnidaria%20Envenomation) and Cnidaria Envenomation What to Read Next on Medscape. Medscape Consult. ... Cnidaria Envenomation Differential Diagnoses. Updated: Apr 27, 2017 * Author: Spencer Greene, MD, MS, FACEP, FACMT; Chief ...
Cnidaria (Gr., cnidae, nettle) is a phylum of mostly marine Metazoa distinguished by cnidocysts, subcellular capsules ... Shostak S (1993) Cnidaria. In: Adiyodi KG and Adiyodi RG (eds) Reproductive Biology of Invertebrates, vol. VI, part A: Asexual ... Cnidaria (Gr., cnidae, nettle) is a phylum of mostly marine Metazoa distinguished by cnidocysts, subcellular capsules ... Lesh‐Laurie GE and Suchy PE (1991) Cnidaria: Scyphozoa and Cubozoa. In: Harrison FW and Westfall JA (eds) Microscopic Anatomy ...
1995) The demise of a phylum of protists: Phylogeny of Myxozoa and other parasitic cnidaria. J Parasitol 81(6):961-967. ... 2013) Agent of whirling disease meets orphan worm: Phylogenomic analyses firmly place Myxozoa in Cnidaria. PLoS One 8(1):e54576 ... Genomic insights into the evolutionary origin of Myxozoa within Cnidaria. E. Sally Chang, Moran Neuhof, Nimrod D. Rubinstein, ... Genomic insights into the evolutionary origin of Myxozoa within Cnidaria Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ...
Phylum Cnidaria NGSS Performance Expectations:. * MS-LS1-3 Use argument supported by evidence for how the body is a system of ... The phylum Cnidaria (pronounced "nih DARE ee uh") includes soft-bodied stinging animals such as corals, sea anemones, and ... 3.23 B). Ctenophores were removed from the phylum Cnidaria and placed in a new phylum called Ctenophora (pronounced ti-NOF-or- ... The content and activities in this topic will work towards building an understanding of the phylum Cnidaria. ...
K. S. Larson and R. J. Larson, "On the ecology of Isaurus duchassaingi (Andres) (Cnidaria: Zoanthidea) from South Water Cay, ... A. Acosta, M. Casas, C. A. Vargas, and J. E. Camacho, "Lista de Zoantharia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) del Caribe y de Colombia," ... Species Diversity of Shallow Water Zoanthids (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) in Florida. James Davis Reimer,1,2 Colin Foord, ... J. D. Reimer, K. Takishita, S. Ono, and T. Maruyama, "Diversity and evolution in the zoanthid genus Palythoa (Cnidaria: ...
... Name Last modified Size Description. Parent Directory - Favosites-hamiltoniae/ 19-Jul-2014 16:58 - ...
2007). The phylum Cnidaria: A review of phylogenetic patterns and diversity 300 years after Linnaeus. ,em,Zootaxa.,/em, (1668 ... Cetacea (2020). Cnidaria. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/cetacea/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=1267 on 2020-08-07 ...
... Favorite Species Organisms Pelagic Plankton Release the Glaucus! Alex Warneke May 20, 2015 By-the-Wind SailorsCnidaria ... M December 5, 2014 CnidariaHermit CrabSymbiosis Hermit crabs are generally awesome. They use snail shells, and sometime shells ... Kevin Zelnio December 1, 2009 CnidariaCoralPolypsZoanthids Cnidarian Lifeforms from Delrious on Vimeo. Hat tip to Penguin ... M December 11, 2013 buddingChristmascloneCnidariaColonyevo-devogenomegrowthRebecca HelmsiphonophoreStefan Siebert ...
Animal Cnidaria East Indonesian Ocean Sea Waterframe Wild: 20 assigned downloads, like Colorful coral reef, Indian Ocean, ... Similar tags: animal • asian • cnidaria • dwellers • east • indonesian • marine • nature • ocean • reef • sea • shot • south- ...
Bud formation and metamorphosis inCassiopeia andromeda (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa), a developmental and ultrastructural study. - Mar ...
Pacific Cnidaria Research Lab, Department of Tropical Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA ... Ancient Venom Systems: A Review on Cnidaria Toxins. Mahdokht Jouiaei 1,2. ... "Ancient Venom Systems: A Review on Cnidaria Toxins." Toxins 7, no. 6: 2251-2271. ... Ancient Venom Systems: A Review on Cnidaria Toxins. Toxins. 2015; 7(6):2251-2271. ...
... Name Last modified Size Description. Parent Directory - Streptelasma-rusticu.., 19-Jul ...
The top of this ring blooms into an intricately undulating surface, inspired by the frilly arms of a jellyfish. Floraform is inspired by the biomechanics of growing leaves and blooming flowers. Each piece emerges from a computational simulation of differential growth, a surface that grows at different rates in different location. The flowering structures expand fastest along their edges, evolving from simple surfaces to flexuous forms that fill space with curves, folds, and ruffles. Read more about Floraform ...
We present a method for ranking the toxin-like candidates from complete proteomes of Cnidaria. Toxin-like functions were ... We conclude that the evolutionary expansion of toxin-like proteins in Cnidaria contributes to their fitness in the complex ... Among the 83,000 proteins derived from Cnidaria representatives, we found 170 candidates that fulfill the properties of toxin- ... Cnidaria is a rich phylum that includes thousands of marine species. In this study, we focused on Anthozoa and Hydrozoa that ...
Phylogenetic relationships within the Octocorallia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) based on nuclear 18S rRNA sequences. ...
Cnidaria: Hydrozoa).(Report) by The Biological Bulletin; Biological sciences Adaptation (Physiology) Research Biodiversity ... and Rhopilema (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa). Trans. Am. Micron., Soc. 96: 13-19. Colin, S. P., and J. H. Costello. 2007. Functional ... APA style: Nematocysts of the invasive hydroid Cordylophora caspia (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa).. (n.d.) >The Free Library. (2014). ... Latitudinal diversity of sea anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria).. Next Article:. Vertical visual features have a strong influence ...
  • The final section of The Cnidaria, Past, Present and Future is devoted to the role of Hydra and Medusa in mythology and art. (nhbs.com)
  • Developmental neurogenesis of nerve nets is conserved between phyla and has been mainly studied in cnidaria, especially in the model organism Hydra. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the detailed anatomy of the claustrum has never been comparatively analyzed, rendering the evolution of this character among Cnidaria and its homology in Staurozoa and Cubozoa uncertain. (springer.com)
  • This study provides a comparative investigation of the internal anatomy of the claustrum in Staurozoa and Cubozoa, addressing its evolutionary history based on recent phylogenetic hypotheses for Cnidaria. (springer.com)
  • Estudos filogeográficos para distintas espécies de Medusozoa (Cnidaria) foram conduzidos enfatizando a área nerítica central do Atlântico Sul-ocidental (ASO), entre os litorais sudeste do Brasil e o litoral da província de Buenos Aires na Argentina. (usp.br)
  • Family tree of Cnidaria and the origins of animals Aleshin VV, Petrov NB (2002) Molecular evidence of regression in evolution of metazoa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylogenomic analyses that use a broad sampling of myxozoan taxa confirm the position of myxozoans within Cnidaria with P. hydriforme as the sister taxon to Myxozoa. (pnas.org)