A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA which alternates between polyp and medusa forms during their life cycle. There are over 2700 species in five orders.
The order Actiniaria, in the class ANTHOZOA, comprised of large, solitary polyps. All species are carnivorous.
A genus of freshwater polyps in the family Hydridae, order Hydroida, class HYDROZOA. They are of special interest because of their complex organization and because their adult organization corresponds roughly to the gastrula of higher animals.
The class of true jellyfish, in the phylum CNIDARIA. They are mostly free-swimming marine organisms that go through five stages in their life cycle and exhibit two body forms: polyp and medusa.
The class of box jellyfish, in the phylum CNIDARIA, characterized by their cube shape, and considered the most venomous jellyfish.
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE that contains triterpene saponins. The root of Anemone raddeana is the source of a Chinese folk medicine, zhu jie xian fu. The common name of liverwort is also used with other plants. This genus is unrelated to SEA ANEMONES.
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.
A double-walled capsule found in jellyfish and other CNIDARIA whose functions include prey capture, defense, locomotion, and attachment. Nematocysts contain toxic CNIDARIAN VENOMS which are injected into the victim via a barbed tubule.
Phylum of marine colenterates characterized by eight comb rows of fused cilia on the body surface. In contrast to CNIDARIA they lack stinging cells, but they are voracious predators and possess sticky cells (colloblasts) for capturing prey. Most species are transparent and many exhibit bioluminescence.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A phylum of primitive invertebrate animals that exemplify a simple body organization. Trichoplax adhaerens is considered a key species for early metazoan evolution.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Animals that have no spinal column.
Venoms from jellyfish; CORALS; SEA ANEMONES; etc. They contain hemo-, cardio-, dermo- , and neuro-toxic substances and probably ENZYMES. They include palytoxin, sarcophine, and anthopleurine.
The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Discrete abnormal tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the DIGESTIVE TRACT or the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Polyps can be spheroidal, hemispheroidal, or irregular mound-shaped structures attached to the MUCOUS MEMBRANE of the lumen wall either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)
Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.
The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.
The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
A benzothaizole which is oxidized by LUCIFERASES, FIREFLY to cause emission of light (LUMINESCENCE).
A plant species of the genus Urtica, family URTICACEAE. Roots have been used to treat PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA. Leaves are edible after the stinging quality is eliminated by brief heating.
The hard rigid covering of animals including MOLLUSCS; TURTLES; INSECTS; and crustaceans.
A group of islands in Polynesia, in the north central Pacific Ocean, comprising eight major and 114 minor islands, largely volcanic and coral. Its capital is Honolulu. It was first reached by Polynesians about 500 A.D. It was discovered and named the Sandwich Islands in 1778 by Captain Cook. The islands were united under the rule of King Kamehameha 1795-1819 and requested annexation to the United States in 1893 when a provisional government was set up. Hawaii was established as a territory in 1900 and admitted as a state in 1959. The name is from the Polynesian Owhyhii, place of the gods, with reference to the two volcanoes Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, regarded as the abode of the gods. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p493 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p2330)
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Flagellate EUKARYOTES, found mainly in the oceans. They are characterized by the presence of transverse and longitudinal flagella which propel the organisms in a rotating manner through the water. Dinoflagellida were formerly members of the class Phytomastigophorea under the old five kingdom paradigm.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
A chain of islands, cays, and reefs in the West Indies, lying southeast of Florida and north of Cuba. It is an independent state, called also the Commonwealth of the Bahamas or the Bahama Islands. The name likely represents the local name Guanahani, itself of uncertain origin. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p106 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p45)
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The reproductive organs of plants.

Molecular determination of species boundaries in corals: genetic analysis of the Montastraea annularis complex using amplified fragment length polymorphisms and a microsatellite marker. (1/405)

Analyses of DNA have not been widely used to distinguish coral sibling species. The three members of the Montastraea annularis complex represent an important test case: they are widely studied and dominate Caribbean reefs, yet their taxonomic status remains unclear. Analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and a microsatellite locus, using DNA from sperm, showed that Montastraea faveolata is genetically distinct. One AFLP primer yielded a diagnostic product (880 bp in M. faveolata 920 bp in M. franksi and M. annularis) whose homology was established by DNA sequencing. A second primer revealed a 630 bp band that was fixed in M. faveolata, and rare in M. franksi and M. annularis; in this case homologies were confirmed by Southern hybridizations. A tetranucleotide microsatellite locus with several alleles exhibited strong frequency differences between M. faveolata and the other two taxa. We did not detect comparable differences between M. annularis and M. franksi with either AFLPs (12 primers screened) or the microsatellite locus. Comparisons of AFLP patterns obtained from DNA from sperm, somatic tissues, and zooxanthellae suggest that the technique routinely amplifies coral (animal) DNA. Thus analyses based on somatic tissues may be feasible, particularly after diagnostic differences have been established using sperm DNA.  (+info)

Atypically low rate of cytochrome b evolution in the scleractinian coral genus Acropora. (2/405)

Unexpectedly low levels of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b sequence divergence are found between species of the scleractinian coral genus Acropora. Comparison of 964 positions of the cytochrome b gene of two out of the three Caribbean Acropora species with seven of their Pacific congeners shows only 0.3-0.8% sequence difference. Species in these biogeographic regions have been evolving independently for at least three million years (since the rise of the Isthmus of Panama) and this geological date is used to estimate nucleotide divergence rates. The results indicate that the Acropora cytochrome b gene is evolving at least 10-20 times slower than the 'standard' vertebrate mtDNA clock and is one of the most slowly evolving animal mitochondrial genes described to date. The possibility is discussed that, unlike higher animals, cnidarians may have a functional mtDNA mismatch repair system.  (+info)

Evidence of a cyclooxygenase-related prostaglandin synthesis in coral. The allene oxide pathway is not involved in prostaglandin biosynthesis. (3/405)

Certain corals are rich natural sources of prostaglandins, the metabolic origin of which has remained undefined. By analogy with the lipoxygenase/allene oxide synthase pathway to jasmonic acid in plants, the presence of (8R)-lipoxygenase and allene oxide synthase in the coral Plexaura homomalla suggested a potential metabolic route to prostaglandins (Brash, A. R., Baertshi, S. W., Ingram, C.D., and Harris, T. M. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 15829-15839). Other evidence, from the Arctic coral Gersemia fruticosa, has indicated a cyclooxygenase intermediate in the biosynthesis (Varvas, K., Koljak, R., Jarving, I., Pehk, T., and Samel, N. (1994) Tetrahedron Lett. 35, 8267-8270). In the present study, active preparations of G. fruticosa have been used to identify both types of arachidonic acid metabolism and specific inhibitors were used to establish the enzyme type involved in the prostaglandin biosynthesis. The synthesis of prostaglandins and (11R)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid was inhibited by mammalian cyclooxygenase inhibitors (indomethacin, aspirin, and tolfenamic acid), while the formation of the products of the 8-lipoxygenase/allene oxide pathway was not affected or was increased. The specific cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, nimesulide, did not inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins in coral. We conclude that coral uses two parallel routes for the initial oxidation of polyenoic acids: the cyclooxygenase route, which leads to optically active prostaglandins, and the lipoxygenase/allene oxide synthase metabolism, the role of which remains to be established. An enzyme related to mammalian cyclooxygenases is the key to prostaglandin synthesis in coral. Based on our inhibitor data, the catalytic site of this evolutionary early cyclooxygenase appears to differ significantly from both known mammalian cyclooxygenases.  (+info)

The protein phosphatase inhibitor cantharidin induces head and foot formation in buds of Cassiopea andromeda (Rhizostomae, Scyphozoa). (4/405)

The polyps of Cassiopea andromeda produce spindle shaped, freely swimming buds which do not develop a head (a mouth opening surrounded by tentacles) and a foot (a sticky plate at the opposite end) until settlement to a suited substrate. The buds, therewith, look very similar to the planula larvae produced in sexual reproduction. With respect to both, buds and planulae, several peptides and the phorbolester TPA have been found to induce the transformation into a polyp. Here it is shown that cantharidin, a serine/threonine protein phosphatase inhibitor, induces head and foot formation in buds very efficiently in a 30 min treatment, the shortest yet known efficient treatment. Some resultant polyps show malformations which indicate that a bud is ordinary polyp tissue in which preparatory steps of head and foot formation mutually block each other from proceeding. Various compounds related to the transfer of methyl groups have been shown to affect head and foot formation in larvae of the hydrozoon Hydractinia echinata. These compounds including methionine, homocysteine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid and cycloleucine are shown to also interfere with the initiation of the processes which finally lead to head and foot formation in buds of Cassiopea andromeda.  (+info)

Coral grafting supplemented with bone marrow. (5/405)

Limited success in regenerating large bone defects has been achieved by bridging them with osteoconductive materials. These substitutes lack the osteogenic and osteoinductive properties of bone autograft. A direct approach would be to stimulate osteogenesis in these biomaterials by the addition of fresh bone-marrow cells (BMC). We therefore created osteoperiosteal gaps 2 cm wide in the ulna of adult rabbits and either bridged them with coral alone (CC), coral supplemented with BMC, or left them empty. Coral was chosen as a scaffold because of its good biocompatibility and resorbability. In osteoperiosteal gaps bridged with coral only, the coral was invaded chiefly by fibrous tissue. It was insufficient to produce union after two months. In defects filled with coral and BMC an increase in osteogenesis was observed and the bone surface area was significantly higher compared with defects filled with coral alone. Bony union occurred in six out of six defects filled with coral and BMC after two months. An increase in the resorption of coral was also observed, suggesting that resorbing cells or their progenitors were present in bone marrow and survived the grafting procedure. Our findings have shown that supplementation of coral with BMC increased both the resorption of material and osteogenesis in defects of a clinical significance.  (+info)

Reproductive and genetic evidence for a reticulate evolutionary history of mass-spawning corals. (6/405)

Reef-building corals, which reproduce through simultaneous multispecies spawning, are thought to hybridize frequently, and it is hypothesized that they have evolved in repeated rounds of species separation and fusion. We conducted cross-fertilization experiments and molecular analyses with a number of mass-spawning coral species in the genus Acropora. A high rate of interspecific fertilization occurred between some species despite very different morphologies. The hybrid larvae developed normally and contained an allelic sequence transmitted from each parent, suggesting common diploid hybridization. Molecular phylogenetic analyses provided strong evidence for a gene pool shared between the hybridizing species. These reproductive and genetic characteristics are consistent with a species complex formed under the separation/fusion processes predicted for a reticulate evolutionary history.  (+info)

Purification and catalytic activities of the two domains of the allene oxide synthase-lipoxygenase fusion protein of the coral Plexaura homomalla. (7/405)

The conversion of fatty acid hydroperoxides to allene epoxides is catalyzed by a cytochrome P450 in plants and, in coral, by a 43-kDa catalase-related hemoprotein fused to the lipoxygenase that synthesizes the 8R-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (8R-HPETE) substrate. We have expressed the separate lipoxygenase and allene oxide synthase (AOS) domains of the coral protein in Escherichia coli (BL21 cells) and purified the proteins; this system gives high expression (1.5 and 0.3 micromol/liter, respectively) of catalytically active enzymes. Both domains show fast reaction kinetics. Catalytic activity of the lipoxygenase domain is stimulated 5-fold by high concentrations of monovalent cations (500 mM Na(+), Li(+), or K(+)), and an additional 5-fold by 10 mM Ca(2+). The resulting rates of reaction are approximately 300 turnovers/s, 1-2 orders of magnitude faster than mammalian lipoxygenases. This makes the coral lipoxygenase well suited for partnership with the AOS domain, which shows maximum rates of approximately 1400 turnovers/s in the conversion of 8R-HPETE to the allene oxide. Some unusual catalytic activities of the two domains are described. The lipoxygenase domain converts 20.3omega6 partly to the bis-allylic hydroperoxide (10-hydroperoxyeicosa-8,11,14-trienoic acid). Metabolism of the preferred substrate of the AOS domain, 8R-HPETE, is inhibited by the enantiomer 8S-HPETE. Although the AOS domain has homology to catalase in primary structure, it is completely lacking in catalatic action on H(2)O(2); catalase itself, as expected from its preference for small hydroperoxides, is ineffective in allene oxide synthesis from 8R-HPETE.  (+info)

Are there mechanical limits to size in wave-swept organisms? (8/405)

Hydrodynamic forces imposed by ocean waves are thought to limit the size of nearshore plants and animals, but it has proved difficult to determine the mechanism. Explanations based on the scaling mismatch between hydrodynamic accelerational forces and the strength of organisms do not work. Mechanisms that incorporate the allometry of drag and strength accurately predict the maximal size of intertidal algae but not of animals, and internally imposed inertial forces may explain the limits to size in large kelps. The general question of size in wave-swept organisms remains open and intriguing.  (+info)

By using immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassays, several substances resembling vertebrate or invertebrate neuropeptides have been found in the nervous systems of coelenterates. The most abundant neuropeptides were those related to the molluscan neuropeptide Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-amide (FMRFamide). Of antisera against different fragments of FMRFamide, those against RFamide were superior in recognizing the coelenterate peptide. Incubation of whole mounts with these RFamide antisera visualized the coelenterate nervous system in such a detail as has previously not been possible. By using a radioimmunoassay with a RFamide antiserum and [J-125]-YFMRFamide as tracer, the RFamide-like peptide from sea anemones was isolated. After cation-exchange chromatography, gelfiltration and HPLC, this peptide was obtained in a pure form ...
Several tetracosapolyenoic acids (TPA) were detected in lipids of different marine coelenterates. Two of these acids were isolated and their structures were confirmed by chemical and spectral methods as all-cis-6,9,12,15,18-tetracosapentaenoic and all-cis-6,9,12,15,18,21-tetracosahexaenoic acid. Their distribution among lipids of a number of species of different classes of coelenterates from the northern and tropical seas, among neutral and polar lipids of these organisms was investigated. Significant quantities of TPA were found in all of the Octacorallia species studied. In some cases the sum of TPA reaches the level of 20% of total lipid fatty acids. The fatty acid composition of different coelenterates is also discussed. © 1991 ...
What is the difference between Coelenterates and Platyhelminthes? Coelenterates are diploblastic invertebrates; Platyhelminthes are triploblastic invertebrates
Traditional skull and facial bone reconstructions with hard tissues have a long history with good clinical outcomes. However, they have certain disadvantages. The benefits of synthetic materials are the avoidance of donor-site morbidity and scars, but also shorter hospitalization time, lower expenses and known composition. Custom-made skull bone implant can produced based on patients clinical need utilizing rapid prototyping technologies. This will result in very high accuracy of the form of the skull defect.. Polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA) is one of the most widely used alloplastic material in surgery. Bioactive glass S53P4 (BAG) particles have been used in various clinical indications. BAG was added to composite implant of PMMA with glass fibre reinforcement to enhance bone ingrowth to implant, and to utilize BAG`s antimicrobial effects. Ten patients cranial defects are treated with composite implants. ...
Background Apoptosis, one of many types of programmed cell loss of life, is conducted and regulated with a organic proteins network. vertebrate, nematode, and insect genomes, got multiple paralogs in the cnidarian-bilaterian ancestor. Different people of the ancestral Apaf-1 family members resulted in the extant protein in nematodes/pests and in deuterostomes, detailing significant functional differences between proteins that until had been thought to be orthologous today. Similarly, 173220-07-0 IC50 the advancement from the Bcl-2 and caspase proteins families appears 173220-07-0 IC50 amazingly complicated and evidently included significant gene reduction in nematodes and pests and expansions in deuterostomes. Bottom line The rising picture from the evolution from the apoptosis network is certainly among a succession of lineage-specific expansions and loss, which combined with limited amount of apoptotic proteins families, led to apparent commonalities between systems in different ...
Cnidaria (Gr., cnidae, nettle) is a phylum of mostly marine Metazoa distinguished by cnidocysts, subcellular capsules containing an inverted tubule capable of everting and, in some cases, discharging venom
The toxicity of Cnidaria is a subject of concern for its influence on human activities and public health. During the last decades, the mechanisms of cell injury caused by cnidarian venoms have been studied utilizing extracts from several Cnidaria that have been tested in order to evaluate some fundamental parameters, such as the activity on cell survival, functioning and metabolism, and to improve the knowledge about the mechanisms of action of these compounds. In agreement with the modern tendency aimed to avoid the utilization of living animals in the experiments and to substitute them with in vitro systems, established cell lines or primary cultures have been employed to test cnidarian extracts or derivatives. Several cnidarian venoms have been found to have cytotoxic properties and have been also shown to cause hemolytic effects. Some studied substances have been shown to affect tumour cells and microorganisms, so making cnidarian extracts particularly interesting for their possible therapeutic
Brooding in the octocoral Xenia macrospiculata is described. Young planulae of X. macrospiculatawere found in brooding pouches located below the anthocodia among the polyps cavities. These cavities...
Cnidarians disdinguising feature is their cnidocytes, which are specialized cells that are used for capturing prey. Their bodies are made of mesoglea, a gelatinous substance, which is layered in between to layers of epithelial tissue, which are one cell-layer thick. Cnidaria have a very simple digestive tract known as the gastrovascular cavity. The gastrovascular cavity is located at the center of the sac-like body and is accessed by a single opening. This opening serves as the mouth and anus. Cnidarians also have tentacles with stinging cells. These cells are used to subdue prey, and some contain toxins irritating or poisonous to humans. Cnidarians exist as one of two types. The first is a polyp, which has a barrel shape and attaches to the sea floor via its body. Extending upwards off of the body are the tentacles. Some species of polyps can propagate vegetatively, meaning that they reproduce asexually through methods such as budding (an outgrowth of the parent separates to form a new ...
Cnidarian, also called coelenterate, any member of the phylum Cnidaria (Coelenterata), a group made up of more than 9,000 living species. Mostly marine animals, the cnidarians include the corals, hydras,…
Cnidaria. Hydras, anemones, jellyfish, corals. Key Characteristics. Lives both in salt and fresh water Simple nervous system Stinging cells Radial Symmetry Two embryonic cell layers . Anatomy. Nerve net- areas densely pact with nerve cells Statocyst - an organ for movement Slideshow 1981265...
Cnidarian comes from the Greek word knide, which means nettle, which is something which delivers a sting. They sting because they have nematocysts which are like little capsules of stinging liquid with a sharp needle-like point which pieces the skin, letting out a thin hollow thread to deliver the liquid under the skin ...
View Notes - 2011L Lec4 Cnidaria Spr08 from BIO bsc2011L at FSU. Phylum Cnidaria-bearing stingers (cnidae)- The major lineages of evolution in animals Fundamental evolutionary divergence among
Study Flashcards On Cnidaria at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
The majority of animals more complex than jellyfish and other Cnidarians are split into two groups, the protostomes and deuterostomes. Chordates (which include all the vertebrates) are deuterostomes.[8] It seems likely that the 555 million year old Kimberella was a member of the protostomes.[9][10] That implies that the protostome and deuterostome lineages split some time before Kimberella appeared - at least 558 million years ago, and hence well before the start of the Cambrian 541 million years ago,[8] i.e. during the later part of the Ediacaran Era (circa 635-542 Mya, around the end of global Marinoan glaciation in the late Neoproterozoic). The oldest discovered proposed deuterostome is Saccorhytus coronarius, which lived approximately 540 million years ago.[2][11] The researchers that made the discovery believe that the Saccorhytus is a common ancestor to all previously-known deuterostomes.[11]. Fossils of one major deuterostome group, the echinoderms (whose modern members include sea stars, ...
While this has been well known since the 19th century, an insistence on only monophyletic taxa has resulted in vertebrate classification being in a state of flux.[32]. The majority of animals more complex than jellyfish and other Cnidarians are split into two groups, the protostomes and deuterostomes, the latter of which contains chordates.[33] It seems very likely the 555 million-year-old Kimberella was a member of the protostomes.[34][35] If so, this means the protostome and deuterostome lineages must have split some time before Kimberella appeared-at least 558 million years ago, and hence well before the start of the Cambrian 541 million years ago.[33] The Ediacaran fossil Ernietta, from about 549 to 543 million years ago, may represent a deuterostome animal.[36]. Fossils of one major deuterostome group, the echinoderms (whose modern members include starfish, sea urchins and crinoids), are quite common from the start of the Cambrian, 542 million years ago.[37] The Mid Cambrian fossil ...
Nerve Net Noise is the Japanese duo of Tsuyoshi Tagomago Nakamura and Hiroshi Kumakiri who specialize in minimalist, glitch and noise music produced with homemade analogue synthesizers. After the collaboration Dub Sonic meets Nerve Net Noise (Zero Gravity, 1997) and This Island Earth (Zero Gravity, 1997), they delivered the provocative 160/240 (Meme, 1998), devoted to minimalist , patiente-testing processes of decomposition. Various Amusements (Hronir, 2001) is a concept album about the lifestyle of teenage girls, that lays down glitchy soundscapes and then detonate them with bursts of harsh, violent noise, according to an aesthetics closer to industrial music than to ambient music. Meteor Circuit (Intransitive, 2002) toys with the patterns and sounds that were the staple of old-fashioned electronic music of the 1950s ...
I was reading about invertebrates, and noted that Ctenophores and Cnidarians have a gel-like, acellular layer separating their ecto and gastrodermis, termed the mesoglea. I know these two phyla are diploblastic, and that acoelomorphs, ecdysozoans, lophotrochozans, and deuterostomes (the bilaterians) are all triploblastic, thus they have three primary tissue layers during embryonic development (epi, endo, and mesoderm) as opposed to two. Is it plausible to hypothesize that perhaps the mesodermic layer of the bilaterians evolved from the mesoglea of our diploblastic ancestors? I know the mesoglea functions mainly in support, and read that the mesoderm gives rise to many cell types, including bone and muscle cells. I searched online for any articles examining the evolutionary relationship between the two, but couldnt find anything. Im kind of new to evolutionary bio, so sorry if this is way off the mark.. ...
I was reading about invertebrates, and noted that Ctenophores and Cnidarians have a gel-like, acellular layer separating their ecto and gastrodermis, termed the mesoglea. I know these two phyla are diploblastic, and that acoelomorphs, ecdysozoans, lophotrochozans, and deuterostomes (the bilaterians) are all triploblastic, thus they have three primary tissue layers during embryonic development (epi, endo, and mesoderm) as opposed to two. Is it plausible to hypothesize that perhaps the mesodermic layer of the bilaterians evolved from the mesoglea of our diploblastic ancestors? I know the mesoglea functions mainly in support, and read that the mesoderm gives rise to many cell types, including bone and muscle cells. I searched online for any articles examining the evolutionary relationship between the two, but couldnt find anything. Im kind of new to evolutionary bio, so sorry if this is way off the mark ...
Voltage-gated ion channels generate electrical activity in excitable cells. As such, they are essential components of neuromuscular and neuronal systems, and are targeted by toxins from a wide variety of phyla, including the cnidarians. Here, we review cnidarian toxins known to target voltage-gated ion channels, the specific channel types targeted, and, where known, the sites of action of cnidarian toxins on different channels.
A. Introduction 1. Innovation in Cnidaria - Nerve net a. We need to talk more about nerves b. Cnidaria have simple nerve net - 2 way conduction c. Basis for more complex system in Vertebrates B. Vertebrate
Millepore, (Millepora), any of a genus of invertebrate marine animals comprising the order Milleporina (phylum Cnidaria). Millepores are common in shallow tropical seas to depths of 30 metres (about 100 feet). Unlike the true corals, which belong to the class Anthozoa, millepores are closely
Animal Kingdom. 1- Symmetry: Distribution of body parts around a hypothetical axis.. 2- Ostia: Minute pores on body of sponge.. 3- Osculum: Large outlet in body of sponge.. 4- Hermaphrodite: Bisexual.. 5- Polyp: Sessile cylindrical form of coelenterate (Asexual).. 5- Medusa: Umbrella shaped free swimming sexual stage of coelenterate.. 7- Acoelomate: No coelom.. 8- Pseudocoelom: With false coelom (cavity not underlined by mesoderm).. 9- Dioecious: Unisexual.. 10- Operculum: Cover over gills in fish.. 11- Notochord: Dorsal rod like bone. 12- Homoiotherms: Warm blooded.. 13- Bioluminescence- Emit light.. ...
Cnidarians are diverse and come in many shapes and sizes but there are some basic anatomical features that most members of the group share in common.
Nerve Net je studiové album britského multi-instrumentalisty Briana Eno. Vyšlo v září 1992 u vydavatelství All Saints Records a jeho producentem byl Brian Eno. Album vyšlo i v Československu u vydavatelství Popron.[2] Na albu se Eno vrátil k rockovějšímu stylu s prvky jazzu. Jako doprovodní hudebníci se zde představili například Robert Fripp (King Crimson) nebo John Paul Jones (Led Zeppelin). V roce 2014 vyšla reedice alba.[3][4] ...
Staurozoan classification is highly subjective, based on phylogeny-free inferences, and suborders, families, and genera are commonly defined by homoplasies. Additionally, many characters used in the taxonomy of the group have ontogenetic and intraspecific variation, and demand new and consistent assessments to establish their correct homologies. Consequently, Staurozoa is in need of a thorough systematic revision. The aim of this study is to propose a comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis for Staurozoa, providing the first phylogenetic classification for the group. According to our working hypothesis based on a combined set of molecular data (mitochondrial markers COI and 16S, and nuclear markers ITS, 18S, and 28S), the traditional suborders Cleistocarpida (animals with claustrum) and Eleutherocarpida (animals without claustrum) are not monophyletic. Instead, our results show that staurozoans are divided into two groups, herein named Amyostaurida and Myostaurida, which can be distinguished by ...
Invertebrates / St. Thomas Bubble (per Polyp) / Discosoma sanctithomae / Wild Polyps, Mushroom . Quality Marine offers a great variety of corals and invertebrates, and is very supportive of numerous aquaculture efforts around the globe from which we offer the retailer and the hobbyist an environmentally sensitive alternative to wild harvest.
The top of this ring blooms into an intricately undulating surface, inspired by the frilly arms of a jellyfish. Floraform is inspired by the biomechanics of growing leaves and blooming flowers. Each piece emerges from a computational simulation of differential growth, a surface that grows at different rates in different location. The flowering structures expand fastest along their edges, evolving from simple surfaces to flexuous forms that fill space with curves, folds, and ruffles. Read more about Floraform ...
Some of the most interesting and enigmatic cnidarians are classified within the hydrozoan subclass Trachylina. Despite being relatively depauperate in species richness, the clade contains four taxa typically accorded ordinal status: Actinulida,Limnomedusae, Narcomedusae and Trachymedusae. We bring molecular data (mitochondrial 16S and nuclear small and large subunit ribosomal genes) to bear on the question of phylogenetic relationships within Trachylina. Surprisingly, we find that a diminutive polyp form, Microhydrula limopsicola (classified within Limnomedusae) is actually a previously unknown life stage of a species of Stauromedusae. Our data confirm that the interstitial form Halammohydra sp. (Actinulida) is derived from holopelagic direct developing ancestors, likely within the trachymedusan family Rhopalonematidae. Trachymedusae is shown to be diphyletic, suggesting that the polyp stage has been lost independently at least two times within trachyline evolution. Narcomedusae is supported as ...
The Abnormal Biology of A Baby Joseph was an unhappy baby. He didnt sleep for long periods and appeared to cry all a time. Hed best if he had been held and rocked, or walked. He spit after feeding and was negatively compared to other babies in the family. His parents gently called him their high care child. … Continue reading Sponges and Cnidarians ...
Cairns, S.D. Gershwin, L.-A. Brook, F.J. Pugh, P. Dawson, E.W. Ocaña, O. Vervoort, W. Williams, G. Watson, J.E. Opresko, D.M. Schuchert, P. Hine, P.M. Gordon, D.P. Campbell, H.J. Wright, A.J. Sánchez, J.A. Fautin, D.G., 2009. Phylum Cnidaria. In: Gordon, D.P., Editor, New Zealand Inventory of Biodiversity. Volume One. Kingdom Animalia. Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia: 59-101. Canterbury University Press, Christchurch, NZ 566pp ...
Cairns, S.D. Gershwin, L.-A. Brook, F.J. Pugh, P. Dawson, E.W. Ocaña, O. Vervoort, W. Williams, G. Watson, J.E. Opresko, D.M. Schuchert, P. Hine, P.M. Gordon, D.P. Campbell, H.J. Wright, A.J. Sánchez, J.A. Fautin, D.G., 2009. Phylum Cnidaria. In: Gordon, D.P., Editor, New Zealand Inventory of Biodiversity. Volume One. Kingdom Animalia. Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia: 59-101. Canterbury University Press, Christchurch, NZ 566pp ...
Cairns, S.D., and Bayer, F.M., 2009. Octocorallia (Cnidaria) of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 321-331 in Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico-Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M Press, College Station, Texas ...
Cnidaria,Hydroid,Rhysia,Rhysia fletcheri,Garry Fletcher,Invertebrate taxonomy, Dr. Anita Brinckmann-Voss,Marine Protected Area, Race Rocks
With all this in hand, lets look at symmetry. Since the Cnidarian medusa forms have a well-defined radial symmetry around their oral/aboral axis, well start with that. If we imagine a glove with poles, latitude, longitude, and an equator, lets break the equator into four equal sections, broken at 0°, 90°, 180°, and 270°. Well define a primary mirror image at each break line, so each section looks identical to its reflection in each mirror. Well also define a second set of mirrors intermediate to the the first, at 45°-225° and 135°-315°. Each section, then, is identical to every other, and to its reflection across the primary mirror line. Each sections halves are also identical but inverted across the secondary mirror line running down its middle. This is radial symmetry with an index of four. A simple square has this sort of symmetry. It can be divided into four identical sections, reflected in the two mirror axes, with each section having identical but inverted left and right ...
askIITians offers revision notes on Animal Kingdom including classification of phylums protozoa, cnidaria, nematoda, mollusca for NEET (AIPMT) & Medical Exams. Download here:
Cnidarians, such as jellyfish, are animals that reside solely in aquatic environments. Learn more about Cnidarians at HowStuffWorks.
H. Watanabe, A. Kuhn, M. Fushiki, K. Agata, Y. Kocag z, S. zbek, T. Fujisawa & T.W. Holstein: Sequential actions of -catenin and Bmp pattern the oral nerve net in Nematostella vectensi. Nature Communication 5:5536 (23 December 2014), doi:10.1038/ ...
Scientists at Heidelberg University and the Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies (HITS) have discovered an unusually elastic protein in one of the most ancient groups of animals, the over 600-million-year-old cnidarians. The protein is a part of the weapons system that the cnidarians use: a kind of harpoon launched from their body at extremely high…. Details ...
With all this in hand, lets look at symmetry. Since the Cnidarian medusa forms have a well-defined radial symmetry around their oral/aboral axis, well start with that. If we imagine a glove with poles, latitude, longitude, and an equator, lets break the equator into four equal sections, broken at 0°, 90°, 180°, and 270°. Well define a primary mirror image at each break line, so each section looks identical to its reflection in each mirror. Well also define a second set of mirrors intermediate to the the first, at 45°-225° and 135°-315°. Each section, then, is identical to every other, and to its reflection across the primary mirror line. Each sections halves are also identical but inverted across the secondary mirror line running down its middle. This is radial symmetry with an index of four. A simple square has this sort of symmetry. It can be divided into four identical sections, reflected in the two mirror axes, with each section having identical but inverted left and right ...
Ax, P. 1989. Basic phylogenetic systematization of Metazoa. Pp. 453-470 in K. B. B. Fernholm and H. Jornvall (eds.). The Hierarchy of Life. Elsevier, Amsterdam.. Bridge, D., C. W. Cunningham, R. DeSalle, and L. W. Buss. 1995. Class-level relationships in the phylum Cnidaria: Molecular and morphological evidence. Molec. Biol. Evol. 12:679-689. Bridge, D., C. W. Cunningham, B. Schierwater, R. DeSalle, and L. W.. Buss. 1992. Class-level relationships in the phylum Cnidaria: Evidence from mitochondrial genome structure. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 89:8750-8753. Brusca, C. B. and G. J. Brusca. 1990. Invertebrates. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland MA.. Dunn, D. F. 1982. Cnidaria. Pp. 669-705 in S. P. Parker (ed.) Synopsis and Classification of Living organisms. McGraw-Hill, New York.. Fautin, D. G. and R. N. Mariscal. 1991. Cnidaria: Anthozoa. Pp. 267-358 in F. W. Harrison and J. A. Westfall (eds.) Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates, volume 2: Placozoa, Porifera, Cnidaria, and Ctenophora. Wiley-Liss, ...
Ax, P. 1989. Basic phylogenetic systematization of Metazoa. Pp. 453-470 in K. B. B. Fernholm and H. Jornvall (eds.). The Hierarchy of Life. Elsevier, Amsterdam.. Bridge, D., C. W. Cunningham, R. DeSalle, and L. W. Buss. 1995. Class-level relationships in the phylum Cnidaria: Molecular and morphological evidence. Molec. Biol. Evol. 12:679-689. Bridge, D., C. W. Cunningham, B. Schierwater, R. DeSalle, and L. W.. Buss. 1992. Class-level relationships in the phylum Cnidaria: Evidence from mitochondrial genome structure. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 89:8750-8753. Brusca, C. B. and G. J. Brusca. 1990. Invertebrates. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland MA.. Dunn, D. F. 1982. Cnidaria. Pp. 669-705 in S. P. Parker (ed.) Synopsis and Classification of Living organisms. McGraw-Hill, New York.. Fautin, D. G. and R. N. Mariscal. 1991. Cnidaria: Anthozoa. Pp. 267-358 in F. W. Harrison and J. A. Westfall (eds.) Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates, volume 2: Placozoa, Porifera, Cnidaria, and Ctenophora. Wiley-Liss, ...
The hydromedusa Polyorchis penicillatus is a good model system to study neurotransmission in coelenterates. Using a radioimmunoassay for the peptide sequence Arg-Phe-NH2 (RFamide), two peptides have now been purified from acetic acid extracts of this medusa. The structure of one of these peptides was established as pyroGlu-Leu-Leu-Gly-Gly-Arg-Phe-NH2, and was named Pol-RFamide. This peptide belongs to the same peptide family as a recently isolated neuropeptide from sea anemones (pyroGlu-Gly-Arg-Phe-NH2). Using antisera to Pol-RFamide, the peptide was found to be exclusively localized in neurones of Polyorchis, among them neurones associated with smooth-muscle fibres. This suggests that Pol-RFamide might be a transmitter or modulator at neuromuscular junctions ...
The Scyphozoa is a class of the phylum Cnidaria, sometimes referred to as the true jellyfish. There are 200 species. The name Scyphozoa comes from a Greek word which refers to the cup shape of the jellyfish. The medusa form is the dominant life form, as opposed to the polyp. They eat plankton, small crustaceans and fish larvae, which they capture using stinging cells called nematocysts. The nematocysts are attached to the tentacles that hang down from the edge of the umbrella dome. Scyphozoans have an internal jelly-like material. They have no hard parts, no head, and no specialized organs for respiration or excretion. Unlike other types of jellyfish, scyphozoans lack a velum, a circular membrane which propels other jellyfish through the water. Scyphozoans move through the water by contracting and relaxing the muscles of their umbrella. ...
We have identified a novel, multidomain, polymorphic lectin in the marine cnidarian Hydractinia echinata. The gene is expressed in oocytes and was therefore named CEL for cnidarian egg lectin. The predicted protein has an unusual domain architecture, consisting of variable numbers of thrombospondin type 1 domains, flanked by one N-terminal and two C-terminal galactose binding lectin domains. The diversity of the genes transcripts results from allelic polymorphism as well as alternative splicing. Hydractinia is dioecious and its sex has been reported previously to be genetically determined. We found intersexual colonies that were functional males, but had immature CEL-positive oocytes alongside mature sperm in the same gonads. Intersexuality was observed to be common in one population but not found in others. Hermaphroditic, self-fertile colonies were found in one locality; however, in these cases gonads contained either male or female gametes without mixed ones. Intersexuality that was ...
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Bayer, F. M. 1956. Octocorallia. Pp. F166-F230 in: R. C. Moore (ed.), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology Part F: Coelenterata. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, Lawrence.. Bayer, F. M., M. Grasshoff, and J. Verseveldt. 1983. Illustrated trilingual glossary of morphological and anatomical terms applied to Octocorallia. E. J. Brill / Dr. W.Backhuys, Leiden. 75 pp.. Berntson, E. A., S. C. France, and L. S. Mullineaux. 1999. Phylogenetic relationships within the Class Anthozoa (Phylum Cnidaria) based on nuclear 18S rDNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 13: 417-433.. Bridge, D., C. W. Cunningham, R. deSalle, and L. W. Buss. 1995. Class-level relationships in the phylum Cnidaria: Molecular and morphological evidence. Molecular Biology and Evolution 12: 679-689.. Chen, C. A., D. M. Odorico, M. ten Lohuis, J. E. N. Veron, and D. J. Miller. 1995. Systematic relationships within the Anthozoa (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) using the 5-end of the 28S rDNA. Molecular ...
Corals, sea anemones and jellyfish belong to a group of animals called cnidarians (pronounced nid-air-e-ans). There are two others in the cnidarian group: hydroids, known collectively as sea firs; and siphonophores, such as the Portuguese man-of-war, which are not single creatures, but colonies of many specialised individuals.. With 1,048 marine species, cnidarians are one of the largest groups of invertebrates in New Zealand waters. Although they may look quite different from each other, they share a common ancestry.. A feature of cnidarians is that they may have two forms. In one, the medusa or jellyfish phase, it is free swimming; in the other, it attaches to a surface and is called a polyp.. Cnidarians have a simple sac-like body, with a single opening surrounded by a ring of tentacles. Their body is made of two distinct layers of tissue, separated by a thick gelatinous substance called mesoglea.. All cnidarians have specialised stinging or nettle cells in their tentacles (their name comes ...
in the early 2000s came from a group investigating embryo polarity development (E. Houliston and colleagues). Sequence resource development was shared with an Evo-Devo group (M. Manuel and colleagues) seeking a medusa-bearing model from the Cnidaria, The evolutionary interest of the medusa lies in many complex features including striated muscle and sense organs that are absent in the polyp and thus from the main cnidarian molecular models ...
in the early 2000s came from a group investigating embryo polarity development (E. Houliston and colleagues). Sequence resource development was shared with an Evo-Devo group (M. Manuel and colleagues) seeking a medusa-bearing model from the Cnidaria, The evolutionary interest of the medusa lies in many complex features including striated muscle and sense organs that are absent in the polyp and thus from the main cnidarian molecular models ...
The body plans cnidarians generally have radial symmetry (Fig. 3.25 A). Because the tentacles of corals, jellyfish, and sea anemones have this radial structure, they can sting and capture food coming from any direction.. Many cnidarians take two main structural forms during their life cycles, a polyp form and a medusa form. The polyp form has a body shaped like a hollow cylinder or a bag that opens and closes at the top (Fig. 3.25 A). Tentacles form a ring around a small mouth at the top of the bag. The mouth leads to a central body cavity, the gastrovascular cavity (Fig. 3.24 B). Polyps attach to hard surfaces with their mouths up. Because they are sessile organisms, they can only capture food that touches their tentacles. Their mesoglea layer is very thin. Corals and sea anemones are polyps. Most of these animals are small, but a few sea anemones can grow as large as 1 meter in diameter. The second structural form that cnidarians have is called the medusa form. Medusa bodies are shaped like an ...
Sequences and structural attributes of mitochondrial genomes have played a critical role in the clarification of relationships among Cnidaria, a key phylum of early-diverging animals. Among the major lineages of Cnidaria, Ceriantharia (
Green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) and calcium-activated photoproteins of the aequorin/clytin family, now widely used as research tools, were originally isolated from the hydrozoan jellyfish Aequora victoria. It is known that bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) is possible between these proteins to generate flashes of green light, but the native function and significance of this phenomenon is unclear. Using the hydrozoan Clytia hemisphaerica, we characterized differential expression of three clytin and four GFP genes in distinct tissues at larva, medusa and polyp stages, corresponding to the major in vivo sites of bioluminescence (medusa tentacles and eggs) and fluorescence (these sites plus medusa manubrium, gonad and larval ectoderms ...
Other hydranths are specialized for defence. In contrast, the second form is gastrodermis (endodermis), with a mesoglia which is jelly-like filling the area between the two tissue layers. The epidermis is the outer layer. Dennis Gordon, Corals, anemones and jellyfish - Cnidaria - the nettle animals, Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/diagram/4721/polyp-and-medusa-body-shapes (accessed 8 January 2021), Story by Dennis Gordon, published 12 Jun 2006, updated 26 Sep 2016. Polyps are roughly cylindrical in shape and elongated at the axis of the vase-shaped body. A jelly-like substance called mesoglea lies between the outer and inner layers of the body. Medusa is a type of body form found in cnidarians. Polyp: Medusa: C. Look at the UC Berkeley web site for another diagram of a medusa and more information about general Cnidarian morphology. Medusa. Te Ara - The Encyclopedia of New Zealand Artwork by Bruce Mahalski. 1. Phylum Cnidaria, which include about 9000 ...
During embryonic development, early neurogenesis can be divided into several components, such as the origin, proliferation and movement of neural stem cells and progenitor cells, which are regulated by conserved genes and signalling pathways. These fundamental aspects of neurogenesis have been extensively studied in only a few bilaterian model organisms, leaving many questions regarding the evolution of this process open. The cnidarian and bilaterian lineages are sister groups that separated approximately 600 million years ago. Cnidarians have an informative position to study the early evolution of cellular and molecular aspects of neurogenesis and to understand common principles of neural development. Nematostella vectensis is a sea anemone, member of the phylum Cnidaria. They possess epithelial neural progenitor cells that express NvSoxB(2) and Atonal-like transcription factors. The Notch signalling pathways regulates the number of progenitor cells and achaete-scute is involved in further ...
Reef-building corals and many other cnidarians are symbiotic with dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. It has long been known that the endosymbiotic algae transfer much of their photosynthetically fixed carbon to the host and that this can provide much of the hosts total energy. However, it has remained unclear which metabolite(s) are directly translocated from the algae into the host tissue. We reexamined this question in the small sea anemone Aiptasia using labeling of intact animals in the light with 13C-bicarbonate, rapid homogenization and separation of animal and algal fractions, and analysis of metabolite labeling by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We found labeled glucose in the animal fraction within 2 min of exposure to 13C-bicarbonate, whereas no significant labeling of other compounds was observed within the first 10 min. Although considerable previous evidence has suggested that glycerol might be a major translocated metabolite, we saw no significant labeling of ...
The mold, protozoan, and coelenterate mitochondrial code and the mycoplasma/spiroplasma code is the genetic code used by various organisms, in some cases with slight variations, notably the use of UGA as a tryptophan codon rather than a stop codon. AAs = FFLLSSSSYY**CCWWLLLLPPPPHHQQRRRRIIIMTTTTNNKKSSRRVVVVAAAADDEEGGGG Starts = --MM---------------M------------MMMM---------------M------------ Base1 = TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG Base2 = TTTTCCCCAAAAGGGGTTTTCCCCAAAAGGGGTTTTCCCCAAAAGGGGTTTTCCCCAAAAGGGG Base3 = TCAGTCAGTCAGTCAGTCAGTCAGTCAGTCAGTCAGTCAGTCAGTCAGTCAGTCAGTCAGTCAG Bases: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T) or uracil (U). Amino acids: Alanine (Ala, A), Arginine (Arg, R), Asparagine (Asn, N), Aspartic acid (Asp, D), Cysteine (Cys, C), Glutamic acid (Glu, E), Glutamine (Gln, Q), Glycine (Gly, G), Histidine (His, H), Isoleucine (Ile, I), Leucine (Leu, L), Lysine (Lys, K), Methionine (Met, M), Phenylalanine (Phe, F), Proline (Pro, P), ...
Hydrozoa(Hydroids) Phylum CnidariaClass HydrozoaNumber of families 114Thumbnail description Invertebrates with a body plan that is comprised of a medusa with velum, a muscular projection from the subumbrellar margin that partially closes the subumbrellar cavity, and polyps; life cycles always involve the presence of a planula larva Source for information on Hydrozoa (Hydroids): Grzimeks Animal Life Encyclopedia dictionary.
Expression of ParaHox and Mox genes in Clytia hemisphaerica.A-C: CheGsx expression; A: general view of the medusa; B: higher magnification of the distal part
Study Flashcards On Biology, Cnidarians, Porifera, anthozoans, worms at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Science 10 (Block 2) ** Comprehension check tomorrow **. Practice all compounds - 34. Mixed Compounds Worksheet. Human Biology (Block 1). Circulatory and Respiratory research - 25. The Circulatory and Respiratory Systems Research Project. Oceans 11 (Block 4). Introduction to Porifera - 17. Marine Invertebrates - Porifera. Introduction to Cnidaria - 18. Marine Invertebrates - Cnidaria. Porifera and Cnidaria assignment - 19. Porifera and Cnidaria Assignment. ...
Yellow sulphur sponge and white metridium anemones, on a cold water reef teeming with invertebrate life. Plumose Anemone photo. Metridium senile photograph.
The expression of bilaterian-mesodermal genes changes the epithelial properties of the endomesoderm during the embryogenesis of the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis.
Just the sound of it demands respect. This invertebrate, infamous for its extremely powerful and painful sting belongs to the Cnidaria phylum and is a member of the Hydrozoa class. Cnidaria includes jellyfish, hydras, jellyfishes, anemones, and corals. This ancient phylum, which is at least 500 million years old contains about 9,000 marine species and some of the most beautiful, interesting, and perhaps most dangerous (marine) invertebrates (Wallace and Taylor, 1997). Hydrozoans usually prefer shallow water where their colonies (associations of individuals that share food often and or divide up ecological roles) can contribute heavily to surface growth on submerged objects (Meglitsch and Schram, 1991). The Portuguese man-of-war is likely one of the most complex and specialized hydrozoans (Wallace and taylor, 1997).. Portuguese man-of-wars are easily recognized by their nitrogen-filled, iridescent float. This structure may reach three to 12 inches in length and can extend as much as six inches ...
Ctenophores have traditionally been treated as eumetazoans, but some recent whole genome studies have revived the idea that they are, rather, the sister group to all other metazoans. This deep branching position implies either that nervous systems have evolved twice, in Ctenophora and in Eumetazoa, or that an ancestral metazoan nervous system has been lost in sponges and placozoans. We caution, however, that phylogenetic-tree construction artifacts may have placed ctenophores too deep in the metazoan tree. We discuss nervous system origins under these alternative phylogenies and in light of comparative data of ctenophore and eumetazoan nervous systems. We argue that characters like neuropeptide signaling, ciliary photoreceptors, gap junctions and presynaptic molecules are consistent with a shared ancestry of nervous systems. However, if ctenophores are the sister group to all other metazoans, this ancestral nervous system was likely very simple. Further studies are needed to resolve the deep phylogeny
Background: Anthozoan cnidarians are amongst the simplest animals at the tissue level of organization, but are surprisingly complex and vertebrate-like in terms of gene repertoire. As major components of tropical reef ecosystems, the stony corals are anthozoans of particular ecological significance. To better understand the molecular bases of both cnidarian development in general and coral-specific processes such as skeletogenesis and symbiont acquisition, microarray analysis was carried out through the period of early development - when skeletogenesis is initiated, and symbionts are first acquired.. Results: Of 5081 unique peptide coding genes, 1084 were differentially expressed (P ≤ 0.05) in comparisons between four different stages of coral development, spanning key developmental transitions. Genes of likely relevance to the processes of settlement, metamorphosis, calcification and interaction with symbionts were characterised further and their spatial expression patterns investigated using ...
See Acta Errata.. Mills, C.E. and M.F. Strathmann, 1987. Phylum Cnidaria, Class Hydrozoa. pp. 44-71 In Reproduction and Development of Marine Invertebrates of the Northern Pacific Coast (M.F. Strathmann, ed.) University of Washington Press, Seattle and London.. This chapter includes a general summary of reproduction and development in marine Hydrozoa, followed by specific practical information on the use of material found along the northern Pacific Coast of the United States and Canada. Topics covered include identification, collection and maintenance, collecting newly released medusae, collecting gametes, insemination, culture set-ups, isolation or fusion of embryo parts, vital staining, dissociation and reaggregation of blastomeres, and centrifugation of eggs. This section is followed by specific information on selected local species including 17 Anthomedusae or athecate hydroids, 14 Leptomedusae or thecate hydroids, 2 species of Limnomedusae, one (Trachyline) Narcomedusa, one stylasterine ...
The evolution of the nervous system in metazoan animals has been a topic of great interest. It is thought that the first nerve cell (neuron) evolved in a common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians, because neuronal cell types are absent in their sister group, the sponges (Galliot et al., 2009). Although putative sensory cells do exist in the sponge, these cells do not form synapses and do not possess dendrites and axons (Richards et al., 2008). Although cnidarians typically have a diffuse nerve net, some regionalization patterns of neurons and their neurites have been identified in several types of cnidarians (Galliot et al., 2009; Watanabe et al., 2009). It is possible that these cnidarian nerve rings might represent a primitive organized nervous system. After the divergence of cnidarians and bilaterians, a centralized nervous system evolved in the bilaterian lineage (Arendt et al., 2008; Holland, 2003). The evolutionary origin of the central nervous system (CNS) in bilaterian animals has ...
Two patterns of macrociliary growth occur in Beroe. Early differentiation described previously (Tamm & Tamm, 1988) leads to the first pattern of ciliogenesis. A tuft of 10-20 single cilia initially grows out from basal bodies that have migrated to the cell surface and are axially aligned. Ciliary membranes then begin to fuse along their length, except at the base, resulting in thicker groups of cilia on each cell. Progressive fusion of ciliary membranes, together with addition and elongation of new axonemes, finally results in mature macrocilia, 5 microns thick and 40 microns long, enclosed by a single membrane distally. The second pattern of ciliogenesis begins with the simultaneous appearance of several hundred ciliary buds on the apical surface. The short cilia possess individual membranes with bulbous tips, and are not axially aligned. Subsequent elongation is accompanied by progressive fusion of neighbouring ciliary membranes, except at the base, leading to flat-topped stumps surrounded ...
Definition of hydroid - a coelenterate of an order which includes the hydras. They are distinguished by the dominance of the polyp phase.
Background: Adhesion mediated through the integrin family of cell surface receptors is central to early development throughout the Metazoa, playing key roles in cell-extra cellular matrix adhesion and modulation of cadherin activity during the convergence and extension movements of gastrulation. It has been suggested that Caenorhabditis elegans, which has a single β and two α integrins, might reflect the ancestral integrin complement. Investigation of the integrin repertoire of anthozoan cnidarians such as the coral Acropora millepora is required to test this hypothesis and may provide insights into the original roles of these molecules.. Results: Two novel integrins were identified in Acropora. AmItgα1 shows features characteristic of α integrins lacking an I-domain, but phylogenetic analysis gives no clear indication of its likely binding specificity. AmItgβ2 lacks consensus cysteine residues at positions 8 and 9, but is otherwise a typical β integrin. In situ hybridization revealed that ...
Hydra are freshwater organisms, only a few millimeters in length, and belong to the phylum Cnidaria, which also includes jellyfish and coral. Cnidarians split from their bilateral counterparts roughly 750 million years ago and maintain a much simpler body plan and nervous system than many of todays model organisms.. Their tubular bodies are comprised of two layers of muscle, each composed of a different cell type and separated by two nerve nets. The muscle cells generate movement by exerting force on protein fibers, which run longitudinally (from the mouth to the base of the tube foot) in one muscle layer, and circumferentially (around the horizontal axis) in the other layer. When the longitudinal fibers are pulled, the body column gets short and fat; when the circumferential ones are pulled, it gets long and skinny. Given that the muscle fibers run perpendicular to one another, it was long thought that they held opposing roles, and that both layers of muscle cells could not be activated and ...
ID A7S545_NEMVE Unreviewed; 564 AA. AC A7S545; DT 02-OCT-2007, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 02-OCT-2007, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 72. DE SubName: Full=Predicted protein {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EDO41140.1}; GN ORFNames=v1g206949 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EDO41140.1}; OS Nematostella vectensis (Starlet sea anemone). OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Cnidaria; Anthozoa; Hexacorallia; Actiniaria; OC Edwardsiidae; Nematostella. OX NCBI_TaxID=45351 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001593}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EDO41140.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001593} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=CH2 X CH6 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001593}; RX PubMed=17615350; DOI=10.1126/science.1139158; RA Putnam N.H., Srivastava M., Hellsten U., Dirks B., Chapman J., RA Salamov A., Terry A., Shapiro H., Lindquist E., Kapitonov V.V., RA Jurka J., Genikhovich G., Grigoriev I.V., Lucas S.M., Steele R.E., RA Finnerty J.R., Technau U., Martindale M.Q., Rokhsar D.S.; RT Sea anemone genome ...
Journal of Marine Biology is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of marine biology.
24 Nov., à 14h en salle TB : " Impact of Wnt signalling on multipotent stem cell dynamics during Clytia hemisphaerica embryonic and larval development"Composition du jury : Agnes Audibert Pr. - Présidente du Jury ; Dr. Fabian Rentzsch - Rapporteur ;
My research interests are the molecular neurobiology, molecular endocrinology, and the functional and comparative genomics of invertebrates. As model systems I use two animal groups, namely cnidarians and insects.. I have chosen cnidarians, because they are the lowest animal group (phylum) with a nervous system, and because they are simple and can be used as model systems, e.g., by developmental biologists. Furthermore, cnidarians occupy a very basal position in the phylogenetic tree of animals (before the split of protostomes and deuterostomes). Cnidarians, therefore, are crucial for our understanding of the evolution of body plans and nervous systems. In cnidarians, we investigate the structure of neuropeptides, neuropeptide biosynthesis, neuropeptide receptors, and neuropeptide actions. This molecular and cellular work is basic for our understanding of the functioning of present-day cnidarians, but it also gives us insights in the evolution of the first nervous (and endocrine) ...
ID A7SJF6_NEMVE Unreviewed; 259 AA. AC A7SJF6; DT 02-OCT-2007, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 02-OCT-2007, sequence version 1. DT 07-JUN-2017, entry version 52. DE SubName: Full=Predicted protein {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EDO36153.1}; DE Flags: Fragment; GN ORFNames=v1g120521 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EDO36153.1}; OS Nematostella vectensis (Starlet sea anemone). OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Cnidaria; Anthozoa; Hexacorallia; Actiniaria; OC Edwardsiidae; Nematostella. OX NCBI_TaxID=45351 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001593}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EDO36153.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001593} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=CH2 X CH6 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001593}; RX PubMed=17615350; DOI=10.1126/science.1139158; RA Putnam N.H., Srivastava M., Hellsten U., Dirks B., Chapman J., RA Salamov A., Terry A., Shapiro H., Lindquist E., Kapitonov V.V., RA Jurka J., Genikhovich G., Grigoriev I.V., Lucas S.M., Steele R.E., RA Finnerty J.R., Technau U., Martindale M.Q., Rokhsar D.S.; RT ...
Phacellophora camtschatica, known as the fried egg jellyfish or egg-yolk jellyfish, is a very large jellyfish, with a bell up to 60 cm (2 ft) in diameter and sixteen clusters of up to a few dozen tentacles, each up to 6 meters (20 ft) long. However, the life cycle of P. camtschatica has not been formally described. The species they reported were Phacellophora camtschatica, Cyanea capillata, Aurelia labiata and Aequorea victoria. Atolla wyvillei, Stomolophus meleagris, Desmonema comatum and Tamoya haplonema were reported just a few times and Detailed tissue-specific study is needed to define the significance of these differences to interpreting trophic linkages for jellies. Photo: 2016 MBARI A female Haliphron atlanticus octopus holding a Phacellophora camtschatica (egg-yolk jellyfish) in her arms. The fried egg jelly and all other members of the phylum Cnidaria are diploblastic. During June 2000, Phacellophora camtschatica was only encountered at one station and was therefore not a dominant ...
New records of the genera Leptogorgia, Pacifigorgia and Eugorgia (Octocorallia: Gorgoniidae) from Ecuador, with a description of a new species
Presence of all three ParaHox genes has been described in deuterostomes and lophotrochozoans, but to date one of these three genes, Xlox has not been reported from any ecdysozoan taxa and both Xlox and Gsx are absent in nematodes. There is evidence that the ParaHox genes were ancestrally a single chromosomal cluster. Colinear expression of the ParaHox genes in anterior, middle, and posterior tissues of several species studied so far suggest that these genes may be responsible for axial patterning of the digestive tract. So far, there are no data on expression of these genes in molluscs. We isolated the complete coding sequences of the three Gibbula varia ParaHox genes, and then tested their expression in larval and postlarval development. In Gibbula varia, the ParaHox genes participate in patterning of the digestive tract and are expressed in some cells of the neuroectoderm. The expression of these genes coincides with the gradual formation of the gut in the larva. Gva-Gsx patterns potential neural
Explore the underwater world of the Cnidarians, an ancient yet successful group of animals that includes colorful corals, strange sea anemones, and elegant jellyfish. Detailed …
Despite the wide distribution of zoanthids, little is known about their pattern of reproduction. Here we investigate the reproductive biology of two Mediterranean species, the common Parazoanthus axinellae (Schmidt) and the rare Savalia savaglia (Bertoloni). For both species, samples were collected during an annual cycle, from January to December 2005, in the Western Mediterranean (Ligurian Sea, Italy). Both species are gonochoric. In P. axinellae the sex-ratio (n colonies = 30) showed a slight predominance of male colonies (M/F = 1.35), whereas in the population of S. savaglia (n colonies = 15) a predominance of females was found (M/F = 0.3). In P. axinellae the first gametocytes were visible in March, whereas in S. savaglia they became visible in May. Both species reproduce at the end of autumn when seawater temperature begins to decrease. Parazoanthus axinellae (10 m depth) spawns eggs and sperms in November, whereas S. savaglia (67 m depth) spawns in December. In P. axinellae sexes were ...
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Cnidaria[edit]. *Hydra vulgaris, (previously Hydra magnipapillata), a model hydrozoan (2010[6]) ...
... (/naɪˈdɛəriə/[4]) is a phylum containing over 10,000[5] species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater ... is that Cnidaria and Bilateria are more closely related to each other than either is to Ctenophora. This grouping of Cnidaria ... Cnidaria. Retrieved May 15, 2013.. *^ a b Zhang, Z.-Q. (2011). "Animal biodiversity: An introduction to higher-level ... D. G. Fautin: Reproduction of Cnidaria. . in: Canadian Journal of Zoology. Ottawa Ont. 80.2002, p. 1735. (PDF, online) ISSN ...
Cnidaria. Cnidaria such as Hydra and the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis are attractive model organisms to study the ...
Non-bilaterian animals: Ctenophora, Porifera, Placozoa, Cnidaria. Examples of non-bilaterian animals are sponges and coral: the ... 6.2 Non-bilaterian animals: Ctenophora, Porifera, Placozoa, Cnidaria. *6.3 Bilaterian animals *6.3.1 Deuterostomes and ... More basal animals lack a bilaterally symmetric body plan (Ctenophora, Porifera, Cnidaria and Placozoa), with their ... Among the other phyla, the Ctenophora and the Cnidaria, which includes sea anemones, corals, and jellyfish, are radially ...
Ruppert, E.E.; Fox, R.S. & Barnes, R.D. (2004). "Cnidaria". Invertebrate Zoology (7th ed.). Brooks / Cole. pp. 112-124. ISBN 0- ... ISBN 0-03-025982-7. Hinde, R.T. (1998). "The Cnidaria and Ctenophora". In Anderson, D.T. (ed.). Invertebrate Zoology. Oxford ...
Slobodkin, Lawrence; Bossert, Patricia (2010). "Cnidaria". In Thorp, James H.; Covich, Alan P. (eds.). Ecology and ...
"Cnidaria". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 23 January 2009. "Hydramacin-1 (2K35)". Protein Data Bank. ... Like other members of the Phylum Cnidaria, Hydra possesses specialized defensive epithelial cells called cnidocytes that shoot ...
Cnidaria; Anthozoa; Actiniaria; Edwardsiidae) from Japan". Zootaxa. 4661 (3): 533-544. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4661.3.7. v t e. ...
Daubert, G. P. (2008). Cnidaria Envenomation. eMedicine. "Do jellyfish have the deadliest venom in the world?". 2008-10-06. Box ... Cnidaria: Cubozoa: Chirodropidae)". Zootaxa. 2030: 59-65. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.2030.1.5. Hamner, W. (1994). "Australia's box ...
Cnidaria, Cubozoa, Carybdeida)". Plankton Benthos Res. 12 (2): 129-138. Bordehore, C.; S. Nogué; J.-M. Gili; M.J. Acevedo; V.L ... Trends in Research on Cnidaria and Ctenophora. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 331. ISBN 978-1-4020-2762-8.. ...
Cnidaria have a centered mouth surrounded by tentacles. Also, the they are carnivorous. In terms of reproduction, gametes were ... Hydroid is part of the Cnidaria phylum. So, B. aberrans are radial symmetry, that they have cnidae that are unique sting ... Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Anthoathecata). Marine Ecology, 34, 113-122. doi: 10.1111/maec.12030 Calder, D. R. (1998). Hydroid ... Calder, D. R. (1993). Bougainvillia aberrans (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa), a new species of hydroid and medusa from the upper bathyal ...
Polypes (Cnidaria): 1. Nus, 2. À polypiers. Infusoires (Infusoria, various protistan phyla): 1. Rotifères (Rotifers), 2. ... Zoophytes, called Radiata in English translations; now Cnidaria and other phyla) Échinodermes (Echinoderms): 1. Pédicellés, 2. ... cnidaria and other phyla). The work appeared in four octavo volumes in December 1816 (although it has "1817" on the title pages ...
Fossil Cnidaria, 10 (2), 16-30. Hill, D., 1984. The Great Barrier Reef Committee, 1922-1982: The first thirty years. Historical ... Fossil Cnidaria, 9(2), 27-38. Hill, D., 1981. Rugosa and Tabulata. In: Teichert, C. (ed.), Treatise on invertebrate ... Cnidaria - general features. In : Treatise on invertebrate palaeontology. Part F, Coelenterata, Moore, R.C. (ed.), Geological ...
Cnidaria, Cubozoa, Carybdeida). Plankton and Benthos Research. 2017, Vol.12, No.2, p.129. Gershwin, L. 2005. Carybdea alata ...
Such complications are associated also with toxins of other cnidaria. The toxin is also harmful to the eyes; contact with a ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Fautin, Daphne Gail (2002). "Reproduction of Cnidaria". Canadian Journal of Zoology. 80 ...
Cnidaria: Cubozoa: Chirodropida)" (PDF). Zootaxa. 2030: 59-65. ISSN 1175-5334. "WoRMS - World Register of Marine Species - ...
ISBN 978-0-19-551368-4. Hinde RT (1998). "The Cnidaria and Ctenophora". In Anderson DT (ed.). Invertebrate Zoology. Oxford ... "Placozoans are eumetazoans related to Cnidaria". bioRxiv 10.1101/200972. "Spongiology". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved ...
Ctenophores have been purported to be the sister lineage to the Bilateria, sister to the Cnidaria, sister to Cnidaria, Placozoa ... Hinde, R.T. (1998). "The Cnidaria and Ctenophora". In Anderson, D.T. (ed.). Invertebrate Zoology. Oxford University Press. pp. ... some cnidaria-eating nudibranchs similarly incorporate nematocytes into their bodies for defense. The tentilla of Euplokamis ... that ctenophores are either sister to Cnidaria, Placozoa, and Bilateria or sister to all other animal phyla. Several more ...
nov.(Cnidaria, Cubozoa, Chirodropida): a new species of box jellyfish from the Gulf of Thailand" (PDF). Phuket Mar Biol Cent ... Cnidaria: Cubozoa: Chirodropida)". doi:10.5281/ZENODO.186248. Cite journal requires ,journal= (help). ...
Cnidaria: Cubozoa) from Madagascar". Marine Biodiversity Records. 6: e118. doi:10.1017/S1755267213000924. ISSN 1755-2672. ... Coates, M. M. (2003-08-01). "Visual Ecology and Functional Morphology of Cubozoa (Cnidaria)". Integrative and Comparative ... Cnidaria: Cubozoa: Chirodropida): a preliminary revision of the Chiropsalmidae, with descriptions of two new genera and two new ... Cnidaria, Cubozoa, Chirodropida) from Japanese Waters". ZooKeys (503): 1-21. doi:10.3897/zookeys.503.9047. ISSN 1313-2989. PMC ...
Fossil Cnidaria, 15 (1.1). (Additions and corrections: 1987, v. 16, no. 1, p. 49-53). 15 July 1907: born Philadelphia, ... Hill, D., and Wells, J.W. (1956) Cnidaria-general features. Section F5, Coelenterata. In: Moore, R.C., ed., Treatise on ... and the International Association for the Study of Fossil Cnidaria. He was made a member of the National Academy of Sciences in ...
ISBN 0-03-025982-7. Hinde, R. T. (1998). "The Cnidaria and Ctenophora". In Anderson, D. T. (ed.). Invertebrate Zoology. Oxford ... some cnidaria-eating nudibranchs similarly incorporate cnidocytes into their bodies for defense. The tentilla of Euplokamis ...
ISBN 978-0-19-551368-4. Hinde, R.T. (2001). "The Cnidaria and Ctenophora". In Anderson, D.T. (ed.). Invertebrate Zoology. ...
Hinde, Rosalind T. (2001). "The Cnidaria and Ctenophora". In Anderson, D. T (ed.). Invertebrate Zoology (2nd ed.). Melbourne; ... but are now thought to be heavily modified members of the Cnidaria. Jímenez-Guri, Eva; Philippe, Hervé; Okamura, Beth; et al. ( ...
ISBN 978-0-07-229641-9. He, J; Zheng, L; Zhang, W; Lin, Y (2015). "Life Cycle Reversal in Aurelia sp.1 (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa)". ... ISBN 978-0-412-45110-2. Rees, W. J. (1966). The Cnidaria and Their Evolution. London: Academic Press. pp. 77-104. Solomon, E. P ... Dawson, M. N. (2003). "Macro-morphological variation among cryptic species of the moon jellyfish, Aurelia (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa ... Cnidaria) in Saanich Inlet, British Columbia". Marine Biology. 99 (3): 409-414. doi:10.1007/BF02112134. S2CID 84652019. Towanda ...
Schmid, Volker; Ono, Shin-Ichi; Reber-Müller, Susanne (1999-02-15). "Cell-substrate interactions in Cnidaria". Microscopy ... Cnidaria)". PLoS ONE. 4 (1): e4231. Bibcode:2009PLoSO...4.4231C. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004231. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 2626245 ...
The fried egg jelly and all other members of the phylum Cnidaria are diploblastic. This is due to a lack of a mesoderm, which ... Also, this species (and all others in the phylum cnidaria) lack a mesoderm and instead uses mesolgea. Therefore, there are not ... This species and most of its relatives in the Cnidaria phylum often use suspension feeding as their main food gathering ... Rees, W. J. (William James) (1966). The Cnidaria and their evolution; the proceedings of a symposium held at the Zoological ...
Hydra (/ˈhaɪdrə/ HY-drə) is a genus of small, fresh-water organisms of the phylum Cnidaria and class Hydrozoa. They are native ... In experiments on H. vulgaris (a radially symmetrical member of phylum Cnidaria), when FoxO levels were decreased, there was a ... Holstein T, Emschermann P (1995). Cnidaria: Hydrozoa Süsswasserfauna von Mitteleuropa. Bd 1/2+ 3. Stuttgart: Spektrum ...
Cnidaria triadica, 1921 - Triassic Cnidaria. Lamellibranchiata triadica, 1923 - Triassic Lamellibranchiata. Grundzüge der ...
They are members of the phylum Cnidaria, class Hydrozoa, order Capitata, family Milleporidae. ...
D. G. Fautin: Reproduction of Cnidaria. . in: Canadian Journal of Zoology. Ottawa Ont. 80.2002, p. 1735. (PDF, online) ISSN ... is that Cnidaria and Bilateria are more closely related to each other than either is to Ctenophora. This grouping of Cnidaria ... Cnidaria ([knɪˈdarɪ.a]) is a phylum under Kingdom Animalia containing over 11,000 species[5] of animals found exclusively in ... Schäfer, W. (1997). Cnidaria, Nesseltiere. In Rieger, W. (ed.) Spezielle Zoologie. Teil 1. Einzeller und Wirbellose Tiere. ...
Cnidaria (/naɪˈdɛəriə/[4]) is a phylum containing over 10,000[5] species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater ... is that Cnidaria and Bilateria are more closely related to each other than either is to Ctenophora. This grouping of Cnidaria ... Cnidaria. Retrieved May 15, 2013.. *^ a b Zhang, Z.-Q. (2011). "Animal biodiversity: An introduction to higher-level ... D. G. Fautin: Reproduction of Cnidaria. . in: Canadian Journal of Zoology. Ottawa Ont. 80.2002, p. 1735. (PDF, online) ISSN ...
Cnidaria at Encyclopedia of Life. *↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 Ruggiero MA, Gordon DP, Orrell TM, Bailly N, Bourgoin T, Brusca RC, et al. ( ... Cnidaria at the Tree of Life Web Project. * ... Cnidaria on Wikimedia Commons.Wikimedia Commons. *Cnidaria at ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Cnidaria&oldid=48968849" ...
Cnidaria Cnidaria is one of the more primitive animal phyla. It includes aquatic organisms such as jellyfish, sea anemones, ... Cnidaria Animal Sciences COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. Cnidaria. Cnidaria is one of the more primitive animal phyla. It ... Many cnidaria have a life cycle that alternates between a sessile polyp stage and a swimming medusa. The polyp may consist of a ... Cnidaria (nīdâr´ēə) or Coelenterata (səlĕntərä´tə), phylum of invertebrate animals comprising the sea anemones, corals, ...
... Sea anemones, corals, jellyfish, sea pens, hydra. Daphne G. Fautin and Sandra L. Romano Click on an image to view ... Cnidaria Home Page. University of California, Irvine. Title Illustrations. Click on an image to view larger version & data in a ... Cnidaria, therefore, is a well circumscribed taxon; it is considered by many to be a sister group of all metazoans other than ... The Cnidaria and their Evolution (The Proceedings of a Symposium held at The Zoological Society of London on 3 and 4 March 1965 ...
Fossilworks PaleoDB link: Cnidaria Hatschek 1888 †. *World Register of Marine Species link: Cnidaria Verrill, 1865 (+ list ... Pages in category "Cnidaria". This category contains only the following page. V. *Commons:Valued images by topic/Life forms/ ... Anthozoa, Cubozoa, Hydrozoa, Myxozoa, Scyphozoa, Staurozoa, Cnidaria incertae sedis. Included classes (for NCBI, 8 December ... Anthozoa, Cnidaria incertae sedis, Cubozoa, Hydrozoa, Myxozoa, Polypodiozoa (temporary name. integrated in Hydrozoa for other ...
Cnidarianīdâr´ēə [key] or Coelenteratasəlĕntərä´tə [key], phylum of invertebrate animals comprising the sea anemones, corals, ... Two body forms and two lifestyles are characteristic of the Cnidaria (see polyp and medusa ). The sessile hydroid, or polyp, ...
Cnidaria Cnidaria. Introduction Cnidaria nīdâr´ēə [key] or Coelenterata səlĕntərä´tə [key], phylum of invertebrate animals ... Two body forms and two lifestyles are characteristic of the Cnidaria (see polyp and medusa ). The sessile hydroid, or polyp, ...
Approximately 9000 species of Cnidaria are known; roughly 100 are toxic to humans. ... Cnidaria (formerly Coelenterata) is a phylum of aquatic invertebrates responsible for more envenomations than any other marine ... encoded search term (Cnidaria%20Envenomation) and Cnidaria Envenomation What to Read Next on Medscape. Medscape Consult. ... Cnidaria Envenomation Differential Diagnoses. Updated: Apr 27, 2017 * Author: Spencer Greene, MD, MS, FACEP, FACMT; Chief ...
Cnidaria (Gr., cnidae, nettle) is a phylum of mostly marine Metazoa distinguished by cnidocysts, subcellular capsules ... Shostak S (1993) Cnidaria. In: Adiyodi KG and Adiyodi RG (eds) Reproductive Biology of Invertebrates, vol. VI, part A: Asexual ... Cnidaria (Gr., cnidae, nettle) is a phylum of mostly marine Metazoa distinguished by cnidocysts, subcellular capsules ... Lesh‐Laurie GE and Suchy PE (1991) Cnidaria: Scyphozoa and Cubozoa. In: Harrison FW and Westfall JA (eds) Microscopic Anatomy ...
1995) The demise of a phylum of protists: Phylogeny of Myxozoa and other parasitic cnidaria. J Parasitol 81(6):961-967. ... 2013) Agent of whirling disease meets orphan worm: Phylogenomic analyses firmly place Myxozoa in Cnidaria. PLoS One 8(1):e54576 ... Genomic insights into the evolutionary origin of Myxozoa within Cnidaria. E. Sally Chang, Moran Neuhof, Nimrod D. Rubinstein, ... Genomic insights into the evolutionary origin of Myxozoa within Cnidaria Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ...
Phylum Cnidaria includes animals that show radial or biradial symmetry and are diploblastic, that is, they develop from two ... The phylum Cnidaria contains about 10,000 described species divided into four classes: Anthozoa, Scyphozoa, Cubozoa, and ... Animals from the phylum Cnidaria have stinging cells called cnidocytes. Cnidocytes contain large organelles called (a) ...
Phylum Cnidaria NGSS Performance Expectations:. * MS-LS1-3 Use argument supported by evidence for how the body is a system of ... The phylum Cnidaria (pronounced "nih DARE ee uh") includes soft-bodied stinging animals such as corals, sea anemones, and ... 3.23 B). Ctenophores were removed from the phylum Cnidaria and placed in a new phylum called Ctenophora (pronounced ti-NOF-or- ... The content and activities in this topic will work towards building an understanding of the phylum Cnidaria. ...
K. S. Larson and R. J. Larson, "On the ecology of Isaurus duchassaingi (Andres) (Cnidaria: Zoanthidea) from South Water Cay, ... A. Acosta, M. Casas, C. A. Vargas, and J. E. Camacho, "Lista de Zoantharia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) del Caribe y de Colombia," ... Species Diversity of Shallow Water Zoanthids (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) in Florida. James Davis Reimer,1,2 Colin Foord, ... J. D. Reimer, K. Takishita, S. Ono, and T. Maruyama, "Diversity and evolution in the zoanthid genus Palythoa (Cnidaria: ...
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2007). The phylum Cnidaria: A review of phylogenetic patterns and diversity 300 years after Linnaeus. ,em,Zootaxa.,/em, (1668 ... Cetacea (2020). Cnidaria. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/cetacea/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=1267 on 2020-08-07 ...
... Favorite Species Organisms Pelagic Plankton Release the Glaucus! Alex Warneke May 20, 2015 By-the-Wind SailorsCnidaria ... M December 5, 2014 CnidariaHermit CrabSymbiosis Hermit crabs are generally awesome. They use snail shells, and sometime shells ... Kevin Zelnio December 1, 2009 CnidariaCoralPolypsZoanthids Cnidarian Lifeforms from Delrious on Vimeo. Hat tip to Penguin ... M December 11, 2013 buddingChristmascloneCnidariaColonyevo-devogenomegrowthRebecca HelmsiphonophoreStefan Siebert ...
Animal Cnidaria East Indonesian Ocean Sea Waterframe Wild: 20 assigned downloads, like Colorful coral reef, Indian Ocean, ... Similar tags: animal • asian • cnidaria • dwellers • east • indonesian • marine • nature • ocean • reef • sea • shot • south- ...
Bud formation and metamorphosis inCassiopeia andromeda (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa), a developmental and ultrastructural study. - Mar ...
Pacific Cnidaria Research Lab, Department of Tropical Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA ... Ancient Venom Systems: A Review on Cnidaria Toxins. Mahdokht Jouiaei 1,2. ... "Ancient Venom Systems: A Review on Cnidaria Toxins." Toxins 7, no. 6: 2251-2271. ... Ancient Venom Systems: A Review on Cnidaria Toxins. Toxins. 2015; 7(6):2251-2271. ...
The top of this ring blooms into an intricately undulating surface, inspired by the frilly arms of a jellyfish. Floraform is inspired by the biomechanics of growing leaves and blooming flowers. Each piece emerges from a computational simulation of differential growth, a surface that grows at different rates in different location. The flowering structures expand fastest along their edges, evolving from simple surfaces to flexuous forms that fill space with curves, folds, and ruffles. Read more about Floraform ...
Dennis Gordon, Corals, anemones and jellyfish - Cnidaria - the nettle animals, Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http ...
Empirical and experimental data on cnidarian reproduction show it to be more variable than had been thought, and many patterns that had previously been deduced hold up poorly or not at all in light of additional data. The border between sexual and asexual reproduction appears to be faint. This may be due to analytical tools being insufficiently powerful to distinguish between the two, but it may be that a distinction between sexual and asexual reproduction is not very important biologically to cnidarians. Given the variety of modes by which it is now evident that asexual reproduction occurs, its ecological and evolutionary implications have probably been underestimated. Appropriate analytical frameworks and strategies must be developed for these morphologically simple animals, in which sexual reproduction may not be paramount, that during one lifetime may pass through two or more phases differing radically in morphology and ecology, that may hybridize, that are potentially extremely long-lived, ...
We present a method for ranking the toxin-like candidates from complete proteomes of Cnidaria. Toxin-like functions were ... We conclude that the evolutionary expansion of toxin-like proteins in Cnidaria contributes to their fitness in the complex ... Among the 83,000 proteins derived from Cnidaria representatives, we found 170 candidates that fulfill the properties of toxin- ... Cnidaria is a rich phylum that includes thousands of marine species. In this study, we focused on Anthozoa and Hydrozoa that ...
Phylogenetic relationships within the Octocorallia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) based on nuclear 18S rRNA sequences. ...
Cnidaria: Hydrozoa).(Report) by The Biological Bulletin; Biological sciences Adaptation (Physiology) Research Biodiversity ... and Rhopilema (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa). Trans. Am. Micron., Soc. 96: 13-19. Colin, S. P., and J. H. Costello. 2007. Functional ... APA style: Nematocysts of the invasive hydroid Cordylophora caspia (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa).. (n.d.) >The Free Library. (2014). ... Latitudinal diversity of sea anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria).. Next Article:. Vertical visual features have a strong influence ...
Background Classical morphological taxonomy places the approximately 1400 recognized species of Scleractinia (hard corals) into 27 families, but many aspects of coral evolution remain unclear despite the application of molecular phylogenetic methods. In part, this may be a consequence of such studies focusing on the reef-building (shallow water and zooxanthellate) Scleractinia, and largely ignoring the large number of deep-sea species. To better understand broad patterns of coral evolution, we generated molecular data for a broad and representative range of deep sea scleractinians collected off New Caledonia and Australia during the last decade, and conducted the most comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis to date of the order Scleractinia. Methodology Partial (595 bp) sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene were determined for 65 deep-sea (azooxanthellate) scleractinians and 11 shallow-water species. These new data were aligned with 158 published sequences,
Colony integration and the expression of the Hox gene, Cnox-2, in Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa).. ...
Cnidaria) foram conduzidos enfatizando a área nerítica central do Atlântico Sul-ocidental (ASO), entre os litorais sudeste do ... Resultados indicadores de que as principais linhagens de Cnidaria teriam surgido ao longo do Criogeniano e o Ediacarano foram ... Results indicating that the main lineages of Cnidaria emerged during the Cryogenian and Ediacaran were obtained, at that Period ... Tempo e espaço na evolução de Cnidaria Medusozoa - estudos filogeográficos com ênfase em populações do Atlântico Sul-ocidental ...
  • Cnidaria ( [knɪˈdarɪ.a] ) is a phylum under Kingdom Animalia containing over 11,000 species [5] of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments: they are predominantly marine . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cnidaria ( / n aɪ ˈ d ɛər i ə / [4] ) is a phylum containing over 10,000 [5] species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments: they are predominantly marine species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cnidaria (/nɪˈdɛəriə, naɪ-/) is a phylum under kingdom Animalia containing over 11,000 species of aquatic animals found both in freshwater and marine environments, predominantly the latter. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exclusively aquatic phylum Cnidaria is represented by polyps such as sea anemones and corals, and by medusae such as jellyfish. (tolweb.org)
  • Cnidaria nīdâr´ēə [ key ] or Coelenterata səlĕntərä´tə [ key ] , phylum of invertebrate animals comprising the sea anemones , corals , jellyfish , and hydroids. (factmonster.com)
  • Cnidaria (Gr., cnidae , nettle) is a phylum of mostly marine Metazoa distinguished by cnidocysts, subcellular capsules containing an inverted tubule capable of everting and, in some cases, discharging venom. (els.net)
  • Bridge D, Cunningham CW, DeSalle R and Buss W (1995) Class‐level relationships in the phylum Cnidaria: molecular and morphological evidence. (els.net)
  • Phylum Cnidaria includes animals that show radial or biradial symmetry and are diploblastic, that is, they develop from two embryonic layers. (oercommons.org)
  • Animals from the phylum Cnidaria have stinging cells called cnidocytes. (oercommons.org)
  • The content and activities in this topic will work towards building an understanding of the phylum Cnidaria. (hawaii.edu)
  • The phylum Cnidaria (pronounced "nih DARE ee uh") includes soft-bodied stinging animals such as corals, sea anemones, and jellyfish (Fig. 3.23 A). The phylum's name is derived from the Greek root word cnid - meaning nettle , a stinging plant. (hawaii.edu)
  • An example of this is a type of jelly called a ctenophore (Fig. 3.23 B). Ctenophores were removed from the phylum Cnidaria and placed in a new phylum called Ctenophora (pronounced ti-NOF-or-uh). (hawaii.edu)
  • 2007). The phylum Cnidaria: A review of phylogenetic patterns and diversity 300 years after Linnaeus. (marinespecies.org)
  • The above photo is of Apolemia lanosa a type of siphonophore belonging to phylum Cnidaria that also includes corals and jellies. (deepseanews.com)
  • 2011L Lec4 Cnidaria Spr08 - Phylum Cnidaria-bearing. (coursehero.com)
  • Although cnidae are unique to the phylum and are the origin of the name Cnidaria, some flatworms and molluscs "steal" cnidae and use them for defense. (coursehero.com)
  • The Cnidaria, Past, Present and Future presents a broad panorama of the current status of research of invertebrate animals considered belonging to the phylum Cnidaria, such as hydra, jellyfish, sea anemone, and coral. (nhbs.com)
  • Cnidaria is a phylum containing about 11,000 species of very simple invertebrate animals. (weebly.com)
  • Examine slides of Hydra (phylum Cnidaria, a diploblastic animal) and Lumbricus (the common earthworm, phylum Annelida, a triploblastic animal) and see if you can identify and label the tissue layers. (barresandwheels.com)
  • The representatives of Phylum Cnidaria have radial or biradial symmetrical body. (barresandwheels.com)
  • Type of Symmetry: The animals within phylum Cnidaria have Radial symmetry. (barresandwheels.com)
  • Cnidaria The phylum Cnidaria is abundantly diverse and contains marine creatures, such as the present-day jellyfish, anemones, corals, and hydroids, which are well-known for having distinctive features. (commissiondrill.com)
  • The Cnidaria Phylum and its Digestive System. (commissiondrill.com)
  • The Cnidaria is a well-defined phylum consisting of approximately 10,000 living species that are aquatic and primarily marine in nature. (universitypressscholarship.com)
  • The phylum Cnidaria is a diverse group with cosmopolitan distribution.It includes the familiar hydras, the transparent jelly fishes,the beautiful and bright coloured sea anemones, a variety of corals and about 10,000 delightful aquatic species.The cnidarians are almost all marine and are either sessile or free-swimming and occur singly or in colonies. (biostudy4u.com)
  • What kind of animals does the phylum Cnidaria include? (cram.com)
  • What are the 3 classes found withing the phylum Cnidaria? (cram.com)
  • The phylum Cnidaria contains more than 10,000 living species, among them, mostly are marine animals whereas only 20 species inhabit in freshwater. (biologyeducare.com)
  • Fautin DG and Mariscal RN (1991) Cnidaria: Anthozoa. (els.net)
  • An ITS region phylogeny of Siderastrea (Cnidaria: Anthozoa): Is S. Glynni endangered or introduced? (dp.la)
  • The cnidaria collection at the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) includes approximately 3500-catalogued lots that represent both main cnidarian clades (Anthozoa and Medusozoa). (amnh.org)
  • We compared this genome, based on protein-coding gene orthology, with other publicly available coral genomes (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia), as well as genomes from other anthozoan groups (Actiniaria, Corallimorpharia), and two basal metazoan outgroup phlya (Porifera, Ctenophora). (nature.com)
  • Soft Coral Sarcophyton Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Octocorallia Species Diversity and Chemotypes - Descarga este documento en PDF. (duhnnae.com)
  • Cnidaria and jellyfish envenomations. (medscape.com)
  • The Cnidaria are an aquatic, mostly marine, group of invertebrates including corals, jellyfish and related taxa. (fieldofscience.com)
  • Cnidaria is the taxonomic group that includes a vast variety of mainly marine organisms such as jellyfish, hydras, sea anemones, and coral. (wikispaces.com)
  • Darracq M.A. Darracq, Michael A. JELLYFISH AND OTHER CNIDARIA. (mhmedical.com)
  • Bouillon J (1985) Essai de classification des Hydropolypes-Hydromeduses (Hydrozoa-Cnidaria). (els.net)
  • Nematocysts of the invasive hydroid Cordylophora caspia (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • S.v. Nematocysts of the invasive hydroid Cordylophora caspia (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Colony integration and the expression of the Hox gene, Cnox-2, in Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa). (nih.gov)
  • Phylogenetics of Trachylina (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) with. (cambridge.org)
  • In planula larvae of the invertebrate Hydractinia echinata (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa), peptides of the GLWamide and the RFamide families are expressed in distinct subpopulations of neurons, distributed in a typical spatial pattern through the larval body. (elsevier.com)
  • In this context, the family Dendrophylliidae (Cnidaria, Scleractinia) has unique features. (taraexpeditions.org)
  • Revisión sobre el reclutamiento de corales duros ( Cnidaria Scleractinia) en Colombia . (bvsalud.org)
  • Revisão sobre o recrutamento de corais pétreos ( Cnidaria Scleractinia) na Colômbia . (bvsalud.org)
  • This is a common feature of all Cnidarians, hence the name Cnidaria, coming from cnidocytes. (commissiondrill.com)
  • Lesh‐Laurie GE and Suchy PE (1991) Cnidaria: Scyphozoa and Cubozoa. (els.net)
  • Bud formation and metamorphosis in Cassiopeia andromeda (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa), a developmental and ultrastructural study. (springer.com)
  • Crude venom from nematocysts of Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) elicits a sodium conductance in the plasma membrane of mammalian cells. (pubfacts.com)
  • Cnidaria gets its name from the word 'Cnidos', which is greek for stinging nettle. (wikispaces.com)
  • Cnidaria-Greek : knide, nettle. (biostudy4u.com)
  • Sexual reproduction of Pocillopora damicornis (Cnidaria : hexacorallia) at high latitude off Durban, South Africa. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • The final section of The Cnidaria, Past, Present and Future is devoted to the role of Hydra and Medusa in mythology and art. (nhbs.com)
  • All Cnidaria have nematocysts, which are cells that inject venom into prey in order to capture it, or they are used as a defense mechanism to ward off predators. (wikispaces.com)
  • Phylogeographic studies for different species of Medusozoa (Cnidaria) were performed, emphasizing the central neritic area of the South-Western Atlantic (SWA), localized between the southeastern Brazilian coast and the coast of the Buenos Aires province in Argentina. (usp.br)
  • Sea anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria) of the family Aiptasiidae Carlgren, 1924 are conspicuous members of shallow-water environments and several species within the family are widely used as model systems for studies of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and coral bleaching. (amnh.org)
  • Yet all these species fall into one of the three phyla: Cnidaria or Chordata or Arthropoda. (news-medical.net)
  • Estudos filogeográficos para distintas espécies de Medusozoa (Cnidaria) foram conduzidos enfatizando a área nerítica central do Atlântico Sul-ocidental (ASO), entre os litorais sudeste do Brasil e o litoral da província de Buenos Aires na Argentina. (usp.br)
  • 6. Circulatory System: Cnidaria do not have a circulatory system but it is replaced by diffusion across different germ layers, including that of the GVC. (barresandwheels.com)
  • Cnidaria on Integrated Taxonomic Information System . (wiktionary.org)
  • Phylogenomic analyses that use a broad sampling of myxozoan taxa confirm the position of myxozoans within Cnidaria with P. hydriforme as the sister taxon to Myxozoa. (pnas.org)
  • Schuchert P (1993) Phylogenetic analysis of the Cnidaria. (els.net)
  • Both morphological and molecular studies have established the radiation of the Cnidaria, which is a sister group of anthozoans and medusozoans. (universitypressscholarship.com)
  • This quiz and worksheet will help you evaluate your understanding of the cnidaria digestive system. (study.com)
  • For further information, please review the accompanying lesson titled Cnidaria Digestive System. (study.com)
  • Cnidaria are carnivorous organisms meaning that they consume only meat. (wikispaces.com)
  • 5. Body wall (Fig. Cnidaria have two germ layers and they are the endoderm and ectoderm. (barresandwheels.com)
  • however, Cnidaria only have an ectoderm and endoderm. (wikispaces.com)
  • Two body forms and two lifestyles are characteristic of the Cnidaria (see polyp and medusa ). (factmonster.com)
  • The other type of Cnidaria is called a medusa . (wikispaces.com)
  • Modern classifications tend to leave out the comb-jellies (Phylum Ctenophora), and group the anemones, jellyfish, hydras and corals as the Phylum Cnidaria, describing their 'possession of stinging-cells' on mouth-surrounding tentacles. (wetwebmedia.com)
  • The colony consists of a stalk formed by an organism called a primary polyp (see polyp and medusa polyp and medusa, names for the two body forms, one nonmotile and one typically free swimming, found in the aquatic invertebrate phylum Cnidaria (the coelenterates). (uaezoom.com)
  • Hydra /ˈhaɪdrə/ is a genus of small, fresh-water organisms of the phylum Cnidaria and class Hydrozoa. (mdigital.ee)
  • Hydra (/ˈhaɪdrə/ HY-drə) is a genus of small, fresh-water organisms of the phylum Cnidaria and class Hydrozoa. (nordichrconf.com)
  • Sponges ( Porifera ), Jellyfish ( Cnidaria ), flat worms Platyhelminthes and other multicellular animals appear in the oceans. (academickids.com)
  • 10th International Symposium on Fossil Cnidaria and Porifera. (fossiilid.info)
  • 2014. Ocular and Extraocular Expression of Opsins in the Rhopalium of Tripedalia cystophora (Cnidaria: Cubozoa)) . (ucsb.edu)
  • Cnidaria and Ctenophora are some of the earliest creatures to have neurons , in the form a simple net - no brain or nervous system. (academickids.com)
  • The lab involves a whole metazoan fauna, so students should have studied all the major fossil groups (mostlyl mollusks, bryozoa, arthropods, cnidaria, and vertebrates). (carleton.edu)
  • We recovered submicroscopic fragments of phosphatic conulariid, Sphenothallus (Cnidaria), and ?Trematis (Linguliformea) skeletons from a slab of highly fossiliferous lime packstone from the uppermost Brainard Shale Member of the Maquoketa Formation (Richmondian, Upper Ordovician) of northeastern Iowa, USA. (journaltaphonomy.com)
  • The Cnidaria phylum consists of animals with stinging cells called cnidoblasts. (windows2universe.org)
  • Elle a été mise en place le 2 septembre 2005 au large de Nouméa. (mnhn.fr)
  • See more ideas about Sea, Cnidaria, Animal guides. (uaezoom.com)