A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA which alternates between polyp and medusa forms during their life cycle. There are over 2700 species in five orders.
The order Actiniaria, in the class ANTHOZOA, comprised of large, solitary polyps. All species are carnivorous.
A genus of freshwater polyps in the family Hydridae, order Hydroida, class HYDROZOA. They are of special interest because of their complex organization and because their adult organization corresponds roughly to the gastrula of higher animals.
The class of true jellyfish, in the phylum CNIDARIA. They are mostly free-swimming marine organisms that go through five stages in their life cycle and exhibit two body forms: polyp and medusa.
The class of box jellyfish, in the phylum CNIDARIA, characterized by their cube shape, and considered the most venomous jellyfish.
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE that contains triterpene saponins. The root of Anemone raddeana is the source of a Chinese folk medicine, zhu jie xian fu. The common name of liverwort is also used with other plants. This genus is unrelated to SEA ANEMONES.
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.
A double-walled capsule found in jellyfish and other CNIDARIA whose functions include prey capture, defense, locomotion, and attachment. Nematocysts contain toxic CNIDARIAN VENOMS which are injected into the victim via a barbed tubule.
Phylum of marine colenterates characterized by eight comb rows of fused cilia on the body surface. In contrast to CNIDARIA they lack stinging cells, but they are voracious predators and possess sticky cells (colloblasts) for capturing prey. Most species are transparent and many exhibit bioluminescence.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A phylum of primitive invertebrate animals that exemplify a simple body organization. Trichoplax adhaerens is considered a key species for early metazoan evolution.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Animals that have no spinal column.
Venoms from jellyfish; CORALS; SEA ANEMONES; etc. They contain hemo-, cardio-, dermo- , and neuro-toxic substances and probably ENZYMES. They include palytoxin, sarcophine, and anthopleurine.
The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Discrete abnormal tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the DIGESTIVE TRACT or the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Polyps can be spheroidal, hemispheroidal, or irregular mound-shaped structures attached to the MUCOUS MEMBRANE of the lumen wall either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.

Molecular determination of species boundaries in corals: genetic analysis of the Montastraea annularis complex using amplified fragment length polymorphisms and a microsatellite marker. (1/405)

Analyses of DNA have not been widely used to distinguish coral sibling species. The three members of the Montastraea annularis complex represent an important test case: they are widely studied and dominate Caribbean reefs, yet their taxonomic status remains unclear. Analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and a microsatellite locus, using DNA from sperm, showed that Montastraea faveolata is genetically distinct. One AFLP primer yielded a diagnostic product (880 bp in M. faveolata 920 bp in M. franksi and M. annularis) whose homology was established by DNA sequencing. A second primer revealed a 630 bp band that was fixed in M. faveolata, and rare in M. franksi and M. annularis; in this case homologies were confirmed by Southern hybridizations. A tetranucleotide microsatellite locus with several alleles exhibited strong frequency differences between M. faveolata and the other two taxa. We did not detect comparable differences between M. annularis and M. franksi with either AFLPs (12 primers screened) or the microsatellite locus. Comparisons of AFLP patterns obtained from DNA from sperm, somatic tissues, and zooxanthellae suggest that the technique routinely amplifies coral (animal) DNA. Thus analyses based on somatic tissues may be feasible, particularly after diagnostic differences have been established using sperm DNA.  (+info)

Atypically low rate of cytochrome b evolution in the scleractinian coral genus Acropora. (2/405)

Unexpectedly low levels of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b sequence divergence are found between species of the scleractinian coral genus Acropora. Comparison of 964 positions of the cytochrome b gene of two out of the three Caribbean Acropora species with seven of their Pacific congeners shows only 0.3-0.8% sequence difference. Species in these biogeographic regions have been evolving independently for at least three million years (since the rise of the Isthmus of Panama) and this geological date is used to estimate nucleotide divergence rates. The results indicate that the Acropora cytochrome b gene is evolving at least 10-20 times slower than the 'standard' vertebrate mtDNA clock and is one of the most slowly evolving animal mitochondrial genes described to date. The possibility is discussed that, unlike higher animals, cnidarians may have a functional mtDNA mismatch repair system.  (+info)

Evidence of a cyclooxygenase-related prostaglandin synthesis in coral. The allene oxide pathway is not involved in prostaglandin biosynthesis. (3/405)

Certain corals are rich natural sources of prostaglandins, the metabolic origin of which has remained undefined. By analogy with the lipoxygenase/allene oxide synthase pathway to jasmonic acid in plants, the presence of (8R)-lipoxygenase and allene oxide synthase in the coral Plexaura homomalla suggested a potential metabolic route to prostaglandins (Brash, A. R., Baertshi, S. W., Ingram, C.D., and Harris, T. M. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 15829-15839). Other evidence, from the Arctic coral Gersemia fruticosa, has indicated a cyclooxygenase intermediate in the biosynthesis (Varvas, K., Koljak, R., Jarving, I., Pehk, T., and Samel, N. (1994) Tetrahedron Lett. 35, 8267-8270). In the present study, active preparations of G. fruticosa have been used to identify both types of arachidonic acid metabolism and specific inhibitors were used to establish the enzyme type involved in the prostaglandin biosynthesis. The synthesis of prostaglandins and (11R)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid was inhibited by mammalian cyclooxygenase inhibitors (indomethacin, aspirin, and tolfenamic acid), while the formation of the products of the 8-lipoxygenase/allene oxide pathway was not affected or was increased. The specific cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, nimesulide, did not inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins in coral. We conclude that coral uses two parallel routes for the initial oxidation of polyenoic acids: the cyclooxygenase route, which leads to optically active prostaglandins, and the lipoxygenase/allene oxide synthase metabolism, the role of which remains to be established. An enzyme related to mammalian cyclooxygenases is the key to prostaglandin synthesis in coral. Based on our inhibitor data, the catalytic site of this evolutionary early cyclooxygenase appears to differ significantly from both known mammalian cyclooxygenases.  (+info)

The protein phosphatase inhibitor cantharidin induces head and foot formation in buds of Cassiopea andromeda (Rhizostomae, Scyphozoa). (4/405)

The polyps of Cassiopea andromeda produce spindle shaped, freely swimming buds which do not develop a head (a mouth opening surrounded by tentacles) and a foot (a sticky plate at the opposite end) until settlement to a suited substrate. The buds, therewith, look very similar to the planula larvae produced in sexual reproduction. With respect to both, buds and planulae, several peptides and the phorbolester TPA have been found to induce the transformation into a polyp. Here it is shown that cantharidin, a serine/threonine protein phosphatase inhibitor, induces head and foot formation in buds very efficiently in a 30 min treatment, the shortest yet known efficient treatment. Some resultant polyps show malformations which indicate that a bud is ordinary polyp tissue in which preparatory steps of head and foot formation mutually block each other from proceeding. Various compounds related to the transfer of methyl groups have been shown to affect head and foot formation in larvae of the hydrozoon Hydractinia echinata. These compounds including methionine, homocysteine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid and cycloleucine are shown to also interfere with the initiation of the processes which finally lead to head and foot formation in buds of Cassiopea andromeda.  (+info)

Coral grafting supplemented with bone marrow. (5/405)

Limited success in regenerating large bone defects has been achieved by bridging them with osteoconductive materials. These substitutes lack the osteogenic and osteoinductive properties of bone autograft. A direct approach would be to stimulate osteogenesis in these biomaterials by the addition of fresh bone-marrow cells (BMC). We therefore created osteoperiosteal gaps 2 cm wide in the ulna of adult rabbits and either bridged them with coral alone (CC), coral supplemented with BMC, or left them empty. Coral was chosen as a scaffold because of its good biocompatibility and resorbability. In osteoperiosteal gaps bridged with coral only, the coral was invaded chiefly by fibrous tissue. It was insufficient to produce union after two months. In defects filled with coral and BMC an increase in osteogenesis was observed and the bone surface area was significantly higher compared with defects filled with coral alone. Bony union occurred in six out of six defects filled with coral and BMC after two months. An increase in the resorption of coral was also observed, suggesting that resorbing cells or their progenitors were present in bone marrow and survived the grafting procedure. Our findings have shown that supplementation of coral with BMC increased both the resorption of material and osteogenesis in defects of a clinical significance.  (+info)

Reproductive and genetic evidence for a reticulate evolutionary history of mass-spawning corals. (6/405)

Reef-building corals, which reproduce through simultaneous multispecies spawning, are thought to hybridize frequently, and it is hypothesized that they have evolved in repeated rounds of species separation and fusion. We conducted cross-fertilization experiments and molecular analyses with a number of mass-spawning coral species in the genus Acropora. A high rate of interspecific fertilization occurred between some species despite very different morphologies. The hybrid larvae developed normally and contained an allelic sequence transmitted from each parent, suggesting common diploid hybridization. Molecular phylogenetic analyses provided strong evidence for a gene pool shared between the hybridizing species. These reproductive and genetic characteristics are consistent with a species complex formed under the separation/fusion processes predicted for a reticulate evolutionary history.  (+info)

Purification and catalytic activities of the two domains of the allene oxide synthase-lipoxygenase fusion protein of the coral Plexaura homomalla. (7/405)

The conversion of fatty acid hydroperoxides to allene epoxides is catalyzed by a cytochrome P450 in plants and, in coral, by a 43-kDa catalase-related hemoprotein fused to the lipoxygenase that synthesizes the 8R-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (8R-HPETE) substrate. We have expressed the separate lipoxygenase and allene oxide synthase (AOS) domains of the coral protein in Escherichia coli (BL21 cells) and purified the proteins; this system gives high expression (1.5 and 0.3 micromol/liter, respectively) of catalytically active enzymes. Both domains show fast reaction kinetics. Catalytic activity of the lipoxygenase domain is stimulated 5-fold by high concentrations of monovalent cations (500 mM Na(+), Li(+), or K(+)), and an additional 5-fold by 10 mM Ca(2+). The resulting rates of reaction are approximately 300 turnovers/s, 1-2 orders of magnitude faster than mammalian lipoxygenases. This makes the coral lipoxygenase well suited for partnership with the AOS domain, which shows maximum rates of approximately 1400 turnovers/s in the conversion of 8R-HPETE to the allene oxide. Some unusual catalytic activities of the two domains are described. The lipoxygenase domain converts 20.3omega6 partly to the bis-allylic hydroperoxide (10-hydroperoxyeicosa-8,11,14-trienoic acid). Metabolism of the preferred substrate of the AOS domain, 8R-HPETE, is inhibited by the enantiomer 8S-HPETE. Although the AOS domain has homology to catalase in primary structure, it is completely lacking in catalatic action on H(2)O(2); catalase itself, as expected from its preference for small hydroperoxides, is ineffective in allene oxide synthesis from 8R-HPETE.  (+info)

Are there mechanical limits to size in wave-swept organisms? (8/405)

Hydrodynamic forces imposed by ocean waves are thought to limit the size of nearshore plants and animals, but it has proved difficult to determine the mechanism. Explanations based on the scaling mismatch between hydrodynamic accelerational forces and the strength of organisms do not work. Mechanisms that incorporate the allometry of drag and strength accurately predict the maximal size of intertidal algae but not of animals, and internally imposed inertial forces may explain the limits to size in large kelps. The general question of size in wave-swept organisms remains open and intriguing.  (+info)

Cnidaria is a phylum of aquatic animals that includes jellyfish, sea anemones, hydra, and corals. They are characterized by the presence of specialized stinging cells called cnidocytes, which they use for defense and capturing prey. Cnidarians have a simple body organization with two basic forms: polyps, which are typically cylindrical and attached to a substrate; and medusae, which are free-swimming and bell-shaped. Some species can exist in both forms during their life cycle.

Cnidarians have no true organs or organ systems, but they do have a unique tissue arrangement with two main layers: an outer epidermis and an inner gastrodermis, separated by a jelly-like mesoglea. They have a digestive cavity called the coelenteron, where they absorb nutrients after capturing and digesting prey. Cnidarians reproduce both sexually and asexually, with some species exhibiting complex life cycles involving multiple forms and reproductive strategies.

Hydrozoa is a class of predominantly marine, simple aquatic animals in the phylum Cnidaria. They are characterized by having a polyp form, which is typically colonial and sessile, and a medusa form, which is usually free-swimming and solitary. The polyp stage is often modular, with individual polyps being connected by stolons to form colonies. Hydrozoans have specialized cells called cnidocytes that contain stinging organelles called nematocysts, which they use for capturing prey and defense. Some well-known examples of hydrozoans include the Portuguese man o' war (Physalia physalis) and fire corals (Millepora spp.).

Sea Anemones are not considered a medical term, but they are rather marine biology organisms. They are a group of predatory sea animals belonging to the phylum Cnidaria, which also includes corals, jellyfish, and hydras. Sea anemones typically have a cylindrical or bell-shaped body crowned with tentacles that bear stinging cells used for capturing prey.

However, in a medical context, the term "anemone" is sometimes used to describe a type of skin lesion characterized by its resemblance to the sea anemone's shape and appearance. An anemone lesion is a rare cutaneous condition that presents as a solitary, red, or purple papule with multiple radiating fronds, often occurring on the face or neck. The lesions may be tender or pruritic (itchy) and can persist for several weeks to months.

It's important to note that sea anemones themselves do not have a direct medical relevance, but they can serve as a source of inspiration for medical terminology due to their unique morphological features.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hydra" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. Hydra is a genus of small, simple aquatic animals, belonging to the class Hydrozoa in the phylum Cnidaria. They are named after the multi-headed creature from Greek mythology due to their ability to regenerate lost body parts.

If you're looking for a medical term related to hydra, one possibility could be "Hydralazine," which is a medication used to treat high blood pressure. It works by relaxing the muscle in the walls of blood vessels, causing them to widen and the blood to flow more easily.

I hope this information is helpful! If you have any other questions or need clarification on a different topic, please let me know.

Scyphozoa is a class in the phylum Cnidaria, which includes true jellyfish. Scyphozoans are free-swimming marine animals characterized by a medusa-like stage in their life cycle that is dominant and persistent. They have a bell-shaped body with tentacles hanging from the margin of the bell. The tentacles contain cnidocytes, specialized cells that deliver venom through nematocysts to capture prey. Scyphozoans have a simple nervous system and lack a brain or centralized nervous system. They also have a radial symmetry, meaning their body parts are arranged around a central axis. Some examples of Scyphozoa include the sea nettle, moon jelly, and lion's mane jellyfish.

Cubozoa is a taxonomic class of marine animals commonly known as box jellyfish or sea wasps. These creatures are characterized by their cube-shaped medusae, which have four corners and trailing tentacles on each side. The Cubozoans are found in tropical and subtropical waters around the world. They are known for their powerful venom, which can be deadly to humans.

The term "Cubozoa" is derived from the Latin word "cubus," meaning cube, and the Greek word "zoon," meaning animal. The class is part of the phylum Cnidaria, which also includes corals, sea anemones, and other jellyfish.

It's worth noting that while some people use the term "box jellyfish" to refer specifically to Cubozoans, others may use it more broadly to include any jellyfish with a box-like shape, regardless of their taxonomic classification.

I am not aware of a medical definition for the term "Anemone." The term "anemone" is typically used to refer to a type of marine or terrestrial flowering plant, also known as windflower. It is not a term that is commonly used in medical contexts. If you have any specific concerns about a medical condition or issue, I would be happy to try and help you with that instead.

Anthozoa is a major class of marine animals, which are exclusively aquatic and almost entirely restricted to shallow waters. They are classified within the phylum Cnidaria, which also includes corals, jellyfish, sea anemones, and hydroids. Anthozoans are characterized by their lack of medusa stage in their life cycle, as they exist solely as polyps.

This class is divided into two main subclasses: Hexacorallia (also known as Zoantharia) and Octocorallia (also known as Alcyonaria). The primary differences between these subclasses lie in the structure of their polyps and the composition of their skeletons.

1. Hexacorallia: These are commonly referred to as 'stony' or 'hard' corals, due to their calcium carbonate-based skeletons. They have a simple polyp structure with six-fold symmetry (hence the name Hexacorallia), featuring 6 tentacles around the mouth opening. Examples of Hexacorallia include reef-building corals, sea fans, and black corals.
2. Octocorallia: These are also called 'soft' corals or 'leather' corals because they lack a calcium carbonate skeleton. Instead, their supporting structures consist of proteins and other organic compounds. Octocorallia polyps exhibit eight-fold symmetry (hence the name Octocorallia), with eight tentacles around the mouth opening. Examples of Octocorallia include sea fans, sea whips, and blue corals.

Anthozoa species are primarily found in tropical and subtropical oceans, but some can be found in colder, deeper waters as well. They play a crucial role in marine ecosystems by providing habitats and shelter for various other marine organisms, particularly on coral reefs. Additionally, they contribute to the formation of limestone deposits through their calcium carbonate-based skeletons.

A nematocyst is a complex organelle found in cnidarians (such as jellyfish, sea anemones, and corals) that functions in defense and prey capture. It consists of a capsule containing coiled tubules filled with venom. When triggered by touch or chemical signals, the tubules rapidly discharge to penetrate and inject venom into the target. The rapid discharge and potent venom make nematocysts effective for both defense and prey capture in cnidarians.

Ctenophora, also known as comb jellies, are a phylum of marine animals characterized by the presence of cilia or combs that they use for locomotion. These creatures are typically transparent and have a gelatinous body. They are found in various sizes and shapes, ranging from a few millimeters to over a meter in length. Ctenophores do not have a true digestive system or an anus; instead, they consume their food through their mouth and excrete waste through the same opening. They primarily feed on small organisms such as plankton and other ctenophores. Some species of ctenophores are bioluminescent and produce light through a chemical reaction in their bodies.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Placozoa is not a medical term, but rather a taxonomic category in biology. Placozoa is a phylum that includes only one described species, Trichoplax adhaerens, which is a simple, microscopic marine animal. It has a flat, irregularly shaped body without any distinct organs or tissue layers. Its cells are totipotent, meaning they can transform into different types of cells as needed for the organism's survival.

Placozoa has been studied in some developmental and cell biology research contexts, but it is not directly relevant to medical definitions or human health.

Molecular evolution is the process of change in the DNA sequence or protein structure over time, driven by mechanisms such as mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and natural selection. It refers to the evolutionary study of changes in DNA, RNA, and proteins, and how these changes accumulate and lead to new species and diversity of life. Molecular evolution can be used to understand the history and relationships among different organisms, as well as the functional consequences of genetic changes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Invertebrates" is not a medical term. It is a term used in biology to describe a vast group of animals that do not have a vertebral column or spinal cord. This includes creatures such as insects, worms, starfish, and shellfish, among many others. They are classified as invertebrates because they lack a backbone, which is a characteristic of vertebrates, or animals that include humans and other mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish.

Cnidarian venoms are toxic substances produced by members of the phylum Cnidaria, which includes jellyfish, sea anemones, corals, and hydroids. These venoms are primarily contained in specialized cells called cnidocytes or nematocysts, which are found in the tentacles of these animals. When a cnidarian comes into contact with prey or a potential threat, the cnidocytes discharge, injecting the venom into the target through a hollow tubule.

Cnidarian venoms are complex mixtures of bioactive molecules, including proteins, peptides, and small organic compounds. The composition of these venoms can vary significantly between different cnidarian species, as well as between different life stages or sexes of the same species. Some cnidarian venoms primarily serve a defensive function, causing pain or other unpleasant symptoms in potential predators, while others have a more offensive role, helping to immobilize prey before consumption.

The effects of cnidarian venoms on humans can range from mild irritation and stinging sensations to severe pain, swelling, and allergic reactions. In some cases, cnidarian envenomations can lead to more serious complications, such as respiratory distress, cardiac arrhythmias, or even death, particularly in individuals with underlying health conditions or allergies to the venom.

Research on cnidarian venoms has led to important insights into the biochemistry and molecular mechanisms of pain, inflammation, and neurotoxicity, as well as the development of new therapeutic strategies for treating various medical conditions. Additionally, understanding the structure and function of cnidarian venom components has inspired the design of novel bioactive molecules with potential applications in drug discovery, pest control, and other areas of biotechnology.

Porifera, also known as sponges, is a phylum of multicellular aquatic organisms characterized by having pores in their bodies. These pores allow water to circulate through the body, bringing in food and oxygen while expelling waste products. Sponges do not have true tissues or organs; instead, they are composed of specialized cells that perform specific functions. They are generally sessile (non-mobile) and live attached to rocks, coral reefs, or other underwater structures. Some species can be quite large, while others are microscopic in size. Sponges have a long fossil record dating back over 500 million years and play important roles in marine ecosystems as filter feeders and habitat providers for many other marine organisms.

28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a component of the large subunit of the eukaryotic ribosome, which is the site of protein synthesis in the cell. The ribosome is composed of two subunits, one large and one small, that come together around an mRNA molecule to translate it into a protein.

The 28S rRNA is a type of rRNA that is found in the large subunit of the eukaryotic ribosome, along with the 5S and 5.8S rRNAs. Together, these rRNAs make up the structural framework of the ribosome and play a crucial role in the process of translation.

The 28S rRNA is synthesized in the nucleolus as a precursor RNA (pre-rRNA) that undergoes several processing steps, including cleavage and modification, to produce the mature 28S rRNA molecule. The length of the 28S rRNA varies between species, but it is typically around 4700-5000 nucleotides long in humans.

Abnormalities in the structure or function of the 28S rRNA can lead to defects in protein synthesis and have been implicated in various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

18S rRNA (ribosomal RNA) is the smaller subunit of the eukaryotic ribosome, which is the cellular organelle responsible for protein synthesis. The "18S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of this rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its rate of sedimentation in a centrifuge and is expressed in Svedberg units (S).

The 18S rRNA is a component of the 40S subunit of the ribosome, and it plays a crucial role in the decoding of messenger RNA (mRNA) during protein synthesis. Specifically, the 18S rRNA helps to form the structure of the ribosome and contains several conserved regions that are involved in binding to mRNA and guiding the movement of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) during translation.

The 18S rRNA is also a commonly used molecular marker for evolutionary studies, as its sequence is highly conserved across different species and can be used to infer phylogenetic relationships between organisms. Additionally, the analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences has been widely used in various fields such as ecology, environmental science, and medicine to study biodiversity, biogeography, and infectious diseases.

Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) refers to the specific regions of DNA in a cell that contain the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Ribosomes are complex structures composed of proteins and rRNA, which play a crucial role in protein synthesis by translating messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins.

In humans, there are four types of rRNA molecules: 18S, 5.8S, 28S, and 5S. These rRNAs are encoded by multiple copies of rDNA genes that are organized in clusters on specific chromosomes. In humans, the majority of rDNA genes are located on the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22.

Each cluster of rDNA genes contains both transcribed and non-transcribed spacer regions. The transcribed regions contain the genes for the four types of rRNA, while the non-transcribed spacers contain regulatory elements that control the transcription of the rRNA genes.

The number of rDNA copies varies between species and even within individuals of the same species. The copy number can also change during development and in response to environmental factors. Variations in rDNA copy number have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

"Body patterning" is a general term that refers to the process of forming and organizing various tissues and structures into specific patterns during embryonic development. This complex process involves a variety of molecular mechanisms, including gene expression, cell signaling, and cell-cell interactions. It results in the creation of distinct body regions, such as the head, trunk, and limbs, as well as the organization of internal organs and systems.

In medical terminology, "body patterning" may refer to specific developmental processes or abnormalities related to embryonic development. For example, in genetic disorders such as Poland syndrome or Holt-Oram syndrome, mutations in certain genes can lead to abnormal body patterning, resulting in the absence or underdevelopment of certain muscles, bones, or other structures.

It's important to note that "body patterning" is not a formal medical term with a specific definition, but rather a general concept used in developmental biology and genetics.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Biological metamorphosis is a complex process of transformation that certain organisms undergo during their development from embryo to adult. This process involves profound changes in form, function, and structure of the organism, often including modifications of various body parts, reorganization of internal organs, and changes in physiology.

In metamorphosis, a larval or juvenile form of an animal is significantly different from its adult form, both morphologically and behaviorally. This phenomenon is particularly common in insects, amphibians, and some fish and crustaceans. The most well-known examples include the transformation of a caterpillar into a butterfly or a tadpole into a frog.

The mechanisms that drive metamorphosis are regulated by hormonal signals and genetic programs. In many cases, metamorphosis is triggered by environmental factors such as temperature, moisture, or food availability, which interact with the organism's internal developmental cues to initiate the transformation. The process of metamorphosis allows these organisms to exploit different ecological niches at different stages of their lives and contributes to their evolutionary success.

Homeobox genes are a specific class of genes that play a crucial role in the development and regulation of an organism's body plan. They encode transcription factors, which are proteins that regulate the expression of other genes. The homeobox region within these genes contains a highly conserved sequence of about 180 base pairs that encodes a DNA-binding domain called the homeodomain. This domain is responsible for recognizing and binding to specific DNA sequences, thereby controlling the transcription of target genes.

Homeobox genes are particularly important during embryonic development, where they help establish the anterior-posterior axis and regulate the development of various organs and body segments. They also play a role in maintaining adult tissue homeostasis and have been implicated in certain diseases, including cancer. Mutations in homeobox genes can lead to developmental abnormalities and congenital disorders.

Some examples of homeobox gene families include HOX genes, PAX genes, and NKX genes, among others. These genes are highly conserved across species, indicating their fundamental role in the development and regulation of body plans throughout the animal kingdom.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the genetic material present in the mitochondria, which are specialized structures within cells that generate energy. Unlike nuclear DNA, which is present in the cell nucleus and inherited from both parents, mtDNA is inherited solely from the mother.

MtDNA is a circular molecule that contains 37 genes, including 13 genes that encode for proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, a process that generates energy in the form of ATP. The remaining genes encode for rRNAs and tRNAs, which are necessary for protein synthesis within the mitochondria.

Mutations in mtDNA can lead to a variety of genetic disorders, including mitochondrial diseases, which can affect any organ system in the body. These mutations can also be used in forensic science to identify individuals and establish biological relationships.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

A polyp is a general term for a small growth that protrudes from a mucous membrane, such as the lining of the nose or the digestive tract. Polyps can vary in size and shape, but they are usually cherry-sized or smaller and have a stalk or a broad base. They are often benign (noncancerous), but some types of polyps, especially those in the colon, can become cancerous over time.

In the digestive tract, polyps can form in the colon, rectum, stomach, or small intestine. Colorectal polyps are the most common type and are usually found during routine colonoscopies. There are several types of colorectal polyps, including:

* Adenomatous polyps (adenomas): These polyps can become cancerous over time and are the most likely to turn into cancer.
* Hyperplastic polyps: These polyps are usually small and benign, but some types may have a higher risk of becoming cancerous.
* Inflammatory polyps: These polyps are caused by chronic inflammation in the digestive tract, such as from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Polyps can also form in other parts of the body, including the nose, sinuses, ears, and uterus. In most cases, polyps are benign and do not cause any symptoms. However, if they become large enough, they may cause problems such as bleeding, obstruction, or discomfort. Treatment typically involves removing the polyp through a surgical procedure.

'Life cycle stages' is a term used in the context of public health and medicine to describe the different stages that an organism goes through during its lifetime. This concept is particularly important in the field of epidemiology, where understanding the life cycle stages of infectious agents (such as bacteria, viruses, parasites) can help inform strategies for disease prevention and control.

The life cycle stages of an infectious agent may include various forms such as spores, cysts, trophozoites, schizonts, or vectors, among others, depending on the specific organism. Each stage may have different characteristics, such as resistance to environmental factors, susceptibility to drugs, and ability to transmit infection.

For example, the life cycle stages of the malaria parasite include sporozoites (the infective form transmitted by mosquitoes), merozoites (the form that infects red blood cells), trophozoites (the feeding stage inside red blood cells), schizonts (the replicating stage inside red blood cells), and gametocytes (the sexual stage that can be taken up by mosquitoes to continue the life cycle).

Understanding the life cycle stages of an infectious agent is critical for developing effective interventions, such as vaccines, drugs, or other control measures. For example, targeting a specific life cycle stage with a drug may prevent transmission or reduce the severity of disease. Similarly, designing a vaccine to elicit immunity against a particular life cycle stage may provide protection against infection or disease.

... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cnidaria. Look up Cnidaria in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. YouTube: ... is that Cnidaria and Bilateria are more closely related to each other than either is to Ctenophora. This grouping of Cnidaria ... Fisheries Institute A Cnidaria homepage maintained by University of California, Irvine Cnidaria page at Tree of Life Fossil ... because it suggests that the earliest Bilateria were similar to the planula larvae of Cnidaria. Within the Cnidaria, the ...
Ruppert, E.E.; Fox, R.S. & Barnes, R.D. (2004). "Cnidaria". Invertebrate Zoology (7th ed.). Brooks / Cole. pp. 112-124. ISBN 0- ... ISBN 0-03-025982-7. Hinde, R.T. (1998). "The Cnidaria and Ctenophora". In Anderson, D.T. (ed.). Invertebrate Zoology. Oxford ...
Slobodkin, Lawrence; Bossert, Patricia (2010). "Cnidaria". In Thorp, James H.; Covich, Alan P. (eds.). Ecology and ...
"Cnidaria". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 23 January 2009. "Hydramacin-1 (2K35)". Protein Data Bank. ... Like other members of the Phylum Cnidaria, Hydra possesses specialized defensive epithelial cells called cnidocytes that shoot ...
Sensory input from rhopalia are not only crucial for Cnidaria to sense light and spatial orientation, but help to gauge and ... "Cnidaria". The Tree of Life. (Cnidarian anatomy, Articles containing video clips). ... Cnidaria, Scyphozoa)". Development Genes and Evolution. 219 (6): 301-317. doi:10.1007/s00427-009-0291-y. ISSN 0949-944X. PMC ... which have the most elaborate nervous systems within Cnidaria, specifically concerning their visual capacities. Nerve net ...
"Cnidaria". biosurvey.ou.edu. Retrieved 2022-04-24. "WoRMS - World Register of Marine Species - Bassia bassensis (Quoy & Gaimard ...
Cnidaria; Anthozoa; Actiniaria; Edwardsiidae) from Japan". Zootaxa. 4661 (3): 533-544. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4661.3.7. v t e ( ...
Cnidaria: Anthozoa). An invader or an indicator for environmental change in shallow water?". Organisms Diversity & Evolution. 1 ... Bocharova, E.S.; Kozevich, I.V. (2012-02-07). "Modes of reproduction in sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa)". Biology Bulletin. ... Cnidaria: Anthozoa) on hard substrates". Revista de Biologia Marina y Oceanografia. 56 (2): 102-110. doi:10.22370/rbmo.2021.56. ...
Lewis, C.; Bentlage, B. (2009). "Clarifying the identity of the Japanese Habu-kurage, Chironex yamaguchii, sp nov (Cnidaria: ... Daubert, G. P. (2008). "Cnidaria Envenomation". eMedicine. Carwardine, Mark; England), Natural History Museum (London (2008). ... Recent Research on Cnidaria and Ctenophora. Springer Netherlands. pp. 181-188. doi:10.1007/978-94-011-3240-4_25. ISBN 978-94- ... Cnidaria: Cubozoa: Chirodropida) to Different Colors of Light". The Biological Bulletin. 215 (1): 57-62. doi:10.2307/25470683. ...
Cnidaria: Hydrozoa)". Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 69 (4): 785-794. doi:10.1017/ ... Cnidaria: Hydrozoa). Marine Biology 141, 1099-1107 (2002). https://rdcu.be/cJjXC. Retrieved 3 March 2022 Larson, Ronald J.; ...
Cnidaria, Cubozoa, Carybdeida)". Plankton Benthos Res. 12 (2): 129-138. doi:10.3800/pbr.12.129. Gershwin L (2009). "Staurozoa, ... nov., a new box jellyfish (Cnidaria: Cubozoa) from South Africa" (PDF). Zootaxa. 2088: 41-50. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.2088.1.5. ... Gershwin, L. A.; Alderslade, P (2006). "Chiropsella bart n. sp., a new box jellyfish (Cnidaria: Cubozoa: Chirodropida) from the ... Werner, B. (1973). "New investigations on systematics and evolution of the class Scyphozoa and the phylum Cnidaria" (PDF). ...
Ruppert, Edward E.; Fox, Richard S.; Barnes, Robert D. (2004). "7 CNIDARIA". Invertebrate zoology: a functional evolutionary ... 2015). "Phylogenomic analyses support traditional relationships within Cnidaria". PLOS ONE. 10 (10): e0139068. Bibcode: ...
Cnidaria, Cubozoa, Carybdeida)". Plankton Benthos Res. 12 (2): 129-138. doi:10.3800/pbr.12.129. Bordehore, C.; S. Nogué; J.-M. ... Trends in Research on Cnidaria and Ctenophora. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 331. ISBN 978-1-4020-2762-8. (CS1 French- ...
Cnidaria have a centered mouth surrounded by tentacles. Also, they are carnivorous. In terms of reproduction, gametes were ... Hydroid is part of the Cnidaria phylum. So, B. aberrans are radial symmetry, that they have cnidae that are unique sting ... Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Anthoathecata). Marine Ecology, 34, 113-122. doi: 10.1111/maec.12030 Calder, D. R. (1998). Hydroid ... Calder, D. R. (1993). Bougainvillia aberrans (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa), a new species of hydroid and medusa from the upper bathyal ...
Polypes (Cnidaria): 1. Nus, 2. À polypiers. Infusoires (Infusoria, various protistan phyla): 1. Rotifères (Rotifers), 2. ... Zoophytes, called Radiata in English translations; now Cnidaria and other phyla) Échinodermes (Echinoderms): 1. Pédicellés, 2. ... cnidaria and other phyla). The work appeared in four octavo volumes in December 1816 (although it has "1817" on the title pages ...
Fossil Cnidaria, 10 (2), 16-30. Hill, D., 1984. The Great Barrier Reef Committee, 1922-1982: The first thirty years. Historical ... Fossil Cnidaria, 9(2), 27-38. Hill, D., 1981. Rugosa and Tabulata. In: Teichert, C. (ed.), Treatise on invertebrate ... Cnidaria - general features. In : Treatise on invertebrate palaeontology. Part F, Coelenterata, Moore, R.C. (ed.), Geological ...
Cnidaria, Cubozoa, Carybdeida). Plankton and Benthos Research. 2017, Vol.12, No.2, p.129. Gershwin, L. 2005. Carybdea alata ...
Such complications are associated also with toxins of other cnidaria. The toxin is also harmful to the eyes; contact with a ... Fautin, Daphne Gail (2002). "Reproduction of Cnidaria". Canadian Journal of Zoology. 80 (10): 1735-1754. doi:10.1139/z02-133. ...
Cnidaria: Cubozoa: Chirodropida)" (PDF). Zootaxa. 2030: 59-65. ISSN 1175-5334. "WoRMS - World Register of Marine Species - ...
"eScholarship: Cnidaria - Scyphozoa: jellyfish". Repositories.cdlib.org. 1998-04-01. Retrieved 2010-07-30. Larson R. J. & ...
Cnidaria: Cubozoa: Chirodropida)" (PDF). Zootaxa. 2030: 59-65. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.2030.1.5. ISSN 1175-5326. Fenner, P. J. ( ...
ISBN 978-0-19-551368-4. Hinde RT (1998). "The Cnidaria and Ctenophora". In Anderson DT (ed.). Invertebrate Zoology. Oxford ... "Placozoans are eumetazoans related to Cnidaria". bioRxiv 10.1101/200972. Moroz, Leonid L.; Romanova, Daria Y. (23 December 2022 ...
"PHYLUM CNIDARIA: CLASS SCYPHOZOA". comm.archive.mbl.edu. Retrieved 2022-04-12. The Classification and Distribution of the Class ... Calder, Dale R. (1977). "Nematocysts of the Ephyra Stages of Aurelia, Chrysaora, Cyanea, and Rhopilema (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa)". ... M., Hotke, Kathryn (September 2015). DNA Barcode Variability in Canadian Cnidaria (Master's thesis). University of Guelph. hdl: ... ISBN 978-94-011-3240-4. Gershwin, Lisa-Ann (2001). "Systematics and Biogeography of the Jellyfish Aurelia labiata (Cnidaria: ...
Ctenophores have been purported to be the sister lineage to the Bilateria, sister to the Cnidaria, sister to Cnidaria, Placozoa ... Hinde, R.T. (1998). "The Cnidaria and Ctenophor". In Anderson, D.T. (ed.). Invertebrate Zoology. Oxford University Press. pp. ... some cnidaria-eating nudibranchs similarly incorporate nematocytes into their bodies for defense. The tentilla of Euplokamis ... that ctenophores are either sister to Cnidaria, Placozoa, and Bilateria or sister to all other animal phyla. Several more ...
nov.(Cnidaria, Cubozoa, Chirodropida): a new species of box jellyfish from the Gulf of Thailand" (PDF). Phuket Mar Biol Cent ... Cnidaria: Cubozoa: Chirodropida)". doi:10.5281/ZENODO.186248. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) (CS1 ...
"Phylum Cnidaria - Biology 2e". opentextbc.ca. Retrieved 2022-04-26. Nagale P, Apte D (2014). "Intertidal hydroids (Cnidaria: ... The phylum Cnidaria contains two clades: Anthozoa and Medusozoa. There are around 3800 species within the clade Medusozoa and ... Rees WJ (April 1967). "A brief survey of the symbiotic associations of Cnidaria with Mollusca". Journal of Molluscan Studies. ... Mendoza-Becerril MD (2016). Padrões de diversificação de Bougainvilliidae no contexto evolutivo de Medusozoa (Cnidaria) (Ph.D. ...
Cnidaria: Cubozoa) from Madagascar". Marine Biodiversity Records. 6: e118. doi:10.1017/S1755267213000924. ISSN 1755-2672. ... Gershwin, Lisa-ann (2006-06-12). "Comments on Chiropsalmus (Cnidaria: Cubozoa: Chirodropida): a preliminary revision of the ... Coates, M. M. (2003-08-01). "Visual Ecology and Functional Morphology of Cubozoa (Cnidaria)". Integrative and Comparative ... Cnidaria, Cubozoa, Chirodropida) from Japanese Waters". ZooKeys (503): 1-21. doi:10.3897/zookeys.503.9047. ISSN 1313-2989. PMC ...
Fossil Cnidaria, 15 (1.1). (Additions and corrections: 1987, v. 16, no. 1, p. 49-53). 15 July 1907: born Philadelphia, ... Hill, D., and Wells, J.W. (1956) Cnidaria-general features. Section F5, Coelenterata. In: Moore, R.C., ed., Treatise on ... and the International Association for the Study of Fossil Cnidaria. He was made a member of the National Academy of Sciences in ...
"4.4A: Phylum Cnidaria". Biology LibreTexts. 2021-12-15. Retrieved 2023-09-21. "Sea Wonder: Comb Jelly". National Marine ...
ISBN 0-03-025982-7. Hinde, R. T. (1998). "The Cnidaria and Ctenophora". In Anderson, D. T. (ed.). Invertebrate Zoology. Oxford ... some cnidaria-eating nudibranchs similarly incorporate cnidocytes into their bodies for defense. The tentilla of Euplokamis ...
Cnidaria Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cnidaria. Look up Cnidaria in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. YouTube: ... is that Cnidaria and Bilateria are more closely related to each other than either is to Ctenophora. This grouping of Cnidaria ... Fisheries Institute A Cnidaria homepage maintained by University of California, Irvine Cnidaria page at Tree of Life Fossil ... because it suggests that the earliest Bilateria were similar to the planula larvae of Cnidaria. Within the Cnidaria, the ...
Approximately 9000 species of Cnidaria are known; roughly 100 are toxic to humans. ... Cnidaria (formerly Coelenterata) is a phylum of aquatic invertebrates responsible for more envenomations than any other marine ... encoded search term (Cnidaria Envenomation) and Cnidaria Envenomation What to Read Next on Medscape ... Cnidaria Envenomation. Updated: Mar 16, 2022 * Author: Spencer Greene, MD, MS, FACEP, FACMT, FAAEM; Chief Editor: Joe Alcock, ...
Cnidaria, the sister group to Bilateria, is a highly diverse group of animals in terms of morphology, lifecycles, ecology, and ... Cnidaria Is the Subject Area "Cnidaria" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Cladogram of Cnidaria based on phylogeny in Fig 4. Branches that did not receive 100% support in ML and Bayesian analyses are ... Cnidaria, the sister group to Bilateria, is a highly diverse group of animals in terms of morphology, lifecycles, ecology, and ...
These hoop-shaped earrings bloom into an intricately undulating surface, inspired by the frilly arms of a jellyfish. They are 3D-printed in nylon and feature stainless steel earwires. Floraform is inspired by the biomechanics of growing leaves and blooming flowers. Each piece emerges from a computational simulation of differential growth, a surface that grows at different rates in different location. The flowering structures expand fastest along their edges, evolving from simple surfaces to flexuous forms that fill space with curves, folds, and ruffles. Read more about Floraform ...
The Conchological Society of Great Britain and Ireland Helping to understand, identify, record, and conserve molluscs. ...
Ribes M, Coma R, Rossi S, Micheli M (2007) The cycle of gonadal development of Eunicella singularis (Cnidaria : Octocorallia): ... Multiple spawning events and sexual reproduction in the octocoral Sarcophyton elegans (Cnidaria: Alcyonacea) on Lizard Island, ... Fautin DG (2002) Reproduction of Cnidaria. Can J Zool 80:1735-1754 ... Cnidaria: Alcyonacea) on Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef. Mar Biol 157, 383-392 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-009- ...
Cnidaria is a marine phylum of over 13,000 species that possess an astounding diversity of habitats, body plans and life cycles ... The genomics of the gelatinous: Genomic insights into major evolutionary transitions within the Cnidaria. dc.contributor. ... The extreme diversity of cnidarian life histories, as well as their important phylogenetic position, makes Cnidaria an ... The genomics of the gelatinous: Genomic insights into major evolutionary transitions within the Cnidaria. ...
Gusmão L C, Qu C, Burke S L, Rodríguez E, felipe (2020). Two new deep-sea species of burrowing anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria: ... Two new deep-sea species of burrowing anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria: Edwardsiidae) from Whittard Canyon off the southwestern ... Cnidaria: Actiniaria: Edwardsiidae) from Whittard Canyon off the southwestern coast of Ireland. American Museum Novitates 2020 ... journals/american-museum-novitates/volume-2020/issue-3945/3945.1/Two-New-Deep-Sea-Species-of-Burrowing-Anemones-Cnidaria/ ...
Ocular and Extraocular Expression of Opsins in the Rhopalium of Tripedalia cystophora (Cnidaria: Cubozoa). Publikation: Bidrag ...
cnidaria: Myxosporea) infecting different tissues of an ornamental fish, Opsaridium ubangiensis (Pellegrin, 1901), in Cameroon ... cnidaria: Myxosporea) infecting different tissues of an ornamental fish, Opsaridium ubangiensis (Pellegrin, 1901), in Cameroon ...
Suivi dune population de Paramuricea clavata (Risso, 1826) (Cnidaria, Octocorallia, Gorgonacea) dans le parc national de Port- ... Suivi dune population de Paramuricea clavata (Risso, 1826) (Cnidaria, Octocorallia, Gorgonacea) dans le parc national de Port- ...
The population dynamics of Halecium petrosum and Halecium pusillum (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria), epiphytes of Halimeda tuna in the ...
Cnidaria (jellyfish, etc.) Click on picture titles to view the selected image Acontia in anemone Acontia on anemone Acontia ...
Filling gaps via citizen science: Phyllorhiza punctata von Lendenfeld, 1884 (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa: Mastigiidae) in Cyprus ( ... Filling gaps via citizen science: Phyllorhiza punctata von Lendenfeld, 1884 (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa: Mastigiidae) in Cyprus ( ...
Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution CC BY Licence.. ...
... Latest version published by Test changing title - thanks! on 07 July 2022 Test changing title - thanks! ... AMNH Division of Invertebrate Zoology Cnidaria Collection] ...
... Type. Article. ... Cnidaria, Hexacorallia). Genetica, 150(5), 247-262. Publishers official version : https://doi.org/10.1007/s10709-022-00165-7 ...
Cnidaria: Myxozoa), parasito de Rhaphiodon vulpinus (Characiformes: Cynodontidae) da Bacia Amazônica / Gustavo Negrão Franzolin ... Cnidaria: Myxozoa), parasite of Rhaphiodon vulpinus (Characiformes: Cynodontidae) from the Amazon Basin ...
Du trodde kanskje roser bare finnes i hagen eller blomsterbutikken? Å neida, det er roser i havet også! I BILDEGALLERIET SER DU TEGNINGER AV SJØROSER […] ...
Cnidaria Cnidaria comes from the word cnidos which means stinging nettles. All these creatures sush as jellyfish and coral are ... There are four major groups of Cnidaria:. Anthozoa. Anthozoans are probably the most famous cnidarians: they include the corals ...
Cnidaria (Cnidaria). The Enigmatic cave hydrozoan (Velkovrhia enigmatica) is the only member from the phylum Cnidaria in the ...
All images Copyright 2023 Denis Riek. All rights reserved.. ...
Phylum Cnidaria Phylum Ctenophora Phylum Placozoa Phylum Myxosporidia Phylum Platyhelminthes Phylum Gastrotricha Phylum ... Phylum Cnidaria. *Clas. Scyphozoa *Ord. Stauromedusae *Fam. Eleutherocarpidae *Ord. Coronatae *Fam. Nausithoidae *Fam. ... Cnidaria, Ctenophora. In: Minelli, A., Ruffo, S. & La Posta, S. (eds.), Checklist delle specie della fauna italiana, 3. ...
Cnidaria is a phylum under kingdom Animalia containing over 11,000 species of aquatic animals found both in freshwater and ...
Cnidaria structure. Musculo-epithelial cells in Cnidarians. The major cell types of the Cnidaria are the musculo epithelial ...
The major cell types of the Cnidaria are the musculo epithelial cells, nerve cells, and nematoblasts which produce nematocysts ... Cnidaria structure. June 20, 2022. by bio_theories1234 Cnidaria structure. Musculo-epithelial cells in Cnidarians. The major ... cell types of the Cnidaria are the musculo epithelial cells, nerve cells, and nematoblasts which produce nematocysts. The body ...
Acanthogorgiidae; Acanthogorgia (Yellow and purple spiny fan coral); Anthozoa (anemones and corals); Cnidaria (cnidarians); ... Pelagiidae; Chrysaora; Chrysaora fuscescens (Sea nettle); Semaeostomeae; Discomedusae; Scyphozoa (true jellyfish); Cnidaria ( ... Pelagiidae; Chrysaora; Chrysaora fuscescens (Sea nettle); Semaeostomeae; Discomedusae; Scyphozoa (true jellyfish); Cnidaria ( ... Pelagiidae; Chrysaora; Chrysaora fuscescens (Sea nettle); Semaeostomeae; Discomedusae; Scyphozoa (true jellyfish); Cnidaria ( ...
Cnidaria (modificar) Version del 11 setembre de 2012 a 11.32 25 octets aponduts , 11 setembre de 2012 ...
CNIDARIA Sea anemones, corals and jellyfish can be seen in Yıldız Bay. The body forms of the cnidaria constitute of ectoderm ...
Approximately 9000 species of Cnidaria are known; roughly 100 are toxic to humans. ... Cnidaria (formerly Coelenterata) is a phylum of aquatic invertebrates responsible for more envenomations than any other marine ... encoded search term (Cnidaria Envenomation) and Cnidaria Envenomation What to Read Next on Medscape ... Cnidaria Envenomation. Updated: Sep 18, 2015 * Author: Spencer Greene, MD, MS, FACEP; Chief Editor: Scott H Plantz, MD, FAAEM ...
  • The Enigmatic cave hydrozoan ( Velkovrhia enigmatica ) is the only member from the phylum Cnidaria in the world that lives exclusively in caves. (hbsd.hr)
  • Hard corals (phylum Cnidaria, class Anthozoa, subclass Hexacorallia, order Scleractinia) are radially symmetrical animals with hard calcareous skeletons. (blogspot.com)
  • Myxozoans are widely distributed aquatic obligate endoparasites that were recently recognized as belonging within the phylum Cnidaria. (biu.ac.il)
  • Members of the phylum Cnidaria include sea anemones, corals and jellyfish, and have successfully colonized both marine and freshwater habitats throughout the world. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cnidaria (/nɪˈdɛəriə, naɪ-/) is a phylum under kingdom Animalia containing over 11,000 species of aquatic animals found both in freshwater and marine environments (predominantly the latter), including jellyfish, hydroids, sea anemone, corals and some of the smallest marine parasites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cnidaria and jellyfish envenomations. (medscape.com)
  • Prevention of jellyfish stings is best accomplished with a dive suit and avoidance of areas known to have large Cnidaria populations. (medscape.com)
  • Cnidaria is a group of primarily marine invertebrates composed of about 11,000 described species [ 1 ] that include reef-forming corals, sea anemones, soft corals, jellyfish, marine hydroids, and freshwater Hydra ( Fig 1 ). (plos.org)
  • Cnidaria (jellyfish, etc. (forsea.org)
  • This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal article Gusmão, Luciana C., Qu, Cherie, Burke, Sadie L., Rodríguez, Estefanía (2020): Two new deep-sea species of burrowing anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria: Edwardsiidae) from Whittard Canyon off the southwestern coast of Ireland. (gbif.org)
  • Cnidaria: Myxozoa), parasito de Rhaphiodon vulpinus (Characiformes: Cynodontidae) da Bacia Amazônica / Gustavo Negrão Franzolin. (unifesp.br)
  • Cnidaria (formerly Coelenterata) is a phylum of aquatic invertebrates responsible for more envenomations than any other marine phylum. (medscape.com)
  • In Chapter 2, I investigate the cnidarian transition to endoparasitism by contributing to phylogenomic analyses to place these parasites within the cnidaria, and characterizing major genome-scale changes, such as gene loss and genome size change, as compared with other non-parasitic cnidarians. (ku.edu)
  • Cnidaria is a marine phylum of over 13,000 species that possess an astounding diversity of habitats, body plans and life cycles. (ku.edu)
  • Cnidaria is a phylum under kingdom Animalia containing over 11,000 species of aquatic animals found both in freshwater and marine environments, predominantly the latter. (fao.org)
  • Given their unique development, ecology, and distinct phylogenetic-placement within Cnidaria, our objective is to evaluate the venom-like gene diversity of four species of cerianthids from newly collected transcriptomic data. (flsouthern.edu)
  • Cnidaria is a phylum present under the Animalia kingdom. (vedantu.com)
  • Though taxonomic classification is a dynamic process, there are currently 3 recognized Cnidaria subphyla. (medscape.com)
  • Cnidaria are responsible for more envenomations than any other marine animal. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Immediate- and short-term complications from Cnidaria envenomations include (1) wound infection, (2) rhabdomyolysis , (3) acute renal failure, (4) hemolysis, (5) pulmonary edema, (6) respiratory paralysis, (7) cardiovascular collapse, and (8) death. (medscape.com)
  • The extreme diversity of cnidarian life histories, as well as their important phylogenetic position, makes Cnidaria an excellent group for the study of the drivers of diversity and the evolution of complexity and novelty. (ku.edu)
  • Le recensement et l'évaluation de l'état (taux de nécrose des colonies) de la population de Paramuricea clavata de la dorsale de la Galère (22-30m) ont été effectués en 1992 et répliqués en 2004 suivant le même protocole. (rac-spa.org)
  • En 2004, le taux moyen de nécrose était significativement supérieur dans la part la moins profonde de la population (-26m). (rac-spa.org)
  • The major cell types of the Cnidaria are the musculo epithelial cells, nerve cells, and nematoblasts which produce nematocysts. (biotheories.com)
  • Cnidaria possess thousands of stinging cells found near the mouth and distributed along the tentacles, as shown in the image below. (medscape.com)
  • Cnidaria sting treatment includes removal of adherent tentacles with a forceps (preferably) or fingers (double-gloved if possible) and liberal rinsing to remove invisible stinging cells. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Cnidaria (/nɪˈdɛəriə, naɪ-/) is a phylum under kingdom Animalia containing over 11,000 species of aquatic animals found both in freshwater and marine environments (predominantly the latter), including jellyfish, hydroids, sea anemone, corals and some of the smallest marine parasites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylum Cnidaria is also known as Phylum Coelenterate . (embibe.com)
  • What is the History of Phylum Cnidaria? (embibe.com)
  • It is believed that Phylum Cnidaria originated during the Cryogenian period . (embibe.com)
  • A taxonomic class within the phylum Cnidaria - many jellyfish , sometimes called the true jellyfish . (wiktionary.org)
  • Anons have identified the "tentacled" organism described by Dr Carrie Madej from the Moderna vaxx as this endocellular parasite called Polypodium hydriforme, a metazoan with "unusual characteristics" that is in the same Cnidaria phylum as coral and jellyfish and it is not known to infect humans, which is why Dr Madej had never run into it before, as an internist with 20 years of practice. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • 1991. Cnidaria: Anthozoa. (fsu.edu)
  • 2. Hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) from Mauritanian Coral Mounds. (nih.gov)
  • Stalked jellyfishes (Cnidaria: Staurozoa) are cryptic, benthic animals, known mainly from polar and temperate waters of the Northern Hemisphere. (mapress.com)
  • Cnidaria sting treatment includes removal of adherent tentacles with a forceps (preferably) or fingers (double-gloved if possible) and liberal rinsing to remove invisible stinging cells. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The term "cnidaria" is derived from the Greek word "cnidos," which means "stinging thread. (embibe.com)
  • Cnidaria Works LLC specializes in network consulting, social media marketing, digital content, and writing. (wbcutah.org)