The number of offspring produced at one birth by an oviparous or ovoviviparous animal.
Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.
A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.
An order of BIRDS including over 300 species that primarily inhabit coastal waters, beaches, and marshes. They are comprised of shorebirds, gulls, and terns.
In animals, the social relationship established between a male and female for reproduction. It may include raising of young.
Sexual activities of animals.
*Medical Definition:* 'Lizards' are not typically defined in the field of medicine, as they are a type of reptile and not a medical condition or healthcare-related concept; however, certain lizard species such as the Gila monster and beaded lizards possess venomous bites, which can lead to medical emergencies like envenomation requiring medical attention.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
The largest family of snakes, comprising five subfamilies: Colubrinae, Natricinae, Homalopsinae, Lycodontinae, and Xenodontinae. They show a great diversity of eating habits, some eating almost anything, others having a specialized diet. They can be oviparous, ovoviviparous, or viviparous. The majority of North American snakes are colubrines. Among the colubrids are king snakes, water moccasins, water snakes, and garter snakes. Some genera are poisonous. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp321-29)
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The physical measurements of a body.
Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.
The number of males per 100 females.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
A hard or leathery calciferous exterior covering of an egg.
The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but there seems to be a misunderstanding as "South America" is not a medical term and cannot have a medical definition. It is a geographical term referring to the southern portion of the American continent, consisting of twelve independent countries and three territories of other nations.
The capability of producing eggs (OVA) from which young are hatched outside the body. While mostly referring to nonmammalian species, this does include MAMMALS of the order MONOTREMATA.
Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Argentina" is not a medical concept or condition that has a defined meaning within the medical field. Argentina is actually the second largest country in South America, and is known for its rich cultural history, diverse landscapes, and significant contributions to fields such as science, arts, and sports. If you have any questions related to healthcare, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)

Factors influencing offspring traits in the oviparous multi-clutched lizard, Calotes versicolor (Agamidae). (1/128)

The determinants of offspring size and number in the tropical oviparous multi-clutched lizard, Calotes versicolor, were examined using both univariate and multivariate (path) analyses. In C. versicolor maternal snout-vent length (SVL) and body condition influence clutch mass and clutch size but have no significant influence on offspring size. The positive effect of maternal SVL and body condition on offspring number is counterbalanced by a negative effect of breeding time on egg mass. In fact, breeding time directly influences the offspring body mass and condition through variation in the egg mass. There is a trade-off between offspring mass and condition with offspring number, and breeding time influences both. Offspring hatched from the eggs of early (May-June) or mid (July-August) breeding periods invariably show lower mass and condition than those hatched from the eggs of late breeding season (September-October). Yet, there is no variation in offspring SVL among early, mid and late clutches. Thus, in C. versicolor offspring SVL is optimized while body mass and condition are not optimized.  (+info)

Patch exploitation by female red flour beetles, Tribolium castaneum. (2/128)

The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) has had a long association with human stored food and can be a major pest in anthropogenic structures used for the processing and storage of grain-based products. Anthropogenic structures are fragmented landscapes characterized by spatially and temporally patchy resources. Here we investigate the ability of female T. castaneum to evaluate the quality of small patches of food and to adjust the number of eggs they lay per patch (i.e., clutch size) to maximize fitness gains. In multiple choice, paired choice and no choice experiments females tended to lay more eggs in larger amounts of flour. The number of eggs that they lay in a patch of flour was consistent with that predicted to optimize production of adults from that patch (i.e., the 'Lack' clutch size). Progeny size was only significantly impacted in the smallest patch sizes.  (+info)

Altered neonatal development and endocrine function in Alligator mississippiensis associated with a contaminated environment. (3/128)

Reduced reproductive success, altered reproductive tract development, and differences in circulating hormones have been documented in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from Lake Apopka, FL, compared to less contaminated sites, such as the Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge, FL. Comparative studies among alligators of varying size and age suggest that in ovo contaminant-induced alterations of endocrine function are further modified during postembryonic development and/or through environmental exposure. In the present study, we examined developmental and endocrine-related indices in neonatal (age, <1 mo) alligators from Lake Apopka in comparison to those of a reference population (Lake Woodruff), thereby limiting contaminant exposure to that derived via maternal contribution. We compared several reproductive and developmental parameters, including hatching success, primary sex determination, and somatic indices. Furthermore, we examined circulating testosterone concentrations and aromatase activity in an effort to establish relative gonadal endocrine function shortly after hatching. Finally, we compared phallus size among males and oviduct epithelial cell height (ECH) among females (androgen- and estrogen-dependent tissues, respectively). Significant differences between populations were noted for body size and spleen somatic index. Neonatal alligators from Lake Apopka exhibited higher plasma testosterone, but no differences were detected in gonadal aromatase activity compared to Lake Woodruff. Phallus tip length and cuff diameter were smaller in males from Lake Apopka, whereas no differences were noted in oviduct ECH. Our data establish basic indices of development and endocrine function in neonatal alligators before environmental exposure to contaminants. These results should begin to help separate developmental abnormalities resulting from in ovo exposure, presumably of maternal origin, from physiological alterations induced through environmental exposure to contaminants.  (+info)

Influence of host size on the clutch size and developmental success of the gregarious ectoparasitoid Eulophus pennicornis (Nees) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) [corrected] attacking larvae of the tomato moth Lacanobia oleracea (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). (4/128)

The relationship between clutch size, host size and progeny survival in the gregarious ectoparasitoid Eulophus pennicornis was investigated in a number of scenarios. When naive parasitoids were exposed singly to Lacanobia oleracea hosts, clutch size was strongly correlated with the size of the host. However, survival of parasitoid offspring was negatively affected by the size of the host such that, in larger hosts, greater wasp larval and pupal mortality was recorded. As a result, no gain in realised fecundity was achieved through parasitizing L. oleracea larvae of mass >0.4 g over hosts of mass between 0.2-0.3 g. When exposed to populations of mixed stadium hosts (larvae in the fourth, fifth and sixth instars) during the entire lifespan of the wasp, host size and clutch size were correlated in early ovipositions (first three ovipositions). However, as the wasps aged, the relationship was much less apparent. When the parasitoid was restricted to foraging upon populations of sixth instar hosts only, no relationship between host size and clutch size was apparent. Exposure of the parasitoid to mixed and fixed stadium host populations showed that final (sixth) stadium hosts were the most frequently parasitized (ca. 96% of parasitized hosts) and that the average numbers of eggs laid per wasp, and the number of hosts parasitized, was significantly lower when the parasitoid was provided with fourth or fifth instar hosts only. The results indicate that the reproductive success of E. pennicornis does not increase with increasing host size or greater resource availability above a certain threshold, and that the physiological status of the host at the time of parasitism is the governing factor determining oviposition decisions and parasitoid survival. We conclude that E. pennicornis has been selected to preferentially utilize those hosts that maximize progeny survival and to adapt clutch size to the size of such hosts. We hypothesize that the major driver leading to the evolution of this strategy is the ability of the parasitoid to physiologically regulate the host.  (+info)

Female freshwater crayfish adjust egg and clutch size in relation to multiple male traits. (5/128)

Females may invest more in reproduction if they acquire mates of high phenotypic quality, because offspring sired by preferred partners may be fitter than offspring sired by non-preferred ones. In this study, we tested the differential maternal allocation hypothesis in the freshwater crayfish, Austropotamobius italicus, by means of a pairing experiment aimed at evaluating the effects of specific male traits (body size, chelae size and chelae asymmetry) on female primary reproductive effort. Our results showed that females laid larger but fewer eggs for relatively small-sized, large-clawed males, and smaller but more numerous eggs for relatively large-sized, small-clawed males. Chelae asymmetry had no effects on female reproductive investment. While the ultimate consequences of this pattern of female allocation remain unclear, females were nevertheless able to adjust their primary reproductive effort in relation to mate characteristics in a species where inter-male competition and sexual coercion may mask or obscure their sexual preferences. In addition, our results suggest that female allocation may differentially affect male characters, thus promoting a trade-off between the expression of different male traits.  (+info)

Predation risk induces changes in nest-site selection and clutch size in the Siberian jay. (6/128)

Life-history theory predicts that an individual should reduce its reproductive efforts by laying a smaller clutch size when high risk of nest predation reduces the value of current reproduction. Evidence in favour of this 'nest predation hypothesis', however, is scarce and based largely on correlative analyses. Here, we manipulated perceived risk of nest predation in the Siberian jay Perisoreus infaustus using playback involving a mixture of calls by corvid nest predators in the vicinity of nest sites. In response to being exposed to this acoustic cue simulating increased risk of nest predation, the jays chose a nest site offering more protective covering and reduced clutch size. This is the first experimental demonstration of clutch size adjustment and nest site selection as a result of phenotypic plasticity in an open nesting passerine reflecting a facultative response to the perceived risk of nest predation.  (+info)

Comment on "The illusion of invariant quantities in life histories". (7/128)

Nee et al. (Reports, 19 August 2005, p. 1236) used a null model to argue that life history invariants are illusions. We show that their results are largely inconsequential for life history theory because the authors confound two definitions of invariance, and rigorous analysis of their null model demonstrates that it does not match observed data.  (+info)

How effective are maternal effects at having effects? (8/128)

The well studied trade-off between offspring size and offspring number assumes that offspring fitness increases with increasing per-offspring investment. Where mothers differ genetically or exhibit plastic variation in reproductive effort, there can be variation in per capita investment in offspring, and via this trade-off, variation in fecundity. Variation in per capita investment will affect juvenile performance directly--a classical maternal effect--while variation in fecundity will also affect offspring performance by altering the offsprings' competitive environment. The importance of this trade-off, while a focus of evolutionary research, is not often considered in discussions about population dynamics. Here, we use a factorial experiment to determine what proportion of variation in offspring performance can be ascribed to maternal effects and what proportion to the competitive environment linked to the size-number trade-off. Our results suggest that classical maternal effects are significant, but that in our system, the competitive environment, which is linked to maternal environments by fecundity, can be a far more substantial influence.  (+info)

Clutch size is a term used in biology and ecology, particularly in the study of birds and reptiles, to refer to the number of offspring that a female produces at one time. It is called a "clutch" because the offspring are typically laid or born together and remain together for at least a portion of their development.

For example, a bird that lays four eggs in a single nesting attempt has a clutch size of four. Similarly, a reptile that gives birth to six young at one time has a clutch size of six. Clutch size can vary widely among different species and even within the same species, depending on factors such as the availability of food, the age and experience of the female, and environmental conditions.

Understanding clutch size is important for studying the reproductive biology and life history strategies of animals, as well as for conservation efforts aimed at protecting threatened or endangered species.

'Nesting behavior' is not a term typically used in medical definitions. However, it can be described as a type of behavior often observed in pregnant women, particularly close to their due date, where they have an intense desire to clean and organize their living space in preparation for the arrival of their baby. This behavior is considered a normal part of pregnancy and is not usually regarded as a medical condition.

In some cases, healthcare providers may use the term 'nesting' to describe a symptom of certain mental health disorders such as Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) or Mania, where an individual may experience an intense urge to clean and organize their environment, but it is often accompanied by other symptoms that interfere with daily functioning.

Therefore, the definition of 'nesting behavior' can vary depending on the context in which it is used.

Oviposition is a medical/biological term that refers to the process of laying or depositing eggs by female organisms, including birds, reptiles, insects, and fish. In humans and other mammals, the term is not applicable since they give birth to live young rather than laying eggs.

Reproduction, in the context of biology and medicine, refers to the process by which organisms produce offspring. It is a complex process that involves the creation, development, and growth of new individuals from parent organisms. In sexual reproduction, this process typically involves the combination of genetic material from two parents through the fusion of gametes (sex cells) such as sperm and egg cells. This results in the formation of a zygote, which then develops into a new individual with a unique genetic makeup.

In contrast, asexual reproduction does not involve the fusion of gametes and can occur through various mechanisms such as budding, fragmentation, or parthenogenesis. Asexual reproduction results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent organism.

Reproduction is a fundamental process that ensures the survival and continuation of species over time. It is also an area of active research in fields such as reproductive medicine, where scientists and clinicians work to understand and address issues related to human fertility, contraception, and genetic disorders.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question as "Songbirds" is a common name given to a group of birds known for their vocal abilities, rather than a term used in medical definitions. Songbirds, also known as passerines, are a diverse group of more than 5,000 species of small to medium-sized birds. They belong to the order Passeriformes and include familiar birds such as sparrows, finches, robins, and warblers.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or healthcare topics, please let me know and I would be happy to help!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Passeriformes" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category in biology, specifically an order of birds that includes over half of all bird species. Passeriformes are often referred to as perching birds or songbirds because many of them have specialized feet for perching on branches and a wide variety of vocalization capabilities. Examples of Passeriformes include sparrows, finches, robins, and crows.

Charadriiformes is an order of birds that includes a diverse group of species, such as plovers, sandpipers, curlews, snipes, stilts, avocets, and gulls. These birds are characterized by their long, slender bills, which they use to probe the ground or water for food. They are often found in wetland environments, such as marshes, beaches, and mudflats, although some species can also be found in terrestrial habitats. Charadriiformes have a cosmopolitan distribution, with representatives on every continent except Antarctica.

A pair bond, in the context of human and animal behavior, refers to a long-term emotional and social attachment between two individuals, usually characterized by a strong affection, shared activities, and often sexual interaction. In humans, this concept is often discussed in the context of romantic relationships and marriage. From a medical or scientific perspective, pair bonding involves neurological and hormonal processes that help to create and maintain the attachment, such as the release of oxytocin and vasopressin during physical touch and sexual activity. The strength and duration of pair bonds can vary widely between different species and individuals.

Sexual behavior in animals refers to a variety of behaviors related to reproduction and mating that occur between members of the same species. These behaviors can include courtship displays, mating rituals, and various physical acts. The specific forms of sexual behavior displayed by a given species are influenced by a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors.

In some animals, sexual behavior is closely tied to reproductive cycles and may only occur during certain times of the year or under specific conditions. In other species, sexual behavior may be more frequent and less closely tied to reproduction, serving instead as a means of social bonding or communication.

It's important to note that while humans are animals, the term "sexual behavior" is often used in a more specific sense to refer to sexual activities between human beings. The study of sexual behavior in animals is an important area of research within the field of animal behavior and can provide insights into the evolutionary origins of human sexual behavior as well as the underlying mechanisms that drive it.

I apologize for any confusion, but "lizards" is not a term used in medical definition. Lizards are a group of scaled reptiles constituting the order Squamata, characterized by having skin covered with overlapping scales, external ears, and movable eyelids. They are found worldwide in a variety of habitats, ranging from desert to tropical environments. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I'd be happy to help!

"Paternal behavior" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in general, it refers to the nurturing and protective behaviors exhibited by a male animal or human towards their offspring. In humans, paternal behavior can include providing financial support, emotional care, and protection for their children. It can also involve active involvement in child-rearing activities such as feeding, bathing, playing, teaching, and disciplining.

In some cases, "paternal behavior" may be used to describe a syndrome or set of behaviors exhibited by individuals who have a particular genetic mutation associated with increased paternal caregiving. However, this is not a widely recognized medical term or condition.

It's worth noting that the study of paternal behavior and its impact on child development has gained increasing attention in recent years, as researchers seek to better understand the complex interplay between genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors that shape parenting behaviors and outcomes for children.

An ovum is the female reproductive cell, or gamete, produced in the ovaries. It is also known as an egg cell and is released from the ovary during ovulation. When fertilized by a sperm, it becomes a zygote, which can develop into a fetus. The ovum contains half the genetic material necessary to create a new individual.

Colubridae is a family of snakes that includes a large majority of the world's snake species. It is a diverse group, with members ranging from relatively small and harmless species to large and potentially dangerous ones. Some colubrids have evolved specialized adaptations for specific hunting strategies or defense mechanisms.

Colubridae species are found worldwide, except in Antarctica, and they inhabit various environments such as forests, grasslands, deserts, and wetlands. Many colubrids are constrictors, meaning they kill their prey by wrapping their bodies around it and squeezing until the prey can no longer breathe.

It is worth noting that some colubrid species were previously classified under other families such as Natricidae or Dipsadidae, but recent genetic studies have led to a reclassification of these snakes into Colubridae.

Some examples of colubrids include rat snakes, gopher snakes, racers, whip snakes, and tree snakes. The family also includes some well-known species like the king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) and the black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis), which are among the longest and most venomous snakes in the world. However, it is important to note that not all colubrids are venomous, and those that are typically pose little threat to humans due to their mild venom or shy nature.

I am not aware of a medical definition for the term "birds." Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class Aves, characterized by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, and lightweight but strong skeletons. Some birds, such as pigeons and chickens, have been used in medical research, but the term "birds" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

"Body size" is a general term that refers to the overall physical dimensions and proportions of an individual's body. It can encompass various measurements, including height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, blood pressure, and other anthropometric measures.

In medical and public health contexts, body size is often used to assess health status, risk factors for chronic diseases, and overall well-being. For example, a high body mass index (BMI) may indicate excess body fat and increase the risk of conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Similarly, a large waist circumference or high blood pressure may also be indicators of increased health risks.

It's important to note that body size is just one aspect of health and should not be used as the sole indicator of an individual's overall well-being. A holistic approach to health that considers multiple factors, including diet, physical activity, mental health, and social determinants of health, is essential for promoting optimal health outcomes.

The egg yolk is the nutrient-rich, inner portion of an egg that is surrounded by a protective layer of egg white. It is typically yellowish-orange and has a creamy consistency. The egg yolk contains various essential nutrients such as proteins, fats, vitamins (like A, D, E, and K), minerals (such as calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and iron), and antioxidants (like lutein and zeaxanthin). It is also a significant source of cholesterol. The egg yolk plays an essential role in the development of embryos in birds and reptiles, providing them with necessary nutrients for growth and energy. In culinary applications, egg yolks are often used as emulsifiers, thickeners, and leavening agents in various dishes.

Litter size is a term used in veterinary medicine, particularly in relation to breeding of animals. It refers to the number of offspring that are born to an animal during one pregnancy. For example, in the case of dogs or cats, it would be the number of kittens or puppies born in a single litter. The size of the litter can vary widely depending on the species, breed, age, and health status of the parent animals.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "wasps" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Wasps are a type of insect in the order Hymenoptera, and some people can have allergic reactions to their stings. However, there is no medical condition or disease specifically associated with wasps. If you have any specific medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to try to help if I can!

The sex ratio is not a medical term per se, but it is a term used in demography and population health. The sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a given population. It is typically expressed as the number of males for every 100 females. A sex ratio of 100 would indicate an equal number of males and females.

In the context of human populations, the sex ratio at birth is usually around 103-107 males per 100 females, reflecting a slightly higher likelihood of male births. However, due to biological factors such as higher male mortality rates in infancy and childhood, as well as social and behavioral factors, the sex ratio tends to equalize over time and can even shift in favor of women in older age groups.

It's worth noting that significant deviations from the expected sex ratio at birth or in a population can indicate underlying health issues or societal problems. For example, skewed sex ratios may be associated with gender discrimination, selective abortion of female fetuses, or exposure to environmental toxins that affect male reproductive health.

Parasitic diseases are infections or illnesses caused by parasites, which are organisms that live and feed on host organisms, often causing harm. Parasites can be protozoans (single-celled organisms), helminths (worms), or ectoparasites (ticks, mites, fleas). These diseases can affect various body systems and cause a range of symptoms, depending on the type of parasite and the location of infection. They are typically spread through contaminated food or water, insect vectors, or direct contact with an infected host or contaminated environment. Examples of parasitic diseases include malaria, giardiasis, toxoplasmosis, ascariasis, and leishmaniasis.

In medical terms, "breeding" is not a term that is commonly used. It is more frequently used in the context of animal husbandry to refer to the process of mating animals in order to produce offspring with specific desired traits or characteristics. In human medicine, the term is not typically applied to people and instead, related concepts such as reproduction, conception, or pregnancy are used.

Biological evolution is the change in the genetic composition of populations of organisms over time, from one generation to the next. It is a process that results in descendants differing genetically from their ancestors. Biological evolution can be driven by several mechanisms, including natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, and mutation. These processes can lead to changes in the frequency of alleles (variants of a gene) within populations, resulting in the development of new species and the extinction of others over long periods of time. Biological evolution provides a unifying explanation for the diversity of life on Earth and is supported by extensive evidence from many different fields of science, including genetics, paleontology, comparative anatomy, and biogeography.

In the context of mental health and psychology, "predatory behavior" is not a term that is commonly used as a medical diagnosis or condition. However, it generally refers to aggressive or exploitative behavior towards others with the intention of taking advantage of them for personal gain or pleasure. This could include various types of harmful behaviors such as sexual harassment, assault, stalking, bullying, or financial exploitation.

In some cases, predatory behavior may be associated with certain mental health conditions, such as antisocial personality disorder or psychopathy, which are characterized by a disregard for the rights and feelings of others. However, it's important to note that not all individuals who engage in predatory behavior have a mental health condition, and many people who do may not necessarily exhibit these behaviors.

If you or someone else is experiencing harm or exploitation, it's important to seek help from a trusted authority figure, such as a healthcare provider, law enforcement officer, or social worker.

I am not aware of a specific medical definition for the term "egg shell." Generally, in a medical context, an "eggshell skull" is a legal doctrine used to describe a situation where a defendant's negligent or reckless conduct causes harm to someone with a preexisting condition that makes them more susceptible to injury than an average person. The term comes from the idea that even a relatively minor blow could cause serious injury to someone with an "eggshell skull," just as dropping an egg on a hard surface would cause it to break, even though the same action might not harm a normal human skull.

However, if you are referring to a medical condition or issue related to actual eggshells, such as ingesting them or using them in a medical procedure, I would need more context to provide an accurate definition or explanation.

Immunocompetence is the condition of having a properly functioning immune system that can effectively respond to the presence of foreign substances, such as pathogens (like bacteria, viruses, and parasites) and other potentially harmful agents. It involves the ability of the immune system to recognize, attack, and eliminate these foreign substances while also maintaining tolerance to self-tissues and promoting tissue repair.

Immunocompetence is essential for overall health and wellbeing, as it helps protect the body from infections and diseases. Factors that can affect immunocompetence include age, genetics, stress, nutrition, sleep, and certain medical conditions or treatments (like chemotherapy or immunosuppressive drugs) that can weaken the immune system.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "South America" is not a medical term. It is a geographical term that refers to the southern portion of the Americas, which is a continent in the Western Hemisphere. South America is generally defined as including the countries of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela, as well as the overseas departments and territories of French Guiana (France), and the Falkland Islands (UK).

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them for you.

Oviparity is a form of reproduction in which an animal lays eggs with externally developing embryos. The eggs are usually equipped with a protective shell and all the nutrients necessary for the development of the embryo, which allows the female to lay and abandon them, without any further care. This method of reproduction is common in many species of fish, reptiles, insects, and birds.

In oviparous animals, the fertilization of the egg may occur either internally or externally. In internal fertilization, the male deposits sperm directly into the female's reproductive tract, which then travel to the ova and fertilize them. The fertilized eggs are subsequently laid by the female. In external fertilization, the male and female release their gametes (sperm and eggs) into the surrounding environment, where fertilization takes place.

Oviparity is distinct from viviparity, a reproductive strategy in which the embryo develops inside the mother's body and receives nutrients through a placenta. In viviparous animals, such as mammals (excluding monotremes), the young are born live instead of hatching from eggs.

A parasite is an organism that lives on or in a host organism and gets its sustenance at the expense of the host. Parasites are typically much smaller than their hosts, and they may be classified as either ectoparasites (which live on the outside of the host's body) or endoparasites (which live inside the host's body).

Parasites can cause a range of health problems in humans, depending on the type of parasite and the extent of the infection. Some parasites may cause only mild symptoms or none at all, while others can lead to serious illness or even death. Common symptoms of parasitic infections include diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, and fatigue.

There are many different types of parasites that can infect humans, including protozoa (single-celled organisms), helminths (worms), and ectoparasites (such as lice and ticks). Parasitic infections are more common in developing countries with poor sanitation and hygiene, but they can also occur in industrialized nations.

Preventing parasitic infections typically involves practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly, cooking food thoroughly, and avoiding contaminated water. Treatment for parasitic infections usually involves medication to kill the parasites and relieve symptoms.

Maternal behavior refers to the nurturing and protective behaviors exhibited by a female animal towards its offspring. In humans, this term is often used to describe the natural instincts and actions of a woman during pregnancy, childbirth, and early child-rearing. It encompasses a broad range of activities such as feeding, grooming, protecting, and teaching the young.

In the context of medical and psychological research, maternal behavior is often studied to understand the factors that influence its development, expression, and outcomes for both the mother and offspring. Factors that can affect maternal behavior include hormonal changes during pregnancy and childbirth, as well as social, cultural, and environmental influences.

Abnormal or atypical maternal behavior may indicate underlying mental health issues, such as postpartum depression or anxiety, and can have negative consequences for both the mother and the child's development and well-being. Therefore, it is important to monitor and support healthy maternal behaviors in new mothers to promote positive outcomes for both parties.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Argentina" is a country in South America and not a medical term or concept. The term "argyria" may be what you're looking for, which is a rare condition resulting from the accumulation of silver compounds in the body, causing the skin to turn blue-gray. However, Argentina and argyria are two distinct terms with different meanings.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seasons" is not a term that has a medical definition. Seasons refer to the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn or fall, and winter) based on the position of the earth in its orbit around the sun. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

Dinosaurs are a group of reptiles that were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates for over 160 million years, from the late Triassic period until the end of the Cretaceous period. They first appeared approximately 230 million years ago and went extinct around 65 million years ago.

Dinosaurs are characterized by their upright stance, with legs positioned directly under their bodies, and a wide range of body sizes and shapes. Some dinosaurs were enormous, such as the long-necked sauropods that could reach lengths of over 100 feet, while others were small and agile.

Dinosaurs are classified into two main groups: the saurischians (lizard-hipped) and the ornithischians (bird-hipped). The saurischians include both the large carnivorous theropods, such as Tyrannosaurus rex, and the long-necked sauropods. The ornithischians were primarily herbivores and included a diverse array of species, such as the armored ankylosaurs and the horned ceratopsians.

Despite their extinction, dinosaurs have left a lasting impact on our planet and continue to be a source of fascination for people of all ages. The study of dinosaurs, known as paleontology, has shed light on many aspects of Earth's history and the evolution of life on our planet.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "population density" is actually a term used in population geography and epidemiology, rather than medical terminology. It refers to the number of people living in a specific area or region, usually measured as the number of people per square mile or square kilometer.

However, understanding population density can be important in public health and medicine because it can influence various factors related to health outcomes and healthcare delivery, such as:

1. Disease transmission rates: Higher population densities can facilitate the spread of infectious diseases, particularly those that are transmitted through close contact between individuals.
2. Access to healthcare services: Areas with lower population density might have fewer healthcare resources and providers available, making it more challenging for residents to access necessary medical care.
3. Health disparities: Population density can contribute to health inequities, as urban areas often have better access to healthcare, education, and economic opportunities than rural areas, leading to differences in health outcomes between these populations.
4. Environmental factors: Higher population densities might lead to increased pollution, noise, and other environmental hazards that can negatively impact health.

Therefore, while "population density" is not a medical definition per se, it remains an essential concept for understanding various public health and healthcare issues.

Fertility is the natural ability to conceive or to cause conception of offspring. In humans, it is the capacity of a woman and a man to reproduce through sexual reproduction. For women, fertility usually takes place during their reproductive years, which is from adolescence until menopause. A woman's fertility depends on various factors including her age, overall health, and the health of her reproductive system.

For men, fertility can be affected by a variety of factors such as age, genetics, general health, sexual function, and environmental factors that may affect sperm production or quality. Factors that can negatively impact male fertility include exposure to certain chemicals, radiation, smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Infertility is a common medical condition affecting about 10-15% of couples trying to conceive. Infertility can be primary or secondary. Primary infertility refers to the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse, while secondary infertility refers to the inability to conceive following a previous pregnancy.

Infertility can be treated with various medical and surgical interventions depending on the underlying cause. These may include medications to stimulate ovulation, intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), or surgery to correct anatomical abnormalities.

The term "environment" in a medical context generally refers to the external conditions and surroundings that can have an impact on living organisms, including humans. This includes both physical factors such as air quality, water supply, soil composition, temperature, and radiation, as well as biological factors such as the presence of microorganisms, plants, and animals.

In public health and epidemiology, the term "environmental exposure" is often used to describe the contact between an individual and a potentially harmful environmental agent, such as air pollution or contaminated water. These exposures can have significant impacts on human health, contributing to a range of diseases and disorders, including respiratory illnesses, cancer, neurological disorders, and reproductive problems.

Efforts to protect and improve the environment are therefore critical for promoting human health and preventing disease. This includes measures to reduce pollution, conserve natural resources, promote sustainable development, and mitigate the impacts of climate change.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geography" is not a term that has a medical definition. Geography is a field of study that deals with the location and distribution of physical and cultural features on Earth's surface, as well as how humans interact with and affect those features. It is not a concept that is typically used in a medical context. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

As latitude increases, clutch size and seasonality also increase. The clutch size of birds occupying environments with low ... Given the effects of seasonality on clutch size, birds in Eastern Europe tend to have larger clutch sizes than birds in Western ... The other competing hypothesis is that clutch size among cavity - nesting birds could be determined by diet. The clutch size of ... open nesters tend to have smaller clutch sizes. Half-open nests have clutch sizes that lie in between open nesters and cavity ...
Clutch size variation can also reflect variation in optimal reproduction effort. In birds, clutch size can vary within a ... The significance of clutch-size (part I-II). Ibis 89: 302-352 Lack, D. (1947). "The significance of clutch-size, parts I and II ... The act of putting one's hand in a nest to remove eggs is known as "dipping the clutch". Clutch size differs greatly between ... small clutch Masked lapwing (Vanellus miles), typical clutch Common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus), small clutch Lesser spotted ...
... but the key to sizing a brake or clutch is calculating how much inertia is reflected back to the clutch or brake. To do this, ... If a 90 V clutch, a 48 V clutch and a 24 V clutch, all being powered with their respective voltages and current, all would ... A-1 Horseshoe magnet B-1 Electromagnetic clutch A-2 Ogura Industrial Typical 2 pole clutch A-4 Triple flux clutch A-6 Double ... The Basics of Electromagnetic Clutches and Brakes Getting A Grip on Clutch and Brake Selection Floating Armature revs up Clutch ...
The difference is that the clutches are at different positions on this axis (i.e. one in front of the other) and the same size ... The DCT clutches are either "wet" or "dry" and are similar to the clutches used in most motorcycles. Wet-clutches are bathed in ... Another design (as used by the Volkswagen DQ200 transmission) arranges two identical-size clutches located side-by-side. This ... Therefore, the outer clutch pack has a larger diameter than the inner clutch pack. Many DCTs for tractors (such as the ...
Females probably have a clutch size just one egg. Size at hatching is 11 mm (0.4 in) in snout-vent length; the tail adds to ... Clutch size; hatchling size" (PDF). Herpetological Review. 39 (2): 221. Species Coleodactylus natalensis at The Reptile ...
It has a clutch size of 2 meaning it releases 2 eggs per breeding event. These eggs have a soft shell, and their incubation ... Godfray, H. C. J.; Partridge, L.; Harvey, P. H. (1991). "Clutch Size". Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 22: 409-429. ... Due to the large size of the head of this gecko it is able to consume prey that is quite large compared to its own body size. ... Hatchlings of this species are at this point assumed to have a similar size to those of a closely related species the ...
"Clutch size". AROD. "Threats to Ctenotus strauchii ". Arod. Boulenger GA (1887). Catalogue of the Lizards in the British Museum ... This contrasts with other skink species which are live bearers (viviparous). Egg clutch size is unknown. The conservation ...
Valetti, J.A.; Grenat, P.; Otero, M.A.; Martino, A. (2011). "Clutch size. Pleurodema cordobae (Octoploid Pleurodema)". ... Pleurodema cordobae adults are relatively small in size and possess short snouts. The dorsal body surface is yellow in color ...
Clutch Size". Herpetological Review 44 (4): 697. Cope ED (1860). "Catalogue of the Colubridæ in the Museum of the Academy of ...
Clutch Size − The number of eggs laid by a female bird (clutch size) is typically under stabilizing selection. This is because ... "Variation in Clutch Sizes". Retrieved 2018-05-13. "A Simple Definition and Prominent Examples of Stabilizing ... Gall Size − The Eurosta solidaginis fly lays its eggs on the tip of plants, which then encase the larvae in a protective gall. ... The size of this gall is under stabilizing selection, as determined by predation. These larvae are under threat from parasitic ...
Clutch-size is three. Its diet is likely to consist of seeds and small invertebrates, including worms. The bird's preferred ... Rapid declines in habitat quality and population size of the Liben (Sidamo) Lark Heteromirafra sidamoensis necessitate ...
Clutch size is two. Branch WR (2017). "Goggia hewitti ". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T196914A110307792. ...
Clutch size is two eggs. Bauer AM, Lebreton M (2021). "Hemidactylus kamdemtohami ". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species ...
The clutch size is two. The white-faced quail-dove's song is "a low, hollow, mournful whoooo or whoo'oo." The IUCN has assessed ...
Clutch size is two eggs. Shea, G.; Allison, A.; Tallowin, O. (2015). "Emoia bogerti". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015 ...
Clutch size is two eggs. Shea, G.; Allison, A. [in French]; Tallowin, O. (2015). "Emoia coggeri ". IUCN Red List of Threatened ...
Clutch size is two eggs. Cole, N.; Sanchez, M. (2021). "Cryptoblepharus boutonii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2021: e ...
Clutch size is two eggs. Colli GR, Fenker J, Tedeschi L, Bataus YSL, Uhlig VM, Lima A, Nogueira C de C, Borges-Nojosa DM, Costa ...
The clutch size is unknown. Young birds fledge from mid-July, with the adults moulting from September onwards. The Azores ...
The clutch size is two; incubation lasts 13 to 14 days and fledging occurs about 20 days after hatch. The peacock coquette's ... The IUCN has assessed the peacock coquette as being of Least Concern, though its population size and trend are not known. Its ...
The clutch size is two. The members of a fawn-breasted wren pair sing antiphonally, the male's part a "cheerilo-choli" and the ... Though its population size has not been determined, it is believed to be fairly common to common across its range. BirdLife ...
Lack postulated what is now known as Lack's Principle, which states that "the clutch size of each species of bird has been ... He developed what is now known as Lack's Principle which explained the evolution of avian clutch sizes in terms of individual ... This interpretation was however debated by V.C. Wynne-Edwards who suggested that clutch size was density-independent. This was ... Lack, David (1947). "The Significance of Clutch-size". Ibis. 89 (2): 302-352. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919x.1947.tb04155.x.; 90, 25- ...
Clutch size is two eggs. Nguyen TQ, Phimmachak S, Stuart B (2018). "Hemiphyllodactylus kiziriani ". The IUCN Red List of ...
Clutch size and maximum length". Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (2): 503-504. Gaboon Viper, Bitis gabonica. California Academy of ... It is important to be aware that there is considerable variation in the maximum reported size of these species, and most ... S. L. Fearn; J. Sambono (2000). "A reliable size record for the Scrub Python Morelia amethistina (Serpentes: Pythonidae) in ... measurements are not truly verifiable, so the sizes listed should not be considered definitive. In general, the reported ...
The clutch size is three. The blue-throated motmot typically calls from a high exposed perch. It usually gives single "hoot" or ...
Clutch size is one egg. Allison, A.; Hamilton, A.; Tallowin, O. (2013). "Tribolonotus blanchardi". IUCN Red List of Threatened ...
The clutch size is two. The olive-backed quail-dove's song is "a low-pitched short single note 'whOuw', with a rather frog-like ...
The clutch size is two. Both sexes of riverside wren sing, repeated "loud ringing phrases" and followed by different phrases, ... "population trend is difficult to determine because of uncertainty over the impacts of habitat modification on population sizes ...
The clutch size is two. No details of the golden-spotted ground dove's vocalizations have been published. Its wings rattle ...
Clutch size 2-3 eggs. The pair are often helped by birds from earlier broods, which have the grey parts of the plumage ...
As latitude increases, clutch size and seasonality also increase. The clutch size of birds occupying environments with low ... Given the effects of seasonality on clutch size, birds in Eastern Europe tend to have larger clutch sizes than birds in Western ... The other competing hypothesis is that clutch size among cavity - nesting birds could be determined by diet. The clutch size of ... open nesters tend to have smaller clutch sizes. Half-open nests have clutch sizes that lie in between open nesters and cavity ...
The overall mean clutch size was 1295 (SD 596), which is one of the largest that has been reported. However, both clutch size ... Clutch size also varied among the ponds. We found no relationship between clutch size and the distance of a breeding pond from ... clutch size has been shown to be both spatially and seasonally variable. We examined spatial and seasonal clutch size variation ... Milič Solský, Daniela Smolová, Jana Doležalová, Kamila Šebková, and Jiří Vojar "Clutch Size Variation in Agile Frog Rana ...
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Annual differences in clutch size were weakly significant in both species, and clutch size in both species declined slightly ... In both species, the most frequent clutch size was 3 but the most productive size was 4. Overall, 46.8% of the heron eggs and ... Annual variability in colony mean clutch-initiation dates was less for herons than for the egrets. Egret clutch and brood sizes ... Clutch size, timing of laying, and reproductive success in a colony of Great Blue Herons and Great Egrets. Auk 102: 49-63. ...
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Class AvesOrder CuculiformesSuborder CuculiFamily CuculidaeNumber of families 1Thumbnail description Small to medium-sized ... Clutch size. Nonparasitic species have a clutch size that varies, comprising only a few eggs. Parasitic species are ... The size of the eggs varies between 2% and 25% of the weight of the female; relatively speaking, the smallest eggs are those of ... characterized by larger clutch sizes, although it is difficult to determine their average. Molecular studies have assigned ...
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  • Clutch size refers to the number of eggs laid in a single brood by a nesting pair of birds. (
  • They found that clutches were larger in Arizona (4.61 eggs/nest) than in Argentina (2.58 eggs/nest) and that Skutch's Hypothesis explained the variation in clutch size within each, North and South America, but did not explain the latitudinal difference in clutch size. (
  • During a 13-yr period mean Great Blue Heron ( Ardea herodias ) clutch size at a central California colony ranged between 2.72 and 3.35 eggs, with an overall mean of 3.16. (
  • Mean Great Egret ( Casmerodius albus ) clutch size ranged from 2.70 to 3.07 eggs, with an overall mean of 2.87. (
  • This clutch is a clutch of two eggs, more oval in shape they are slightly bigger than our clutch of three eggs! (
  • The effect of competition between ovipositing females on their clutch size decisions is studied in animals that lay their eggs in discrete units of larval food (hosts). (
  • Animals kept together laid on average clutches of 0.74 eggs smaller than females kept alone (average clutch is 5.3), thereby confirming the prediction. (
  • In Tennessee, clutches of 2 to 5 eggs have been found, with 4 eggs most common. (
  • This photograph depicts a dorsal view of an engorged female lone star ixodid, or hard tick, Amblyomma americanum , which was sitting atop a clutch of eggs, a number of which are seen peeking out from beneath its body under its head region. (
  • Designed to Enjoy Life, it can be used during the day and at night, as a Handbag or Clutch. (
  • A dual-clutch transmission is a specific type of Automated Manual Transmission (AMT), one which uses two clutches to 'preload' the next gear before shifting. (
  • Product Description The legendary Lauren: functional wallet by day and stylist clutch by night. (
  • Our Women's Baguette Wallet (Clutch Bag) is the perfect solution for women who want to carry their essentials in style. (
  • Whether you're going out for a night on the town or running errands during the day, this bag is the perfect size to hold your phone, keys, and wallet. (
  • Order your Women's Baguette Wallet (Clutch Bag) today from and experience the ultimate in style and functionality! (
  • This is a go kart clutch that fits a 5/8" shaft and uses a #35 size chain. (
  • The beautiful Tassel Clutch is handmade by the Spanish dressmaker Silvia Barca, made with a round piece of esparto grass. (
  • This medium-sized bag is designed with two top frame compartments and is finished with a clasp closure. (
  • Lavender and cream canvas Olympia Le-Tan mini book clutch with gold-tone hardware, embroidered typography at front, blue and multicolour printed woven lining, single slit pocket at interior wall and clasp closure at side. (
  • It is a baguette style clutch which has a front flap closure. (
  • Several patterns of variation have been noted and the relationship between latitude and clutch size has been a topic of interest in avian reproduction and evolution. (
  • It is clear that Lack's Food Limitation Hypothesis and the Nest Predation Hypothesis are plausible explanations for explaining the latitudinal variation in avian clutch size. (
  • In another study, researchers analyzed if the rates of food delivery and nest predation explain the variation in clutch size observed among species between and within South and North America. (
  • The latitudinal variation in clutch size is influenced by the food abundance per unit area of habitat. (
  • Within a population, its variation has been attributed to a positive relationship between females' age or size and their fecundity as well as to spatiotemporal differences in environmental conditions. (
  • We examined spatial and seasonal clutch size variation based upon two years of study involving 160 clutches of the Agile Frog Rana dalmatina Bonaparte, 1840 in 14 ponds within one spoil bank in the Czech Republic's North Bohemian brown coal basin. (
  • Milič Solský , Daniela Smolová , Jana Doležalová , Kamila Šebková , and Jiří Vojar "Clutch Size Variation in Agile Frog Rana dalmatina on Post-Mining Areas," Polish Journal of Ecology 62(4), 789-799, (1 December 2014). (
  • Although we identified weak correlates, none of the additional factors could account for the variation in prl explained by year and clutch-size. (
  • The hypothesis states that avian clutch size differences arise from differences in food availability. (
  • They analyzed whether Skutch's Hypothesis explained clutch size differences within or between latitudes. (
  • Annual differences in clutch size were weakly significant in both species, and clutch size in both species declined slightly with relative as well as absolute time of breeding. (
  • Clutch size is an important life history trait in amphibians, and it varies among and within species, populations and individuals. (
  • In both species, the most frequent clutch size was 3 but the most productive size was 4. (
  • Males and females are the same in size for most species, although they occasionally differ. (
  • Here, we assess changes in the annual production of young by female breeders in 201 populations of 104 bird species (N = 745,962 clutches) covering all continents between 1970 and 2019. (
  • Size of the uropygial gland has been proposed to vary among species of birds because of divergent selection by pathogens on their hosts. (
  • Therefore, we should expect that bird species from the tropics should have relatively larger uropygial glands for their body size than species from higher latitudes. (
  • This result suggests that youth operators would be very likely exposed to muscle fatigue in the leg due to the frequent use of foot clutches and brakes during tractor operation. (
  • They may arise from natural sources (e.g., weathering of asbestos- containing minerals), from windblown soil from hazardous waste sites where asbestos is not properly stored, and from deterioration of automobile clutches and brakes or breakdown of asbestos-containing (mainly chrysotile) materials, such as insulation. (
  • The kind of take-everywhere vegan leather clutch you'll want in both colors! (
  • You have 15 days to return the product in case it is not as described here or you have not received it in the sizes, colors or customization requested. (
  • The dual clutch of transmission (DCT) has two manual transmissions, one transmission works for even-numbered gears, and other transmission works for odd-numbered gears. (
  • Dual-clutch transmissions (DCTs) are designed to combine the performance benefits associated with manual transmissions with the smooth transitions and ease-of-use that automatic transmissions are known for. (
  • The Hobo Lauren clutch is a posh leather bag that complements any look. (
  • The global Dual Clutch Transmission market was valued at USD 27.74 Billion in 2020 and is projected to reach USD 41.36 Billion by 2028, growing at a CAGR of 5.10%% from 2021 to 2028. (
  • Finally, the results are compared with those reported for solitary parasitoids (that have scramble larval competition), for which it is predicted that the clutch size will increase with increasing levels of competition between females. (
  • Because prl levels were so variable, we sought alternative explanations to year and clutch-size effects. (
  • Impact of COVID-19 on the market demand is considered while estimating the current and forecast market size and growth trends for all the regions and countries. (
  • The rising vehicle sale and manufacturing across the globe is anticipated to augment the growth of the dual-clutch transmission market during the forecast period. (
  • Furthermore, the adoption of personal vehicles has also increased the global sales and production of automobiles which is in turn expected to support the growth of the dual-clutch transmission market in the forecast period. (
  • The increasing demand for fuel efficient vehicles is anticipated to augment the growth of the dual-clutch transmission market during the forecast period. (
  • These factors include the dose (how much), the duration (how long), the fiber type (mineral form and size distribution), and how you come in contact with it. (
  • High rates of nest predation may select for smaller clutches to reduce the parental investment in a single nesting attempt. (
  • Skutch's Hypothesis is similar to the Nest Predation Hypothesis as it states that higher nest predation decreases the rate at which birds can deliver food to their offspring and thus limits clutch size. (
  • Males with increased or decreased clutch-size had lower levels of circulating prl than did control males. (
  • Get this incredible clutch in the color options of black, light yellow, lavender and teal. (
  • Our study suggests that rapid declines in size of bird populations reported by many studies from different parts of the world are driven only to a small degree by changes in the production of young. (
  • We found no relationship between clutch size and the distance of a breeding pond from alluvial forest, a typical wintering habitat. (
  • We also found a clear effect of clutch-size on level of circulating prl during the low stress year of the study. (
  • Made with a round piece of esparto grass and with a double layer, the Bullfighting Tassel Clutch has details of jet black trimmings on the front, as well as a black tassel. (
  • Our Silver Tie Tack Clutches operate smoothly, hold tight, and are made to last! (
  • Featuring a 2" chain and Bar, these quality made Clutches are always in style. (
  • One theoretical research study suggested that the latitudinal gradient in clutch size can be explained by the increasing seasonality of resources from the tropics to the poles by itself or in conjunction with a decreasing rate of predation and breeding season. (
  • The study showed that the demarcation of the NAGCAT by the size of the tractor is not significant for the majority of controls. (
  • Since Lack's first paper in the mid-1940s there has been extensive research on the pattern of increasing clutch size with increasing latitude. (
  • Also, dual clutch transmission (DCT) offers a better fuel economy, as power flow in the powertrain i.e., from the engine to transmission is not interrupted. (
  • A six-speed dual clutch transmission (DCT) provides a better fuel efficiency than the auto transmission system due to reduced loss of power during the transmission. (
  • A dual clutch transmission has unique characteristic as it helps in keeping the engine in engaged mode all the time. (
  • COVID-19 had a devastating impact on the automotive dual clutch transmission (DCT) market owing to a massive dip in commercial activities and retail spending. (
  • The global Dual Clutch Transmission market is segmented based on by Clutches, Transmission, regions, and countries. (
  • Rising demand for Dual Clutch Transmission in various countries such as the U.S., Germany, China, India, and Japan, among others is likely to support the growth of the market. (
  • Year, clutch size, and relative time of breeding had significant effects on heron fledging success. (
  • Egret clutch and brood sizes were smaller before the 1972 ban on DDT and related chemicals than after. (
  • Large fibers are removed from air and water by gravitational settling at a rate dependent upon their size, but small fibers may remain suspended for long periods of time. (
  • This very elegant quality Italian Style Matching Shoe and Clutch are ready to complement your new outfit to attend that next special occasion. (
  • Give your style the perfect pop of bold texture with the new Shag Bag Clutch! (
  • Nature favours clutch sizes that correspond to the average maximum number of offspring that the parent can sustain given a limited food supply. (
  • Select the items below to help us find the perfect clutch for you. (
  • The perfect grab and go size, fitting comfortably in one hand, and a strap able to be added. (
  • Vintage GUCCI Monogram Clutch Bag in M size is up for SALE. (
  • The overall mean clutch size was 1295 (SD 596), which is one of the largest that has been reported. (