The number of offspring produced at one birth by an oviparous or ovoviviparous animal.
Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.
A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.
An order of BIRDS including over 300 species that primarily inhabit coastal waters, beaches, and marshes. They are comprised of shorebirds, gulls, and terns.
In animals, the social relationship established between a male and female for reproduction. It may include raising of young.
Sexual activities of animals.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
The largest family of snakes, comprising five subfamilies: Colubrinae, Natricinae, Homalopsinae, Lycodontinae, and Xenodontinae. They show a great diversity of eating habits, some eating almost anything, others having a specialized diet. They can be oviparous, ovoviviparous, or viviparous. The majority of North American snakes are colubrines. Among the colubrids are king snakes, water moccasins, water snakes, and garter snakes. Some genera are poisonous. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp321-29)
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The physical measurements of a body.
Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.
The number of males per 100 females.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
A hard or leathery calciferous exterior covering of an egg.
The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.
The capability of producing eggs (OVA) from which young are hatched outside the body. While mostly referring to nonmammalian species, this does include MAMMALS of the order MONOTREMATA.
Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A species of parasitic nematode found in rats.
Members of a religious denomination founded in the United States during the late 19th century in which active evangelism is practiced, the imminent approach of the millennium is preached, and war and organized government authority in matters of conscience are strongly opposed (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). Jehovah's Witnesses generally refuse blood transfusions and other blood-based treatments based on religious belief.
A plant genus in the family THEACEAE, order THEALES best known for CAMELLIA SINENSIS which is the source of Oriental TEA.
BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen, pyramidal trees with whorled branches and thin, scaly bark. Each of the linear, spirally arranged leaves is jointed near the stem on a separate woody base.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.
Concept referring to the standardized fees for services rendered by health care providers, e.g., laboratories and physicians, and reimbursement for those services under Medicare Part B. It includes acceptance by the physician.

Factors influencing offspring traits in the oviparous multi-clutched lizard, Calotes versicolor (Agamidae). (1/128)

The determinants of offspring size and number in the tropical oviparous multi-clutched lizard, Calotes versicolor, were examined using both univariate and multivariate (path) analyses. In C. versicolor maternal snout-vent length (SVL) and body condition influence clutch mass and clutch size but have no significant influence on offspring size. The positive effect of maternal SVL and body condition on offspring number is counterbalanced by a negative effect of breeding time on egg mass. In fact, breeding time directly influences the offspring body mass and condition through variation in the egg mass. There is a trade-off between offspring mass and condition with offspring number, and breeding time influences both. Offspring hatched from the eggs of early (May-June) or mid (July-August) breeding periods invariably show lower mass and condition than those hatched from the eggs of late breeding season (September-October). Yet, there is no variation in offspring SVL among early, mid and late clutches. Thus, in C. versicolor offspring SVL is optimized while body mass and condition are not optimized.  (+info)

Patch exploitation by female red flour beetles, Tribolium castaneum. (2/128)

The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) has had a long association with human stored food and can be a major pest in anthropogenic structures used for the processing and storage of grain-based products. Anthropogenic structures are fragmented landscapes characterized by spatially and temporally patchy resources. Here we investigate the ability of female T. castaneum to evaluate the quality of small patches of food and to adjust the number of eggs they lay per patch (i.e., clutch size) to maximize fitness gains. In multiple choice, paired choice and no choice experiments females tended to lay more eggs in larger amounts of flour. The number of eggs that they lay in a patch of flour was consistent with that predicted to optimize production of adults from that patch (i.e., the 'Lack' clutch size). Progeny size was only significantly impacted in the smallest patch sizes.  (+info)

Altered neonatal development and endocrine function in Alligator mississippiensis associated with a contaminated environment. (3/128)

Reduced reproductive success, altered reproductive tract development, and differences in circulating hormones have been documented in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from Lake Apopka, FL, compared to less contaminated sites, such as the Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge, FL. Comparative studies among alligators of varying size and age suggest that in ovo contaminant-induced alterations of endocrine function are further modified during postembryonic development and/or through environmental exposure. In the present study, we examined developmental and endocrine-related indices in neonatal (age, <1 mo) alligators from Lake Apopka in comparison to those of a reference population (Lake Woodruff), thereby limiting contaminant exposure to that derived via maternal contribution. We compared several reproductive and developmental parameters, including hatching success, primary sex determination, and somatic indices. Furthermore, we examined circulating testosterone concentrations and aromatase activity in an effort to establish relative gonadal endocrine function shortly after hatching. Finally, we compared phallus size among males and oviduct epithelial cell height (ECH) among females (androgen- and estrogen-dependent tissues, respectively). Significant differences between populations were noted for body size and spleen somatic index. Neonatal alligators from Lake Apopka exhibited higher plasma testosterone, but no differences were detected in gonadal aromatase activity compared to Lake Woodruff. Phallus tip length and cuff diameter were smaller in males from Lake Apopka, whereas no differences were noted in oviduct ECH. Our data establish basic indices of development and endocrine function in neonatal alligators before environmental exposure to contaminants. These results should begin to help separate developmental abnormalities resulting from in ovo exposure, presumably of maternal origin, from physiological alterations induced through environmental exposure to contaminants.  (+info)

Influence of host size on the clutch size and developmental success of the gregarious ectoparasitoid Eulophus pennicornis (Nees) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) [corrected] attacking larvae of the tomato moth Lacanobia oleracea (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). (4/128)

The relationship between clutch size, host size and progeny survival in the gregarious ectoparasitoid Eulophus pennicornis was investigated in a number of scenarios. When naive parasitoids were exposed singly to Lacanobia oleracea hosts, clutch size was strongly correlated with the size of the host. However, survival of parasitoid offspring was negatively affected by the size of the host such that, in larger hosts, greater wasp larval and pupal mortality was recorded. As a result, no gain in realised fecundity was achieved through parasitizing L. oleracea larvae of mass >0.4 g over hosts of mass between 0.2-0.3 g. When exposed to populations of mixed stadium hosts (larvae in the fourth, fifth and sixth instars) during the entire lifespan of the wasp, host size and clutch size were correlated in early ovipositions (first three ovipositions). However, as the wasps aged, the relationship was much less apparent. When the parasitoid was restricted to foraging upon populations of sixth instar hosts only, no relationship between host size and clutch size was apparent. Exposure of the parasitoid to mixed and fixed stadium host populations showed that final (sixth) stadium hosts were the most frequently parasitized (ca. 96% of parasitized hosts) and that the average numbers of eggs laid per wasp, and the number of hosts parasitized, was significantly lower when the parasitoid was provided with fourth or fifth instar hosts only. The results indicate that the reproductive success of E. pennicornis does not increase with increasing host size or greater resource availability above a certain threshold, and that the physiological status of the host at the time of parasitism is the governing factor determining oviposition decisions and parasitoid survival. We conclude that E. pennicornis has been selected to preferentially utilize those hosts that maximize progeny survival and to adapt clutch size to the size of such hosts. We hypothesize that the major driver leading to the evolution of this strategy is the ability of the parasitoid to physiologically regulate the host.  (+info)

Female freshwater crayfish adjust egg and clutch size in relation to multiple male traits. (5/128)

Females may invest more in reproduction if they acquire mates of high phenotypic quality, because offspring sired by preferred partners may be fitter than offspring sired by non-preferred ones. In this study, we tested the differential maternal allocation hypothesis in the freshwater crayfish, Austropotamobius italicus, by means of a pairing experiment aimed at evaluating the effects of specific male traits (body size, chelae size and chelae asymmetry) on female primary reproductive effort. Our results showed that females laid larger but fewer eggs for relatively small-sized, large-clawed males, and smaller but more numerous eggs for relatively large-sized, small-clawed males. Chelae asymmetry had no effects on female reproductive investment. While the ultimate consequences of this pattern of female allocation remain unclear, females were nevertheless able to adjust their primary reproductive effort in relation to mate characteristics in a species where inter-male competition and sexual coercion may mask or obscure their sexual preferences. In addition, our results suggest that female allocation may differentially affect male characters, thus promoting a trade-off between the expression of different male traits.  (+info)

Predation risk induces changes in nest-site selection and clutch size in the Siberian jay. (6/128)

Life-history theory predicts that an individual should reduce its reproductive efforts by laying a smaller clutch size when high risk of nest predation reduces the value of current reproduction. Evidence in favour of this 'nest predation hypothesis', however, is scarce and based largely on correlative analyses. Here, we manipulated perceived risk of nest predation in the Siberian jay Perisoreus infaustus using playback involving a mixture of calls by corvid nest predators in the vicinity of nest sites. In response to being exposed to this acoustic cue simulating increased risk of nest predation, the jays chose a nest site offering more protective covering and reduced clutch size. This is the first experimental demonstration of clutch size adjustment and nest site selection as a result of phenotypic plasticity in an open nesting passerine reflecting a facultative response to the perceived risk of nest predation.  (+info)

Comment on "The illusion of invariant quantities in life histories". (7/128)

Nee et al. (Reports, 19 August 2005, p. 1236) used a null model to argue that life history invariants are illusions. We show that their results are largely inconsequential for life history theory because the authors confound two definitions of invariance, and rigorous analysis of their null model demonstrates that it does not match observed data.  (+info)

How effective are maternal effects at having effects? (8/128)

The well studied trade-off between offspring size and offspring number assumes that offspring fitness increases with increasing per-offspring investment. Where mothers differ genetically or exhibit plastic variation in reproductive effort, there can be variation in per capita investment in offspring, and via this trade-off, variation in fecundity. Variation in per capita investment will affect juvenile performance directly--a classical maternal effect--while variation in fecundity will also affect offspring performance by altering the offsprings' competitive environment. The importance of this trade-off, while a focus of evolutionary research, is not often considered in discussions about population dynamics. Here, we use a factorial experiment to determine what proportion of variation in offspring performance can be ascribed to maternal effects and what proportion to the competitive environment linked to the size-number trade-off. Our results suggest that classical maternal effects are significant, but that in our system, the competitive environment, which is linked to maternal environments by fecundity, can be a far more substantial influence.  (+info)

REMOVE CLUTCH CABLE 1. See Figure 1. Loosen clutch adjuster to obtain slack in the clutch cable (2) by performing the following: a. Locate cable adjuster (1) and slide off rubber boot (4). b. While holding cable adjuster with 1/2-inch wrench, loosen jam nut (3) using a 9/16-inch wrench. c. Turn cable adjuster until there is a large amount of free play at hand lever. 1 2 3 4 is 00889 1. Cable adjuster (1/2-inch) 2. Cable end 3. Jam nut (9/16-inch) 4. Rubber boot Figure 1. Clutch Cable Adjuster 2. See Figure 2. Remove the retaining ring (1), pivot pin (2) and clutch cable anchor pin (3) from the hand lever. 2 3 1 is 00891 1. Retaining ring 2. Pivot pin 3. Clutch cable anchor pin Figure 2. Clutch Cable Compoments 3. See Figure 3. Drain transmission lubricant and remove fill plug dipstick. Remove the six screws that hold the clutch release cover in place. Remove the clutch release cover, being careful not to damage the gasket. NOTE The clutch release cover gasket (P/N 36801-87B) will need to be ...
J y 1938- H. D. GEIYER 2,124,059 CLUTCH DISK Filed May 28, 1937 Elm OW mww GUM Patented July 19. 1938 UNHEEI)v STATES PATENT oFFi-cs 2,124,059 CLUTCH DISK poration of Delaware Application May 28, 1937, Serial No. 145,388 1 Claim. This-invention relates to friction clutches and particularly to such clutches as are used on vehicles to couple the engine shaft with the input shaft of the change speed transmission. An object of the invention is to improve the operation of clutch engagement. More specifically the inventive idea is to prevent clutch chatter and to provide for a smooth and gradual engagement of the driving and driven members. Other objects include simplicity of construction and economy in manufacture. Still other objects and advantages will be understood from the following description. In the drawing: Figure l is a side elevation of the clutch housing, the housing being broken away and parts of the clutch shown in section. Figure 2 is a detail of the driven member as seen from line ...
DUAL CLUTCH ARRANGEMENT WITH TWO PIECE MAIN ROTATING MANIFOLD - A clutch apparatus includes a first clutch pack having a plurality of first friction disks. The first clutch pack will selectively transfer torque from a torque supplying member to a first torque receiving member. The apparatus also includes a second clutch pack having a plurality of second friction disks. The second clutch pack will selectively transfer torque from a torque supplying member to a second torque receiving member. The apparatus also includes a first rotating manifold having a first cooling inlet for directing a cooling fluid to the first clutch pack. At least a portion of the first rotating manifold is coupled for rotation with at least a portion of the first friction disks. The apparatus also includes a second rotating manifold having a second cooling inlet for directing a cooling fluid to the second clutch pack. At least a portion of the second rotating manifold is coupled for rotation with at least a portion of the ...
0011]In other words, the release distance of the multi-disk clutch is set in dependence on the temperature such that the release distance is reduced, for example, at low temperatures (i.e., before reaching the operating temperature range of the clutch). The abutment position of the disks or of a piston of the clutch is, therefore, displaced in the engagement direction for low temperatures. On the one hand, the dead time falls in this case because a smaller release distance has to be passed through before the clutch engages in the engagement process. On the other hand, in the disengaged state, due to disks spaced less far apart from one another, an increased drag torque occurs which contributes to a faster warming of the clutch, whereby the clutch reaches the operating temperature range faster so that the setting dynamics improves. As the temperature rises, the release distance is increased again to reduce the drag torque in the disengaged state. The abutment device of the multi-disk clutch, ...
ClutchXperts OE-SPEC CLUTCH KITS are designed and manufactured for high quality and superior performance. It is approved and has major portion of after-market supply for their superior quality, better performance , high quality, safety and reliability. ClutchXperts OE-Spec clutch kit s are about 5 to 10% more stronger than any other aftermarket or standard clutches. This clutch kit make a great OEM replacement, compare them to your local autoparts. If you see prices way less than others than competitors that means what you get is what you paid- Made where country with low labor with low craftsmanship with poor materials. ClutchXperts OE-Spec clutch kits are about 5 to 10% more stronger than any other aftermarket or standard clutches. Such noise is particularly likely to occur when idling or when accelerating and decelerating at around 2000 rpm. Please be aware that this rumbling is not due to any defect in the parts. Do not use the ClutchXperts Clutch or Flywheel with a Big Operating Cylinder. ...
Reproduction in common goldeneyes has been well-studied because they are relatively common in northern boreal areas and nest in boxes, making them easier to observe. Females lay from 4 to 12.3 greenish eggs in a clutch and lay a single clutch each season. Clutch size estimates are difficult to determine because of the frequency of intraspecific nest parasitism, which inflates clutch sizes. in one study average clutch size was 9.77, when parasitized nests were excluded, average clutch size was 7.13 eggs. Eggs are from 61.2 to 66.6 grams. Females lay 1 egg every other day. (Eadie, et al., 1995). Common goldeneyes nest in tree cavities, but will accept nest boxes and occasionally are found in rock cavities. Females find nest cavities and line them with a nest bowl constructed of other materials and downy feathers. Preferred nesting sites seem to be those used previously with success, rather than nesting sites closer to food resources for adults or young. Nests are generally within 1.3 km of water. ...
Offspring size is a key life-history trait that can affect all aspects of performance [1]. Within many taxa, larger offspring perform better than their smaller conspecifics; they survive, grow and reproduce more than smaller offspring [2-4]. Larger offspring can also be more resistant to predation and starvation and are often better competitors than smaller offspring [5-8]. Benefits of increased offspring size are not inevitable however, and they are not universal [3]. For example, in some instances, increased offspring size can confer a fitness disadvantage, where bigger offspring have higher mortality than smaller offspring [9]. Generally, offspring size effects manifest in early development, but they can persist throughout the life history affecting reproduction and even the performance of the subsequent generation [10]. Understanding the relationship between offspring size and performance is of fundamental importance to life-history theorists because this relationship should drive the ...
The high thermal stresses generated in the contacting surfaces of a multidisk clutch system (pressure plate, clutch disks, plate separators and piston), due to the frictional heating generation during the slipping, is considered to be one of the main reasons lead to premature failure in the contacting surfaces of clutches. A finite element technique has been used to study the transient thermo-elastic phenomena of multidisk dry clutch. The effect of the sliding speed on the contact pressure distribution, the temperature field and the frictional heat generated along the frictional surfaces are investigated. Analysis has been completed using axisymmetric model to simulate the multidisk clutch system. Ansys software has been used to perform the numerical calculation in this paper.. ...
Chevy Chevelle Standard Transmission 1967, Diaphragm Clutch Pressure Plate by RAM Clutches®. Does not Include: Mounting Hardware. Pressure Plate Style: Diaphragm. Get all the drivability improvements youre after with the greatest selection of top RAM Clutches clutch kits that deliver exceptional performance and quality.
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Machined 19 Tooth Heavy Duty Clutch Bell for the Savage monster truck! Because our Heavy Duty Clutch Bells are precision machined from a single piece of high-strength steel, they are much stronger than standard two-piece clutch bells. The 19 tooth clutch bells are designed for racers looking for maximum top speed when using high horsepower engines. Recommended for on-road driving only, requires a 49 tooth Savage spur gear (#76939). Each clutch bell is clearly marked and packaged individually with a Savage monster truck gearing chart.. ...
When I reinstalled the clutch on my g50 -03 everything when to plan but when I had the tranny within a 1/4 of an inch or less from mating up to the adapter plate it would go no further. I got my head up my tail pipe and brought it home with the tranny bolts. When I put it on the dyno it slipped at high power settings, all other aspects of operation were normal. Now I am taking it apart to see what is wrong. As a side note this clutch combination has run in the car before with no issues at all. The first thing I looked at was free play on the clutch arm with the slave cylinder removed. There is free play of about a 1/4 inch. When I mount the slave cylinder the push rod against the clutch arm is compressed about 3/4 of an inch for the fasteners to mate up. What am I missing? ...
Hays Street 650 clutch kits are designed handle highly modified engines up to 650 naturally aspirated horsepower (600HP for forced induction & nitrous combinations). Our newest 26-spline versions are designed to work in conjunction with a modern 5-speed or 6-speed transmission swap. These are true street/strip clutches for spirited high performance driving or frequent track use. The high performance dual friction disc utilized in the Street 650 has an upgraded spring hub with heavy-duty damper springs designed to handle greater shock loads versus a standard damper spring. Our disc features a sintered metallic friction surface and an organic friction surface. This disc does a great job at dissipating heat and fighting the slippage found in ordinary discs along with providing the smooth engagement characteristics of a street-style clutch. We also provide an upgraded heavy-duty pressure plate to round out this performance clutch. The Street 650 is a great choice if you visit the track often ...
Clutch - Gimme The Keys (Nick E.). As is custom with every other Clutch track known to man, the bands new single, Gimme the Keys, delivers. A number of tracks on their new album, Book of Bad Decisions, tell the stories of different experiences the band has gone through over the years. Neil Fallons vocals on Gimmie the Keys give off a story telling vibe while the tough beat and resounding guitar throughout the track add to the vibe and create a truly awesome song. Clutch are always experimenting with new sounds and Gimmie the Keys blends classic Clutch with some new flavor; a real treasure.. ...
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In evolutionary biology, bet-hedging refers to a strategy that reduces the variance of reproductive success at the cost of reduced mean reproductive success. In unpredictably fluctuating environments, bet-hedgers benefit from higher geometric mean fitness despite having lower arithmetic mean fitness than their specialist competitors. We examine the extent to which sexual reproduction can be considered a type of bet-hedging, by clarifying past arguments, examining parallels and differences to evolutionary games, and by presenting a simple model examining geometric and arithmetic mean payoffs of sexual and asexual reproduction. Sex typically has lower arithmetic mean fitness than asex, while the geometric mean fitness can be higher if sexually produced offspring are not identical. However, asexual individuals that are heterozygotes can gain conservative bet-hedging benefits of similar magnitude while avoiding the costs of sex. This highlights that bet-hedging always has to be specified relative to ...
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results in large velocity gradients. Transmission fluid is passed between clutches since during reengagement; this oil provides lubrication and carries heat away. However, during the disengaged mode the shearing of this oil as it passes between the plates results in viscous drag that wastes power. Introduction of air between the two plates during the disengaged mode, referred to as aeration, is the most significant way of reducing this friction drag due to low viscosity of air compared with oil. Open clutch drag reduction is enhanced by providing grooves on one of the plates since they are known to promote aeration. Yet, a continuous supply of lubrication oil is necessary, even during disengagement. This study examines the underlying processes responsible for the oil flow between grooved disks and possible aeration through a combination of experiments and numerical computations. A two-dimensional model of the three-dimensional, single-phase flow between a stationary and a rotating clutch plate ...
If installing with Ducati OEM basket you need the washer cod. 0D1SR140C220045 (3mm). - If installing with STM basket (Z12 o Z48) you need the washer cod. 001MG019 (1,5mm). - Insert the correct washer on the gear shaft. - Perform the initial hub group assembly: position the progressive engagement steel plate (003MG015) on the hub (0F3SR140J24001C) , with the step facing up. Be careful to position it correctly into the specific seats, then check that pushing one side, the opposite stand up simultaneously. - Now put the 6 steel balls (001MG025) at the bottom of the grooves using a little bit of grease. Then fix the clutch drum (0F3SR140J24002C) on the clutch hub (0F3SR140J24001C) at rest position, using an M6 screw to help locking the two parts, avoiding in this way any possibility for the steel balls (001MG025) to fall out while inserting the hub pack on the main shaft. - Insert the hub pack on the gear shaft - Insert the clutch discs starting with the sintered one and finishing with the steel ...
To provide a gear clutch mechanism which can be operated with small drive power by using a toggle mechanism as a clutch pressure means. A fixed shaft 16 is provided in a mounting plate 3 mounted with a clutch gear 5, and the plate 3 is m ...
Welcome to 45 mm d the UG Ball Bearing CORP. RSCI220 One Way Clutches Sprag Type (220x470x105mm) Overrunning Freewheel Clutch online seller.
The Roseate Tern, Sterna dougallii, is listed as Endangered in Canada and the northeastern population is listed as Endangered in the United States. There are about 4000 pairs in the northeastern United States and 120-150 pairs in Atlantic Canada, mostly in one or two colonies. Its reproductive rate is limited by delayed maturity to age of first breeding (typically at age 3 [Spendelow et al. 2002]), small clutch size (typically two eggs for first clutches of older, experienced pairs, and one egg for first-time breeders), low annual adult survival for a seabird (83% [Spendelow et al. 1995] to 85% [Lebreton et al. 2003]) and relatively low survival to first breeding (usually 33-40%).
The Roseate Tern, Sterna dougallii, is listed as Endangered in Canada and the northeastern population is listed as Endangered in the United States. There are about 4000 pairs in the northeastern United States and 120-150 pairs in Atlantic Canada, mostly in one or two colonies. Its reproductive rate is limited by delayed maturity to age of first breeding (typically at age 3 [Spendelow et al. 2002]), small clutch size (typically two eggs for first clutches of older, experienced pairs, and one egg for first-time breeders), low annual adult survival for a seabird (83% [Spendelow et al. 1995] to 85% [Lebreton et al. 2003]) and relatively low survival to first breeding (usually 33-40%).
...Durham NC Most creatures face compromises when they reproduce the m... We expect size-number tradeoffs to be universal but when we look at ...Because plants cant move many rely on their showy colorful blossoms...But even if bigger more plentiful blossoms are useful for attracting ...,Bouquet,bargains,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
The study of reproductive parameters of little egret Egretta garzetta was carried out during breeding season of 2012 in Hokersar wetland, North- Kashmir and Kashmir arts emporium park Srinagar. Breeding parameters namely nest site, egg laying date, clutch and brood size, egg biometry and breeding success were examined. Breeding was initiated with selection of nesting sites. Nests were bowl shaped of dried willow twigs. Mean egg dimensions were 45.05±1.12mm×34.78 ±1.11mm. Mean egg weight was 27.44±0.93g and clutch size averaged 3.85 ± 0.59. Both sexes incubated the eggs with major role of females and incubation period averaged 23.15±1.21 days. Hatching was asynchronous and hatchlings were nidifugous. Hatching, fledging and nesting success calculated were 62.38%, 57.35% and 58.62% respectively. Main causes of low nesting success were predation, nest abandonment and faulty incubation.. ...
The SPEC Stage 1 Clutch Kit features an integrally molded carbon kevlar-based, high performance organic lining that offers smooth engagement and excellent life. This lining has an integrally bonded steel backing for strength under high clamp loads and temperatures. The hub is double sprung with spring cover relieves for flexibility and heat treated components for strength and durability. Best for street and many track/off-road applications.. Features ...
Carlos Falchi Exotic Convertible Clutch Small convertible clutch Elaphe snakeskin, dyed python, or Karung water snakeskin Optional chain-link or leather shoulder strap Ruched detail at front flap Leather and suede interior lining with a slip pocket Flap opening with snap magnetic closure Real dyed snakeskin, imported from Indonesia Please note, due to the presence of python, Elaphe snakeskin, or Karung snakeskin, this product cannot be shipped internationally Gilt cannot ship Python to California Measurements: Body length 6&quot;, height 4&frac12;&quot;, width 1&frac12;&quot;, strap drop 24&quot; Material: Elaphe snakeskin: baby blue, dark teal, fuchsia, matte teal; Python: black, bronze, gold, multi silver/pink shimmer, natural, cobalt, grey, natural/emerald, silver, and rust; Karung water snakeskin: bronze, teal Brand: Carlos Falchi Origin: United States
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Most drivers realize how to work the clutch on their vehicle; however it does astonish what number of individuals does not see how a clutch functions. Certainly, your specialist has a universal knowledge of, for example, and having your vehicle routinely overhauled will for the most part stay away from any issues. Be that as it may, it does not damage to know a little about the activity of your clutch with the goal that you can be made aware of any notice signs and have your vehicle adjusted before the harm turns out to be progressively extreme. A gearbox has two turning shafts, one that is driven by an engine and the other that drives a different gadget. The clutch interfaces the two shafts so they can turn simultaneously and be coupled together. The clutch will likewise decouple the poles and permit them to turn at various velocities.. In an engine vehicle, the clutch interfaces the pole joined to your haggles which is associated with your motor. The quicker your motor fires up the more the ...
Hays Street 650 single disc kits are designed handle highly modified engines up to 650 naturally aspirated horsepower (600HP for forced induction & nitrous combinations). Designed as a true Street/Strip clutch for spirited high performance driving or frequent track use. The high performance disc utilized in the Street 650 has an 8-spring hub with encapsulated damper springs and a sintered metallic friction surface. The encapsulated spring can handle 3 times the shock load versus a standard coil spring. Sintered metallic material provides a degree of slippage on vehicle launch to prevent violent engagement characteristics found in paddle-style metallic discs. Each kit includes pressure plate, clutch disc, throwout bearing, alignment tool, and instructions ...
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Disclosed is an electric driver which is capable of freely controlling the rotational speed of a motor or a bit. The electric driver comprises a transmission mechanism provided between a drive shaft of the motor and the bit, and the transmission mechanism includes a clutch device operated to release the bit from a driven connection with the drive shaft when a transmission torque from the drive shaft to the bit exceeds a predetermined value. The clutch device has an elastic member and the predetermined torque value is adjustable by means of the elastic member.
The SPEC Stage 4 Clutch Kit is a solid hub version of the stage 3. The hub is solid 8-rivet and the assembly is heat treated for strength and durability. It is available in a 3, 4 or 6 puck configuration. Use the 3 puck for the lightest option or the 6 puck for the smoothest engagement. The 4 puck is a good compromise for both. Street drivable in 6 puck configuration, but not street friendly due to the rigid hub. Best for drag racing, road racing, pulling, rallye and drift.. Features ...
The starter drive clutch is a one way roller clutch and a key component in a starter motor that is used to crank internal combustion engines. The starter drive clutch transmits torque from an electrical motor to a ring gear mounted on a cranking shaft in an engine thus cranks the engine. The clutch also prevents the whole starter from damage caused by extremely high load and/or extremely high speed applied to the starter pinion from the engine. Drive slippage and barrel cracking are two major failure modes for the starter drive[1]. Insufficient torque capacity results in drive slippage while excessive high hoop stress on the clutch barrel ring causes barrel crack. To eliminate drive slippage failure, the clutch should be designed with high torque capacity. High torque capacity, however, is a cause of high hoop stress on the barrel that may result in the cracked barrel failure. Higher torque capacity and lower hoop stress are two completely opposite design directions ...
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Of all this crap, the most significant items are the spare clutch cable and brass drum head. The brass drum is a tiny part not much bigger than then head of a thumb tack. It holds the handlebar end of the clutch cable in place. Nothing but the pressure of the cable holds the drum in place. Should the clutch cable break at the handlebar end, and fall off, there is a good chance the drum will be gone too. All the spare clutch cables in the world wont easily stay in place without one of these. So I bought a spare one and taped it into the tool kit. (Wasnt that stupid? I should have bought ten, as I will drop the first one to the ground, where it will roll into the only open sewer grate in five miles. Should I ever have to install one of these cables by myself, you can bet your ass I will put a piece of clear tape under the clutch caliper on the handlebars to make it sure the drum doesnt move while I fiddle with the cable.) I recently learned that there is a tiny donut made of felt at the end of ...
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The mother will lay her clutch of eggs over a period of several days to a couple of weeks, depending upon the clutch size. However, she will not begin incubating the eggs until all eggs are laid to try and maintain a narrow hatch window as the newly hatched chicks will all need to be escorted together by the mother away from nest site in search of food.. To enable these precocial chicks to hatch together and leave the nest together, there are a couple of biological mechanisms in place to facilitate this function. First, in the hours leading up to the completion of the hatching process, precocial chicks engage in an activity called clicking where the chicks are able to communicate with each other from within the shell in an effort to synchronise the hatch time.. The second is that eggs that produce precocial chicks contain a higher percent yolk (~40 percent vs 25 percent) as compared to eggs from altricial chicks. This allows the chicks to remain in the nest after hatch to wait for the other ...
Now install the inner bearing race and plastic washer into the bearing hub. Note that the two raised notches in the plastic washer fit down into the matching recessed notches in the variator hub. IMPORTANT!! If you do not get the plastic washers notches lined up and seated down in the notches of the hub, when you do your final tightening of the crankshaft nut, the variator will stack out on the crank shaft and you will not have the desired freespin of the variator inside of the clutch bell. ...
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Although trade-offs between reproductive effort and other fitness components are frequently documented in wild populations, the underlying physiological mechanisms remain poorly understood. Parasitism has been suggested to mediate reproductive trade-offs, yet only a limited number of parasite taxa have been studied, and reproductive effort-induced changes in parasitism are rarely linked to trade-offs observed in the same population. We conducted a brood size manipulation experiment in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) infected with malaria (Plasmodium) parasites, and used quantitative PCR to measure changes in parasitaemia. In one of two years investigated, parasitaemia increased as a result of brood enlargement, and was also positively associated with two other indicators of reproductive effort: clutch size and single parenthood. These associations between both experimental and naturally varying reproductive effort and parasitaemia suggest that immune control of chronic malaria infections can be
Egg composition varies both within and between clutches, and mothers are expected to alter their deposition of resources to the egg depending on environmental conditions and breeding strategies. Within-clutch variation in egg composition has been proposed to reflect an adaptive maternal strategy influencing sibling competition. In species with brood reduction, mothers should reinforce brood hierarchies due to hatching asynchrony and favour senior chicks by making first-laid eggs larger, richer in nutrients, with higher testosterone and carotenoid levels and lower corticosterone concentrations than last-laid eggs [parental favouritism hypothesis (PFH)]. Moreover, mothers that are of better quality and/or experience better feeding conditions during laying are expected to increase their deposition of resources to the egg, resulting in differences between clutches [investment hypothesis (IH)]. Several components may act together to provide an optimal reproductive strategy, but studies of variation ...
Home ranges for Gambels quail on our study site were strongly associated with riparian habitat and averaged 954 acres, and ranged in size from 403 ha to 1,651 acres.. Along riparian habitat, Gambels quail are often found near dense stands of fourwing saltbush, wolfberry, mesquite, Greggs catclaw, and other woody riparian vegetation. Gambels quail also utilize riparian habitats that have been invaded by salt cedar, although these habitats generally lack diversity in food items for quail.. Nesting typically begins in April and lasts until June or July. Males seem to have no role in incubation, but maintain strong interest as they remain close to the nest to defend it from potential predators. Females generally construct a bowl-shaped nest lined with small twigs, grass, leaves, and feathers. Eggs are dull white, smooth and often contain brown spots. Clutch sizes average between 10 and 14 eggs. During dry years clutch sizes are often reduced and may contain as few as five eggs. Occasionally, ...
Most American green tree frog females breed once per year, but some have multiple clutches in a single mating season.[1] In a Florida population, advertisement calls of males were documented between March and September and pairs in amplexus were observed between April and August. In the Florida population, the average number of offspring in a single clutch was observed to be about 400 eggs.[1] Eggs take between four and 14 days to hatch, with an average of five days.[1] According to the Animal Diversity Web at the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, Female size was positively correlated with clutch size, but after the initial clutch, the number of eggs nearly always decreased.[1] Breeding is known to be strongly influenced by day length, temperature, and precipitation.[1] While the relative influence of these factors is not well understood, it is known as the frogs generally breed following rainfall, and males call more frequently as temperature and day length increase.[1] Some ...
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A transmission for a marine propulsion system uses a cone clutch in such a way that, when in a forward gear position, torque is transmitted from an input shaft, or driving shaft, to an output shaft, or driven shaft, solely through the cone clutch. When in forward gear position, driving torque between the driving and driven shafts is not transmitted through any gear teeth. When in reverse gear position, torque is transmitted through an assembly of the bevel gears.
This morning, I said to myself, Self, you havent had an opportunity to slobber all over Alexander McQueen in a while. Make that happen. It didnt take much looking to find something to talk about. Behold: the Alexander McQueen Croc-Print Skull Clutch.. Ive never quite understood why these clutches arent more popular with starlets on the red carpet. Theyre tiny, glam, come in so many finishes, and have a ton of personality. What gives?. ...
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The more teeth on the clutch bell (or fewer the teeth on the spur gear) the more top speed with slightly reduced acceleration, ideal for smooth surfaces or longer straights. The fewer number of teeth on the clutch bell (or the higher number of teeth on the spur gear) better the acceleration and torque with slightly less top speed, ideal for rough terrain, steep hills or short tracks with tight corners ...
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BUSHINGS/TOOLS/CHEMICALS 382-1408 382-1431/35 Comet Clutch Puller tools Cover Plate Bushing 382-1094 94c 30mm 9/16 - 18 205838A • Used in cover plates with black snap ring (Spirelex) visible from the outside 382-1095 94c 32mm 9/16 - 18 205840A • Note: will not fit cover plates with staked in bushing 382-1408 102C-108C/EXP up to 95, 9/16 - 16 216097A 382-1431 108EXP 96-97, 108 4-Pro 9/16 - 18 217153A 382-1187 211286 382-1435 Puller 108EXP 98-Up 5/8 - 18 217336A 382-1211 382-1230 382-1434 Clutch spider tool 100C-101C- 102C-108C-108EXP-108 4-PRO This version of the spider tool fits all models of the 100 Series drive clutches; i.e. 100C thru 108C and Polaris P85 clutches. Simply secure the base block spider tool (382-1230) in a vise, set the clutch on the base block with the threaded rod through the center bore and secure with the thumb nut. Then using the spider tool, loosen spider. After all servicing is complete, loosen the thumb nut and remove the clutch. Spider should be torqued to 250 ...
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It is demonstrated that the size of small metal particles can be manipulated with laser light. Even a considerable narrowing of a given size distribution on a surface can be achieved. This becomes possible by a size-selective laser-ablation process. Besides measurements of the ablation rate as a function of illumination time, laser wavelength, laser intensity, and particle size, a model is presented for the variation of the size distribution. Good agreement with experiment is found. © 1989 The American Physical Society
Our study demonstrated that the condition-dependent cuticular extracts of earwig nymphs per se, and in the absence of other offspring traits or maternal behaviour, differentially affect the relative timing of future reproduction of their mothers. The nature of effect was more complex than anticipated: there were no significant main effects of exposure treatment on the frequency, size or timing of 2nd clutch production. Rather, the extracts of high-condition (HF) nymphs induced highly predictable maternal timing of 2nd relative to the 1st clutch. In this treatment, early females consistently laid their 2nd clutch soon after the first hatched, whereas late females delayed their 2nd clutch substantially. Conversely, females exposed to solvent (C) or extract of low-condition (LF) nymphs showed no significant predictability in the relative timing of 2nd clutches.. This pattern may be explained by a hypothetical scenario of co-adaptation [5] between the chemical offspring signal of quality and ...
Abstract: G ksu Delta is one of the most important nesting beaches in Turkey for the endangered loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta). This paper provides information on the nesting activities of loggerhead turtles, the spatial and temporal distribution of nesting, nesting success, nesting density, hatching success, incubation duration and clutch size over two nesting seasons. A total of 902 emergences occurred over two seasons, of which 239 (26.5%) nests were deposited (137 nests in 2004 and 102 nests in 2008) and the overall mean nesting density was 3.4 nests/km. The peak of nesting emergences takes place mainly in June. Of the overall nests, 226 (94.6%) were excavated and 16044 eggs were counted. Of these eggs, 3680 (22.9%) hatchlings emerged and 2695 (73.2% of hatchlings) of them were able to reach the sea. The mean number of eggs per clutch was 71 (range: 15 - 143). The shortest and longest incubation duration in these 2 seasons ranged from 46 to 62 days with a mean of 53 days. The main ...
Understanding the reproductive patterns and strategies of a species is an important step in establishing the species’ life history. Campostoma oligolepis, the Largescale Stoneroller, is a species that has received little attention in the 90 years since it was first identified, and the work that has been done has been localized in the American Midwest. Collections of C. oligolepis were made monthly from the Flint River in Madison County in northern Alabama, USA, from March, 2014, to September, 2015. A total of 768 fish were collected over the collection period including 492 adults, 268 females and 224 males. We found strong evidence that the peak spawning time for C. oligolepis in the Flint River is March and April. Ovarian maturation, gonadosomatic index for both sexes, and monthly clutch size all support this conclusion. Two unexpected features were found. The first is how few females of mature size were found to carry either oocytes or a clutch except in the peak observed reproductive month of
Monozygotic twinning is rare within populations yet taxonomically widespread. We explore the evolution of monozygotic twinning by modeling an allele in a newly formed offspring that causes it to undergo mitosis and separation to form one or more clones (twins), potentially in conflict with the parents best interest. The success of this twinning allele in our haploid models depends on the balance of the benefit of increased frequency in the clutch and the cost of reduced survival resulting from limited parental resources. The trait reaches high frequency in a broad range of plausible conditions but also fails to spread or is kept at low frequency in others when the survival cost is high (e.g., in small clutch sizes). Interestingly, there are two reasonable conditions that predict high frequency of the trait but low visibility: random parental abortion and selection for low penetrance. Thus our models suggest reasons why monozygotic twinning might be rare, or alternatively, be common yet appear ...
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So My wife and I bought a set of Apple snails for our tanks at home and her office and discovered that the boogers love to lay eggs. We are fine with this and let the eggs hatch in a breeder net and all seems to be going well until the snails keep laying clutch, after clutch, after clutch, etc. So 10 clutches later we are starting to wonder, wow maybe we should just setup a tank where these guys can just grow up to a size where we can sell them to a local pet store (one near us knows us by name
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General pattern in megaloolithid clutches.(A)-Field photograph of partially excavated titanosaur nest (NE-01) from Auca Mahuevo locality, Argentina. Scale bar
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A supplemental pressurized hydraulic supply (103) provides control of a hydraulic coupling (32a,32b,32c) that normally operates in response to differential rotation between a pair of rotary members (26,28) to provide actuation of a clutch (68) that couples the pair of rotary members. A rotary seal assembly (104) of the supply (103) feeds pressurized hydraulic fluid to the coupling to provide supplemental actuation of the clutch (68) that is normally actuated by hydraulic fluid from a hydraulic pump (48) that operates in response to the differential rotation between the pair of rotary members. In one embodiment, the hydraulic coupling (32a) also includes a differential gear set (36). A further embodiment of the hydraulic coupling (32b) includes a clutch (68) having a pair of clutch packs (69) that can be individually actuated by the supplement pressurized hydraulic fluid supply (103). A further embodiment of the hydraulic coupling (32c) has a pair of rotary members embodied by an annular gear (26) and a
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On Monday, they contacted me with a diagnosis - the clutch actuator motor had died - and an estimate - $900 for the part, $800 for labour (including the $200 diagnosis fee). So in total they wanted $2700 + tax to fix my car, which is 8 years old and only worth about $4000 (if it werent broken!). So this made me an unhappy camper because I have a lot of more exciting things that I would want to spend $2700 + tax on, such as anything else. I would rather spend that much on pretty much anything else. Also, they would have to order the part of Toronto and it wouldnt arrive until Friday, and thats only if they placed the order that day (i.e., trying to pressure me to make a quick decision!).. So this is the major car part thing that I learned: what the heck is a clutch actuator motor? I knew what a clutch was from my years of driving manual transmission. When you drive manual, you step on a clutch pedal, which allows you to shift gears (or to start the car moving from a stationary position) - ...
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Known cam and roller-ramp overrunning clutches depend on frictional forces to effect a kinematic lock between the driven and driving members and they are dynamically limited to a specific engagement-disengagement cycle. In the present invention the transmission of torque between the driving and driven members is accomplished by a worm/worm-wheel combination such that dependence on frictional forces is eliminated. The congruent surfaces of the lands on the worm and the teeth of the worm-wheel are sloped so that there is normal free-wheeling of the worm upon rotation of the worm-wheel in one direction but there is locking action upon rotation of the worm-wheel in the other direction. The lead angle of the worm is such that the worm would normally be free-wheeling in either direction of rotation. Because engagement and disengagement is positively programmed the application of the locking elements is not limited kinematically to any specific cycle.
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Kinetics eddy current clutch field exciter is a SCR regulated rectifier system designed for the application of supplying regulated variable DC power.
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Egg-laying and clutch size[edit]. Females deposit one egg a day until the clutch is complete. Eggs are usually deposited ... Regardless of clutch size, eight is the typical maximum size of a brood. Egg desertion is a frequent occurrence among coots ... Early season nests see an average of 9.0 eggs per clutch while late clutches see an average of 6.4 eggs per clutch. There is an ... However, there is no difference in clutch size between older and younger females as there is in other avian species.[27] ...
Females probably have a clutch size just one egg. Size at hatching is 11 mm (0.4 in) in snout-vent length; the tail adds to ... Clutch size; hatchling size" (PDF). Herpetological Review. 39 (2): 221. Species Coleodactylus natalensis at The Reptile ...
2011). "Clutch size. Pleurodema cordobae (Octoploid Pleurodema)". 3: 413. Retrieved October 30, 2020. Cite journal requires , ... Pleurodema cordobae adults are relatively small in size and possess short snouts. The dorsal body surface is yellow in color ...
Clutch size is unknown. Eggs are about 31.5 x 26 mm in size.[citation needed] The species is currently classified as Vulnerable ... Estimated population size is approximately 2,500-10,000 birds. This corresponds to about 1,500-7,000 mature individuals. It ...
Clutch Size − The number of eggs laid by a female bird (clutch size) is typically under stabilizing selection. This is because ... "Variation in Clutch Sizes". web.stanford.edu. Retrieved 2018-05-13. "A Simple Definition and Prominent Examples of Stabilizing ... Gall Size − The Eurosta solidaginis fly lays its eggs on the tip of plants, which then encase the larvae in a protective gall. ... The size of this gall is under stabilizing selection, as determined by predation. These larvae are under threat from parasitic ...
Clutch-size is three. Its diet is likely to consist of seeds and small invertebrates, including worms. The bird's preferred ... Rapid declines in habitat quality and population size of the Liben (Sidamo) Lark Heteromirafra sidamoensis necessitate ...
Clutch size is two. Branch WR (2017). "Goggia hewitti ". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T196914A110307792. ...
Clutch size is two eggs. Colli GR, Fenker J, Tedeschi L, Bataus YSL, Uhlig VM, Lima A, Nogueira C de C, Borges-Nojosa DM, Costa ...
The clutch size is unknown. Young birds fledge from mid-July, with the adults moulting from September onwards. The Azores ...
Lack postulated what is now known as Lack's Principle, which states that "the clutch size of each species of bird has been ... He developed what is now known as Lack's Principle which explained the evolution of avian clutch sizes in terms of individual ... This interpretation was however debated by V.C. Wynne-Edwards who suggested that clutch size was density-independent. This was ... Lack, David (1947). "The Significance of Clutch-size". Ibis. 89 (2): 302-352. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919x.1947.tb04155.x.; 90, 25- ...
Clutch size 2-3 eggs. The pair are often helped by birds from earlier broods, which have the grey parts of the plumage ...
Clutch size may be as large as seven eggs. Canseco-Márquez L, Mendoza-Quijano F (2007). "Rena maxima ". The IUCN Red List of ... Clutch size and maximum length". Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (2): 503-504. Adalsteinsson SA, Branch WR, Trape S, Vitt LJ, Hedges ...
Clutch size is somewhat uncertain; it is usually one to three eggs. Western parotia, Parotia sefilata Carola's parotia, Parotia ...
This contrasts with other skink species which are live bearers (viviparous). Egg clutch size is unknown. The conservation ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Clutch size". AROD. "Threats to Ctenotus strauchii ". Arod. Boulenger GA (1887). ...
Clutch size is two eggs. Harlow P (2013). "Emoia schmidti ". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T196620A2467219. ...
Clutch size is two eggs. Each egg measures 12 mm x 9 mm (.47 in x .35 in). Iskandar J, McGuire J (2018). "Cyrtodactylus ingeri ...
Medium-sized for its genus, C. otai may attain a snout-to-vent length (SVL) of 9 cm (3.5 in). C. otai is oviparous. Clutch size ...
Clutch size is 11-12; egg clusters might contain eggs from more than one female. The development is direct (i.e., without free- ...
Average clutch size is 22 eggs. The embryos within the eggs have temperature-dependent sex determination. The species' pivotal ... Movement patterns are predicated on sex, body size, food availability, habitat quality, season, reproductive status, and life ...
... and smaller clutches are easier to replace if lost. Clutch size may vary within a species depending on latitude. A study of ... The size of eggs varies by species, smaller-sized species laying smaller eggs. There is also some variation in egg size within ... The clutch size varies by species. Typically three to five eggs are laid, but two is typical for the garnet pitta, whereas six ... Woodall, P.F. (1994). "Breeding season and clutch size of the Noisy Pitta Pitta versicolor in tropical and subtropical ...
Little is known about clutch sizes. There is some dispute over whether Gonocephalus abbottii represents a full species or is ...
The average clutch size is four; pairs may have two broods per year. This species is listed as a migratory bird under the ...
Clutch size is 3-7 eggs. Two subspecies are recognized as being valid, including the nominotypical subspecies. Zamenis ...
They generally have a clutch size close to 30,000, depending on the weight-to-length ratio of the females; larger females bear ... larger clutch sizes. They spawn in temperatures close to 20°C in late April to early July. Eggs have a toxic, adhesive coating ...
The typical clutch size is two. "Hakawai" aerial displays have been recorded. The population of the snipe is estimated at ...
The clutch size is four eggs. Little else is known about its nesting habits, other than it has been recorded building its nests ...
The clutch size was 2-4. The Norfolk thrush foraged mainly on the ground, in leaf litter, for small invertebrates, seeds and ... Males and females were similar in size and appearance. The Norfolk thrush used to be common in forest and was often seen in ...
The clutch size is usually eight. The female lays two to ten eggs in a well-concealed nest lined with down and breast feathers ...
Its clutch size is 3 eggs. Not much is known, but, grasshoppers are plucked from branches. BirdLife International (2012). " ...
Clutch-size is a single egg. The eggs can vary greatly in colour and, sometimes, shape, but are usually shaded brown or grey ... Data on territory sizes has only been recorded for males. Male territories are said to usually comprise an area of 5-15 ha (12- ... Albert's lyrebird (Menura alberti) is a timid, pheasant-sized songbird which is endemic to subtropical rainforests of Australia ...
In Europe, clutches are typically laid in April,[27] and usually contain five or six eggs, but clutches with as few as three ... Another behaviour exhibiting intelligence is cutting their food in correctly sized proportions for the size of their young. In ... The subspecies differ in their size, the amount of white on their plumage and the colour of the gloss on their black feathers. ... Along with the jackdaw, the Eurasian magpie's nidopallium is approximately the same relative size as those in chimpanzees and ...
Eryops, typical of the large-size early amphibians 310-295 million years ago ... p7 Frogs can lay up to 100 to 60,000 eggs in one clutch. This is called "frogspawn". ...
Hauber, Mark E. (2014). The Book of Eggs: A Life-Size Guide to the Eggs of Six Hundred of the World's Bird Species. University ... Egg clutches number 8-13 creamy white to greenish-buff eggs free of speckles.[77][78] They measure about 58 mm (2.3 in) in ... Also, the population size of the mallard is very large.[98]. Unlike many waterfowl, mallards have benefited from human ... The size of the mallard varies clinally; for example, birds from Greenland, though larger, have smaller bills, paler plumage, ...
The clutch size is usually two, but occasionally one or three eggs[18] are laid about two days apart. The dull white eggs are ... They measure 95 by 61 millimetres (3.7 by 2.4 in), though larger eggs were found in a clutch of three eggs.[17][18] Both sexes ... Nielson, Lloyd (1963). "Unusual clutch of eggs of the Brolga". The Australian Bird Watcher. 2: 56-57.. ...
1999). Relationships of clutch size and hatching success to age of female Prothonotary Warblers. Wilson Bulletin. vol 111, no 4 ... 2000). Breeding bird abundance in bottomland hardwood forests: Habitat, edge, and patch size effects. Condor. vol 102, no 4. p ... 2007). Unusually large Prothontary Warbler clutch at Tishomingo National Wildlife Refuge. Bulletin of the Oklahoma ... MINIMUM SAMPLE-SIZE, AND POINTS VERSUS VISITS. Usda Forest Service Southern Forest Experiment Station Research Paper. no 274. p ...
Clutch size was two to three eggs and the incubation period is 10 ± 2 days and the nestling period is 12 ± 2 days. Hatching ... The normal clutch is two or three eggs.. Brown-cheeked fulvetta measures 15 cm including its longish tail. It is brown above ...
Typical clutch size for the species is 150-300 eggs, though clutches up to 500 have been reported. Parental ram cichlids have ... Tropical Fish Hobbyist, USA Coleman RM, Galvani AP (1998) Egg Size Determines Offspring Size in Neotropical Cichlid Fishes ( ...
Masello, J; Pagnossin, M; Sommer, C; Quillfeldt, P (2006). "Population size, provisioning frequency, flock size and foraging ... behaviour with multiple females contributing to the clutch).[63] ... Living species range in size from the buff-faced pygmy parrot, ... The brain-to-body size ratio of psittacines and corvines is comparable to that of higher primates.[73] Instead of using the ... They form the most variably sized bird order in terms of length. The most important components of most parrots' diets are seeds ...
The average clutch size is four per nest. The young may take a month to fledge.[10] The oldest known pileated woodpecker was 12 ... This crow-sized bird normally inhabits deciduous forests in eastern North America, the Great Lakes, the boreal forests of ... Pileated woodpeckers have a large population size, and despite being nonmigratory, are protected under the U.S. Migratory Bird ... The only North American birds of similar plumage and size are the ivory-billed woodpecker of the Southeastern United States and ...
A brief overview from abstract of the publish paper shows that "clutch size and hunting strategies have been proved to be the ... while also being able to breed a larger clutch size.[23] ... The true hawks are medium-sized birds of prey that usually ... Falcons are medium-size birds of prey with long pointy wings. They belong to the Falconidae family, rather than the ... Sonerud, G; Steen, R; Low, L; Roed, L.; Skar, K.; Selas, V; Slagsvold, T (2013). "Size-biased allocation of prey from male to ...
Clutch size in Scotland averages 1.56, while in Norway it is 2.16.[3][31] The eggs are a broad oval shape and dull white in ... Now the brood sizes have increased, at somewhat less than 1 brood size on average, but still somewhat less productivity than ... Normally white-tailed eagles succeed in raising 1-2 from a clutch of 2 and 2 from a clutch of 3.[32] The average breeding ... with 3 egg clutches being considered uncommon to rare there. 4 egg clutches have been recorded on the Isle of Skye, as well as ...
Clutch size ranges from one to seven eggs (apparently based on latitude), but usually averages 3-4. Nestlings are fed by both ... parents and also by helpers, which usually are juveniles from previous clutches. The incubation period is fourteen days and the ...
Its low clutch size (one young per nest), combined with a late age of sexual maturity, make the bird vulnerable to artificial ... If the chick or egg is lost or removed, the parents "double clutch", or lay another egg to take the lost one's place. ... However, utilizing the bird's ability to double clutch, biologists began removing the first egg from the nest and raising it ...
Their clutch size is three or four eggs. The males make a unique, loud, mating call that give them their name. Chachalacas feed ... They breed in the spring and their typical clutch size is between 10 and 12 eggs. The ocellated turkey (Meleagris ocellata), a ... They range in size from the 13-inch white-tailed ptarmigan to the 28-inch sage grouse. Their plumage is dense and soft and is ... These birds vary in size from the diminutive king quail (Coturnix chinensis) (5 in) long and weighing 28-40 g (1-1.4 oz) to the ...
The clutch size can vary anywhere from 8 eggs to 148 eggs for females. However within that year one male could mate with ten or ... Breeding season lasts for two to three months.[7] Clutch size can vary anywhere from 8 eggs to 148 eggs for females. Males can ... more females[12] This leads to very large nest sizes. One study looked at twelve different nesting sites within a year and ...
The clutch size has been reported as two or three eggs.[7][8] Incubation and fledgling periods are unknown.[8] Pearson reported ... A medium-sized warbler, the Nauru reed warbler has dark brown upperparts, cream underparts and a long, thin beak. It makes a ... The Nauru reed warbler is a medium-sized and warmly coloured reed warbler, with a relatively light build. The entirety of the ... Though no physical descriptions exist of the species, it has been described as butterfly-sized, pleasant-smelling and as living ...
1970). A Record of Clutch Size and Breeding in New-Mexico for the Bronzed Cowbird. Condor. vol 72, no 4. p. 500-501. ...
Hemipenes can be found in a variety of shapes and sizes, but foundationally, have same general structure. They are made up of ... Furthermore, females can also produce offspring that can feature genetic material from multiple males in a single clutch if she ... Juveniles of a species may appear similar in size to mature adults, but possess little developed hemipenes that might not be ... Among vertebrates, penises can be found in a variety of shapes, sizes and structures, such as the lymphatic erection mechanism ...
The readable prose size is 54 kilobytes. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding ... "Terrified Girl Clutches Picture ..." Daily Mail. 25 November 2012. 3 December 2012. ...
An average clutch of rainbow pitta eggs contains four eggs, but some have three or five.[12] The eggs are rounded and white ... Breeding territories vary in size from 1.6 to 3.1 ha (4.0-7.7 acres); territories are larger in drier forest.[9] Nesting sites ... Nests are not used more than once; if the pair lay a new clutch in a season then a new nest is constructed. Unlike the noisy ...
Blond hairs were found clutched in Jessica Ryen's hand.[25][better source needed] Under oath, Dr Ed Blake conceded that most of ... bedsheet and another print on a spa cover outside the Ryen home matched the size and type of the Pro-Ked ''Dude'' sneakers ...
Clutch size. Ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris). 3. 13. 2.0. 2. House sparrow (Passer domesticus). 25. 11. 4.5. 5 ... Möller, Anders Pape (1988). "Badge size in the house sparrow Passer domesticus". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 22 (5): ... The nervous system is large relative to the bird's size.[62] The most developed part of the brain is the one that controls the ... Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich. They rank as the ...
"Flightless rails endemic to islands have lower energy expenditures and clutch sizes than flighted rails on islands and ... At least nine species of moa lived in New Zealand before the arrival of humans, ranging from turkey-sized to the giant moa ... Kiwi are chicken-sized, shy, and nocturnal. They nest in deep burrows and use a highly developed sense of smell to find small ... Kiwi are notable for laying eggs that are very large in relation to their body size. A kiwi egg may equal 15 to 20 percent of ...
They ranged in size from Caudipteryx, which was the size of a turkey, to the 8 metre long, 1.4 ton Gigantoraptor.[4] The group ... with several oviraptorid specimens preserved in a brooding position over large clutches of up to a dozen or more eggs. The eggs ... With the exception of the 8-meter long Gigantoraptor, they are generally medium-sized and rarely exceeded 2 meters in length. ... "A basal dromaeosaurid and size evolution preceding avian flight" (pdf). Science. 317 (5843): 1378-1381. Bibcode:2007Sci... ...
Female shrimp, under ideal conditions, can breed again within a few days of hatching the previous clutch.[citation needed] ... as the size, behavior and other characteristics of the animal is more or less equal across varieties. Full-grown shrimp reach ... Some report that young female shrimp carrying their first clutch of eggs tend to drop some or all of the eggs, possibly due to ... inexperience or small size.[11] If a berried shrimp is stressed by predators or poor water conditions she may also abandon the ...
The average size is 27.9 mm × 20.0 mm (1.10 in × 0.79 in).[26] Only the female incubates the eggs; the male guards the nest ... The clutch is 3 to 4 eggs.[13] These are moderately glossy, light yellowish cream in colour with purplish black and purplish ...
The female lays clutches of eggs from February through August, two or more broods per year with 2 to 6 eggs per brood, most ... This is a moderately-sized finch. Adult birds are 12.5 to 15 cm (4.9 to 5.9 in) and span 20 to 25 cm (7.9 to 9.8 in). Body mass ... "Sex, Size, and Plumage Redness Predict House Finch Survival in an Epidemic". Proceedings: Biological Sciences. The Royal ...
As their body size increases, they move to sites with deeper water. Subadult and adult gharials above a body length of 180 cm ( ... A record clutch with 97 eggs was found in Katarniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary.[79] The eggs are the largest of all crocodilians and ... "Size at first breeding in the Gharial [Gavialis gangeticus (Gmelin)] (Reptilia, Crocodilia) in captivity". Journal of the ... "A record (?) Gharial clutch". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 79 (1): 207−208. ...
They range in size from the Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus), which has been reported to grow to a length of 1.8 ... Many woodland salamanders lay clutches of eggs under dead logs or stones on land. The black mountain salamander (Desmognathus ... Its size is determined by its function as a glycogen and fat storage unit, and may change with the seasons as these reserves ... Members of the family Bufonidae are known as the "true toads".[32] Frogs range in size from the 30-centimetre (12 in) Goliath ...
The typical litter size is four to seven, but as few as one, or as many as 20 may be seen. Their size apart, the young are ... Shine R (1992). "Relative clutch mass and body shape in lizards and snakes: is reproductive investment constrained or optimized ... Good-sized adult males usually do not exceed 74 to 76 cm (29 to 30 in), and females typically do not exceed 60 to 66 cm (24 to ... "Sexual size dimorphism of the tongue in a North American pitviper". Journal of Zoology. 274 (4): 367-374. doi:10.1111/j.1469- ...
As latitude increases, clutch size and seasonality also increase. The clutch size of birds occupying environments with low ... Given the effects of seasonality on clutch size, birds in Eastern Europe tend to have larger clutch sizes than birds in Western ... The other competing hypothesis is that clutch size among cavity - nesting birds could be determined by diet. The clutch size of ... open nesters tend to have smaller clutch sizes. Half-open nests have clutch sizes that lie in between open nesters and cavity ...
Booth DT (1998a) Egg size, clutch size, and reproductive effort of the Australian broad-shelled river turtle, Chelodina expansa ... Bigger clutch sizes save offspring energy during nest escapes. *Mohd Uzair Rusli. ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-2221-15411,2. & ... Rusli, M.U., Booth, D.T. Bigger clutch sizes save offspring energy during nest escapes. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 70, 607-616 (2016 ... An open-flow respirometry system was used to quantify the effect of clutch size on an individuals energetic cost while digging ...
Tab Clutch Exterior Material: Leather Interior Details: 1 ID Window, 4 Note Compartments, 12 Credit Card Slots Measurements: ... Silhouette: Tab Clutch Exterior Material: Leather Interior Details: 1 ID Window, 4 Note Compartments, 12 Credit Card Slots ...
... *To: [email protected] *Subject: Dinosaur parental incubation behavior ... However, the study in question failed to account for factors known to affect egg and clutch size in living bird species. A new ... Evolution of parental incubation behaviour in dinosaurs cannot be inferred from clutch mass in birds. Biology Letters 9(4): ... in theropod dinosaurs can be inferred from an allometric analysis of clutch volume in extant birds. ...
The effect is modeled of a positive relationship between clutch size and offspring fitness on the optimal investment in ... Begon, M. and Parker, G. A. (1986) Should egg size and clutch size decrease with age?Oikos 47, 293-302.Google Scholar ... Parker, G. A. and Begon, M. (1986) Optimal egg size and clutch size: effects of environment and maternal phenotype.Amer. Natur. ... The influence of a positive correlation between clutch size and offspring fitness on the optimal offspring size. ...
2) There is hardly a systematic effect of age on clutch size. 3) There is an annual variation in clutch size with similar ... 6) Selection for clutch size is demonstrated in several years. 7) The implications for rapid evolutionary change in mean clutch ... 4) Within populations there is no detectable variation in clutch size that can be attributed to differences in habitat quality ... 5) About 40% of the total phenotypic variation in clutch size is genetic variation. Several ways of eliminating a possible ...
... Pablo Vergara ... Vergara P, De Neve L, Fargallo J. Agonistic behaviour prior to laying predicts clutch size in Eurasian kestrels: an experiment ... "Agonistic Behaviour Prior to Laying Predicts Clutch Size in Eurasian Kestrels: An Experiment with Natural Decoys." Animal ... "Agonistic Behaviour Prior to Laying Predicts Clutch Size in Eurasian Kestrels: An Experiment with Natural Decoys." ANIMAL ...
... clutch effects and body size drive innate antipredator behaviour in hatchling lizards, Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology" on ... clutch effects and body size drive innate antipredator behaviour in hatchling lizards. Runners and fighters: clutch effects and ... Runners and fighters: clutch effects and body size drive innate antipredator behaviour in hatchling lizards. Baxter-Gilbert, ... "Runners and fighters: clutch effects and body size drive innate antipredator behaviour in hatchling lizards." Behavioral ...
There were significant differences among clutches in egg size, and also in initial hatchling body size, even after correcting ... but clutch effects in this study were limited to egg size and initial hatchling body size variation, but were not found for ... six clutches at three constant temperatures to test for effects of incubation temperature and/or clutch effects on initial size ... No clutch effects were detected in the growth rate analyses. The observed variation in early growth rate of juvenile iguanas ...
What Decides Clutch Size? Most birds lay a predictable number of eggs, but why? ...
Egg-laying and clutch size[edit]. Females deposit one egg a day until the clutch is complete. Eggs are usually deposited ... Regardless of clutch size, eight is the typical maximum size of a brood. Egg desertion is a frequent occurrence among coots ... Early season nests see an average of 9.0 eggs per clutch while late clutches see an average of 6.4 eggs per clutch. There is an ... However, there is no difference in clutch size between older and younger females as there is in other avian species.[27] ...
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Clutch Size: 3-14 eggs. Did You Know: They can evade predators by dropping all or part of their tails in the event of an attack ... Clutch Size: 1,000-2,000 eggs. Did You Know: Gray tree frogs can survive with up to 80% of their body frozen during hibernation ... Clutch Size: 3,000-6,000 eggs. Did You Know: Most commonly seen as the formaldehyde-soaked specimens in the high school lab- ...
Clutch size variation can also reflect variation in optimal reproduction effort. In birds, clutch size can vary within a ... The significance of clutch-size (part I-II). Ibis 89: 302-352 Lack, D. (1947). "The significance of clutch-size, parts I and II ... The act of putting ones hand in a nest to remove eggs is known as "dipping the clutch". Clutch size differs greatly between ... small clutch Masked lapwing (Vanellus miles), typical clutch Common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus), small clutch Lesser spotted ...
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clutch size (biology). apodiform: Reproduction and life cycle: Clutches in the true swifts vary from one to about six white ... clutch (biology). apodiform: Reproduction and life cycle: Clutches in the true swifts vary from one to about six white eggs, ... clutch (engineering). harbours and sea works: Design: …grooves or guides, known as clutches, along each edge of the section. ... Each pile is engaged, clutch to clutch, with a pile previously driven and then driven itself as nearly as possible to the same ...
Desmognathus quadramaculatus (Black-bellied Salamander). Maximum clutch size. Herpetological Review 46:409. Steen, D.A. and K. ...
House Wrens adjust laying dates and clutch size in relation to annual flooding. I examined timing of reproduction and ... Effects of invasion at two trophic levels on diet, body condition, and population size structure of Hawaiian red shrimp. We ...
House Wrens adjust laying dates and clutch size in relation to annual flooding. I examined timing of reproduction and ... Population sizes at two areas in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada were larger than the population in the Tehachapi Mountains ...
... clutch size (clutch size at clutch completion; continuous). Laying date was centred (see above) within each year for CZ and NZ ... For both species we included only nests with final clutch sizes of 4-5 eggs in CZ and 3-4 eggs in NZ, which are typical in ... We tested whether fleeing distance, manipulation dates within season (1 = 1st January) and clutch sizes, differed between ... and clutch size (continuous). Laying date was centred for each year and geographic location (CZ or NZ) separately to remove ...
Is clutch size in birds affected by environmental conditions during growth?. S. Haywood, C. M. Perrins ... Variation across species in the size of the nuclear genome supports the junk-DNA explanation for the C-value paradox. ...
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The clutch size is one for the noisy scrub-bird, but may be two for the rufous scrub-bird. The female incubates and feeds the ... Clutch size two, but one egg may be infertile.. conservation status. Listed as Near Threatened. Total population has declined ... Clutch size is one.. conservation status. Vulnerable. Recently downgraded from Endangered thanks to the success of an ongoing ... Since rediscovery of the species in 1961, its total population size has been increased from less than 50 to almost 600 breeding ...
Clutch size and fledging rate: Clutch size is usually 3 or 4 but may range from 2 to 6 [17]. Clutch size may vary by habitat. ... unknown size,. stand-replacing. logged and unlogged 44. Nested in logged and unlogged areas, but more nests were in unlogged ... unknown size,. stand-replacing. salvage logged and left with high, medium, and low snag densities. 2. Black-backed woodpeckers ... Nest tree size varies throughout the range of the black-backed woodpecker. Tree height ranges from an average of 32.2 feet (9.8 ...
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Lecithotrophic clutches were identified by egg size (Krug, 1998) and transferred to individual dishes of FSW. Clutches were ... Maternal size versus proportion of spontaneous metamorphosis in clutches. In the first field collection (27 May), there was a ... Maternal size versus proportion of spontaneous metamorphosis in clutches. To connect mechanisms controlling larval ... Concentrations from 0.5 to 1.5 mmol l−1 were tested (n=9-19 clutches), and replicate runs of 1.0 mmol l−1 l-arginine were ...
The significance of clutch size. Ibis, Vol. 89, pp. 302-52.. Lack, D., 1948a. The significance of clutch size. Ibis, Vol. 90, ... Lack, D., 1948b. The significance of litter size. J. Anim. Ecol, Vol. 17, pp. 45-50. ... and indicates how changes in condition at different seasons affect the different size-groups. The measure of condition is taken ...
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  • Clutch size refers to the number of eggs laid in a single brood by a nesting pair of birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • They found that clutches were larger in Arizona (4.61 eggs/nest) than in Argentina (2.58 eggs/nest) and that Skutch's Hypothesis explained the variation in clutch size within each, North and South America, but did not explain the latitudinal difference in clutch size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Booth DT (1999) Size, water and energy content of eggs of the freshwater turtles, Emydura signata and Chelodina expansa . (springer.com)
  • Booth DT (2003) Composition and energy density of eggs from two species of freshwater turtle with twofold ranges in egg size. (springer.com)
  • An analysis is made of genetic and non-genetic components in the number of eggs in the completed first clutch of the Great Tit. (brillonline.com)
  • The observed variation in early growth rate of juvenile iguanas seems to be selectively important and this variation may be due in part to the conditions the eggs experience during incubation, but clutch effects in this study were limited to egg size and initial hatchling body size variation, but were not found for subsequent growth rates. (brillonline.com)
  • [2] Coots generally build floating nests and lay 8-12 eggs per clutch. (wikipedia.org)
  • A clutch of eggs is the group of eggs produced by birds, amphibians, or reptiles, often at a single time, particularly those laid in a nest. (wikipedia.org)
  • The technique is used to double the production of a species' eggs, in the California condor case, specifically to increase population size. (wikipedia.org)
  • In birds, clutch size can vary within a species due to various features (age and health of laying female, ability of male to supply food, and abundance of prey), while some species are determinant layers, laying a species-specific number of eggs. (wikipedia.org)
  • An experimental study in Black Brent Geese (Black Brant), which rarely lay more than 5 eggs, found that the probability of an egg successfully leading to a fledged gosling declined from 0.81 for two-egg clutches to 0.50 for seven-egg clutches, whilst the nesting period increased with the increasing number of eggs laid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eggs are 2.5" x 1.75" in size and are white or buffy in color with heavy brown or reddish-brown spotting. (in.gov)
  • The clutch size is about two eggs. (wikipedia.org)
  • He observed an increasing clutch-size from the equator towards the poles (something he referred to as the "latitude trend") for many passerine (perching) birds, near-passerine (tree-dwelling) birds and in various other groups: Strigiformes, Falconiformes, Ciconiiformes, Laridae, Ralliformes, Galliformes, Podicipedifomes, and Glareolidae, and in some Limicolae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Skutch's Hypothesis is similar to the Nest Predation Hypothesis as it states that higher nest predation decreases the rate at which birds can deliver food to their offspring and thus limits clutch size. (wikipedia.org)
  • From: Ben Creisler [email protected] A new paper: Geoffrey F. Birchard, Marcello Ruta, and D. Charles Deeming (2013) Evolution of parental incubation behaviour in dinosaurs cannot be inferred from clutch mass in birds. (cmnh.org)
  • doi:10.1098/rsbl.2013.0036 http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/9/4/20130036.abstract A recent study proposed that incubation behaviour (i.e. type of parental care) in theropod dinosaurs can be inferred from an allometric analysis of clutch volume in extant birds. (cmnh.org)
  • [8] However, the Pleistocene coot Fulica shufeldti (formerly F. minor ), famously known as part of the Fossil Lake fauna, quite possibly was a paleosubspecies of the American coot (as Fulica americana shufeldti ) as they only differed marginally in size and proportions from living birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • In birds, destruction of a clutch by predators (or removal by humans, for example the California condor breeding program) results in double-clutching. (wikipedia.org)
  • In birds, ornithologist David Lack carried out much research into regulation of clutch size. (wikipedia.org)
  • In precocial birds, Lack determined that clutch size was determined by the nutrients available to egg-laying females. (wikipedia.org)
  • Is clutch size in birds affected by environmental conditions during growth? (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich . (wikipedia.org)
  • Small range size, high hunting vulnerability, and high human population density were important predictors of high extinction risk in Chinese endemic birds. (springer.com)
  • Owl clutches typically hatch asynchronously, and brood size hierarchies develop. (nih.gov)
  • 3) There is an annual variation in clutch size with similar changes in individual females in the same population, but it is hardly correlated between populations. (brillonline.com)
  • Large initial body size and rapid early growth rate are important in many species, both because predation rates decline as individuals grow and because females that attain a larger adult body size are more fecund. (brillonline.com)
  • An annual cycle of fluctuations of this power is seen in the immature females, and indicates how changes in condition at different seasons affect the different size-groups. (cambridge.org)
  • An attending adult was captured at six additional nests observed between 1980 and 1984 (unpublished data), and all were females that ranged in size from 93-120 mm SVL. (amphibiaweb.org)
  • After controlling for age, females were significantly larger than males in SVL, BM, and MW (mouth width): the larger female body size suggests selection for increased fecundity, whereas the larger MW possibly favors the consumption of large, energetically important prey for sustaining the continuous egg production. (bioone.org)
  • Females with the largest increase in RMR during egg production decreased locomotor activity the most but still had increased DEE at the one-egg stage, and females with high DEE at the one-egg stage produced larger clutches. (sfu.ca)
  • Free-living female great tits ( Parus major ) treated with melatonin-filled implants prior to the breeding season initiated their first clutch of the season significantly later than females carrying an empty implant. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In another study, researchers analyzed if the rates of food delivery and nest predation explain the variation in clutch size observed among species between and within South and North America. (wikipedia.org)
  • Booth DT, Astill K (2001) Incubation temperature, energy expenditure and hatchling size in the green turtle ( Chelonia myda s), a species with temperature-sensitive sex determination. (springer.com)
  • However, the study in question failed to account for factors known to affect egg and clutch size in living bird species. (cmnh.org)
  • In species which meet the assumptions of the model, the model predicts a positive correlation between maternal resource level and offspring size. (springer.com)
  • Clutch size differs greatly between species, sometimes even within the same genus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Long-lived species tend to have smaller clutch sizes than short-lived species (see also r/K selection theory). (wikipedia.org)
  • In species with altricial young, he proposed that optimal clutch size was determined by the number of young a parent could feed until fledgling. (wikipedia.org)
  • We suggest that endemic species with small range size and living in area with high human densities require conservation priorities. (springer.com)
  • Quintana, J.M.M. and Quintana, S.M. (2012) A Short-Term Advantage for Syngamy in the Origin of Eukaryotic Sex: Effects of Cell Fusion on Cell Cycle Duration and Other Effects Related to the Duration of the Cell Cycle-Relationship between Cell Growth Curve and the Optimal Size of the Species, and Circadian Cell Cycle in Photosynthetic Unicellular Organisms. (scirp.org)
  • An interesting pattern that has emerged from these observations is that species that show no or only weak phenological change, expressed either as a change in mean/median arrival date [ 6 ] or degree-days [ 8 ], have decreased in population size. (mdpi.com)
  • The Comics print, inspired by comic books and the leitmotif of the S/S 2018 show, is the protagonist of this leather clutch completed with a strap with buckle and metal studs with a contemporary vibe. (prada.com)
  • Hermès black box calf and lizard clutch with gold tone studs details. (1stdibs.com)
  • Hermès black swift and lizard jige wallet/clutch. (1stdibs.com)
  • Hermès Jige clutch in blue jean Swift leather with white contrast stitching. (1stdibs.com)
  • This unique vintage brown crocodile leather 'Pan' clutch from Hermès featuring a foldover top with Art-deco push-lock closure of sterling silver signed Hermes and is made around 1930-1940's. (1stdibs.com)
  • Hermes BNIB jige elan 29cm capucine swift leather clutch. (1stdibs.com)
  • Flames and bananas brighten this leather clutch decorated with historical Prada prints. (prada.com)
  • High rates of nest predation may select for smaller clutches to reduce the parental investment in a single nesting attempt. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is clear that Lack's Food Limitation Hypothesis and the Nest Predation Hypothesis are plausible explanations for explaining the latitudinal variation in avian clutch size. (wikipedia.org)
  • An open-flow respirometry system was used to quantify the effect of clutch size on an individual's energetic cost while digging out of the nest. (springer.com)
  • The energetic cost decreased as the number of individuals digging together increased and thus supports the 'social facilitation' hypothesis which suggests hatchlings cooperate to share the workload of digging out of the nest amongst clutch mates to reduce individual energy expenditure. (springer.com)
  • Contrary to the predictions of FPDH regarding the success of nest defense behaviors, male redwings responding at naturally parasitized nests were significantly more likely to attack the mount than males with nests that were not parasitized, although our sample size was small. (bioone.org)
  • Several patterns of variation have been noted and the relationship between latitude and clutch size has been a topic of interest in avian reproduction and evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • David Lack observed a direct relationship between latitude and avian clutch size. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hypothesis states that avian clutch size differences arise from differences in food availability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the shortage of food supply in tropical habitats (near the equator) limits avian clutch size. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new scaling analysis of avian clutch mass demonstrates that type of parental care cannot be distinguished by conventional allometry because of the confounding effects of phylogeny and hatchling maturity. (cmnh.org)
  • Thus, the avian oviduct has a highly regulated size-function relationship consistent with a high maintenance energy cost for this organ. (biologists.org)
  • However, we found that egg size varied among nests. (scielo.br)
  • Here, we document alternative functions for identified signaling pathways in larvae having 'desperate' versus 'death before dishonor' strategies in lecithotrophic clutches of a habitat specialist, the sea slug Alderia willowi . (biologists.org)
  • In an unusual dimorphism, each clutch of A. willowi hatches both non-selective larvae that settle soon after hatching and siblings that delay settlement in the absence of cues from the alga Vaucheria , the sole adult food. (biologists.org)
  • Great new tridimensional shape, this clutch is a novelty for the 2017 collection. (1stdibs.com)
  • The latitudinal variation in clutch size is influenced by the food abundance per unit area of habitat. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4) Within populations there is no detectable variation in clutch size that can be attributed to differences in habitat quality. (brillonline.com)
  • Then we explored which factors were related to dragon antipredator behaviour, such as habitat disturbance, origin population, morphology, and parental genetic effects and phenotype (clutch effects). (deepdyve.com)
  • 5) About 40% of the total phenotypic variation in clutch size is genetic variation. (brillonline.com)
  • Crump, M. L. and Kaplan R. H. (1979) Clutch energy partitioning of tropical tree frogs (Hylidae). (springer.com)
  • This behavior was explained within the framework of the molecular clutch model, with lower viscosity leading to a low force loading rate, preventing the exposure of mechanosensitive proteins, and with a higher viscosity causing a higher force loading rate exposing these sites, activating downstream pathways. (pnas.org)
  • They analyzed whether Skutch's Hypothesis explained clutch size differences within or between latitudes. (wikipedia.org)
  • There were significant differences among clutches in egg size, and also in initial hatchling body size, even after correcting for differences in egg size among clutches. (brillonline.com)
  • Sexual differences in reproductive investment, territoriality and resource use may result in sexual dimorphism on body size and other morphological traits. (bioone.org)
  • The results indicated that A. narinari near Campeche is a specialist and selective predator that feeds mainly on gastropods (92.7% IRI), with no significant differences in the diet found between sexes, size groups, or between stomach and intestine contents. (cambridge.org)
  • One theoretical research study suggested that the latitudinal gradient in clutch size can be explained by the increasing seasonality of resources from the tropics to the poles by itself or in conjunction with a decreasing rate of predation and breeding season. (wikipedia.org)
  • Female promiscuity showed no relationship with body size, life history variation, latitude or cooperative breeding. (uio.no)
  • Booth DT (1998a) Egg size, clutch size, and reproductive effort of the Australian broad-shelled river turtle, Chelodina expansa . (springer.com)
  • L. Age/Size at Reproductive Maturity. (amphibiaweb.org)
  • A reproductive strategy includes physiological, morphological, behavioral traits dependent on exogenous and endogenous regulators, including size/age at maturity, temporal variation in gametogenic cycles, and size-fecundity relationships. (bioone.org)
  • Evolution of sexual size dimorphism in grouse and allies (Aves: Phasianidae) in relation to mating competition, fecundity demands and resource division. (uib.no)
  • Parker, G. A. and Begon, M. (1986) Optimal egg size and clutch size: effects of environment and maternal phenotype. (springer.com)
  • In this report, the global Racing Clutches market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022. (aarkstore.com)
  • Given these identifiable costs and benefits, this predicts that oviduct size should be tightly coupled to the functional demands of this organ ( sensu Diamond and Hammond, 1992 ). (biologists.org)
  • Hermes vintage rouge H vibrato clutch with metal clasp. (1stdibs.com)
  • Sargent, R. C., Taylor, P. D. and Gross, M. R. (1987) Parental care and the evolution of egg size in fishes. (springer.com)
  • In Argentina, the number of offspring was half that of Arizona, yet parents were bringing food to their young at greater rates in Argentina.Therefore, clutch size in southern areas cannot be explained by predation rates or food delivery. (wikipedia.org)
  • STYLES /FEATURES/ MATERIAL: This clutch bag for women come in many different styles, like crossbody bags, casual bags, handbags, and this shoulder bag will make you look even taller. (godagainstgod.com)
  • Shovelers are a medium-sized duck with a distinctive large bill. (nd.gov)
  • The Hardhead is a medium-sized duck which appears mainly chocolate brown when swimming, with a white undertail. (birdsinbackyards.net)
  • Moreover, larger clutches are more likely to be spotted by predators due to an increased rate of food delivery by the parent. (wikipedia.org)
  • If larger mothers are able to allocate more resources to offspring, then the model would also predict a positive correlation between maternal size and offspring size when the assumptions of the model are met. (springer.com)
  • When offspring are produced in groups and the number of offspring killed per clutch is limited by predator satiation, offspring in larger clutches may experience a higher probability of survival. (springer.com)
  • larger in size. (parrots.org)
  • these clutch sizes are considerably larger than those reported by Webb (1971). (amphibiaweb.org)
  • Endotracheal tube clutch including a left half, a right half mounted about a living hinge, wings extending out from each half, a semi-circular large hole, small hole and bite block in each half, and a locking assembly for each half for engagement with respect to each other. (google.co.uk)
  • According to one embodiment of the present invention, there is provided an endotracheal tube clutch including a right half and a left half movable about a living hinge, wing and locking members extending out from the halves, a large hole for an adult endotracheal tube, small hole for a pediatrics tube, and a bite block surrounding the large hole and extending downwardly from the substantially circular member. (google.co.uk)
  • Perhaps the most conspicuous physical characteristic of blindsnakes is their small size. (encyclopedia.com)
  • To feed their young, adult ospreys tear off small pieces of fish when the chicks are very young and adjust size as they get older. (in.gov)
  • We found several significant associations with female promiscuity, albeit with fairly small effect sizes (all R2 ≤ 0.08). (uio.no)
  • In this study we investigated stable isotopic values and maturity and size composition of krill at a small spatial scale, by logging GPS tracks of five Chinstrap Pygoscelis antarcticus and seven Gentoo P. papua penguins, and analyzing their stomach contents. (go.jp)
  • But I decided to do this again without combining, but removing some of the questions because of small sample sizes. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Sexual maturity in both larval and terrestrial forms usually occurs at sizes greater than 115 mm SVL (Nussbaum et al. (amphibiaweb.org)
  • The present invention overcomes the disadvantages of the prior art by providing an endotracheal tube clutch which can be operated with minimal effort and accommodates all sizes of endotracheal tubes, adult tubes and pediatric tubes. (google.co.uk)
  • The general purpose of the present invention is an endotracheal tube clutch which can be easily applied to an adult endotracheal tube, a pediatrics endotracheal tube and can easily be operated, even by one hand. (google.co.uk)
  • P. krameri is a common, medium-sized (± 40 cm) bird found in a variety of forested and other habitats such as light secondary forest, riparian woodland, mangroves, savanna grasslands, open farmlands with scattere. (cabi.org)
  • Carolina, few studies have been conducted examining geographic and temporal restraints on clutch viability. (ufl.edu)
  • Nature favours clutch sizes that correspond to the average maximum number of offspring that the parent can sustain given a limited food supply. (wikipedia.org)
  • Average clutch size is 3, range is 2-4. (in.gov)
  • Brand new in Box: Hermes blue Zanzibar epsom leather new clutch with palladium zipper. (1stdibs.com)
  • A beautiful pair of stiletto's which I bought in America several years ago but have not worn (American size 10). (ebay.co.uk)
  • Alexander McQueen reworks its iconic box clutch in black leather with multi-sized silver studs . (net-a-porter.com)
  • McGinley, M. A. and Charnov, E. L. (1988) Multiple resources and the optimal size and number of offspring. (springer.com)
  • Runners and fighters: clutch effects and body size drive innate antipredator behaviour in. (deepdyve.com)
  • Higher incubation temperatures resulted in significantly shorter incubation periods but did not influence initial body size. (brillonline.com)
  • It can be identified by its size as well as its large red crest and black and white body. (ohiohistorycentral.org)
  • 7) The implications for rapid evolutionary change in mean clutch size are discussed. (brillonline.com)
  • A common medium-sized gull on the West Coast, the California Gull can commonly be found near oceans, lakes, and dumpsters. (officialusa.com)
  • Congdon, J. D. and Gibbons, J. W. (1987) Morphological constraint on egg size: a challenge to optimal egg size theory? (springer.com)