A highly conserved heterodimeric glycoprotein that is differentially expressed during many severe physiological disturbance states such as CANCER; APOPTOSIS; and various NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS. Clusterin is ubiquitously expressed and appears to function as a secreted MOLECULAR CHAPERONE.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.
The network of channels formed at the termination of the straight SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES in the mediastinum testis. Rete testis channels drain into the efferent ductules that pass into the caput EPIDIDYMIS.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Text editing and storage functions using computer software.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A MAMMAGLOBIN A-related secretoglobin that is expressed in several HUMAN tissues including the UTERUS; BREAST; SALIVARY GLAND; and LACRIMAL GLAND.
A first generation selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM). Like TAMOXIFEN, it is an estrogen agonist for bone tissue and cholesterol metabolism but is antagonistic on mammary and uterine tissue.
Substances that possess antiestrogenic actions but can also produce estrogenic effects as well. They act as complete or partial agonist or as antagonist. They can be either steroidal or nonsteroidal in structure.
One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the action or biosynthesis of estrogenic compounds.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.
Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)

Recovery following relief of unilateral ureteral obstruction in the neonatal rat. (1/535)

BACKGROUND: Obstructive nephropathy is a primary cause of renal insufficiency in infants and children. This study was designed to distinguish the reversible and irreversible cellular consequences of temporary unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) on the developing kidney. METHODS: Rats were subjected to UUO or sham operation in the first 48 hours of life, and the obstruction was removed five days later (or was left in place). Kidneys were removed for study 14 or 28 days later. In additional groups, kidneys were removed at the end of five days of obstruction. Immunoreactive distribution of renin was determined in arterioles, and the distribution of epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta1, clusterin, vimentin, and alpha-smooth muscle actin was determined in tubules and/or interstitium. The number of glomeruli, glomerular maturation, tubular atrophy, and interstitial collagen deposition was determined by morphometry. Renal cellular proliferation and apoptosis were measured by proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the TdT uridine-nick-end-label technique, respectively. The glomerular filtration rate was measured by inulin clearance. RESULTS: Renal microvascular renin maintained a fetal distribution with persistent UUO; this was partially reversed by the relief of obstruction. Although glomerular maturation was also delayed and glomerular volume was reduced by UUO, the relief of obstruction prevented the reduction in glomerular volume. Although relief of obstruction did not reverse a 40% reduction in the number of nephrons, the glomerular filtration rate of the postobstructed kidney was normal. The relief of obstruction did not improve tubular cell proliferation and only partially reduced apoptosis induced by UUO. This was associated with a persistent reduction in the tubular epidermal growth factor. In addition, the relief of obstruction reduced but did not normalize tubular expression of transforming growth factor-beta1, clusterin, and vimentin, all of which are evidence of persistent tubular injury. The relief of obstruction significantly reduced interstitial fibrosis and expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin by interstitial fibroblasts, but not to normal levels. CONCLUSIONS: The relief of obstruction in the neonatal rat attenuates, but does not reverse, renal vascular, glomerular, tubular, and interstitial injury resulting from five days of UUO. Hyperfiltration by remaining nephrons and residual tubulointerstitial injury in the postobstructed kidney are likely to lead to deterioration of renal function later in life.  (+info)

Clusterin has chaperone-like activity similar to that of small heat shock proteins. (2/535)

Clusterin is a highly conserved protein which is expressed at increased levels by many cell types in response to a broad variety of stress conditions. A genuine physiological function for clusterin has not yet been established. The results presented here demonstrate for the first time that clusterin has chaperone-like activity. At physiological concentrations, clusterin potently protected glutathione S-transferase and catalase from heat-induced precipitation and alpha-lactalbumin and bovine serum albumin from precipitation induced by reduction with dithiothreitol. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay data showed that clusterin bound preferentially to heat-stressed glutathione S-transferase and to dithiothreitol-treated bovine serum albumin and alpha-lactalbumin. Size exclusion chromatography and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses showed that clusterin formed high molecular weight complexes (HMW) with all four proteins tested. Small heat shock proteins (sHSP) also act in this way to prevent protein precipitation and protect cells from heat and other stresses. The stoichiometric subunit molar ratios of clusterin:stressed protein during formation of HMW complexes (which for the four proteins tested ranged from 1.0:1.3 to 1.0:11) is less than the reported ratios for sHSP-mediated formation of HMW complexes (1.0:1.0 or greater), indicating that clusterin is a very efficient chaperone. Our results suggest that clusterin may play a sHSP-like role in cytoprotection.  (+info)

Clusterin gene expression mediates resistance to apoptotic cell death induced by heat shock and oxidative stress. (3/535)

Clusterin is a widely expressed, well conserved, secreted glycoprotein, which is highly induced in tissues regressing as a consequence of apoptotic cell death in vivo. It has recently been shown that clusterin expression is only confined to surviving cells following the induction of apoptosis in vitro, suggesting that it is involved in cell survival rather than death. In the hypothesis that clusterin may be implicated in cellular responses to stress, clusterin gene expression was analyzed in the A431 human epidermoid cancer cell line following heat shock and oxidative stress. Our results show that both a transient heat shock (20 min at 42 degrees C) and various oxidative stresses, including hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, hyperoxia and UVA exposure, induce a strong increase in clusterin mRNA levels as assessed by northern blot. Nuclear run-on analysis suggests that transcriptional activation is involved in inducing clusterin mRNA in response to heat shock. Using pulse-chase analysis of control and heat shocked cells, it is shown that clusterin mRNA is translated and secreted, thus resulting in increased extracellular levels of the protein following heat shock. To investigate the function of clusterin in response to these stresses, clusterin anti-sense transfectants that stably express virtually no clusterin at the mRNA and protein level were generated in A431 cells. These anti-sense transfectants are shown to be highly sensitive to apoptotic cell death induced by heat shock or oxidative stress compared with wild-type A431 cells or control transfectants. Taken together, our results show that clusterin gene expression is induced in response to heat shock and oxidative stress in human A431 cells, and confers cellular protection against heat shock and oxidative stress.  (+info)

Effect of targeted expression of clusterin in photoreceptor cells on retinal development and differentiation. (4/535)

Clusterin expression is increased in tissues undergoing apoptosis, including neurodegenerative retina, but the causal relationships remain to be clarified. To test the hypothesis that overexpression of clusterin could induce apoptosis in neurons, transgenic mice were generated in which rat clusterin transgene was expressed in photoreceptor cells under the transcriptional control of the human interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) promoter. Photoreceptor cell death in the resulting transgenic mice was examined by histology and TUNEL techniques. The expression of the clusterin transgene was confirmed by in situ hybridization in the photoreceptor cells, and results in a complex pattern of clusterin protein distribution in the retina. A reduction in apoptotic staining in the transgenic retinas was observed from birth to postnatal day 15. These results suggest that clusterin is not causally involved in apoptotic mechanisms of photoreceptor cell death, but may relate to cytoprotective functions.  (+info)

Nerve growth factor and epidermal growth factor stimulate clusterin gene expression in PC12 cells. (5/535)

Clusterin (apolipoprotein J) is an extracellular glycoprotein that might exert functions in development, cell death and lipid transport. Clusterin gene expression is elevated at sites of tissue remodelling, such as differentiation and apoptosis; however, the signals responsible for this regulation have not been identified. We use here the clusterin gene as a model system to examine expression in PC12 cells under the control of differentiation and proliferation signals produced by nerve growth factor (NGF) and by epidermal growth factor (EGF) respectively. NGF induced clusterin mRNA, which preceded neurite outgrowth typical of neuronal differentiation. EGF also activated the clusterin mRNA, demonstrating that both proliferation and differentiation signals regulate the gene. To localize NGF- and EGF-responsive elements we isolated the clusterin promoter and tested it in PC12 cell transfections. A 2.5 kb promoter fragment and two 1.5 and 0.3 kb deletion mutants were inducible by NGF and EGF. The contribution to this response of a conserved activator protein 1 (AP-1) motif located in the 0.3 kb fragment was analysed by mutagenesis. The mutant promoter was not inducible by NGF or EGF, which identifies the AP-1 motif as an element responding to both factors. Binding studies with PC12 nuclear extracts showed that AP-1 binds to this sequence in the clusterin promoter. These findings suggest that NGF and EGF, which give differential gene regulation in PC12 cells, resulting in neuronal differentiation and proliferation respectively, use the common Ras/extracellular signal-regulated kinase/AP-1 signalling pathway to activate clusterin expression.  (+info)

Clusterin (SGP-2) gene expression is cell cycle dependent in normal human dermal fibroblasts. (6/535)

In confluent human dermal fibroblasts brought to quiescence (G0) by serum starvation, the S phase peaked at 24 h after serum re-addiction and G2/M phase peaked at 36 h. This was confirmed by titration of h-gas1 mRNA (a marker of G0 phase) and histone H3 (a marker of S phase). Clusterin mRNA accumulation progressively increased in cells proceeding to confluence after seeding and to quiescence upon serum starvation, and peaked at around G0, in parallel with h-gas1 mRNA. At 6 h (roughly G1 phase) clusterin transcript formed a second peak, followed by a gradual decrease until 36 h. Correspondence of clusterin protein accumulation to its mRNA occurred solely with regard to the G0 peak but not to the second one. The possible meaning of the cell cycle related clusterin gene expression is discussed.  (+info)

Isolation of Ku70-binding proteins (KUBs). (7/535)

DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) plays a critical role in resealing DNA double-stand breaks by non-homologous end joining. Aside from DNA-PK, XRCC4 and DNA ligase IV, other proteins which play a role(s) in this repair pathway remain unknown; DNA-PK contains a catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and a DNA binding subunit (Ku70 and Ku80). We isolated Ku70-binding proteins (KUB1-KUB4) using yeast two-hybrid analyses. Sequence analyses revealed KUB1 to be apolipoprotein J (apoJ), also known as X-ray-inducible transcript 8 (XIP8), testosterone-repressed prostate message-2 (TRPM-2) and clusterin. KUB2 is Ku80. KUB3 and KUB4 are unknown, >10 kb trans-cripts. Interactions of apoJ/XIP8 or KUB3 with Ku70 were confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation analyses in MCF-7:WS8 breast cancer or IMR-90 normal lung fibroblast cells, respectively. The interaction of apoJ/XIP8 with Ku70 was confirmed by far-western analyses. Stable over-expression of full-length apoJ/XIP8 in MCF-7:WS8 caused decreased Ku70/Ku80 DNA end binding that was restored by apoJ/XIP8 monoclonal antibodies. The role of apoJ/XIP8 in ionizing radiation resistance/sensitivity is under investigation.  (+info)

Targeted disruption of the murine lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase gene is associated with reductions in plasma paraoxonase and platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase activities but not in apolipoprotein J concentration. (8/535)

Lecithin:cholesteryl acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency resulting from targeted disruption of the Lcat gene in the mouse is associated with dramatic decreases in HDL concentration and the accumulation of nascent HDL in the plasma. We examined whether LCAT deficiency in mice is associated with a concomitant decrease in two antioxidative enzymes, paraoxonase (PON) and platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH). In control Lcat (+/+) mice both these enzymes are transported on HDL. Compared to Lcat (+/+) mice, HDL-cholesterol is reduced 94% and apoA-I, 90%, in Lcat (-/-) mice; this reduction in HDL is paralleled by a 71% decrease in PAF-AH activity and in a 58% decrease in PON activity. Apolipoprotein J (apoJ) levels, rather than being decreased, were significantly (P = 0.01) higher (36%) in Lcat (-/-) than in Lcat (+/+) mice, and the apo J/PON ratio was 3-fold greater in Lcat (-/-) than in Lcat (+/+) animals. Even though apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) concentration and PON activity were drastically reduced, there was no reduction in apoA-I and PON liver mRNA levels suggesting that post-transcriptional events are responsible for the reduction of plasma PON and apoA-I levels. Fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) revealed that in Lcat (+/+) mice both PON and PAF-AH activity is associated with large, apoA-I-containing HDL particles (9.7 nm by non-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) while in Lcat (-/-) mice both enzymes are associated with small 8.2 nm particles. We conclude that the concomitant reduction in HDL and apoA-I concentrations and PON and PAF-AH activities is best explained by rapid clearance of the small HDL particles found in LCAT deficiency.  (+info)

Both isoforms of the hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) are highly associated with virus proliferation and may act as co-activators of cellular gene expression. Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line Huh7, which stably expresses HDAgs, was differentially screened and the results showed that clusterin gene expression was enhanced. The mechanisms for HDAg-mediated clusterin gene upregulation were investigated. Expression of HDAgs was associated with enhanced histone H3 acetylation within the clusterin promoter in a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Transient transfection of HDAg-expressing plasmids into Huh7 cells also enhanced clusterin expression and histone acetylation. Furthermore, HDV replication was associated with histone hyperacetylation and clusterin induction. The effect of increased clusterin expression was determined by a chemosensitivity assay with adriamycin treatment. These data indicated that HDV-induced clusterin protein increases cell survival
Title:Secretory Clusterin: A Promising Target for Chemoresistance of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. VOLUME: 20 ISSUE: 12. Author(s):Jie Zhang, Mengna Wu, Yuqing Xu, Qianqian Song and Wenjie Zheng*. Affiliation:Department of Chemotherapy, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, 20 Xisi Road, 226001 Nantong, Jiangsu, Research Center of Clinical Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, 20 Xisi Road, 226001 Nantong, Jiangsu, Research Center of Clinical Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, 20 Xisi Road, 226001 Nantong, Jiangsu, Department of Radiology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, One Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, 27157 NC, Research Center of Clinical Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, 20 Xisi Road, 226001 Nantong, Jiangsu. Keywords:Hepatocellular carcinoma, secretory clusterin, drug resistance, molecular target, cancer, sCLU.. Abstract:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Chemoresistance ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interaction of complement and clusterin in renal injury. AU - Correa-Rotter, Ricardo. AU - Hostetter, Thomas H.. AU - Nath, Karl A. AU - Manivel, J. Carlos. AU - Rosenberg, Mark E.. PY - 1992/11. Y1 - 1992/11. N2 - Clusterin is a heterodimeric glycoprotein that has been associated with such diverse biologic functions as reproduction, cell regression, cell aggregation, and regulation of the cytolytic activity of the membrane attack complex of complement. Clusterin is a component of glomerular immune deposits in the kidney, and increased Clusterin expression occurs in a number of renal injury states. To further explore the interaction between Clusterin and complement, the requirement for an intact complement system for renal Clusterin induction in an acute (folic acid nephropathy) and a chronic (subtotal renal ablation) model of renal injury was examined. After it was first demonstrated that folic acid increased renal clusterin mRNA in the rat, a species in which renal clusterin ...
Background: Clusterin is a cytoprotective chaperone protein that promotes cell survival and confers broad-spectrum treatment resistance. OGX-011 is a 2′-methoxyethyl modified phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotide that is complementary to clusterin mRNA and has been reported to inhibit clusterin expression and enhance drug efficacy in xenograft models. The primary objective of this clinical study was to determine a biologically effective dose of OGX-011 that would inhibit clusterin expression in human cancer. Methods: Subjects (n = 25) with localized prostate cancer with high-risk features who were candidates for prostatectomy were treated with OGX-011 by 2-hour intravenous infusion on days 1, 3, and 5 and then weekly from days 8-29 combined with androgen blockade starting on day 1; prostatectomy was performed on days 30-36. Six different doses were tested, from 40 to 640 mg. OGX-011 plasma and prostate tissue concentrations were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method, and ...
Purpose: The clusterin gene encodes a multi-functional protein that has been identified in different tissues, including a number of different eye tissues, primarily in the mouse and to a much lesser extent in humans. Clusterin has been implicated in a number of cellular processes such as lipid transport, membrane integrity, apoptosis, and neurodegeneration, all of which could be important to the biology of the eye. In the current communication, we provide data that confirms the expression of clusterin in a number of different human eye tissues and establishes the expression profile of this gene in monkey derived eye tissues. The issue that we sought to examine is whether a broad profile of clusterin expression in the eye is consistent in primates (monkey and human). Methods: The majority of our study was done using monkey eye tissues. Where possible, we have used human tissues in order to confirm published findings. Northern and western analysis was performed using tissues derived from monkey eyes. In
Antiestrogens represent the first line of therapy in the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer patients. Unfortunately, up to 40% of patients develop resistance associated with progression and frequently die for metastatic breast cancer. The molecular events leading to pharmacological resistance are not completely understood. We attempted to verify in an experimental model the role of cytoplasmic clusterin (CLU), a cytoprotective protein found to be up-regulated in antiestrogen-resistant patients, following neoadjuvant treatment with toremifene. The role of cytoplasmic clusterin in modulating response to two antiestrogens (toremifene and tamoxifen) was studied in two ER+ anti-estrogen-sensitive cell lines (MCF-7, 734B) and one ER+ antiestrogen-resistant cell line (T47D) using siRNA strategy. Resistant cells were characterised by higher levels of cytoplasmic clusterin than sensitive cells, and antiestrogen treatments up-regulated clusterin levels in both sensitive and ...
Apolipoprotein J Antibody functions as a secreted chaperone that prevents aggregation of nonnative proteins. It prevents stress-induced aggregation of blood plasma proteins and inhibits the formations of amyloid fibrils. Apolipoprotein J does not require ATP or refold proteins by itself. It maintains partially unfolded proteins in a state for subsequent refolding by other chaperones. It is shown to be involved in several basic biological events such as cell death, tumor progression, and neurodegenerative disorders. Binding to cell surface receptors it triggers internalization of chaperone-client complex and subsequent lysosomal or proteasomal degradation. It modulates NF-kappa-B transcriptional activity. Nuclear isoforms promote apoptosis while mitochondrial isoforms suppress BAX-dependent release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm and inhibit apoptosis. Anti-Apolipoprotein J Antibody is useful for researchers interested in the immune system, Ubiquitin pathways, and cardiovascular research.
Clusterin is a chaperone protein that is synthesized in response to cellular stress. It often appears in cells undergoing apoptosis - both as part of developmental programmes such as tissue involution and in numerous pathological conditions - but has also been reported to confer resistance to apoptosis in some cases. Whether it is a pro-survival or a pro-death molecule is therefore unclear. Laure Debure and co-workers have examined the effects of clusterin expression in COS-7 cells (see p. 3109). They find that clusterin can accumulate in juxtanuclear aggregates that exhibit features characteristic of aggresomes (inclusion bodies thought to prevent misfolded proteins spreading throughout the cell). They have a vimentin cage, for example, and can be disrupted by treatment with the chaperone Hsp70 or microtubule-depolymerising drugs. The authors also observe, however, that clusterin expression disrupts mitochondria and induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway - this can be prevented by ...
Clusterin (CLU; also known as apolipoprotein J, ApoJ) is a protein of inconstant structure known to be involved in diverse processes inside and outside of brain cells. CLU can act as a protein chaperon or protein solubilizer, lipid transporter as well as redox sensor and be anti- or proapoptotic, depending on context. Primary structure of CLU is encoded by CLU gene which contains single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the risk of late-onset Alzheimers disease (LOAD). Studying a sample of Czech population and using the case-control association approach we identified C allele of the SNP rs11136000 as conferring a reduced risk of LOAD, more so in females than in males. Additionally, data from two smaller subsets of the population sample suggested a possible association of rs11136000 with diabetes mellitus. In a parallel study, we found no association between rs11136000 and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Our findings on rs11136000 and LOAD contradict those of some previous ...
Clusterin was originally described as a major glycoprotein synthesized in the male reproductive systems of the ram and rat.1,2 Since then it has been identified in a wide range of biological fluids and tissues in many species.1,3-9 Identification of rat clusterin messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) to TRPM-2 (testosterone repressed prostatic message 2),10-12 a transcript found to be prevalent in vivo in involuting tissues whether induced in experimental models or naturally during development of the embryo, raised the question of a possible involvement of clusterin in programmed cell death.13,14 Reports by several independent groups of researchers on the upregulation of the clusterin gene in brains of hamsters infected with the scrapie agent15 and of humans afflicted with Alzheimers disease (AD),16 epilepsy,17 or gliomas,17 as well as in the degenerating human retina18 gave support to the apoptosis hypothesis and generated strong interest in the role of clusterin in the central nervous system ...
Immature motoneurons are highly susceptible to degeneration following axon injury. The response of perineuronal glia to axon injury may significantly influence neuronal survival and axon regeneration. We have examined the central reactions to neonatal facial nerve transection with emphasis on the expression of complement component C3 (C3) and the multifunctional apolipoprotein J (ApoJ). Axotomy was performed on one-day-old rats. Animals were perfused from eight hours to two weeks after the lesion. The astroglial marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was increased from one day and the microglial marker OX-42 from two days after injury. ApoJ immunoreactivity was increased in axotomized neuronal perikarya and astroglial cells from one day postaxotomy, but no C3 immunoreactive profiles were found at any postoperative survival time. Cell proliferation as judged by bromodeoxyuridine labeling and immunoreactivity for the cyclin Ki-67 antigen (antibody MIB5) occurred only at two days after ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clusterin and DNA repair. T2 - A new function in cancer for a key player in apoptosis and cell cycle control. AU - Shannan, B.. AU - Seifert, M.. AU - Boothman, D. A.. AU - Tilgen, W.. AU - Reichrath, J.. PY - 2006/9/1. Y1 - 2006/9/1. N2 - The glycoprotein clusterin (CLU), has two known isoforms generated in human cells. A nuclear form of CLU protein (nCLU) is pro-apoptotic, while a secretory form (sCLU) is pro-survival. Both forms are implicated in various cell functions, including DNA repair, cell cycle regulation, and apoptotic cell death. CLU expression has been associated with tumorigenesis and the progression of various malignancies. In response to DNA damage, cell survival can be enhanced by activation of DNA repair mechanisms, while simultaneously stimulating energy-expensive cell cycle checkpoints that delay the cell cycle progression to allow more time for DNA repair. This review summarizes our current understanding of the role of clusterin in DNA repair, apoptosis, and ...
Premature senescence of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) can be induced by exposures to a variety of oxidative stress and DNA damaging agents. In this study we developed a robust model of UVB-induced premature senescence of skin HDFs. After a series of 10 subcytotoxic (non-proapoptotic) exposures to UVB at 250 mJ/cm2, the so-called biomarkers of senescence were markedly expressed: growth arrest, senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, senescence-associated gene overexpression, deletion in mitochondrial DNA. A set of 44 stress- and senescence-associated genes were found to be differentially expressed in this model, among which clusterin/apolipoprotein J (apo J) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Transfection of apo J cDNA provided protection against premature senescence-inducing doses of UVB and other stressful agents. Neutralizing antibodies against TGF-β1 or its receptor II (TβRII) sharply attenuated the senescence-associated features, suggesting a role for TGF-β1 in ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Sulfated Glycoproteins, Glycolipids, and Glycosaminoglycans from Synaptic Plasma and Myelin Membranes. T2 - Isolation and Characterization of Sulfated Glycopeptides. AU - Simpson, David L.. AU - Thorne, Donald R.. AU - Loh, Horace H. PY - 1976/12/1. Y1 - 1976/12/1. N2 - In this report we provide biochemical evidence that a highly purified synaptic plasma membrane fraction derived from rat brain, after intraventricular injection of 35S-labeled sodium sulfate, is enriched in a number of large sulfated glycoproteins compared with a purified myelin fraction studied concurrently. A fraction of the detergent-solubilized sulfated glycoprotein bound specifically to concanavalin A-Sepharose. In addition, we have identified the 35S-labeled lipid-soluble material in these membrane fractions as cerebroside sulfate. The sulfated protein in the lipid-extracted membranes was shown to consist predominantly of a class of glycoproteins containing sulfate in ester linkage to oligosaccharide chains, ...
Anti-human Clusterin mAb, is derived from hybridization of mouse SP2/O myeloma cells with spleen cells from BALB/c immunized mice.
Clusterin also named Apolipoprotein J is a 75-80 kD disulfide-linked heterodimeric protein containing about 30% of N-linked carbohydrate rich in sialic acid.
Figure 3. Ocular clusterin localization by immunohistochemistry and in situ analysis. Shown are sections of cornea (panels A-C, serial sections), skin/eyelid (panels D, E, serial sections), ciliary body (unfilled arrow and * in panel F), and lens (panels G, H, serial sections). Immunodetection with G7 are shown in panels B, E, F, and H; panels A, D, and G are the negative controls in which the G7 antibody was omitted. In situ hybridization of an anti-sense clusterin mRNA probe on cornea is shown in panel C. Panel I: graph illustrating the distribution of silver grain over different regions of the cornea shown in panel C, for each general region 10 independent counts within a fixed area were taken. Solid arrows indicate the interface between epithelial and stromal cells (cs) in the cornea, arrow heads indicate the area of epithelial cells in the lens.. ...
Loss of cardiomyocytes occurs with aging and contributes to cardiovascular complications. In the present study, we highlighted the role of clusterin, a protein that has recently been associated with the protection of cardiomyocytes from apoptosis. Clusterin protects cardiac cells against damage from myocardial infarction, transplant, or myocarditis. Clusterin can act directly or indirectly on apoptosis by regulating several intracellular pathways. These pathways include (1) the oxidant and inflammatory program, (2) insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1) pathway, (3) KU70 / BCL-2-associated X protein (BAX) pathway, (4) tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) pathway, (5) BCL-2 antagonist of cell death (BAD) pathway, and (6) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway ...
Joel 3:1-21. The Lord Will Be A Refuge Joel 3:1-21 Lesson 3 Key Verse: 3:16b JoelBibleSchool NIU UBF 5/29/08 Delivered by Jennifer Jesmer …But the LORD will be a refuge for his people, a stronghold for the people of Israel. From the last passage I learned that repentance is the most important thing to […]. Read More... ...
This work has been made available to the staff and students of the University of Sydney for the purposes of research and study only. It constitutes material that is held by the University for the purposes of reporting for HERDC and the ERA. This work may not be downloaded, copied and distributed to any third party ...
BioVendor - BioVendor Research and Diagnostic Products is a developer and manufacturer of immunoassays, recombinant proteins, antibodies and endotoxin-removal products.
BioVendor - BioVendor Research and Diagnostic Products is a developer and manufacturer of immunoassays, recombinant proteins, antibodies and endotoxin-removal products.
As we can see the amount of discrete information held in working memory at any one time is quite limited. However, by writing things out as we process our information rather than simply listing the desired outcomes we can formulate a greater number of possibilities.. Lets look through our planners and pick a to-do. Let us suppose we wish to communicate good tidings to Macbeth and hail him Thane of Cawdor. The most obvious choice is to climb to the top of the highest tower and contact him via semaphore. However this would be time consuming not to mention hazardous. What are the options? By exploring the alternatives on paper we have provided ourselves with three choices each one conveys the main message- Macbeth you are now Thane of Cawdor plus a deeper more subjective one. For example:. * Carrier pigeons - Speedy yet impersonal.. * Messenger - slower but makes the receiver feel important.. * Three Fates wearing false beards appear out of thin air - dramatic; the sender is prone to ...
const int SerialWindow::kBaudrates[] = { 50, 75, 110, .... }; SerialWindow::SerialWindow() : .... { .... for(int i = sizeof(kBaudrates) / sizeof(char*); // ,= --i ,= 0;) { message = new BMessage(kMsgSettings); message-,AddInt32(baudrate, kBaudrateConstants[i]); char buffer[7]; sprintf(buffer, %d, kBaudrates[i]); // ,= BMenuItem* item = new BMenuItem(buffer, message); fBaudrateMenu-,AddItem(item ...
While I have always been extremely health conscious and am presently in excellent health, I did become temporarily out-of-commission (i.e. I was really sick) in 2005 with a number of at the time unexplainable symptoms. I was quite puzzled at the time because I had been eating mainly organically grown food, drinking spring water, doing Yoga every morning, and going to the gym several times a week. In other words, I was doing everything one is supposed to do to stay healthy. I was not supposed to get sick. It took me six months before discovering or even imagining the main source of the problem - which was in fact overexposure to electromagnetic - especially microwave - radiation. I was living within 200 meters of two cell phone towers at the time and within 500 meters of a 3rd one with numerous WiFi signals bleeding into my apartment from adjacent neighbors. I developed a host of symptoms, which are found in what has been misleadingly described as Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) -- but much more ...
Clusterin, ubiquitously distributed in mammalians, was cloned and identified as the most potently induced gene during rat prostate involution following androgen deprivation. Also found to be involved in many other patho-physiological processes, its biological significance is still controversial, particularly with regard to apoptosis. We previously showed that transient over-expression of clusterin blocked cell cycle progression of simian-virus-40-immortalized human prostate epithelial cell lines PNT1A and PNT2. We show in the present study that the accumulation of an intracellular 45 kDa clusterin isoform was an early event closely associated with death of PNT1A cells caused by cell detachment followed by apoptosis induction (anoikis). Cell morphological changes, decreased proliferation rate and cell cycle arrest at G0/G1-S-phase checkpoint were all strictly associated with the production and early translocation to the nucleus of a 45 kDa clusterin isoform. Later, nuclear clusterin was found ...
The CLU gene is located on p21-p12 of human chromosome 8, with CLU as its encoded product, which has various physiological functions, including participating in lipid metabolism (28), oxidative stress reaction (29), and cell cycle regulation (30). CLU is highly expressed in cerebrospinal fluid and amyloid plaques in brain tissues, and is involved in the pathogenesis of AD (4,5,31). Yerbury et al (32) demonstrated that the deposition of CLU in senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles of AD. Howlett et al (33) further reported a correlation between CLU and senile plaque Aβ40 in the brain cortex of patients with AD. Martin-Rehrmann et al (34) demonstrated the presence of dysfunctional neurons with phosphorylated tau protein surrounding the senile plaques in 71% of CLU-positive patients with AD. Furthermore, they also showed that the tau and phosphorylated tau protein were significantly increased in the rat hippocampus, following the injection of a CLU-rich solution (34). It was suggested that ...
Objective: To investigate the differences between chondrocytes of the superficial and underlying zones of articular cartilage at the level of gene expression. Methods: Messenger RNA (mRNA) was isolated from chondrocytes harvested from the superficial and deep zones of immature bovine articular cartilage. This mRNA was reverse transcribed, radiolabeled, and then each complementary DNA (cDNA) sample was used to screen duplicate filters of a bovine chondrocyte cDNA library. By comparing autoradiographic signals on matching filter sets, clones exclusively expressed in the superficial zone of articular cartilage were isolated and characterized further. Results: Of the superficial-specific gene clones isolated, 25% were found to be a single gene product, clusterin. Northern hybridization was used to show that clusterin is expressed specifically in the superficial zone of articular cartilage and that its expression is up-regulated in mature cartilage. In situ hybridization was used to precisely ...
The blockade of angiotensin II (Ang II) is a significant therapeutic technique for diabetic nephropathy. cultured renal tubular epithelial cell collection, using immunoblot evaluation and real-time RT-PCR. Nuclear localization of NF-B was examined using immunofluorecence and co-immunoprecipitation. Renal fibrosis and manifestation of AT1R was higher in the kidneys of clusterin-/- mice than in those of wild-type mice. Furthermore, lack of clusterin accelerated Ang II-stimulated renal fibrosis and AT1R manifestation. Overexpression of clusterin in proximal tubular epithelial cells reduced the degrees of Ang II-stimulated fibrotic markers and AT1R. Furthermore, intrarenal delivery of clusterin attenuated Ang II-mediated manifestation of fibrotic markers and AT1R in rats. Fluorescence microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation together with traditional western blot exposed that clusterin inhibited Ang II-stimulated nuclear localization of p-NF-B with a immediate physical conversation and subsequently ...
This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, international trial enrolling patients with metastatic CRPC who had a response to first-line docetaxel therapy and have prostate cancer-related pain with progression of disease. The intended intervention is second-line treatment with docetaxel retreatment or cabazitaxel plus study agent, where custirsen is to be administered in the investigational arm and placebo is to be administered in the control arm.. Selection of the chemotherapy (docetaxel re-treatment or cabazitaxel) is to be determined by the treating physician, based on the patients first-line response.. The study will primarily assess pain and analgesic use for evaluation of durable pain palliation in response to study treatment. Pain and analgesic use will be obtained via a 3rd party contact center (direct contact with patient).. Study treatment starts with a Loading Dose Period during which three infusions of study agent (custirsen vs. placebo) will be ...
Insights into how a gene that increases the risk of Alzheimers disease disrupts brain cells have been revealed by scientists.. Brain tissue from people with Alzheimers showed that a protein called clusterin builds up in vital parts of neurons that connect cells and may damage these links.. Scientists say the findings shed light on the causes of the disease and will help to accelerate the search for a treatment. The study, led by Professor Tara Spires-Jones at the University of Edinburgh, focused on synapses - connections between brain cells that allow the flow of chemical and electrical signals. These signals are vital for forming memories and are key to brain health, experts say.. Researchers showed that synapses in people who had died with Alzheimers contained clumps of clusterin, which could contribute to dementia symptoms. These synapses also contained clumps of amyloid beta, the damaging protein that is found in the brains of people with Alzheimers.. People with a common risk gene, ...
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Expression of CLU (APOJ, CLI, CLU1, CLU2, KUB1, SGP-2, SP-40, TRPM-2) in oral mucosa tissue. Antibody staining with HPA000572 and CAB016253 in immunohistochemistry.
α2-Macroglobulin (α2M) is an extracellular chaperone that inhibits amorphous and fibrillar protein aggregation. The reaction of α2M with proteases results in an activated conformation, where the proteases become covalently-linked within the interior of a cage-like structure formed by α2M. This study investigates, the effect of activation on the ability of α2M to inhibit amyloid formation by Aβ1-42 and I59T human lysozyme and shows that protease-activated α2M can act via two distinct mechanisms: (i) by trapping proteases that remain able to degrade polypeptide chains and (ii) by a chaperone action that prevents misfolded clients from continuing along the amyloid forming pathway.
Its so hard when you miss someone so much! Sending them this cute and colourful card is the perfect way to tell them theyre missed.. well, at least their face is. - Blank inside for your own personal message- Size: 150mm x 150mm- Recyclable 300gsm card stock- All cards presented in cellophane sleeve- Comes with bro
Interferon-alpha B2 (IFN-a8) (mPEG-ALD), 1 mg. Clusterin also names Apoliprotein J is a 75-80 kD disulfide-linked heterodimeric protein containing about 30% of N-linked carbohydrate rich in sialic acid but truncated forms targeted to the nucleus have
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against partial recombinant CLU. Recombinant protein corresponding to a portion of the alpha subunit of human CLU. (MAB9601) - Products - Abnova
With age, forgetfulness and other signs of memory loss sometimes appear, prompting elderly individuals to seek a medical evaluation amid fears that they may be experiencing early symptoms of Alzheimers disease (AD), the ...
The rs4986790 G coding variant in the TLR4 gene appears to reduce AD risk through the modulation of IL-1β synthesis and secretion in the presymptomatic phase of the disease.
April 28,2009- OncoGenex Receives Confirmation from FDA on the Design of a Second Phase 3 Trial Evaluating OGX-011 for the Treatment of Advanced Prostate Cancer.
aha1542: convert to use the data buffer accessors Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe ,[EMAIL PROTECTED], --- drivers/scsi/aha1542.c , 32 +++++++++++++++----------------- 1 files changed, 15 insertions(+), 17 deletions(-) diff --git a/drivers/scsi/aha1542.c b/drivers/scsi/aha1542.c index cbbfbc9..961a188 100644 --- a/drivers/scsi/aha1542.c +++ b/drivers/scsi/aha1542.c @@ -61,15 +61,15 @@ static void BAD_DMA(void *address, unsigned int length) } static void BAD_SG_DMA(Scsi_Cmnd * SCpnt, - struct scatterlist *sgpnt, + struct scatterlist *sgp, int nseg, int badseg) { printk(KERN_CRIT sgpnt[%d:%d] page %p/0x%llx length %u\n, badseg, nseg, - page_address(sgpnt[badseg].page) + sgpnt[badseg].offset, - (unsigned long long)SCSI_SG_PA(&sgpnt[badseg]), - sgpnt[badseg].length); + page_address(sgp-,page) + sgp-,offset, + (unsigned long long)SCSI_SG_PA(sgp), + sgp-,length); /* * Not safe to continue. @@ -691,7 +691,7 @@ static int aha1542_queuecommand(Scsi_Cmnd * SCpnt, void (*done) (Scsi_Cmnd *)) ...
You are at: Home » Products » Health Projects » Environmental Rose Scented Envelope Sachet for clu In total 213268 number ofProductsinfo,Released today. 0 number of ...
Results Between ALS patients and healthy controls, there was significant difference in the expression of 30 proteins, including complement proteins and inflammatory markers. Of these, plasma Gelsolin concentration was 1.5 fold higher in healthy control in comparison with ALS patients (p=0.001). There were significant differences in 22 proteins between healthy controls and ALS patients with CI. Clusterin level was 1.2 fold upregulated in heathy people compared with patients with CI (p=0.03). Between ALS with and without CI, there was significant difference in expression of 25 proteins. CD5L concentration was significantly raised in patients without CI (p=0.013). The IPA shows that the complement pathway and coagulation pathway plays an important role in the ALS pathogenesis. ...
The goal of the present study was to determine whether treatment with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) induces cell loss, cellular senescence, and extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis in primary human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Primary cultured human RPE cells were exposed to 2, 4, 8, and 12% of CSE concentration for 24 hours. Cell loss was detected by cell viability assay. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by loss of cis-parinaric acid (PNA) fluorescence. Senescence-associated ß-galactosidase (SA-ß-Gal) activity was detected by histochemical staining. Expression of apolipoprotein J (Apo J), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), fibronectin, and laminin were examined by real-time PCR, western blot, or ELISA experiments. The results showed that exposure of cells to 12% of CSE concentration induced cell death, while treatment of cells with 2, 4, and 8% CSE increased lipid peroxidation. Exposure to 8% of CSE markedly increased the number of SA-ß-Gal positive cells to up to 82%, and the mRNA
Up to 30% of all hospital admissions and health-care costs may be attributable to alcohol abuse. Ethanol, its oxidative metabolites, acetaldehyde and ROS (reactive oxygen species), non-oxidative metabolites of alcohol [e.g. FAEEs (fatty acid ethyl esters)] and the ethanol-water competition mechanism are all involved in the deregulation of glycoconjugate (glycoprotein, glycolipid and proteoglycan) metabolic processes including biosynthesis, modification, transport, secretion, elimination and catabolism. An increasing number of new alcohol biomarkers that are the result of alcohol-induced glycoconjugate metabolic errors have appeared in the literature. Glycoconjugate-related alcohol markers are involved in, or are a product of, altered glycoconjugate metabolism, e.g. CDT (carbohydrate-deficient transferrin), SA (sialic acid), plasma SIJ (SA index of apolipoprotein J), CETP (cholesteryl ester transfer protein), β-HEX (β-hexosaminidase), dolichol, EtG (ethyl glucuronide) etc. Laboratory tests ...
Expression of CLU (APOJ, CLI, CLU1, CLU2, KUB1, SGP-2, SP-40, TRPM-2) in vagina tissue. Antibody staining with HPA000572 and CAB016253 in immunohistochemistry.
I have an appointment with my favorite vet tomorrow to see what can be done for Tweezer. If he can still be made comfortable by anything I can do, then I will do everything I can for him. If there is nothing that can be done then it will be time to let him go with dignity. I can trust Dr. Tom to advise me correctly. Meanwhile I am a basket case. If Tweezer must crosst the bridge then a bright ray of sunshine will be leaving this world. -Original Message- From: [email protected] [mailto:[email protected]] On Behalf Of Natalie Sent: Thursday, February 03, 2011 3:50 PM To: [email protected] Subject: Re: [Felvtalk] HELP! Tweezer is sick I was giving her sub-q fluids for a while, which I assume helped her because she never had any seizures again. FIV is so much more manageable than FeLV! BTW - I sent the info to the dumb vet at the clinic so she would know for the next time someone brings in a cat that was FIV+, not to immediately make the diagnosis of ...
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Demattos RB, ODell MA, Parsadanian M, Taylor JW, Harmony JA, Bales KR, Paul SM, Aronow BJ, Holtzman DM. Clusterin promotes amyloid plaque formation and is critical for neuritic toxicity in a mouse model of Alzheimers disease ...
Demattos RB, Cirrito JR, Parsadanian M, May PC, ODell MA, Taylor JW, Harmony JA, Aronow BJ, Bales KR, Paul SM, Holtzman DM. ApoE and clusterin cooperatively suppress Abeta levels and deposition: evidence that ApoE regulates extracellular Abeta metabolism in vivo ...
A phase III ITT controlled trial of Cbz/P/C in pts with previously-treated metastatic, castration-resistant PC shown no significant survival gain
Progression Free Survival: time from date of randomization to first objective documented progression per Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) v1.1 or death due to any cause, whichever occurs first. Tumor lesions measured in at least one dimension with minimum size of 10 mm by CT scan, 10 mm caliper by clinical exam. Malignant lymph nodes must be ,15 mm in short axis when assessed by CT scan. All measurable lesions up to a maximum of 2 lesions per organ and 5 in total representative of all involved organs should be identified as target lesions and measured and recorded ...
A study carried out with a new human stem cell-derived model reveals that the most prevalent genetic risk factor of Alzheimers disease (AD), apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4), impairs the function of human brain immune cells, microglia.
Background: Bridging integrator 1 (BIN1 ) has been identified as one of the most associated loci for Alzheimers disease (AD), and recently was reported to modulate tau pathology to mediate AD in vitro . However, the effects of BIN1 on the AD related
Protein expressions of Prx II and CLU in plasma by Western blot analysis. A: Single samples of normal and liver fibrosis. Immunoblotting with Prx II or CLU poly
Use Bio-Rads PrimePCR assays, controls, templates for your target gene. Every primer pair is optimized, experimentally validated, and performance guaranteed.
Clusterin associated protein 1, also known as CLUAP1, is a human gene. Model organisms have been used in the study of CLUAP1 ... "Entrez Gene: clusterin associated protein 1". Retrieved 2011-08-30. "Radiography data for Cluap1". Wellcome Trust Sanger ...
... acts as an anti-cancer drug by binding to the mRNA initiation site of the clusterin gene, reducing clusterin protein ... The results found that the recommended dose of Custirsen was 640 mg, with maximum decrease of clusterin blood plasma occurring ... The anti-apoptotic activity of clusterin in aiding tumour growth is due to interactions with protein complexes. These include: ... Chi KN, Zoubeidi A, Gleave ME (December 2008). "Custirsen (OGX-011): a second-generation antisense inhibitor of clusterin for ...
Zhou Y, Li L, Hu L, Peng T (March 2011). "Golgi phosphoprotein 2 (GOLPH2/GP73/GOLM1) interacts with secretory clusterin". ...
Bajari TM, Strasser V, Nimpf J, Schneider WJ (2003). "A model for modulation of leptin activity by association with clusterin ...
Clusterin - Clusterin is a protein ubiquitously expressed in different cell lines. Secreted clusterin is involved in lipid ... The cells release clusterin as a response to cell stress. This is due to clusterin being able to protect the cell by reducing ... Kidney ischemia can be diagnosed by checking the levels of several biomarkers such as clusterin and cystatin C. While the ...
Clusterin is a heterodimeric protein that aids in the clearance of cellular debris and is involved with apoptosis. Clusterin ... Grogg, Karen L; Macon, William R; Kurtin, Paul J; Nascimento, Antonio G (2004). "A survey of clusterin and fascin expression in ... These cells are best visualized with immunostaining using the FDC markers CD21, CD35, R4/23, clusterin, and KiM4p. Marker ... Characteristically, FDCS have mircotubuloreticular structures (MTRS) and increased levels of intracellular clusterin. MTRS ...
"Identification of glycoprotein 330 as an endocytic receptor for apolipoprotein J/clusterin". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (22): 13070-5. ...
Vandepoele K, Staes K, Andries V, van Roy F (April 2010). "Chibby interacts with NBPF1 and clusterin, two candidate tumor ...
"Identification of human plasma proteins as major clients for the extracellular chaperone clusterin". The Journal of Biological ...
Antiapoptotic proteins, such as clusterin and survivin, are often expressed in cancer cells. Clusterin and survivin-targeting ... "Nucleotide-based therapies targeting clusterin chemosensitize human lung adenocarcinoma cells both in vitro and in vivo". ...
It appears together with clusterin and complement C3, markers of complement-mediated inflammatory reactions. Also Fibroblast ...
Another useful marker which helps to differentiate this lesion from Hodgkin's lymphoma is clusterin. The neoplastic cells have ...
Plasma clusterin and the risk of Alzheimer disease. JAMA. 2011 Apr 6;305(13):1322-6. Solouki AM, et al. A genome-wide ...
9 (3). Proteome Science , Full text , Development of reverse phase protein microarrays for the validation of clusterin, a mid- ...
Gleave's team was recognized in 2010 as the first in the world to develop an anti-clusterin agent. Richard D. Williams MD ...
2003). "Clusterin, an abundant serum factor, is a possible negative regulator of MT6-MMP/MMP-25 produced by neutrophils". J. ...
In these cases, the FD cells express FD-cell markers (e.g. CD21, CD23, CD35, clusterin, podoplanin, gamma-synuclein) and in >90 ...
These fluid phase complexes do not bind to cell membranes and are ultimately scavenged by clusterin and vitronectin, two ...
CBSAs are delineated on the basis of a central urban area or urban cluster - in other words: a contiguous area of relatively ...
... is accompanied by significant changes in the levels of expression of polyamine metabolism regulatory genes and clusterin ( ...
Li, W.; Piecuch, P. (2010). "Multi-level Extension of the Cluster-In-Molecule Local Correlation Methodology: Merging Coupled- ...
Oak leaf cluster - In the Army, Air Force, and Space Force, the oak leaf cluster is worn to denote additional awards. 5/16-inch ...
... a financial professional designation Clusterin Clu (Tron), fictional character from the Tron franchise Command Launch Unit for ...
The following list gives an overview of the problems supported by HeuristicLab: Artificial Ant Classification Clusterin ...
... formation of the Membrane Atack Complex Clusterin - a soluble molecule, function similar to CD59 - making complex with Granyzme ...
Among soluble inhibitors there are factor H, C1 inhibitor, C4b-binding protein, factor I, S protein or clusterin, the membrane- ...
"Entrez Gene: clusterin". Koltai T (2014). "Clusterin: a key player in cancer chemoresistance and its inhibition". OncoTargets ... In humans, clusterin is encoded by the CLU gene on chromosome 8. CLU is a molecular chaperone responsible for aiding protein ... Clusterin was first identified in ram rete testis fluid where it showed signs of clustering with rat sertoli cells and ... Wei L, Xue T, Wang J, Chen B, Lei Y, Huang Y, Wang H, Xin X (Aug 2009). "Roles of clusterin in progression, chemoresistance and ...
... s, also known as E2 enzymes and more rarely as ubiquitin-carrier enzymes, perform the second step in the ubiquitination reaction that targets a protein for degradation via the proteasome. The ubiquitination process covalently attaches ubiquitin, a short protein of 76 amino acids, to a lysine residue on the target protein. Once a protein has been tagged with one ubiquitin molecule, additional rounds of ubiquitination form a polyubiquitin chain that is recognized by the proteasome's 19S regulatory particle, triggering the ATP-dependent unfolding of the target protein that allows passage into the proteasome's 20S core particle, where proteases degrade the target into short peptide fragments for recycling by the cell. ...
The peptidoglycan monomers are synthesized in the cytosol and are then attached to a membrane carrier bactoprenol. Bactoprenol transports peptidoglycan monomers across the cell membrane where they are inserted into the existing peptidoglycan.[6] In the first step of peptidoglycan synthesis, glutamine, which is an amino acid, donates an amino group to a sugar, fructose 6-phosphate. This turns fructose 6-phosphate into glucosamine-6-phosphate. In step two, an acetyl group is transferred from acetyl CoA to the amino group on the glucosamine-6-phosphate creating N-acetyl-glucosamine-6-phosphate.[7] In step three of the synthesis process, the N-acetyl-glucosamine-6-phosphate is isomerized, which will change N-acetyl-glucosamine-6-phosphate to N-acetyl-glucosamine-1-phosphate.[7] In step 4, the N-acetyl-glucosamine-1-phosphate, which is now a monophosphate, attacks UTP. Uridine triphosphate, which is a pyrimidine nucleotide, has the ability to act as an energy source. In this particular reaction, ...
The Hsp70 system interacts with extended peptide segments of proteins as well as partially folded proteins to prevent aggregation, remodel folding pathways, and regulate activity[7] When not interacting with a substrate peptide, Hsp70 is usually in an ATP bound state. Hsp70 by itself is characterized by a very weak ATPase activity, such that spontaneous hydrolysis will not occur for many minutes. As newly synthesized proteins emerge from the ribosomes, the substrate binding domain of Hsp70 recognizes sequences of hydrophobic amino acid residues, and interacts with them. This spontaneous interaction is reversible, and in the ATP bound state Hsp70 may relatively freely bind and release peptides. However, the presence of a peptide in the binding domain stimulates the ATPase activity of Hsp70, increasing its normally slow rate of ATP hydrolysis. When ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP the binding pocket of Hsp70 closes, tightly binding the now-trapped peptide chain. Further speeding ATP hydrolysis are the ...
"Entrez Gene: clusterin". Koltai T (2014). "Clusterin: a key player in cancer chemoresistance and its inhibition". OncoTargets ... In humans, clusterin is encoded by the CLU gene on chromosome 8. CLU is a molecular chaperone responsible for aiding protein ... Clusterin was first identified in ram rete testis fluid where it showed signs of clustering with rat sertoli cells and ... Wei L, Xue T, Wang J, Chen B, Lei Y, Huang Y, Wang H, Xin X (Aug 2009). "Roles of clusterin in progression, chemoresistance and ...
Fujitsu Cluster-in-a-Box is a true plug and play solution that can be installed and configured in less than 30 minutes, ... "Fujitsus Cluster-in-a-Box is a resilient, reliable and flexible platform that will support our business and growth... It ... Working with IT partner, JayByJay, it decided to deploy Fujitsus Cluster-in-a-Box - a high availability, all-in-one appliance ...
PRIMEFLEX Cluster-in-a-box offers a well-balanced combination of server, storage, and networking components in one compact ... With PRIMEFLEX Cluster-in-a-box, customers receive a hyper-converged solution including Microsoft Windows Server 2012 R2 pre- ... PRIMEFLEX Cluster-in-a-box is perfectly suited for organizations with experience in administration of Microsoft Windows Server ... Designed for mid-market organizations and branch offices, PRIMEFLEX Cluster-in-a-box offers continuous availability at low ...
... but only antibodies to clusterin and vitronectin strongly stained amyloid deposits in senile plaques. The clusterin antibody ... Clusterin, vitronectin and protectin are all believed to inhibit membrane insertion by the MAC, and these data are consistent ... Distribution of clusterin in Alzheimer brain tissue.. McGeer PL1, Kawamata T, Walker DG. ... The immunohistochemical distribution of clusterin (SP40,40, SGP-2) was determined in Alzheimer disease (AD) and normal human ...
Buy our Recombinant Mouse Clusterin protein. Ab194035 is a full length protein produced in HEK 293 cells and has been validated ...
Apolipoprotein J/clusterin (apoJ/clusterin), an intriguing protein with unknown function, is induced in myocarditis and ...
IPR016016, Clusterin. IPR000753, Clusterin-like. IPR016015, Clusterin_C. IPR033986, Clusterin_CS. IPR016014, Clusterin_N. ... IPR016016, Clusterin. IPR000753, Clusterin-like. IPR016015, Clusterin_C. IPR033986, Clusterin_CS. IPR016014, Clusterin_N. ... "Clusterin, a binding protein with a molten globule-like region.". Bailey R.W., Dunker A.K., Brown C.J., Garner E.C., Griswold M ... "Clusterin, a binding protein with a molten globule-like region.". Bailey R.W., Dunker A.K., Brown C.J., Garner E.C., Griswold M ...
Expression of Clusterin in Human Pancreatic Cancer * * XIE Min-Jue * Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Oncology, ... Human clusterin gene expression is confined to surviving cells during in vitro programmed cell death FRENCH LE ... Clusterin overexpression in rat pancreas during the acute phase of pancreatitis and pancreatic development CALVO EL ... Expression of clusterin in pancreatic acinar cell injuries in vivo and in vitro XIE M-J ...
A genuine function of clusterin has not been defined. One tempting hypothesis says that clusterin is an extracellular chaperone ... Canine Clusterin was lyophilized from PBS, pH 7.5.. Solubility. Add deionized H2O to a working volume of 0.5mg/ml and let the ... Clusterin also named Apolipoprotein J (APO-J) is a 75-80 kD disulfide-linked heterodimeric protein containing about 30% of N- ... Clusterin is up- or down regulated on the mRNA or protein level in many pathological and clinically relevant situations ...
Clusterin also named Apoliprotein J (APO-J) is a 75-80 kD disulfide-linked heterodimeric protein containing about 30% of N- ... A genuine function of clusterin has not been defined. One tempting hypothesis says that clusterin is an extracellular chaperone ... Human native Clusterin was filtered (0.4µm) and lyophilized from 0.5mg/ml in 0.1M phosphate buffer, 0.15M NaCl pH 7.5. ... Clusterin also named Apolipoprotein J (APO-J) is a 75-80 kD disulfide-linked heterodimeric protein containing about 30% of N- ...
... seemed to affect clusterin mRNA levels or protein expression in blood. Whether clusterin turns out to be a useful biomarker ... Research Brief: Clusterin Grabs Spotlight Among Elite Few LOAD Genes. Quick Links. *Article ... Association of plasma clusterin concentration with severity, pathology, and progression in Alzheimer disease. Arch Gen ... First author Ilyas Kamboh and colleagues confirmed the LOAD associations of clusterin and PICALM in a case-control sample of ...
The relationship of clusterin gene expression and plasma clusterin with IR, cardiovascular biomarkers, and risk of ... Circulating human clusterin exhibited similar associations. In human adipocytes, palmitate enhanced clusterin secretion, and in ... Our objective was to determine 1) whether subcutaneous AT adipocyte (SAd) clusterin and serum clusterin are associated with ... Clusterin Impairs Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity and Adipocyte Clusterin Associates With Cardiometabolic Risk ...
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-Clusterin/APOJ Antibody. Validated: IHC, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human. 100% Guaranteed. ... Blogs on Clusterin/APOJ. There are no specific blogs for Clusterin/APOJ, but you can read our latest blog posts. ... Reviews for Clusterin/APOJ Antibody (NBP1-90128) (0) There are no reviews for Clusterin/APOJ Antibody (NBP1-90128). By ... PTMs for Clusterin/APOJ Antibody (NBP1-90128). Learn more about PTMs related to Clusterin/APOJ Antibody (NBP1-90128). ...
... Circ Heart Fail. 2018 Jun;11 ... clusterin) in patients with high LVR. We used a rat model of myocardial infarction to analyze CLU expression in the LV and ...
Build your own Human Clusterin ELISA with R&D Systems DuoSet Development Kit. Assay Range: 63-4,000 pg/mL. Versatile, ... Background: Clusterin. Clusterin, also known as Apolipoprotein J, Sulfated Glycoprotein 2 (SGP-2), TRPM-2, and SP-40,40, is a ... Reviews for Human Clusterin DuoSet ELISA. There are currently no reviews for this product. Be the first to review Human ... Citations for Human Clusterin DuoSet ELISA. R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D ...
We therefore concluded that: i) basal clusterin levels are higher in antiestrogen resistant cells, ii) clusterin is up- ... Clusterin: A potential target for improving response to antiestrogens. *Authors: *Sara Toffanin ... We attempted to verify in an experimental model the role of cytoplasmic clusterin (CLU), a cytoprotective protein found to be ... Toffanin S, Daidone MG, Miodini P, De Cecco L, Gandellini P and Cappelletti V: Clusterin: A potential target for improving ...
Clusterin (nuclear form) mouse recombinant, expressed in E. coli, His tagged, ,90% (SDS-PAGE); Synonyms: SGP-2,Apolipoprotein J ... Nuclear form of clusterin works as a pro-death signal, and suppresses cell growth and survival. The secreted form of clusterin ... Clusterin is expressed in all tissues. However, it is strongly expressed in the central nervous system and plasma. Clusterin ... Clusterin exists in two isoforms, one is a secretory form and other is a nuclear form. The secreted form of the protein is a ...
Clusterin, also known as Apolipoprotein J, is a heterodimeric glycoprotein that is a member of the heat-shock protein family. ... Recombinant human clusterin. Formulation Phosphate-buffered solution, pH 7.2, containing 0.09% sodium azide. Preparation The ... Clusterin is a protein of 449 amino acids with a molecular mass of 52 kD. Distribution Tissue distribution: Ubiquitously ... Clusterin, also known as Apolipoprotein J, is a heterodimeric glycoprotein that is a member of the heat-shock protein family. ...
According to the findings of a community-based study, in younger patients higher clusterin levels involved a ________ risk of ...
Clusterin is a chaperone protein that is synthesized in response to cellular stress. It often appears in cells undergoing ... Laure Debure and co-workers have examined the effects of clusterin expression in COS-7 cells (see p. 3109). They find that ... Debure and co-workers reconcile these seemingly conflicting effects on cell survival by suggesting that clusterin is an anti- ... The authors also observe, however, that clusterin expression disrupts mitochondria and induces apoptosis through the ...
Retrospective Case-Control Study of Apolipoprotein J/Clusterin Protein Expression in Early Liveborn Neonatal Deaths with and ...
Lipocalin 2, clusterin, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (sTNFR-1), interleukin-6, homocysteine, and uric acid are ... The aim of this study was to investigate serum levels of lipocalin 2, clusterin, sTNFR-1, interleukin-6, homocysteine, and uric ... Assessment of Lipocalin 2, Clusterin, Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-1, Interleukin-6, Homocysteine, and Uric Acid ...
Custirsen binds to clusterin mRNA to block the production of clusterin protein and has enhanced the tumor cell destructive ... Abstract: 2560 - Baseline serum clusterin level in patients with poor prognostic features was associated with response to ... About Clusterin A major barrier to extending survival in patients with advanced cancer is treatment failure due to the ability ... Overproduction of clusterin, which occurs in response to a variety of cancer treatments, is associated with faster rates of ...
Clusterin, a marker for cell injury, was expressed primarily in the S3 segment and in the distal tubule with distinct staining ... Likewise, none of the PCNA or vimentin-positive cells expressed clusterin at detectable levels. Thus, in the S3 segment, where ... Localization of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, vimentin, c-Fos, and clusterin in the postischemic kidney. Evidence for a ... Localization of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, vimentin, c-Fos, and clusterin in the postischemic kidney. Evidence for a ...
Clusterin CLU Polyclonal Antibody is available 28 times from supplier bioma at Gentaur.com shop ... Clusterin CLU Polyclonal Antibody. Clusterin CLU Polyclonal Antibody is available 24 times from Bioma labs CAU26409 , Clusterin ... CAU26411 , Clusterin (CLU) Polyclonal Antibody size: 100 μg , 607.70 USD CAU26413 , Clusterin (CLU) Polyclonal Antibody size: ... CAU26410 , Clusterin (CLU) Polyclonal Antibody size: 200 μg , 879.16 USD CAU26413 , Clusterin (CLU) Polyclonal Antibody size: ...
Apolipoprotein J/Clusterin Prevents a Progressive Glomerulopathy of Aging. Mark E. Rosenberg, Richard Girton, David Finkel, ... Apolipoprotein J/Clusterin Prevents a Progressive Glomerulopathy of Aging. Mark E. Rosenberg, Richard Girton, David Finkel, ... Apolipoprotein J/Clusterin Prevents a Progressive Glomerulopathy of Aging. Mark E. Rosenberg, Richard Girton, David Finkel, ... In the apoJ/clusterin-deficient mice, immune complexes of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, IgA, and in some cases C1q, C3, and C9 ...
Clusterin. By Technical Data. Clusterin - Proteins. Clusterin - Recombinant protein - Proteins. Mouse - Clusterin - Proteins. ... Clusterin - for Western blotting - Proteins. Clusterin - for ELISA - Proteins. Clusterin - for Cell culture and/or animal ... Clusterin is a heavily N-glycosylated protein.. Across a broad range of species clusterin shows 70% to 80% of sequence homology ... References to Clusterin. *Choi-Miura NH, Oda T: Relationship between multifunctional protein Clusterin and Alzheimer disease. ...
In this chapter, the attention is put on Ca2+ effect on Clusterin (CLU) activity. We showed that two CLU forms (secreted and ...
These studies describe the biogenesis and intracellular trafficking of clusterin in MCF-7 cells before and after the initiation ... Clusterin is a heterodimeric, disulfide-linked 70-80 kDa glycoprotein that is induced during regression of most, if not all, ... Clusterin is a heterodimeric, disulfide-linked 70-80 kDa glycoprotein that is induced during regression of most, if not all, ... While clusterin contains a cryptic SV-40-like nuclear localization signal, mutation of this sequence does not affect the ...
Clusterin inhibits apoptosis by interacting with activated Bax. Nat Cell Biol. 2005;7:909-915. doi: 10.1038/ncb1291. [PubMed] [ ... Clusterin expression can be modulated by changes in TCF1-mediated Wnt signaling. Troels Schepeler,1 Francisco Mansilla,1 Lise L ... Clusterin/apolipoprotein J in human aging and cancer. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2002;34:1430-1448. doi: 10.1016/S1357-2725(02) ... The clusterin (CLU) protein was first discovered more than 25 years ago in rat testis fluid because of its ability to ...
  • Apolipoprotein J/clusterin (apoJ/clusterin), an intriguing protein with unknown function, is induced in myocarditis and numerous other inflammatory injuries. (jci.org)
  • Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: APOJ / Clusterin Antibody [NBP1-90128] - Staining of human tonsil shows strong positivity in squamous epithelial cells. (novusbio.com)
  • Clusterin/ApoJ enhances central leptin signaling through Lrp2-mediated endocytosis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Apoliprotein J (apoJ)/clusterin has attracted considerable interest based on its inducibility in multiple injury processes and accumulation at sites of remodeling, regression, and degeneration. (asm.org)
  • Aging mice deficient in apoJ/clusterin developed a progressive glomerulopathy characterized by the deposition of immune complexes in the mesangium. (asm.org)
  • Up to 75% of glomeruli in apoJ/clusterin-deficient mice exhibited moderate to severe mesangial lesions by 21 months of age. (asm.org)
  • In the apoJ/clusterin-deficient mice, immune complexes of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, IgA, and in some cases C1q, C3, and C9 were detectable as early as 4 weeks of age. (asm.org)
  • In young apoJ/clusterin-deficient animals, the development of immune complex lesions was accelerated by unilateral nephrectomy-induced hyperfiltration. (asm.org)
  • Injected immune complexes localized to the mesangium of apoJ/clusterin-deficient but not wild-type mice. (asm.org)
  • These results establish a protective role of apoJ/clusterin against chronic glomerular kidney disease and support the hypothesis that apoJ/clusterin modifies immune complex metabolism and disposal. (asm.org)
  • Newkirk MM, Apostolakos P, Neville C and Fortin PR: Systemic lupus erythematosus, a disease associated with low levels of Clusterin/ApoJ, and anti-inflammatory protein. (biovendor.com)
  • Clusterin/apolipoprotein J (apoJ) is an extracellular chaperone involved in the quality control system against protein aggregation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Clusterin, also known as complement-associated protein SP-4, Complement cytolysis inhibitor, Apolipoprotein J, Testosterone-repressed prostate message 2, Aging-associated gene 4 protein, CLU and APOJ, is a secreted protein which belongs to the clusterin family. (sinobiological.com)
  • Michel D, Chatelanin G, North S, Brun G. Stress-induced transcription of the clusterin/apoJ gene. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Clusterin (CLU) or APOJ is a multifunctional glycoprotein that has been implicated in several physiological and pathological states, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Clusterin, also known as Apolipoprotein J, Sulfated Glycoprotein 2 (SGP-2), TRPM-2, and SP-40,40, is a secreted multifunctional protein that binds a wide range of molecules and may function as a chaperone of misfolded extracellular proteins. (rndsystems.com)
  • Clusterin, also known as Apolipoprotein J, is a heterodimeric glycoprotein that is a member of the heat-shock protein family. (biolegend.com)
  • Clusterin is a heterodimeric, disulfide-linked 70-80 kDa glycoprotein that is induced during regression of most, if not all, hormone-dependent epithelial tissues. (nih.gov)
  • Clusterin is a glycoprotein induced after renal tubular cell injury. (asnjournals.org)
  • The multifunctional protein clusterin (CLU) is a secreted glycoprotein ubiquitously expressed throughout the body, including in the eye. (ovid.com)
  • Clusterin/Apolipoprotein J (CLU) is a heterodimeric ubiquitously expressed secreted glycoprotein that is implicated in several physiological processes and is differentially expressed in many severe physiological disturbances, including tumor formation and in vivo cancer progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Clusterin is a secreted glycoprotein that is upregulated in a variety of cell lines in response to stress, and enhances cell survival. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clusterin/Apolipoprotein J/Apo-J is an enigmatic glycoprotein with a nearly ubiquitous tissue distribution and an apparent involvement in biological processes ranging from mammary gland involution to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease. (sinobiological.com)
  • Clusterin/Apolipoprotein J/Apo-J is a widely distributed glycoprotein with a wide range of biologic properties. (sinobiological.com)
  • Clusterin is a heterodimeric glycoprotein that has been associated with such diverse biologic functions as reproduction, cell regression, cell aggregation, and regulation of the cytolytic activity of the membrane attack complex of complement. (elsevier.com)
  • Clusterin (CLU)/Apolipoprotein J is a highly conserved glycoprotein which has attracted significant scientific attention since it is implicated in many biological processes and exerts a broad spectrum of functional properties. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clusterin is a heterodimeric glycoprotein which has been shown to play important roles in programmed cell death and/or in tissue reorganization not only during embryonic development but also in damaged tissues. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Clusterin is a multifunctional, secreted glycoprotein that has been shown to be expressed in diverse locations that have in common a tissue-fluid boundary. (cf.ac.uk)
  • Clusterin/apolipoprotein J is a glycoprotein which is highly expressed in the plasma and has modulatory roles in immune and inflammatory reactions, neurobiology, lipid metabolism, and leptin signaling. (e-enm.org)
  • Clusterin is a heterodimeric glycoprotein composed of disulfide bond-linked α and β chains, with each chain weighing about 40 kDa [ 12 ]. (e-enm.org)
  • Purification and characterization of a cell-aggregating factor (clusterin), the major glycoprotein in ram rete testis fluid. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Clusterin (apolipoprotein J) is a 75 - 80 kDa disulfide-linked heterodimeric protein associated with the clearance of cellular debris and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clusterin also named Apolipoprotein J (APO-J) is a 75-80 kD disulfide-linked heterodimeric protein containing about 30% of N-linked carbohydrate rich in sialic acid but truncated forms targeted to the nucleus have also been identified. (prospecbio.com)
  • We identified increased adipocyte expression of ECM-related clusterin (apolipoprotein J) in obese versus lean women by microarray. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Clusterin/apolipoprotein J attenuates angiotensin II-induced renal fibrosis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Clusterin/apolipoprotein J binds to aggregated LDL in human plasma and plays a protective role against LDL aggregation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Recent genetic and proteomic studies demonstrate that clusterin/apolipoprotein-J is associated with risk, pathology, and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Differential effects of clusterin/apolipoprotein J on cellular growth and survival. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Upregulation of clusterin/apolipoprotein J in lactacystin-treated SH-SY5Y cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Clusterin, also known as apolipoprotein J, has been implicated in numerous processes, including active cell death. (anacrom.com)
  • Clusterin (CLU) /Apolipoprotein J is a protein biosensor of oxidative stress and inflammation, which is upregulated in many pathological processes including atherosclerosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • RESULTS: Clusterin/apolipoprotein J was associated with atrophy of the entorhinal cortex, baseline disease severity, and rapid clinical progression in AD. (ox.ac.uk)
  • abstract = "We examined the relationship between clusterin and activated complement in human heart infarction and evaluated the effect of this protein on ischemic rat neonatal cardiomyoblasts (H9c2) and isolated adult ventricular rat cardiomyocytes as in vitro models of acute myocardial infarction. (vumc.nl)
  • Clusterin has been ascribed a plethora of functions such as phagocyte recruitment, aggregation induction, complement attack prevention, apoptosis inhibition, membrane remodeling, lipid transport, hormone transport and/or scavenging, matrix metalloproteinase inhibition. (prospecbio.com)
  • Increased circulating levels of Clusterin enhance tumor aggressiveness by inhibiting apoptosis and by promoting epithelial to mesenchymal transition. (rndsystems.com)
  • The authors also observe, however, that clusterin expression disrupts mitochondria and induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway - this can be prevented by expression of the pro-survival molecule Bcl-2 or inhibition of caspases. (biologists.org)
  • These studies describe the biogenesis and intracellular trafficking of clusterin in MCF-7 cells before and after the initiation of apoptosis with antiestrogens and TNF alpha. (nih.gov)
  • Treatment with TNFalpha or the antiestrogen, ICI 182,780, induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells and leads to substantial changes in the activity of Golgi-resident enzymes, significantly altering the biogenesis of clusterin. (nih.gov)
  • However, the precise relationships between clusterin and apoptosis are still under debate. (biologists.org)
  • The coincidence between tissue involution and clusterin expression does not necessarily imply that clusterin is causally involved in apoptosis. (biologists.org)
  • Clusterin has been implicated in a number of cellular processes such as lipid transport, membrane integrity, apoptosis, and neurodegeneration, all of which could be important to the biology of the eye. (edu.au)
  • Our findings suggest that clusterin, a plasma protein with roles in amyloid clearance, complement inhibition and apoptosis, is associated with rate of brain atrophy in MCI. (ox.ac.uk)
  • While the synthesis of clusterin and the appearance of the nuclear isoform is clearly upregulated during apoptosis, the role of the secretory protein in either cell death or cell survival has not been clearly delineated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Intracellular clusterin inhibits mitochondrial apoptosis by suppressing p53-activating stress signals and stabilizing the cytosolic Ku70-Bax protein complex. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Many functions have been described for clusterin, including regulating apoptosis, transporting lipids, controlling cell interactions, regulating complement (PMID: 10694874). (ptglab.co.jp)
  • But if stress is so strong and prolonged that it can exceed the stress adaptability of the cells, then the cells may undergo apoptosis instead of producing clusterin. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Clusterin biogenesis is altered during apoptosis in the regressing rat ventral prostate. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Antibodies to all four proteins showed staining of dystrophic neurites and neuropil threads in AD tissue, and residual serum in normal tissue, but only antibodies to clusterin and vitronectin strongly stained amyloid deposits in senile plaques. (nih.gov)
  • Clusterin, vitronectin and protectin are all believed to inhibit membrane insertion by the MAC, and these data are consistent with upregulation of all three proteins in response to MAC formation in AD, and with a neuronal origin of clusterin. (nih.gov)
  • The only member common to both lists-which contained eight proteins apiece, many of them inflammatory factors involved in the complement system-was clusterin, an extracellular chaperone that regulates amyloid formation and clearance. (alzforum.org)
  • They find that clusterin can accumulate in juxtanuclear aggregates that exhibit features characteristic of aggresomes (inclusion bodies thought to prevent misfolded proteins spreading throughout the cell). (biologists.org)
  • Clusterin is a protein that occurs naturally in tears and acts to protect cells and proteins. (visivite.com)
  • Clusterin forms complexes with C5b:C6:C7, or C5b:C6:C7:C8 or C5b:C6:C7:C8:C9, as the proteins assemble into the amphiphilic MAC. (reactome.org)
  • The levels of clusterin proteins and mRNA in the tissues were measured by immunohistochemistry and Northern blot analyses, respectively. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Clusterin/apo J, a multifunctional secreted chaperone, is one of the major proteins accumulating in drusen deposits. (meta.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate an important role of clusterin in the pathogenesis of AD and suggest that alterations in amyloid chaperone proteins may be a biologically relevant peripheral signature of AD. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The clusterin antibody also showed punctate staining of some normal appearing AD pyramidal neurons, and very scattered staining of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. (nih.gov)
  • Western blot of anti-Clusterin antibody (clone A15113A) and isotype-matched IgG 2a control, binding to endogenous and recombinant human clusterin. (biolegend.com)
  • IHC staining of anti-Clusterin antibody (clone A15113A) on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded brain tissue of a patient with Alzheimer’s disease. (biolegend.com)
  • Clusterin antibody was purified from mouse ascitic fluids by protein-G affinity chromatography. (mybiosource.com)
  • Clusterin antibody has been tested by ELISA, Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis to assure specificity and reactivity. (mybiosource.com)
  • Mouse anti Human clusterin antibody, clone 3R3/2 recognizes clusterin, an ubiquitously expressed protein of two 40 kDa chains, alpha and beta, covalently joined by disulfide bonds. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • All Clusterin reagents are produced in house and quality controlled, including 15 Clusterin Antibody, 67 Clusterin Gene, 1 Clusterin IP Kit, 2 Clusterin Lysate, 2 Clusterin Protein, 2 Clusterin qPCR. (sinobiological.com)
  • This antibody is designed for the specific localization of human clusterin using IHC techniques in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. (anacrom.com)
  • human plasma were subjected to SDS PAGE followed by western blot with 12289-1-AP (Clusterin antibody at dilution of 1:1000 incubated at room temperature for 1.5 hours. (ptglab.co.jp)
  • Clusterin is involved in several biological processes including extra- and intracellular chaperone activity, pro- and anti-apoptotic properties, lipid transportation, cell clustering, modulation of NF-kappa-B transcriptional activity, and complement inhibition. (biolegend.com)
  • Clusterin protects neurons against intracellular proteotoxicity" by Jenna Gregory, Daniel Whiten et al. (edu.au)
  • We have examined in this study whether or not increased expression of clusterin is able to protect neuronal cells against intracellular protein aggregation and cytotoxicity, characteristics that are strongly implicated in a range of neurodegenerative diseases. (edu.au)
  • We therefore conclude that increased expression of clusterin can provide an important defense against intracellular proteotoxicity under conditions that mimic specific features of neurodegenerative disease. (edu.au)
  • We studied the biological effects of intracellular clusterin and observed that clusterin forms containing the α-chain region strongly accumulated in an ubiquitinated form in juxtanuclear aggregates meeting the main criterions of aggresomes and leading to profound alterations of the mitochondrial network. (biologists.org)
  • The viability of cells transfected by intracellular forms of clusterin was improved by overexpression of Bcl-2, and caspase inhibition was capable of rescuing cells expressing clusterin, which presented an altered mitochondrial permeability. (biologists.org)
  • We propose that, although it might be an inherently pro-survival and anti-apoptotic protein expressed by cells under stress in an attempt to protect themselves, clusterin can become highly cytotoxic when accumulated in the intracellular compartment. (biologists.org)
  • Multiple hypotheses have been proposed regarding the origin of intracellular clusterin, including specific biogenic processes leading to alternative transcripts and protein isoforms, but these lines of research are incomplete and contradictory. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Current consensus is that intracellular clusterin is most likely to have exited the secretory pathway at some point or to have re-entered the cell after secretion. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The apparent complexity of clusterin's biogenesis, the lack of clarity over the origin of the intracellular clusterin species, and the number of pathophysiological functions attributed to clusterin have all contributed to the challenge of understanding the role of clusterin in AD pathophysiology. (ox.ac.uk)
  • One tempting hypothesis says that clusterin is an extracellular chaperone protecting cells from stress induced insults caused by degraded and misfolded protein precipitates. (prospecbio.com)
  • The secreted form of clusterin has extracellular chaperone and anti-apoptotic activities. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • One tempting hypothesis says that clusterin is an extracellular chaperone protecting cells from stress induced by degraded and misfolded protein precipitates.Clus-terin is up- or downregulated on the mRNA or protein level in many pathological and clinically relevant situations including cancer, organ regeneration, infection, Alzheimer disease, retinitis pigmentosa, myocardial infarction, renal tubular damage, autoimmunity and others. (biovendor.com)
  • Clusterin acts as an extracellular chaperone inhibiting the formation of human lysozyme amyloid associated with Alzheimer's disease. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • With a prominent extracellular chaperone function, additional roles have been discussed for clusterin, including lipid transport and immune modulation, and it is involved in pathways common to several diseases such as cell death and survival, oxidative stress, and proteotoxic stress. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Here, we show that expression of secretory clusterin (sCLU), a known pro-survival extracellular chaperone, is transcriptionally up-regulated during both RS and SIPS, but not in oncogene-induced senescence, consistent with a DNA damage-inducible mechanism. (telomerescience.com)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We validated increased clusterin expression in adipocytes from a separate group of 18 lean and 54 obese individuals. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Clusterin is a component of glomerular immune deposits in the kidney, and increased Clusterin expression occurs in a number of renal injury states. (elsevier.com)
  • The effect of increased clusterin expression was determined by a chemosensitivity assay with adriamycin treatment. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Laure Debure and co-workers have examined the effects of clusterin expression in COS-7 cells (see p. 3109 ). (biologists.org)
  • We used the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-associated protein TDP-43 as a primary model to investigate the effects of clusterin on protein aggregation and neurotoxicity in complementary in vitro, neuronal cell and Drosophila systems. (edu.au)
  • The present study, led by Dr. Martin Gleave and published in EMBO Molecular Medicine http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.15252/emmm.201506059/full (May 2016), explored the biological effects of clusterin (CLU) on mitosis, finding that silencing CLU-induced activation of Cdc25C makes cancer cells more sensitive to mitotic-targeting agents such as chemotherapy. (tfri.ca)
  • We have measured the in vitro effects of clusterin over-expression on cell cycle, cell death, and sensitivity to TNFalpha and tamoxifen. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Induction of clusterin in tubules of nephrotic rats. (asnjournals.org)
  • In conclusion, tubular epithelial cell induction of clusterin occurs in the kidneys of nephrotic rats. (asnjournals.org)
  • Induction of clusterin by AKT--role in cytoprotection against docetaxel in prostate tumor cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In conclusion, the induction of clusterin after folic acid administration or subtotal nephrectomy was independent of the presence of an intact complement system, because similar increases in clusterin expression were observed in C5-sufficient and C5-deficient mice. (elsevier.com)
  • Recently, we reported the transient induction of clusterin in pancreatic endocrine cells during early developmental stages of islet formation. (bioscientifica.com)
  • These results suggest that clusterin plays a protective role against high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance through the suppression of oxidative stress and inflammation. (elsevier.com)
  • Therefore, we suggest that clusterin might be considered as a molecule induced by both embryonic development and drug-induced reorganization of the endocrine pancreas. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Our data suggest that clusterin protects cardiomyocytes against ischemic cell death via a complement-independent pathway. (vumc.nl)
  • Custirsen is a highly specific clusterin inhibitor designed to improve survival in patients with advanced cancer. (newswire.ca)
  • Furthermore, valproic acid, an antiepileptic drug and a recently identified inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDAC), induced a significant increase in clusterin protein expressio. (meta.org)
  • Two independent genome-wide association studies found a statistical association between a SNP within the clusterin gene and the risk of having Alzheimer's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further studies have suggested that people who already have Alzheimer's disease have more clusterin in their blood, and that clusterin levels in blood correlate with faster cognitive decline in individuals with Alzheimer's disease, but have not found that clusterin levels predicted the onset of Alzheimer's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clusterin exerts tissue protective functions in atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease by binding and neutralizing non-oxidatively modified LDL reduces cytotoxicity and beta-amyloid fibrils, respectively. (rndsystems.com)
  • The present study aimed to evaluate the association between rs11136000 in clusterin (CLU) and late‑onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) by meta‑analysis. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Associations of plasma clusterin and Alzheimer's disease-related MRI markers in adults at mid-life: The CARDIA Brain MRI sub-study. (kpresearcherprofiles.org)
  • Blood clusterin levels, rs9331888 polymorphism, and the risk of Alzheimer's disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Variants in the clusterin gene have been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) through replicated genome-wide studies, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. (cdc.gov)
  • Clusterin in Alzheimer's Disease: Mechanisms, Genetics, and Lessons From Other Pathologies. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Higher concentrations of clusterin, a protein in the blood plasma, appears to be associated with the development, severity and progression of Alzheimer's disease, according to a report in the June issue of Archives of General Psychiatry, one of the JAMA/Archives journals. (news-medical.net)
  • Genome-wide association studies have established clusterin (CLU) as a genetic modifier for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clusterin is a chaperone protein that is synthesized in response to cellular stress. (biologists.org)
  • Debure and co-workers reconcile these seemingly conflicting effects on cell survival by suggesting that clusterin is an anti-apoptotic, aggresome-forming chaperone but can be cytotoxic if it accumulates. (biologists.org)
  • It is now widely accepted in the field that the normally secreted chaperone clusterin is redirected to the cytosol during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, although the physiological function(s) of this physical relocation remain unknown. (edu.au)
  • Clusterin ( CLU ) is an extracellular matrix chaperone that prevents protein aggregation and is highly expressed in ocular tissues affected by XFS. (arvojournals.org)
  • Clusterin is a secreted protein chaperone up-regulated in several pathologies, including cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Secretory clusterin (sCLU), a stressactivated and ATP-independent molecular chaperone, is up-regulated in numerous tumors and correlated with malignant phenotypes. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Upregulation of clusterin mRNA and protein levels detected in diverse disease states and in in vitro systems have led to suggestions that it functions in membrane lipid recycling, in apoptotic cell death, and as a stress-induced secreted chaperone protein, amongst others. (sinobiological.com)
  • Clusterin is ubiquitously expressed and appears to function as a secreted MOLECULAR CHAPERONE. (kpresearcherprofiles.org)
  • Clusterin (CLU) is a stress-activated cytoprotective chaperone upregulated by a variety of anticancer therapies that confers treatment resistance when overexpressed. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This DuoSet ELISA Development kit contains the basic components required for the development of sandwich ELISAs to measure natural and recombinant human Clusterin. (rndsystems.com)
  • Lane 2: 50 ng of recombinant human clusterin protein. (biolegend.com)
  • Recombinant human clusterin. (biolegend.com)
  • Recombinant Human Clusterin is produced by our Mammalian expression system and the target gene encoding Asp23-Glu449 is expressed with a 6His tag at the C-terminus. (lsbio.com)
  • Anti-human Clusterin mAb, is derived from hybridization of mouse SP2/O myeloma cells with spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with Recombinant human Clusterin amino acids 1-333 purified from E Coli. (mybiosource.com)
  • Clusterin is involved in tissue remodeling, cell death, lipid transport, complement-associated cell lysis, cancer and neurological damage. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Choi-Miura NH, Oda T: Relationship between multifunctional protein Clusterin and Alzheimer disease. (biovendor.com)
  • Clusterin (CLU) is a ubiquitous multifunctional factor involved in neoplastic transformation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nuclear form of clusterin works as a pro-death signal, and suppresses cell growth and survival. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In prostate cancer the secreted form of clusterin (sCLU) has been described as an anti-apoptotic protein whose expression is increased after therapeutic intervention, whereas, the nuclear protein form nCLU was reported to have pro-apoptotic properties. (plos.org)
  • An increase in clusterin mRNA was not seen 1, 2, or 4 d after PAN injection. (asnjournals.org)
  • None of the cells that stained with clusterin antibodies were positively stained with PCNA or vimentin antibodies. (jci.org)
  • Our range of Clusterin antibodies come in a number of different formats and can be used for applications including flow cytometry , western blotting , immunohistochemistry and ELISA . (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • BOTHELL, Wash. and VANCOUVER, British Columbia , Sept. 28, 2015 /CNW/ -- OncoGenex Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ: OGXI) announced today results from additional exploratory analyses of the Phase 3 SYNERGY trial demonstrating that custirsen treatment significantly lowered serum clusterin (sCLU) levels from baseline in men with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). (newswire.ca)
  • These data support that custirsen is inhibiting the production of clusterin in men with metastatic CRPC and a correlation between treatment-induced reductions in sCLU and clinical benefit in those patients at risk for poor outcomes,' said Scott Cormack , President and CEO of OncoGenex. (newswire.ca)
  • Secretory clusterin (sCLU) is a cytoprotective protein that guards against genotoxic stresses. (aacrjournals.org)
  • ATM regulates insulin-like growth factor 1-secretory clusterin (IGF-1-sCLU) expression that protects cells against senescence. (telomerescience.com)
  • In human adipocytes, palmitate enhanced clusterin secretion, and in human hepatocytes clusterin attenuated insulin signaling and APOA1 expression and stimulated hepatic gluconeogenesis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Under physiological conditions, clusterin is modified in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and proteolytically cleaved in the Golgi to generate discrete alpha and beta chains prior to secretion. (nih.gov)
  • The clusterin precursor contains a typical secretion signal peptide and is matured as an heterodisulfide in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), after proteolytic cleavage yielding the α and β subunits, and disulfide bond formation. (biologists.org)
  • Analysis of conditioned media from RPE cells cultured on permeable supports suggests that different forms of clusterin display alternative patterns of secretion. (edu.au)
  • AdCLU expression in HTM cells increased clusterin and its secretion resulting in rounded cells with intact nuclei, decreased stress fibers and ECM indicating the loss in cell tension. (arvojournals.org)
  • Our purpose was to elucidate whether the induction of DNA hypomethylation with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZA) and histone hyperacetylation with trichostatin A (TSA) could affect the clusterin transcription, protein levels, and secretion in retinal pigment epithelial cells. (meta.org)
  • We observed that both TSA and AZA treatments induced a prominent increase in the expression levels of clusterin mRNA and protein in ARPE-19 cells, as well as in the secretion of clusterin protein. (meta.org)
  • Context: Variants in the clusterin gene are associated with the risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) and clusterin levels have been found to be increased in brain and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with AD. (eur.nl)
  • Clusterin transcript variants expression in thyroid tumor: a potential marker of malignancy? (biomedcentral.com)
  • To investigate the role of secretory clusterin in the biology of breast cancer tumor growth and resistance to therapy we have engineered an MCF-7 cell line (MCF-7CLU) that over-expresses clusterin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In vitro, over-expression of secretory clusterin alters the cell cycle kinetics and decreases the rate of cell death, resulting in the enhancement of cell growth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Over-expression of secretory clusterin also blocks the TNFalpha-mediated induction of p21 and abrogates the cleavage of Bax to t-Bax, rendering the MCF-7CLU cells significantly more resistant to the cytokine than the parental cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These data suggest that secretory clusterin, which is frequently up-regulated in breast cancers by common therapies, including anti-estrogens, may play a significant role in tumor growth, metastatic progression and subsequent drug resistance in surviving cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Jie Zhang, Mengna Wu, Yuqing Xu, Qianqian Song and Wenjie Zheng*, "Secretory Clusterin: A Promising Target for Chemoresistance of Hepatocellular Carcinoma", Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry (2020) 20: 1153. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Localization of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, vimentin, c-Fos, and clusterin in the postischemic kidney. (jci.org)
  • The relationship of clusterin gene expression and plasma clusterin with IR, cardiovascular biomarkers, and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) was then determined. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Clusterin inhibited the gene expression and reactive oxygen species generation by palmitate in the hepatocytes and C2C12.AKTphosphorylation by insulin was reduced in the hepatocytes of clusterin KO mice. (elsevier.com)
  • Therefore, clusterin gene expression during mouse inner ear development was studied using riboprobes from the mouse gene. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line Huh7, which stably expresses HDAgs, was differentially screened and the results showed that clusterin gene expression was enhanced. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Furthermore, the researchers found elevated concentrations of plasma clusterin in AD transgenic mice that overexpress mutated amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1, and higher clusterin mRNA levels in blood cells of AD patients, compared with MCI and control subjects. (alzforum.org)
  • seemed to affect clusterin mRNA levels or protein expression in blood. (alzforum.org)
  • The plasma levels of clusterin and clusterin mRNA levels in the skeletal muscle and liver were increased by the high-fat diet. (elsevier.com)
  • The mRNA levels of the antioxidant enzymes were lower, and the mRNA levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX) 1 and cytokines and protein carbonylation were higher in the skeletal muscle and liver in clusterin KO mice after the high-fat diet. (elsevier.com)
  • Lipocalin 2, clusterin, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (sTNFR-1), interleukin-6, homocysteine, and uric acid are inflammatory and/or biochemical markers. (hindawi.com)
  • Production of the protein clusterin is a fundamental cellular repair mechanism that tumor cells exploit to evade destruction by anti-cancer therapies. (newswire.ca)
  • Here, clusterin (CLU) was identified as a novel target gene of DEC1 and suppresses DNA damage-induced cell death in tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Using an orthotopic model of breast cancer, we have also determined the effects of over-expression of clusterin on tumor growth and metastatic progression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • During a study spanning nearly a decade, researchers at The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute and Houston Methodist Cancer Center have linked the protein clusterin - for the first time -- to many different facets of cardiometabolic syndrome risk through its actions in the liver. (news-medical.net)
  • The present study examined the role of clusterin in insulin resistance in high fat-fed wild-type and clusterin knockout (KO) mice. (elsevier.com)
  • Our objective was to determine 1 ) whether subcutaneous AT adipocyte (SAd) clusterin and serum clusterin are associated with insulin resistance (IR) and known markers of cardiometabolic risk and 2 ) how clusterin may contribute to increased risk. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate serum levels of lipocalin 2, clusterin, sTNFR-1, interleukin-6, homocysteine, and uric acid in patients and controls groups. (hindawi.com)
  • Morrissey C, Lakins J, Moquin A, Hussain M, Tenniswood M: An antigen capture assay for the measurement of serum Clusterin concentrations. (biovendor.com)
  • Native clusterin purified from human serum. (anacrom.com)
  • Distribution of clusterin in Alzheimer brain tissue. (nih.gov)
  • The immunohistochemical distribution of clusterin (SP40,40, SGP-2) was determined in Alzheimer disease (AD) and normal human brain tissue and compared with the distributions of vitronectin, protectin and the complement membrane attack complex (MAC). (nih.gov)
  • Clusterin is up- or down regulated on the mRNA or protein level in many pathological and clinically relevant situations including cancer, organ regeneration, infection, Alzheimer disease, retinitis pigmentosa, myocardial infarction, renal tubular damage, autoimmunity and others. (prospecbio.com)
  • According to the findings of a community-based study, in younger patients higher clusterin levels involved a ________ risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) and __________ risk of stroke. (mdedge.com)
  • Association of plasma clusterin concentration with severity, pathology, and progression in Alzheimer disease. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We conclude that ischemia induces the upregulation of clusterin in ischemically challenged, but viable, cardiomyocytes. (vumc.nl)
  • The mechanisms for HDAg-mediated clusterin gene upregulation were investigated. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Although there are many factors regarding multiple resistance that are still unknown, studies show that it may be mediated by different mechanisms, one of which is closely related to the expression of the clusterin (CLU) protein ( 2, 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Whether clusterin turns out to be a useful biomarker remains to be seen, but the new data lend credence to the idea that the protein may play some role in AD pathogenesis. (alzforum.org)
  • Plasma clusterin concentration is associated with longitudinal brain atrophy in mild cognitive impairment. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Our main aim was to examine associations between plasma clusterin concentration and longitudinal changes in brain volume in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Mixed effects regression models investigated whether plasma clusterin concentration was associated with rates of brain atrophy for control and MCI groups and whether these associations differed between groups. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The associations of plasma clusterin concentration with rates of change in brain volume were significantly different between MCI and control groups in several volumes including whole brain, ventricular CSF, temporal gray matter as well as parahippocampal, superior temporal and cingulate gyri. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Immunohistochemistry studies demonstrated clusterin primarily in tubules in the cortex and medulla. (asnjournals.org)
  • In the immunohistochemistry, clusterin protein was detected only immediately after the application of restraint stress. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • In the latter study, virtually all neurons were shown to be clusterin-positive by immunohistochemistry . (mussenhealth.us)
  • We further showed that the expression of TDP-43 in transgenic Drosophila neurons induced ER stress and that co-expression of clusterin resulted in a dramatic clearance of mislocalized TDP-43 from motor neuron axons, partially rescued locomotor activity and significantly extended lifespan. (edu.au)
  • Additionally, clusterin has been more recently identified as a mediator of Aβ toxicity, as evidenced by the neuroprotective effect of CLU knockdown and knockout in rodent and human iPSC-derived neurons. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In this study, we examined the diurnal fluctuations of plasma clusterin concentrations in lean and obese young men. (e-enm.org)
  • Notably, plasma clusterin concentrations displayed a unique ultradian rhythm with five cycles a day in both men and women. (e-enm.org)
  • In the absence of aggregation, clusterin at concentrations of 20 and 50 μg/ml, but not lower doses, partially protected against injury induced by H 2 O 2 . (elsevier.com)
  • In the absence of aggregation, clusterin at concentrations of 20 and 50 μg/ml, but not lower doses, partially protected against injury induced by H2O2. (elsevier.com)
  • Conversely, a series of observations supported a link between clusterin and tissue involution. (biologists.org)
  • Based on its sites of expression, clusterin is considered as a marker for tissue regression, specially in brain injuries ( May and Finch, 1992 ). (biologists.org)
  • Clusterin is commonly identified at fluid-tissue interfaces, and has been identified in most body fluids. (ovid.com)
  • 1994) The role of clusterin in tissue injury. (sinobiological.com)
  • Consistent with these data and supportive of a role for clusterin in the maturation of the nervous tissue are the observations made by O'Bryan et al33 during neuronal development in the mouse. (mussenhealth.us)
  • In the present study, we have investigated the expression of clusterin in pancreatic tissue of streptozotocin-treated rats which were undergoing extensive islet tissue reorganization due to degeneration of insulin beta cells. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Among these, Clusterin (CLU) may represent a target gene that can be used to monitor changes that are responsible for the progression from normal to malignant and metastatic tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the expanded cohort, Lovestone's team found that those with higher plasma clusterin levels had greater atrophy in the entorhinal cortex, more amyloid in the medial temporal lobe, and poorer performance on the Mini-Mental State Examination. (alzforum.org)
  • Increased plasma concentration of clusterin was predictive of greater fibrillar amyloid-beta burden in the medial temporal lobe. (ox.ac.uk)
  • APP/PS1 transgenic mice showed increased plasma clusterin, age-dependent increase in brain clusterin, as well as amyloid and clusterin colocalization in plaques. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We have shown that clusterin directly interacts with TDP-43 in vitro and potently inhibits its aggregation, and observed that in ER stressed neuronal cells, clusterin co-localized with TDP-43 and specifically reduced the numbers of cytoplasmic inclusions. (edu.au)
  • Interestingly, clusterin associates with altered elastic fibers in human photoaged skin and prevents UV-induced elastin aggregation in vitro. (ovid.com)
  • To test this hypothesis, a single cell suspension of LLC-PK 1 cells (porcine proximal tubular cell line) treated with albumin (control) was compared to cells aggregated with fibrinogen or purified human clusterin (aggregation graded 0 to 4). (elsevier.com)
  • Cell aggregation induced by clusterin but not fibrinogen protected against oxidant injury by H 2 O 2 . (elsevier.com)
  • Complete abrogation of cytotoxicity occurred at a clusterin concentration of 2.5 μg/ml, which resulted in an aggregation score of 1. (elsevier.com)
  • Cell aggregation induced by both clusterin and fibrinogen partially protected against endogenously generated oxidant stress induced by incubating LLC-PK 1 cells with aminotriazole and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB). (elsevier.com)
  • Cell aggregation induced by clusterin but not fibrinogen protected against oxidant injury by H2O2. (elsevier.com)
  • In the first, Simon Lovestone, King's College London, and colleagues report in this month's Archives of General Psychiatry that plasma levels of clusterin track with AD severity, pathology, and clinical progression. (alzforum.org)
  • Proteomic analysis of plasma from the REVE-2 study (Remodelage Ventriculaire)-a study dedicated to the analysis of LVR which included 246 patients after a first anterior myocardial infarction-identified increased plasma levels of CLU (clusterin) in patients with high LVR. (nih.gov)
  • Resistant cells were characterised by higher levels of cytoplasmic clusterin than sensitive cells, and antiestrogen treatments up-regulated clusterin levels in both sensitive and resistant cell lines. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • We therefore concluded that: i) basal clusterin levels are higher in antiestrogen resistant cells, ii) clusterin is up-regulated following antiestrogen treatment independently of the sensitivity of the cell line, iii) down-regulation of cytoplasmic clusterin restores sensitivity to toremifene in the antiestrogen-resistant cell line. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • High levels of clusterin are observed in ischemic heart disease and diabetic conditions. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Likewise, none of the PCNA or vimentin-positive cells expressed clusterin at detectable levels. (jci.org)
  • Plasma levels of clusterin were measured at baseline (1997-1999) in 60 individuals with prevalent AD, a random subcohort of 926 participants, and an additional 156 participants diagnosed with AD during follow-up until January 1, 2007 (mean [SD], 7.2 [2.3] years). (eur.nl)
  • Conclusion: Plasma clusterin levels were significantly associated with baseline prevalence and severity of AD, but not with incidence of AD. (eur.nl)
  • In a separate autopsy sample of individuals with AD (N=17) and healthy controls (N=4), we examined the association between antemortem clusterin concentration in plasma and postmortem levels in the superior temporal gyrus, hippocampus and cerebellum. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Plasma clusterin is one such biomarker showing promise as levels differ between healthy individuals and those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD. (edu.au)
  • B) Adenovirus-induced expression of clusterin (AdCLU) and cathepsin k (AdCTSK) on actin, ECM, CTSK expression and activity, and TGFβ2 levels in HTM cells were determined by immunofluorescence, qPCR, immunoblotting, and ELISA assays. (arvojournals.org)
  • Clusterin loss in HTM cells by siClu and in Clu -/- mice increased actin stress fibers, α-SMA and ECM levels and distribution in TM. (arvojournals.org)
  • In a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, the clamp insulin levels were higher in clusterin KO mice after the high-fat diet. (elsevier.com)
  • After adjusting for the clamp insulin levels, the glucose infusion rate, suppression of hepatic glucose production, and glucose uptake were lower in clusterin KO mice in the high fat-fed group. (elsevier.com)
  • During the light-on period, circulating clusterin levels showed fluctuating curves with 4 hours regular intervals with sharp peaks and troughs. (e-enm.org)
  • Cyclic fluctuations of plasma clusterin were preserved under fasting and unexpected meal condition, suggesting that rhythmic oscillations in plasma clusterin levels are not generated by meal-related cues. (e-enm.org)
  • In this study the association of the AD clusterin common risk polymorphism rs9331888 with blood clusterin levels was tested in 104 AD subjects and 104 healthy controls. (cdc.gov)
  • This study indicates that the rs9331888 AD-risk variant is associated with low blood clusterin levels. (cdc.gov)
  • Experimental and clinical studies have associated elevated clusterin (CLU) levels with development of treatment resistance in prostate, lung, breast, ovarian, and other cancers ( 7-12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Objective: To evaluate the potential of plasma clusterin as a biomarker of the presence, severity, and risk of AD. (eur.nl)
  • A Role for Clusterin in Exfoliation Syndrome and Exfoliation Glaucoma? (ovid.com)
  • Although CLU has been considered as a therapeutic target in AD, cancer and dry eye, a role for clusterin in XFS/XFG needs to be better defined before therapeutic approaches involving CLU can be entertained. (ovid.com)
  • A direct role for clusterin in programmed cell death in the rat CNS was subsequently disclosed in a study by Garden and coworkers32 using in situ hybridization. (mussenhealth.us)
  • In situ hybridization was used to precisely localize clusterin transcripts in articular cartilage, where it was found that clusterin expression was confined to the articular surface in both immature and mature samples. (cf.ac.uk)
  • These results imply that clusterin is a secretory molecule having endocrine and/or paracrine actions in parallel with glucagon. (bioscientifica.com)
  • This leads to the appearance of a 50-53 kDa uncleaved, nonglycosylated, disulfide-linked isoform of clusterin that accumulates in the nucleus. (nih.gov)
  • A second nuclear isoform of clusterin that is associated with cell death has also been identified. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast to the extent and pattern of clusterin staining, vimentin was seen in only sporadic, dilated tubules, in addition to its expected glomerular localization. (asnjournals.org)
  • The authors examined the pattern of clusterin mRNA expression in the developing rat embryo and found it not to correlate with regions undergoing developmental cell death. (mussenhealth.us)
  • A genuine function of clusterin has not been defined. (prospecbio.com)
  • However, the physiological function of clusterin in the central nervous system remains largely unknown. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Time-dependent regulation of clusterin by ocular hypertension inducing transforming growth factorβ2 (TGFβ2) (8ng/ml for 1, 2, 24, and 48h) was performed in human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells using qPCR and immunoblotting. (arvojournals.org)
  • The regulation of clusterin expression is not well characterized but the promoter of clusterin contains a CpG-rich methylation domain. (meta.org)
  • The distribution of clusterin and complement factor C3d was evaluated in the infarcted human heart. (vumc.nl)
  • A secondary objective was to examine associations between peripheral concentration of clusterin and its concentration in the brain within regions that undergo neuropathological changes in AD. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, peripheral concentration of clusterin also appears to reflect its concentration within brain regions vulnerable to AD pathology. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The analysis of clusterin protein expression revealed this was not restricted to the developing sensory epithelium alone, but also was detected transiently in the periotic mesenchye, otic capsule, as well as Reissner's membrane, a non-sensory epithelium. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • We also analyzed the protein expression of clusterin in ischemic H9c2 cells. (vumc.nl)
  • Subjects with AD had increased clusterin messenger RNA in blood, but there was no effect of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the gene encoding clusterin with gene or protein expression. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The retinoid antagonist MX781 induces clusterin expression in prostate cancer cells via heat shock factor-1 and activator protein-1 transcription factors. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Clusterin is overexpressed in human prostate cancer, breast cancers and squamous cell carcinomas. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Clusterin is expressed in normal brain and has been reported to be overexpressed in anaplastic large cell lymphoma and in pancreatic, breast and prostate cancers. (anacrom.com)
  • Clusterin is a protein of 449 amino acids with a molecular mass of 52 kD. (biolegend.com)
  • Western analysis revealed that two major groups of clusterin exist in the eye, a high molecular weight group (>100 kDa) and a second group consisting of at least five clusterin species that are all approximately 80 kDa. (edu.au)
  • Meanwhile, the molecular size of clusterin mRNA detected in the array of tissues are identical in size, suggesting that the nature of the diversity in clusterin forms is due to post-translational modifications. (edu.au)
  • Gentaur Molecular :Biovend \ Clusterin Rec. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Clusterin Canine Recombinant produced in HEK293 cells is a single, glycosylated, Polypeptide chain containing 436 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 50.72 kDa. (promab.com)
  • Plasma clusterin was reported to be associated with brain atrophy, baseline disease severity, and rapid clinical progression in patients with AD. (eur.nl)
  • Within the MCI but not control group, higher baseline concentration of plasma clusterin was associated with slower rates of brain atrophy in these regions. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Researchers theorized that clusterin is depleted in dry eyes and that by replenishing the protein would be helpful. (visivite.com)
  • Clusterin is involved in many diseases related to oxidative stress and aging, including neurodegenerative disorders, cancers, diabetes, and inflammatory diseases. (biolegend.com)
  • After it was first demonstrated that folic acid increased renal clusterin mRNA in the rat, a species in which renal clusterin was highly inducible by other stimuli, the effects of folic acid (250 mg/kg ip) on clusterin mRNA and immunoreactivity were examined in mice sufficient and deficient for the fifth component of complement. (elsevier.com)