A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.
A statistical analytic technique used with discrete dependent variables, concerned with separating sets of observed values and allocating new values. It is sometimes used instead of regression analysis.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A statistically significant excess of cases of a disease, occurring within a limited space-time continuum.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
A primary headache disorder that is characterized by severe, strictly unilateral PAIN which is orbital, supraorbital, temporal or in any combination of these sites, lasting 15-180 min. occurring 1 to 8 times a day. The attacks are associated with one or more of the following, all of which are ipsilateral: conjunctival injection, lacrimation, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, facial SWEATING, eyelid EDEMA, and miosis. (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.
In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
Deep grooves or clefts in the surface of teeth equivalent to class 1 cavities in Black's classification of dental caries.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties and include the dimension of time in the analysis.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Electrophoresis in which a starch gel (a mixture of amylose and amylopectin) is used as the diffusion medium.
Geographic variety, population, or race, within a species, that is genetically adapted to a particular habitat. An ecotype typically exhibits phenotypic differences but is capable of interbreeding with other ecotypes.
The biological objects that contain genetic information and that are involved in transmitting genetically encoded traits from one organism to another.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.
Tandem arrays of moderately repetitive, short (10-60 bases) DNA sequences which are found dispersed throughout the GENOME, at the ends of chromosomes (TELOMERES), and clustered near telomeres. Their degree of repetition is two to several hundred at each locus. Loci number in the thousands but each locus shows a distinctive repeat unit.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Neoplasms associated with a proliferation of a single clone of PLASMA CELLS and characterized by the secretion of PARAPROTEINS.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The simultaneous analysis, on a microchip, of multiple samples or targets arranged in an array format.
Cognitive and emotional processes encompassing magnification of pain-related stimuli, feelings of helplessness, and a generally pessimistic orientation.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Acquired or learned food preferences.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
A branch of the facial (7th cranial) nerve which passes through the middle ear and continues through the petrotympanic fissure. The chorda tympani nerve carries taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and conveys parasympathetic efferents to the salivary glands.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
The performance of dissections with the aid of a microscope.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Diseases of plants.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
A common nonarticular rheumatic syndrome characterized by myalgia and multiple points of focal muscle tenderness to palpation (trigger points). Muscle pain is typically aggravated by inactivity or exposure to cold. This condition is often associated with general symptoms, such as sleep disturbances, fatigue, stiffness, HEADACHES, and occasionally DEPRESSION. There is significant overlap between fibromyalgia and the chronic fatigue syndrome (FATIGUE SYNDROME, CHRONIC). Fibromyalgia may arise as a primary or secondary disease process. It is most frequent in females aged 20 to 50 years. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1494-95)
The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.

Ringo, Doty, Demeter and Simard, Cerebral Cortex 1994;4:331-343: a proof of the need for the spatial clustering of interneuronal connections to enhance cortical computation. (1/16506)

It has been argued that an important principle driving the organization of the cerebral cortex towards local processing has been the need to decrease time lost to interneuronal conduction delay. In this paper, I show for a simplified model of the cerebral cortex, using analytical means, that if interneuronal conduction time increases proportional to interneuronal distance, then the only way to increase the numbers of synaptic events occurring in a fixed finite time period is to spatially cluster interneuronal connections.  (+info)

Cluster survey evaluation of coverage and risk factors for failure to be immunized during the 1995 National Immunization Days in Egypt. (2/16506)

BACKGROUND: In 1995, Egypt continued to experience endemic wild poliovirus transmission despite achieving high routine immunization coverage with at least three doses of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV3) and implementing National Immunization Days (NIDs) annually for several years. METHODS: Parents of 4188 children in 3216 households throughout Egypt were surveyed after the second round of the 1995 NIDs. RESULTS: Nationwide, 74% of children are estimated to have received both NID doses, 17% one NID dose, and 9% neither NID dose. Previously unimmunized (47%) or partially immunized (64%) children were less likely to receive two NID doses of OPV than were fully immunized children (76%) (P < 0.001). Other risk factors nationwide for failure to receive NID OPV included distance from residence to nearest NID site >10 minute walk (P < 0.001), not being informed about the NID at least one day in advance (P < 0.001), and residing in a household which does not watch television (P < 0.001). Based on these findings, subsequent NIDs in Egypt were modified to improve coverage, which has resulted in a marked decrease in the incidence of paralytic poliomyelitis in Egypt. CONCLUSIONS: In selected situations, surveys can provide important information that is useful for planning future NIDs.  (+info)

Clusters of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: analysis of person-to-person transmission by genotyping. (3/16506)

Genotyping at the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear rRNA operon was performed on isolates of P. carinii sp. f. hominis from three clusters of P. carinii pneumonia among eight patients with haematological malignancies and six with HIV infection. Nine different ITS sequence types of P. carinii sp. f. hominis were identified in the samples from the patients with haematological malignancies, suggesting that this cluster of cases of P. carinii pneumonia was unlikely to have resulted from nosocomial transmission. A common ITS sequence type was observed in two of the patients with haematological malignancies who shared a hospital room, and also in two of the patients with HIV infection who had prolonged close contact on the ward. In contrast, different ITS sequence types were detected in samples from an HIV-infected homosexual couple who shared the same household. These data suggest that person-to-person transmission of P. carinii sp. f. hominis may occur from infected to susceptible immunosuppressed patients with close contact within hospital environments. However direct transmission between patients did not account for the majority of cases within the clusters, suggesting that person-to-person transmission of P. carinii sp. f. hominis infection may be a relatively infrequent event and does not constitute the major route of transmission in man.  (+info)

Influence of sampling on estimates of clustering and recent transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis derived from DNA fingerprinting techniques. (4/16506)

The availability of DNA fingerprinting techniques for Mycobacterium tuberculosis has led to attempts to estimate the extent of recent transmission in populations, using the assumption that groups of tuberculosis patients with identical isolates ("clusters") are likely to reflect recently acquired infections. It is never possible to include all cases of tuberculosis in a given population in a study, and the proportion of isolates found to be clustered will depend on the completeness of the sampling. Using stochastic simulation models based on real and hypothetical populations, the authors demonstrate the influence of incomplete sampling on the estimates of clustering obtained. The results show that as the sampling fraction increases, the proportion of isolates identified as clustered also increases and the variance of the estimated proportion clustered decreases. Cluster size is also important: the underestimation of clustering for any given sampling fraction is greater, and the variability in the results obtained is larger, for populations with small clusters than for those with the same number of individuals arranged in large clusters. A considerable amount of caution should be used in interpreting the results of studies on clustering of M. tuberculosis isolates, particularly when sampling fractions are small.  (+info)

Newly recognized focus of La Crosse encephalitis in Tennessee. (5/16506)

La Crosse virus is a mosquito-borne arbovirus that causes encephalitis in children. Only nine cases were reported in Tennessee during the 33-year period from 1964-1996. We investigated a cluster of La Crosse encephalitis cases in eastern Tennessee in 1997. Medical records of all suspected cases of La Crosse virus infection at a pediatric referral hospital were reviewed, and surveillance was enhanced in the region. Previous unreported cases were identified by surveying 20 hospitals in the surrounding 16 counties. Mosquito eggs were collected from five sites. Ten cases of La Crosse encephalitis were serologically confirmed. None of the patients had been discharged from hospitals in the region with diagnosed La Crosse encephalitis in the preceding 5 years. Aedes triseriatus and Aedes albopictus were collected at the case sites; none of the mosquitos had detectable La Crosse virus. This cluster may represent an extension of a recently identified endemic focus of La Crosse virus infection in West Virginia.  (+info)

Hierarchical cluster analysis applied to workers' exposures in fiberglass insulation manufacturing. (6/16506)

The objectives of this study were to explore the application of cluster analysis to the characterization of multiple exposures in industrial hygiene practice and to compare exposure groupings based on the result from cluster analysis with that based on non-measurement-based approaches commonly used in epidemiology. Cluster analysis was performed for 37 workers simultaneously exposed to three agents (endotoxin, phenolic compounds and formaldehyde) in fiberglass insulation manufacturing. Different clustering algorithms, including complete-linkage (or farthest-neighbor), single-linkage (or nearest-neighbor), group-average and model-based clustering approaches, were used to construct the tree structures from which clusters can be formed. Differences were observed between the exposure clusters constructed by these different clustering algorithms. When contrasting the exposure classification based on tree structures with that based on non-measurement-based information, the results indicate that the exposure clusters identified from the tree structures had little in common with the classification results from either the traditional exposure zone or the work group classification approach. In terms of the defining homogeneous exposure groups or from the standpoint of health risk, some toxicological normalization in the components of the exposure vector appears to be required in order to form meaningful exposure groupings from cluster analysis. Finally, it remains important to see if the lack of correspondence between exposure groups based on epidemiological classification and measurement data is a peculiarity of the data or a more general problem in multivariate exposure analysis.  (+info)

A taxonomy of health networks and systems: bringing order out of chaos. (7/16506)

OBJECTIVE: To use existing theory and data for empirical development of a taxonomy that identifies clusters of organizations sharing common strategic/structural features. DATA SOURCES: Data from the 1994 and 1995 American Hospital Association Annual Surveys, which provide extensive data on hospital involvement in hospital-led health networks and systems. STUDY DESIGN: Theories of organization behavior and industrial organization economics were used to identify three strategic/structural dimensions: differentiation, which refers to the number of different products/services along a healthcare continuum; integration, which refers to mechanisms used to achieve unity of effort across organizational components; and centralization, which relates to the extent to which activities take place at centralized versus dispersed locations. These dimensions were applied to three components of the health service/product continuum: hospital services, physician arrangements, and provider-based insurance activities. DATA EXTRACTION METHODS: We identified 295 health systems and 274 health networks across the United States in 1994, and 297 health systems and 306 health networks in 1995 using AHA data. Empirical measures aggregated individual hospital data to the health network and system level. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified a reliable, internally valid, and stable four-cluster solution for health networks and a five-cluster solution for health systems. We found that differentiation and centralization were particularly important in distinguishing unique clusters of organizations. High differentiation typically occurred with low centralization, which suggests that a broader scope of activity is more difficult to centrally coordinate. Integration was also important, but we found that health networks and systems typically engaged in both ownership-based and contractual-based integration or they were not integrated at all. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we were able to classify approximately 70 percent of hospital-led health networks and 90 percent of hospital-led health systems into well-defined organizational clusters. Given the widespread perception that organizational change in healthcare has been chaotic, our research suggests that important and meaningful similarities exist across many evolving organizations. The resulting taxonomy provides a new lexicon for researchers, policymakers, and healthcare executives for characterizing key strategic and structural features of evolving organizations. The taxonomy also provides a framework for future inquiry about the relationships between organizational strategy, structure, and performance, and for assessing policy issues, such as Medicare Provider Sponsored Organizations, antitrust, and insurance regulation.  (+info)

Double blind, cluster randomised trial of low dose supplementation with vitamin A or beta carotene on mortality related to pregnancy in Nepal. The NNIPS-2 Study Group. (8/16506)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact on mortality related to pregnancy of supplementing women of reproductive age each week with a recommended dietary allowance of vitamin A, either preformed or as beta carotene. DESIGN: Double blind, cluster randomised, placebo controlled field trial. SETTING: Rural southeast central plains of Nepal (Sarlahi district). SUBJECTS: 44 646 married women, of whom 20 119 became pregnant 22 189 times. INTERVENTION: 270 wards randomised to 3 groups of 90 each for women to receive weekly a single oral supplement of placebo, vitamin A (7000 micrograms retinol equivalents) or beta carotene (42 mg, or 7000 micrograms retinol equivalents) for over 31/2 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause mortality in women during pregnancy up to 12 weeks post partum (pregnancy related mortality) and mortality during pregnancy to 6 weeks postpartum, excluding deaths apparently related to injury (maternal mortality). RESULTS: Mortality related to pregnancy in the placebo, vitamin A, and beta carotene groups was 704, 426, and 361 deaths per 100 000 pregnancies, yielding relative risks (95% confidence intervals) of 0. 60 (0.37 to 0.97) and 0.51 (0.30 to 0.86). This represented reductions of 40% (P<0.04) and 49% (P<0.01) among those who received vitamin A and beta carotene. Combined, vitamin A or beta carotene lowered mortality by 44% (0.56 (0.37 to 0.84), P<0.005) and reduced the maternal mortality ratio from 645 to 385 deaths per 100 000 live births, or by 40% (P<0.02). Differences in cause of death could not be reliably distinguished between supplemented and placebo groups. CONCLUSION: Supplementation of women with either vitamin A or beta carotene at recommended dietary amounts during childbearing years can lower mortality related to pregnancy in rural, undernourished populations of south Asia.  (+info)

In the paper, the algorithm of the hierarchical cluster analysis is considered and the method is proposed to transfer this algorithm onto the parallel multiprocessor system used on modern graphics processing units (GPUs). Within the frameworks of some natural assumptions, we have estimated the run time of the algorithm in a sequential case, in a parallel case for some abstract parallel machine and for GPU. The algorithm is implemented on CUDA, allowing us to carry out the hierarchical cluster analysis much faster, than on CPU. ...
For the cluster analysis, k-means was used with an Euclidean distance as it is efficient, fast, and can handle large datasets [9]. However, k-means requires the number of clusters (k) to be determined by the user. Hierarchical methods, on the other hand, can be analyzed for the optimal cluster number but struggle with large datasets [10]. We therefore applied hierarchical cluster analysis to 10 random samples of 3000 patients to identify the optimal number of clusters. This information was then used to perform a k-means analysis of the full dataset, to create the final clusters.. The hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted using Stata 14 software [11]. Wards method was used as it aims to minimize the cluster sum of squares and can therefore be considered a hierarchical analogue for k-means [12]. For each of the 10 random samples the pseudo F statistic, as defined by Calinski and Harabasz [13], and the Duda and Hart Je(2)/Je(1) index [14], were calculated for 4- to 12-cluster solutions. The ...
Hierarchical Cluster Analysis. Dear Listers, I am familar with the SPSS routines to do cluster analysis, but Im wondering if anyone is familiar with how this method compares to geospatial...
K-means is for interval data. So, using it means that you assume Likert rating scale is interval. OK, you have your right for this, albeit puristic people will frown and mutter likerts are ordinal, likerts are ordinal..... Next, K-means is expected to be better, more discriminating, for finely grained scale (a one closer to be continuous). This is as in everywhere in analysis: thin scales are usually better than rude scales. So, generally, 5-point scale would be better than 4-point scale.. Still, you should think twice, because psychometrically 4-point and 5-point rating scales behave not identically. 4-point scale is visually opinion-disruptive, having no central point; it is perceived as forcing to take a stand. That might be bad in one contexts and good in other contexts, in the end, the decision is yours. 5-point scale suffers from having number 5 at the edge - which is culturally prominant in many societies, and it has another similarly magic number 3 (right in the middle!). Both can ...
Hierarchical cluster analysis of the 14 subgroups identified from the test dataset using the average linkage distance.The 14 subgroups consist of 5 major subgro
Hierarchical cluster analysis. Using a hierarchical method, a clustering graph was created from those miRNAs with increased (red) or decreased (blue) fold of ex
A software that creates a virtual replica of our local cluster of stars and draws lines between the stars allowing the user to appreciate the geometry created by the lines by flying through it.. It would also allow you to hold your phone up to the sky and see the stars with the lines between them exaggerated in 3D so you can get a sense of the relationships between them and visualize yourself as more inside the shapes that the stars create.. You could also print out a model of the local cluster with the lines between them on a 3D printer so blind people can get a sense of our local cluster homes structure ...
Next click on Cluster Analysis, set your threshold and click Start. You will now see a cluster analysis processing job in your work list and can monitor its progress. The time it takes to complete the analysis will depend on the number of items in your case. Typically this goes pretty quick. To give you a benchmark I have a demo case with approximately 6,000 items in it and clustering takes about 5 minutes to complete.. Analyzing Results So what does this thing do??? Cluster analysis will identify groups, or clusters, of documents with similar content. For every cluster there will be a Pivot document which is like the root of the cluster and each similar item in the cluster will be given a Percent Similarity score. This Similarity to Pivot score tells you how similar the item is in relation to the pivot document. Another key feature of cluster analysis is that it will also identify email threads or conversations. After cluster analysis is performed the results can be viewed in the ...
Are Greek High School Students Environmental Citizens?: A Cluster Analysis Approach: Despina Sdrali, Nikolaos Galanis, Maria Goussia-Rizou, Konstadinos Abeliotis: Journal Articles
A distributed system provides for separate management of dynamic cluster membership and distributed data. Nodes of the distributed system may include a state manager and a topology manager. A state manager handles data access from the cluster. A topology manager handles changes to the dynamic cluster topology. The topology manager enables operation of the state manager by handling topology changes, such as new nodes to join the cluster and node members to exit the cluster. A topology manager may follow a static topology description when handling cluster topology changes. Data replication and recovery functions may be implemented, for example to provide high availability.
Cluster analysis and dissimilarity matrices of the Caucasian and Asian models of facial expressions. In each panel, vertical color coded bars show the k means (k = 6) cluster membership of each model. Each 41-dimensional model (n = 180 per culture) corresponds to the emotion category labelled above (30 models per emotion). The underlying grayscale dissimilarity matrices represent the Euclidean distances between each pair of models, used as inputs to k-means clustering. Note that, in the Caucasian group, the lighter squares along the diagonal indicate higher model similarity within each of the six emotion categories compared with the East Asian models. Correspondingly, k-means cluster analysis shows that the Western Caucasian models form six emotionally homogenous clusters... In contrast, the Asian models show considerable model dissimilarity within each emotion category and overlap between categories. ...
Cluster Group Development: 10.4018/978-1-7998-3416-8.ch005: Cluster groups are those organizations or individuals who have similar businesses and relationships. Clusters usually form naturally and organically due to
The course covers cluster analysis concepts and methods in SPSS. It is aimed at those with an interest in developing practical skills to implement clustering techniques and those with an interest in area typologies and classifications.. Participants will develop an understanding of clusterIng methods and procedures in SPSS. By the end of the course they will be able to carry out preliminary analysis to select and transform variables for cluster analysis, choose a clustering method, evaluate and choose cluster solutions, interpret clusters and present cluster analysis results. Hierarchical and non-hierarchical cluster analysis will be applied to 2011 Census local area data to produce an area classification to group areas with similar overall population characteristics into clusters.. Participants should have familiarity with SPSS and an understanding of basic data analytical techniques including correlation and regression analysis. ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - A Brief history of cluster analysis. AU - Murtagh, Fionn. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Beginning with some statistics on the remarkable growth of cluster analysis research and applications over many decades, we proceed to view cluster analysis in terms of its major methodological and algorithmic themes. We then review the early, influential domains of application. We conclude with a short list of surveys of the area, and an online resource with scanned copies of early pioneering books.. AB - Beginning with some statistics on the remarkable growth of cluster analysis research and applications over many decades, we proceed to view cluster analysis in terms of its major methodological and algorithmic themes. We then review the early, influential domains of application. We conclude with a short list of surveys of the area, and an online resource with scanned copies of early pioneering books.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85054281142&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - ...
Co-clustering is a class of unsupervised data analysis techniques aiming at extracting the underlying dependency structure between the rows and columns of a data table in the form of homogeneous blocks, known as co-clusters. These techniques can be distinguished into those that aim at simultaneously clustering the instances and variables, and those that aim at clustering the values of two or more variables of a data set. Most of these techniques are limited to variables of the same type, and are hardly scalable to large data sets while providing easily interpretable clusters and co-clusters. Among the existing value based co-clustering approaches, MODL is suitable for processing large data sets with several numerical or categorical variables. In this thesis, we propose a value based approach, inspired by MODL, to perform a simultaneous clustering of the instances and variables of a data set with potentially mixed-type variables. The proposed co-clustering model provides a Maximum A Posteriori based
Additional free disk space is required to run the program (for temporary files). The amount of space needed for temporary files depends on the number of users, the expected size of the .sav file, and the procedure. You can use the following formula to estimate the space needed: ,number of users, * ,.sav file size, * ,factor for procedures,, where ,factor for procedures, can range from 1 to 2.5. For example, for procedures like K-Means Cluster Analysis (QUICK CLUSTER), Classification Tree (TREE), and Two-Step Cluster Analysis (TWOSTEP CLUSTER), the ,factor for procedures, is closer to 1 than 2.5. If sorting is involved, it is 2.5. So, if you have four users, the expected .sav file size is 100 MB, and sorting is involved, you should allow 1 GB (4 Ã- 100 MB Ã- 2.5) of storage for temporary files ...
Additional free disk space is required to run the program (for temporary files). The amount of space needed for temporary files depends on the number of users, the expected size of the .sav file, and the procedure. You can use the following formula to estimate the space needed: ,number of users, * ,.sav file size, * ,factor for procedures,, where ,factor for procedures, can range from 1 to 2.5. For example, for procedures like K-Means Cluster Analysis (QUICK CLUSTER), Classification Tree (TREE), and Two-Step Cluster Analysis (TWOSTEP CLUSTER), the ,factor for procedures, is closer to 1 than 2.5. If sorting is involved, it is 2.5. So, if you have four users, the expected .sav file size is 100 MB, and sorting is involved, you should allow 1 GB (4 Ã- 100 MB Ã- 2.5) of storage for temporary files ...
Additional free disk space is required to run the program (for temporary files). The amount of space needed for temporary files depends on the number of users, the expected size of the .sav file, and the procedure. You can use the following formula to estimate the space needed: ,number of users, * ,.sav file size, * ,factor for procedures,, where ,factor for procedures, can range from 1 to 2.5. For example, for procedures like K-Means Cluster Analysis (QUICK CLUSTER), Classification Tree (TREE), and Two-Step Cluster Analysis (TWOSTEP CLUSTER), the ,factor for procedures, is closer to 1 than 2.5. If sorting is involved, it is 2.5. So, if you have four users, the expected .sav file size is 100 MB, and sorting is involved, you should allow 1 GB (4 Ã- 100 MB Ã- 2.5) of storage for temporary files ...
Additional free disk space is required to run the program (for temporary files). The amount of space needed for temporary files depends on the number of users, the expected size of the .sav file, and the procedure. You can use the following formula to estimate the space needed: ,number of users, * ,.sav file size, * ,factor for procedures,, where ,factor for procedures, can range from 1 to 2.5. For example, for procedures like K-Means Cluster Analysis (QUICK CLUSTER), Classification Tree (TREE), and Two-Step Cluster Analysis (TWOSTEP CLUSTER), the ,factor for procedures, is closer to 1 than 2.5. If sorting is involved, it is 2.5. So, if you have four users, the expected .sav file size is 100 MB, and sorting is involved, you should allow 1 GB (4 Ã- 100 MB Ã- 2.5) of storage for temporary files ...
Cluster analysis is a research tool suitable to determine natural groupings within a large group of observation. Cluster analysis segments the survey sample, for example users, customers or companies as survey respondents, on a smaller number of groups.. Respondents whose answers are very similar should be in the same cluster while respondents with significantly different answers should be in different clusters. Ideally, in each group should exist a very similar profile towards certain characteristics (for example, opinions and behaviour), while the profile of the respondents from different clusters should be different.. The main advantage of this analysis is that it may propose a grouping which couldnt be easily visible, for example needs of specific groups or segments of the market.. Cluster analysis s often used in market research to describe and quantify consumer segments. This allows client to adapt their strategic approach to the specific needs of consumers rather than applying a general ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cluster validity and uncertainty assessment for self-organizing map pest profile analysis. AU - Roigé, Mariona. AU - McGeoch, Melodie A.. AU - Hui, Cang. AU - Worner, Susan P.. PY - 2017/3/1. Y1 - 2017/3/1. N2 - Pest risk assessment (PRA) comprises a set of quantitative and qualitative tools to protect productive ecosystems from the impacts of unwanted biological invasions. Self-organizing maps for pest profile analysis (SOM PPA) is a methodological approach aimed to support PRA. It is based on cluster analysis and extracts information out of current distributions of insect crop pests world-wide, allowing the analyst to generate a list of potential risk species for a target region. Self-organizing maps for pest profile analysis currently lacks of a measure of performance able to provide a level of confidence for its outputs. In this study, we investigate ζ diversity as an ecologically meaningful and generalizable metric of similarity. The application of ζ allowed us to ...
Downloadable! Relevance of forming clusters development management contours used as their available potential development level management levers has been proved. The approach to representation of cluster structures as a system of atomic elements has been offered. The theoretical and methodological grounds of approach to the multiagent modeling of business entities interactions. These entities are involved in several chains of value creation. Cluster structure is represented as logistic chains aggregate. Balanced scorecard system and viable systems model have been chosen as tools of management organization.
Objective: To investigate if patterns of CSF biomarkers (T-tau, P-tau, and Aβ42) can predict cognitive progression, outcome of cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI) treatment, and mortality in Alzheimer disease (AD).. Methods: We included outpatients with AD (n = 151) from a prospective treatment study with ChEI. At baseline, patients underwent cognitive assessments and lumbar puncture. The patients were assessed longitudinally. The 5-year survival rate was evaluated. CSF-Aβ42, T-tau, and P-tau were analyzed at baseline. K-means cluster analysis including the 3 CSF biomarkers was carried out.. Results: Cluster 1 contained 87 patients with low levels of Aβ42 and relatively low levels of T-tau and P-tau. Cluster 2 contained 52 patients with low levels of Aβ42 and intermediate levels of T-tau and P-tau. Cluster 3 contained 12 patients with low levels of Aβ42 and very high levels of CSF T-tau and P-tau. There were no differences between the clusters regarding age, gender, years of education, baseline ...
Under what conditions is ethical consumption a high-status practice? Using unique food consumption survey data on aesthetic and ethical preferences, we investigate how these orientations to food are related. Existing research on high-status food consumption points to the foodie, who defines good taste through aesthetic standards. And emergent evidence suggests the ethical consumer, whose consumption is driven by moral principles, may also be a high-status food identity. However, ethical consumption can be practiced in inexpensive and subcultural ways that do not conform to dominant status hierarchies (e.g., freeganism). In order to understand the complex cultural terrain of high-status consumption, we investigate how socioeconomic status (SES) is related to foodie and ethical consumer preferences and practices. Using a k-means cluster analysis of intercept survey data from food shoppers in Toronto, we identify four distinct clusters representing foodies, ethical consumers, ethical foodies, ...
We sought to investigate (1) the characteristics of epileptiform discharge (ED) duration and inter-discharge interval (IDI) and (2) the influence of vigilance state on the ED duration and IDI in genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE). In a cohort of patients diagnosed with GGE, 24-hour ambulatory EEG recordings were performed prospectively. We then tabulated durations, IDI, and vigilance state in relation to all EDs captured on EEGs. We used K-means cluster analysis and finite mixture modeling to quantify and characterize the groups of ED duration and IDI. To investigate the influence of sleep, we calculated the mean, median, and standard error of the mean in each population from all subjects for sleep state and wakefulness separately, followed by the Kruskal-Wallis test to compare the groups. We analyzed 4679 epileptiform discharges and corresponding IDI from 23 abnormal 24-hour ambulatory EEGs. Our analysis defined two populations of ED durations and IDI; short and long. In all populations, both ED
Objectives. The primary aim of this study was to describe the geography of serious mental illness (SMI) - type 2 diabetes comorbidity(T2D) in the Illawarra-Shoalhaven region of NSW, Australia and to identify the significant clusters and their locations. The secondary objective was to determine the geographic concordance if any, between the comorbidity and the single diagnosis of SMI and T2D. Methods. Spatial analytical techniques were applied to clinical data to explore the above aims. The geographic variation in comorbidity was determined by Morans I at the global level and the local clusters of significance were determined by Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) and Spatial scan statistic. Choropleth hotspot maps were created to visually assess the geographic convergence of SMI, diabetes and their comorbidity. Additionally, we used bivariate LISA to identify coincident areas with higher rates of both SMI and T2D. Results. The study identified significant geographic variations in the ...
Cluster Profiles identifies significant cluster means in all the variables simultaneously. In the example, the Response Rate variable is highlighted in red. It shows at a glance how the cluster means for all the variables compare at each level from 1 to 6 clusters.. Its easy to see that the 2 cluster level is differentiated on the Response Rate, with means of 2.02 in cluster -2 and 6.89 in cluster +2. The equivalent decision tree rule for the first split, or final fusion, would be: Response Rate , 4.5.. At the next level the first variable differentiates clusters -3 and +3. At the following cluster level, the first 3 variables are correlated in differentiating clusters -4 (high) and +4 (low), with variable 2 dominating.. Bear in mind that this is not a decision tree. Clusters are formed on all variables simultaneously, so the analysis is multivariate at each clustering level.. This example illustrated the following ClustanGraphics features: k-means analysis with outlier deletion on a large ...
Encephalitis is an acute clinical syndrome of the central nervous system (CNS), often associated with fatal outcome or permanent damage, including cognitive and behavioural impairment, affective disorders and epileptic seizures. Infection of the central nervous system is considered to be a major cause of encephalitis and more than 100 different pathogens have been recognized as causative agents. However, a large proportion of cases have unknown disease etiology. We perform hierarchical cluster analysis on a multicenter England encephalitis data set with the aim of identifying sub-groups in human encephalitis. We use the simple matching similarity measure which is appropriate for binary data sets and performed variable selection using cluster heatmaps. We also use heatmaps to visually assess underlying patterns in the data, identify the main clinical and laboratory features and identify potential risk factors associated with encephalitis. Our results identified fever, personality and behavioural change,
https://zoom.us/j/96750955961. Abstract. Most previous research on community evolution focuses on predicting the future form of communities. In our study we focus on nodes and predict the state of a node towards its cluster, i.e. whether a node stays in the same cluster, moves to another cluster or drops out of the network. We examine different versions of the problem and investigate the use of appropriate features, employing both local and global node measures. Motivated by the extensive utilization of embeddings in machine learning, we introduce efficiently computed features based on node embeddings and compare them to the typical features used in community evolution. In addition, taking advantage of the information the history of a node provides, we consider chains of features of different length. Our experimental results show the complexity of the different variations of the problem and the effectiveness of specific features and chain lengths. ...
Yeah, I started working on a k-means cluster module recently. However, at the moment theres no way to add the cluster groups to the spreadsheet making the analysis not very useful. Once weve implemented adding analyses data to the spreadsheet, Ill start working on it again ...
The aim of the study is to compare TIMSS 2011 proficiency levels with the proficiency levels defined by the researchers using cluster analysis for Turkey, Korean, Norway, and Morocco in 4th and 8 th grades in the fields of science and mathematics. Therefore, it is tried to be reached that these cut-off scores for each country can serve the evaluation of each country itself. For this research, the data gathered from related countries students was taken from TIMSS 2011 database. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS Version 21.0 statistic software package. The cut-off scores for these four countries selected in this study for each grade level and course type were defined using cluster analysis. Then, proficiency levels according to these cut-off scores were compared to the general TIMSS 2011 proficiency levels, and so the difference between these levels and percentage of agreement have been examined. According to the results, cut-off scores set by using cluster analysis for
Please note that the information and the Excel template for running cluster analysis on this website have been provided free and in good faith. Testing has indicated that the template appears to work as required. Of course, as highlighted in the discussion of cluster analysis and varying results, this statistical technique will vary somewhat according to start (seed) points.. This website is primarily designed for use by university students in their studies. It only allows for up to 100 respondents and is, therefore, not capable of analyzing a large customer database - it is primarily a learning tool.. If you intend to use the free Excel template and/or the information on this website for business purposes, it is strongly recommended that you also seek the advice of a qualified marketing research consultant or data analyst with expertise in cluster analysis and developing market segments to help guide you.. Please contact me if you have any questions regarding this disclaimer, or if you require ...
Abstract:. During the last decades it has been established that breast cancer arises through the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in different cancer related genes. These alterations confer the tumor oncogenic abilities, which can be resumed as cancer hallmarks (CH). The purpose of this study was to establish the methylation profile of CpG sites located in cancer genes in breast tumors so as to infer their potential impact on 6 CH: i.e. sustained proliferative signaling, evasion of growth suppressors, resistance to cell death, induction of angiogenesis, genome instability and invasion and metastasis. For 51 breast carcinomas, MS-MLPA derived-methylation profiles of 81 CpG sites were converted into 6 CH profiles. CH profiles distribution was tested by different statistical methods and correlated with clinical-pathological data. Unsupervised Hierarchical Cluster Analysis revealed that CH profiles segregate in two main groups (bootstrapping 90-100%), which correlate with breast ...
In many applications, it is of interest to uncover patterns from a high-dimensional data set in which the number of features, p, is larger than the number of observations, n. We consider the areas of graph estimation and cluster analysis, which are often used to construct gene expression network and to partition the observations or features into subgroups, respectively. For graph estimation, we propose a framework to estimate graphical models with a few hub nodes that are densely-connected to many other nodes. We apply our framework to three widely used probabilistic graphical models: the Gaussian graphical model, the covariance graph model, and the binary Ising model. For cluster analysis, we propose a novel methodology for partitioning both observations and features into groups simultaneously, which we refer to as sparse biclustering. We also propose a framework to account for the correlation among the observations and features when we perform sparse biclustering. In addition, we study the ...
Although the vast majority of patients with a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) suffer from cytopenias, the bone marrow is usually normocellular or hypercellular. Apoptosis of hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow has been implicated in this phenomenon. However, in MDS it remains only partially elucidated which genes are involved in this process and which hematopoietic cells are mainly affected. We employed sensitive real-time PCR technology to study 93 apoptosis-related genes and gene families in sorted immature CD34+ and the differentiating erythroid (CD71+) and monomyeloid (CD13/33+) bone marrow cells. Unsupervised cluster analysis of the expression signature readily distinguished the different cellular bone marrow fractions (CD34+, CD71+ and CD13/33+) from each other, but did not discriminate patients from healthy controls. When individual genes were regarded, several were found to be differentially expressed between patients and controls. Particularly, strong over-expression of BIK (BCL2-interacting
How would you identify a small number of face images that together accurately represent a data set of face images? How would you identify a small number of sentences that accurately reflect the content of a document? How would you identify a small number of cities that are most easily accessible from all other cities by commercial airline? How would you identify segments of DNA that reflect the expression properties of genes? Data centers, or exemplars, are traditionally found by randomly choosing an initial subset of data points and then iteratively refining it, but this only works well if that initial choice is close to a good solution. Affinity propagation is a new algorithm that takes as input measures of similarity between pairs of data points and simultaneously considers all data points as potential exemplars. Real-valued messages are exchanged between data points until a high-quality set of exemplars and corresponding clusters gradually emerges. We have used affinity propagation to solve ...
Clustering data has a wide range of applications and has attracted considerable attention in data mining and artificial intelligence. However it is difficult to find a set of clusters that best fits natural partitions without any class information. In this paper, a method for detecting the optimal cluster number is proposed. The optimal cluster number can be obtained by the proposal, while partitioning the data into clusters by FCM (Fuzzy |i |c|/i|-means) algorithm. It overcomes the drawback of FCM algorithm which needs to define the cluster number |svg style=vertical-align:-0.1638pt;width:7.0250001px; id=M1 height=7.9499998 version=1.1 viewBox=0 0 7.0250001 7.9499998 width=7.0250001 xmlns:xlink=http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink xmlns=http://www.w3.org/2000/svg| |g transform=matrix(.017,-0,0,-.017,.062,7.675)||path id=x1D450 d=M383 397q0 -32 -35 -49q-12 -6 -23 8q-37 45 -84 45t-90 -71q-40 -65 -40 -167q0 -57 22 -86t59 -29q38 0 81.5 24.5t69.5 51.5l16 -21q-44 -53 -104 -84t-109
Low-rate denial of service (LDoS) attacks send attacking bursts intermittently to the network which can severely degrade the victim systems Quality of Service (QoS). The low-rate nature of such attacks complicates attack detection. LDoS attacks repeatedly trigger the congestion control mechanism, which can make TCP traffic extremely unstable. This paper investigates the network traffic characteristics, in which variance and entropy are used to evaluate the TCP traffics characteristics, and the ratio of UDP traffic to TCP traffic (UTR) is also analyzed. Thus, a detection method combining two-step cluster analysis and UTR analysis is proposed. Through two-step cluster analysis which is one of the machine learning algorithms, network traffic is divided into multiple clusters and then clusters subjected to LDoS attacks are determined using UTR analysis. NS2 simulation platform and test-bed network environment aim to evaluate the detection approachs performance. To better assess the effectiveness of the
In cluster analysis, one does not start with any apriori notion of group characteristics. The definition of clusters emerges entirely from the cluster analysis - i.e. from the process of identifying clumps of objects. Clustering is used in many fields, including customer segmentation. An airline analyzing its customer data, for example, might find that there is a distinct cluster of passengers with the following characteristics: travel weekly, travel mainly one or two short-haul routes, book at the last minute, dont check bags.. ...
Cluster analysis is one of the important data mining methods for discovering knowledge in multidimensional data. The goal of clustering is to identify pattern or groups of similar objects within a data set of interest. Each group contains observations with similar profile according to a specific criteria. Similarity between observations is defined using some inter-observation distance measures including Euclidean and correlation-based distance measures. In the literature, cluster analysis is referred as
I have been in previous post using the ChemoSpec package for some oil data (olive and sunflower). My spectra has now a range from 1100nm to 2200nm and is raw (not treated mathematically) . I want to start using the ChemoSpec package to start using the Hierarchical Cluster Analysis in order to see some cluster in my data. Of course I hope to see the olive oil in one cluster and the sunflower in the other. But probably other clusters can appear. ...
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Aims and Objectives Have a working knowledge of the ways in which similarity between cases can be quantified (e.g. single linkage, complete linkage and average linkage). Be able to produce and interpret dendrograms produced by SPSS. Know that different methods of clustering will produce different cluster structures. What is Cluster Analysis? We have already seen…
This part presents advanced clustering techniques, including: hierarchical k-means clustering, Fuzzy clustering, Model-based clustering and density-based clustering. Hierarchical k-means clustering. The hierarchical k-means clustering is an hybrid approach for improving k-means results. Fuzzy clustering Fuzzy clustering is also known as soft method. Standard clustering (K-means, PAM) approaches produce partitions, in which each observation belongs to only one cluster. This is known as hard clustering. In Fuzzy clustering, items can be a member of more than one cluster. Each item has a set of membership coefficients corresponding to the degree of being in a given cluster. Model-based clustering In model-based clustering, the data are viewed as coming from a distribution that is mixture of two ore more clusters. It finds best fit of models to data and estimates the number of clusters. DBSCAN: Density-Based Clustering The density-based clustering (DBSCAN is a partitioning method that has been
This paper investigates the trade competitiveness of the new emerging Southern economies - China, India, Brazil and South Africa (CIBS) - with respect to their main global partners. Starting from the commonly held view that countries with trade patterns similar to those of emerging countries are likely to suffer losses, we propose a multidimensional approach based on cluster analysis, both crisp and fuzzy, as an alternative strategy for assessing similarity in global trade patterns. On the basis of key trade characteristics drawn from the diverse strands of trade theory, we assess the relative position of CIBS within global trade patterns and their evolution over time. Unlike previous studies, our results do not support the hypothesis of the presence of a competitiveness threat from Southern emerging countries towards the main industrialised economies.. ...
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I am trying to run cluster analysis on a long stream of back trajectories. I have 5, 7, and 10 day lengths and at multiple heights. I have tried running the cluster analysis several times with my files and cant seem to get them to read. I have tried using a few different sets of trajectory files. The groups all start at the same height and within the same year. No matter which ones I use, I receive one of two error messages ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A quantitative analysis of educational data through the comparison between hierarchical and not-hierarchical clustering. AU - Fazio, Claudio. AU - Battaglia, Onofrio Rosario. AU - Di Paola, Benedetto. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - Many research papers have studied the problem of taking a set of data and separating it into subgroups through the methods of Cluster Analysis. However, the variables and parameters involved in Cluster Analysis have not always been outlined and criticized, especially in the field of Science Education. Moreover, in the field of Science Education, a comparison between two different Clustering methods is not discussed in the literature. In this paper two different Cluster Analysis methods are described and the variables and parameters involved are discussed in order to clarify the information that they can supply. The clustering results obtained by using the two methods are compared and showed a good coherence between them. The results are interpreted and ...
The Cluster Analysis is an explorative analysis that tries to identify structures within the data. Cluster analysis is also called segmentation analysis.
According to modern historiography, around the year 1000, the northern Hungarian duchy with its capital in Nitra was divided into four parts which can be predicted with more or less certainty as direct descendants of tribes both within and beyond the Great Moravian Empire: Nitra, Hont, Váh, Borsod, and, in addition, in the very eastern part of today's Slovak Republic, there was a tribe which was not the part of Nitra Duchy. The consideration of tribes is important. A tribe speaks a dialect. However, the division of Slovakia was probably more complicated and on the basis of both genealogical and linguistic research we have to accept at least seven tribes and dialects in Slovakia around the year 1000. This division is supported also by the research of Proto-Slavic lexis in Old Slovak. The paper deals with hierarchical cluster analysis of this lexis and offers a solution to the genealogical problem of Slovak language. According to it, Old Slovak can be divided into eastern and west-central ...
Objective of any biclustering algorithm in microarray data is to discover a subset of genes that are expressed similarly in a subset of conditions. The boundaries of biclusters usually overlap as genes and conditions may belong to different biclusters with different membership degrees. Hence the notion of fuzzy sets is useful for discovering such overlapping biclusters. In this article an attempt has been made to develop a multiobjective genetic algorithm based approach for probabilistic fuzzy biclustering that minimizes the residual and maximizes cluster size and expression profile variance. A novel variable string length encoding has been proposed in this regard that encodes multiple biclusters in a single string. Also a new performance measure that reflects how a bicluster is statistically distinguished from the background is proposed. Performance of the proposed algorithm has been compared with some well known biclustering algorithms. © 2008 IEEE.. ...
Downloadable (with restrictions)! Supporting services augment the value of a businesss core service, provide points of differentiation, and create a competitive advantage over competitors. Fitness clubs offer a number of supporting services, including sport participation opportunities. Fitness tests are a common supporting service. This study examined interest in fitness tests and related supporting services. Moreover, because customised programs are harder to imitate, optimal combinations of desired services were investigated. Further, K-means cluster analysis identified seven meaningfully differentiated customer groups. MANOVA and chi-square analyses indicated that clustered groups differed based on demographic and psychographic variables. The study demonstrates that (1) consumers desire supporting services, (2) distinct bundles of supporting services can be identified, and (3) consumers desiring distinct bundles of services are have distinct demographic and psychographic profiles. Fitness providers
Cluster analysis of gene expression data from a cDNA microarray is useful for identifying biologically relevant groups of genes. However, finding the natural clusters in the data and estimating the correct number of clusters are still two largely unsolved problems. In this paper, we propose a new clustering framework that is able to address both these problems. By using the one-prototype-take-one-cluster (OPTOC) competitive learning paradigm, the proposed algorithm can find natural clusters in the input data, and the clustering solution is not sensitive to initialization. In order to estimate the number of distinct clusters in the data, we propose a cluster splitting and merging strategy. We have applied the new algorithm to simulated gene expression data for which the correct distribution of genes over clusters is known a priori. The results show that the proposed algorithm can find natural clusters and give the correct number of clusters. The algorithm has also been tested on real gene ...
Analysis of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Concentration Data from Thousands of Groundwater Wells Using a Density-Based Cluster Analysis Approach
CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): In gene expression data, a bicluster is a subset of the genes exhibiting consistent patterns over a subset of the conditions. We propose a new method to detect significant biclusters in large expression datasets. Our approach is graph theoretic coupled with statistical modelling of the data. Under plausible assumptions, our algorithm is polynomial and is guaranteed to find the most significant biclusters. We tested our method on a collection of yeast expression profiles and on a human cancer dataset. Cross validation results show high specificity in assigning function to genes based on their biclusters, and we are able to annotate in this way 196 uncharacterized yeast genes. We also demonstrate how the biclusters lead to detecting new concrete biological associations. In cancer data we are able to detect and relate finer tissue types than was previously possible. We also show that the method outperforms the biclustering
article{c7645192-ef05-4b8e-bbfb-db2b0fc93f4e, abstract = {ObjectiveHematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is curative in several life-threatening pediatric diseases but may affect children and their families inducing depression, anxiety, burnout symptoms, and post-traumatic stress symptoms, as well as post-traumatic growth (PTG). The aim of this study was to investigate the co-occurrence of different aspects of such responses in parents of children that had undergone HSCT. MethodsQuestionnaires were completed by 260 parents (146 mothers and 114 fathers) 11-198 months after HSCT: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire, the post-traumatic stress disorders checklist, civilian version, and the PTG inventory. Additional variables were also investigated: perceived support, time elapsed since HSCT, job stress, partner-relationship satisfaction, trauma appraisal, and the childs health problems. A hierarchical cluster analysis and a k-means cluster ...
Cluster Analysis Menggunakan Algoritma Fuzzy C-means dan K-means Untuk Klasterisasi dan Pemetaan Lahan Pertanian di Minahasa Tenggara
Background: The timely and accurate identification of symptoms of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a challenge forpatients and clinicians. It is unknown whether response times and clinical outcomes differ with specific symptoms. We sought toidentify which ACS symptoms are related symptom clusters and to determine if sample characteristics, response times, and outcomes differ among symptom cluster groups. Methods: In a multisite randomized clinical trial, 3522 patients with known cardiovascular disease were followed up for 2 years. During follow-up, 331 (11%) had a confirmed ACS event. In this group, 8 presenting symptoms were analyzed using cluster analysis. Differences in symptom cluster group characteristics, delay times, and outcomes were examined. Results: The sample was predominately male (67%), older (mean 67.8, S.D. 11.6 years), and white (90%). Four symptom clusters were identified: Classic ACS characterized by chest pain; Pain Symptoms (neck, throat, jaw, back, shoulder, arm pain); ...
  This paper aims to test the hypothesis of consumer price index convergence among Iran provinces over the period from 2003 to 2016 by implementing cluster analysis and panel unit root test. Studying the price index convergence is important in several ways. First, CPI convergence is equivalent in some ways ...
With limited resources available, injury prevention efforts need to be targeted both geographically and to specific populations. As part of a pediatric injury prevention project, data was obtained on all pediatric medical and injury incidents in a fire district to evaluate geographical clustering of pediatric injuries. This will be the first step in attempting to prevent these injuries with specific interventions depending on locations and mechanisms. There were a total of 4803 incidents involving patients less than 15 years of age that the fire district responded to during 2001-2005 of which 1997 were categorized as injuries and 2806 as medical calls. The two cohorts (injured versus medical) differed in age distribution (7.7 ± 4.4 years versus 5.4 ± 4.8 years, p | 0.001) and location type of incident (school or church 12% versus 15%, multifamily residence 22% versus 13%, single family residence 51% versus 28%, sport, park or recreational facility 3% versus 8%, public building 8% versus 7%, and street
With limited resources available, injury prevention efforts need to be targeted both geographically and to specific populations. As part of a pediatric injury prevention project, data was obtained on all pediatric medical and injury incidents in a fire district to evaluate geographical clustering of pediatric injuries. This will be the first step in attempting to prevent these injuries with specific interventions depending on locations and mechanisms. There were a total of 4803 incidents involving patients less than 15 years of age that the fire district responded to during 2001-2005 of which 1997 were categorized as injuries and 2806 as medical calls. The two cohorts (injured versus medical) differed in age distribution (7.7 ± 4.4 years versus 5.4 ± 4.8 years, p | 0.001) and location type of incident (school or church 12% versus 15%, multifamily residence 22% versus 13%, single family residence 51% versus 28%, sport, park or recreational facility 3% versus 8%, public building 8% versus 7%, and street
A feature selection method in microarray gene expression data should be independent of platform, disease and dataset size. Our hypothesis is that among the statistically significant ranked genes in a gene list, there should be clusters of genes that share similar biological functions related to the investigated disease. Thus, instead of keeping N top ranked genes, it would be more appropriate to define and keep a number of gene cluster exemplars. We propose a hybrid FS method (mAP-KL), which combines multiple hypothesis testing and affinity propagation (AP)-clustering algorithm along with the Krzanowski & Lai cluster quality index, to select a small yet informative subset of genes. We applied mAP-KL on real microarray data, as well as on simulated data, and compared its performance against 13 other feature selection approaches. Across a variety of diseases and number of samples, mAP-KL presents competitive classification results, particularly in neuromuscular diseases, where its overall AUC score was 0
In this thesis, a mixture-model cluster analysis technique under different covariance structures of the component densities is developed and presented, to capture the compactness, orientation, shape, and the volume of component clusters in one expert system to handle Gaussian high dimensional heterogeneous data sets to achieve flexibility in currently practiced cluster analysis techniques. Two approaches to parameter estimation are considered and compared; one using the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm and another following a Bayesian framework using the Gibbs sampler. We develop and score several forms of the ICOMP criterion of Bozdogan (1994, 2004) as our fitness function; to choose the number of component clusters, to choose the correct component covariance matrix structure among nine candidate covariance structures, and to select the optimal parameters and the best fitting mixture-model. We demonstrate our approach on simulated datasets and a real large data set, focusing on early detection
This study links empirical analysis of geographical variations in fertility to ideas of contextualising demography. We examine whether there are statistically significant clusters of fertility in Scotland between 1981 and 2001, controlling for more general factors expected to influence fertility. Our hypothesis, that fertility patterns at a local scale cannot be explained entirely by ecological socio-economic variables, is supported. In fact, there are unexplained local clusters of high and low fertility, which would be masked in analyses at a different scale. We discuss the demographic significance of local fertility clusters as contexts for fertility behaviour, including the role of the housing market and social interaction processes, and the residential sorting of those displaying or anticipating different fertility behaviour. We conclude that greater understanding of local geographical contexts is needed if we are to develop mid-level demographic theories and shift the focus of fertility ...
K-means algorithm is explained and an implementation is provided in C# and Silverlight. It includes a live demo in Silverlight so that the users can understand the working of k-means algorithm by specifying custom data points.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dietary patterns by cluster analysis in pregnant women. T2 - relationship with nutrient intakes and dietary patterns in 7-year-old offspring. AU - Freitas-Vilela, Ana Amélia. AU - Smith, Andrew D A C. AU - Kac, Gilberto. AU - Pearson, Rebecca M. AU - Heron, Jon. AU - Emond, Alan. AU - Hibbeln, Joseph R. AU - Castro, Maria Beatriz Trindade. AU - Emmett, Pauline M. N1 - © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.. PY - 2017/4. Y1 - 2017/4. N2 - Little is known about how dietary patterns of mothers and their children track over time. The objectives of this study are to obtain dietary patterns in pregnancy using cluster analysis, to examine womens mean nutrient intakes in each cluster and to compare the dietary patterns of mothers to those of their children. Pregnant women (n = 12 195) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children reported their frequency of consumption of 47 foods and food groups. These data were used to obtain ...
Read Constrained clustering with a complex cluster structure, Advances in Data Analysis and Classification on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Abstract: Color fusion MRI is being investigated for its value in automatic segmentation of tissues. An existing color fusion MRI data set of the liver, pancreas, and kidney of a normal male volunteer was analyzed both visually and statistically. Automatic tissue segmentation can allow better differentiation of abdominal pathologies, as well as pathologies associated with other organs. My research hypothesis is that fuzzy c-means clustering can be used to quantify the confidence levels of correct classification of renal, pancreatic, and hepatic tissues visualized by the color fusion MRI method. Results from data show that fuzzy c-means clustering can be used to validate the correctness of classification of abdominal tissues that are visualized by color fusion MRI.
Longitudinal data refer to the situation where repeated observations are available for each sampled object. Clustered data, where observations are nested in a hierarchical structure within objects (wi
Forty-two native, new and foreign breeds were analyzed for 18 traits. Principal component (PC) analysis showed that the first three PCs accounted for 82.6% of the total variation. The first PC is a Size and Weight Factor (SWF) and accounts for 50.5% of the total variation. The second PC is a Skin and Bone Factor (SBF) and accounts for 20.8% of the variation. The third PC is a Reproduction and Fat Factor (RFF) and accounts for 11.3% of the total variation. Non-lean meat carcass traits (skin, bone and fat) are associated with reproductive performance. Plotting SBF against SWF is useful in grouping of breed groups. This grouping is in agreement with that obtained by cluster analysis. Breeds from the same geographical area tend to be in the same performance group, suggesting genetic connections in the past. Cluster analysis indicated six genetic types. New breeds showed the shortest genetic distance to the foreign contributor breeds ...
In meteorology, cluster analysis is frequently used to determine representative trends in ensemble weather predictions in a selected spatio-temporal region, e.g., to reduce a set of ensemble members to simplify and improve their analysis. Identified clusters (i.e., groups of similar members), however, can be very sensitive to small changes of the selected region, so that clustering results can be misleading and bias subsequent analyses. In this article, we --a team of visualization scientists and meteorologists-- deliver visual analytics solutions to analyze the sensitivity of clustering results with respect to changes of a selected region. We propose an interactive visual interface that enables simultaneous visualization of a) the variation in composition of identified clusters (i.e., their robustness), b) the variability in cluster membership for individual ensemble members, and c) the uncertainty in the spatial locations of identified trends. We demonstrate that our solution shows ...
In the present investigation, we sought to refine the classification of urothelial carcinoma by combining information on gene expression, genomic, and gene mutation levels. For these purposes, we performed gene expression analysis of 144 carcinomas, and whole genome array-CGH analysis and mutation analyses of FGFR3, PIK3CA, KRAS, HRAS, NRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, and TSC1 in 103 of these cases. Hierarchical cluster analysis identified two intrinsic molecular subtypes, MS1 and MS2, which were validated and defined by the same set of genes in three independent bladder cancer data sets. The two subtypes differed with respect to gene expression and mutation profiles, as well as with the level of genomic instability. The data show that genomic instability was the most distinguishing genomic feature of MS2 tumors, and that this trait was not dependent on TP53/MDM2 alterations. By combining molecular and pathologic data, it was possible to distinguish two molecular subtypes of T(a) and T(1) tumors, ...
The clustering methods have to assume some cluster relationship among the data objects that they are applies on. Similarity between a pai...
COPD is a highly heterogeneous disease composed of different phenotypes with different aetiological and prognostic profiles and current classification systems do not fully capture this heterogeneity. In this study we sought to discover, describe and validate COPD subtypes using cluster analysis on data derived from electronic health records. We applied two unsupervised learning algorithms (k-means and hierarchical clustering) in 30,961 current and former smokers diagnosed with COPD, using linked national structured electronic health records in England available through the CALIBER resource. We used 15 clinical features, including risk factors and comorbidities and performed dimensionality reduction using multiple correspondence analysis. We compared the association between cluster membership and COPD exacerbations and respiratory and cardiovascular death with 10,736 deaths recorded over 146,466 person-years of follow-up. We also implemented and tested a process to assign unseen patients into clusters
We have analyzed genetic data for 326 microsatellite markers that were typed uniformly in a large multiethnic population-based sample of individuals as part of a study of the genetics of hypertension (Family Blood Pressure Program). Subjects identified themselves as belonging to one of four major racial/ethnic groups (white, African American, East Asian, and Hispanic) and were recruited from 15 different geographic locales within the United States and Taiwan. Genetic cluster analysis of the microsatellite markers produced four major clusters, which showed near-perfect correspondence with the four self-reported race/ethnicity categories. Of 3,636 subjects of varying race/ethnicity, only 5 (0.14%) showed genetic cluster membership different from their self-identified race/ethnicity. On the other hand, we detected only modest genetic differentiation between different current geographic locales within each race/ethnicity group. Thus, ancient geographic ancestry, which is highly correlated with ...
Compared with individually randomised trials, cluster randomised trials are more complex to design, require more participants to obtain equivalent statistical power, and require more complex analysis. The methodological issues in cluster randomised trials have been widely discussed.7 9 In brief, observations on individuals in the same cluster tend to be correlated (non-independent), and so the effective sample size is less than the total number of individual participants.. The reduction in effective sample size depends on average cluster size and the degree of correlation within clusters, known as the intracluster (or intraclass) correlation coefficient (ρ). The intracluster correlation coefficient is the proportion of the total variance of the outcome that can be explained by the variation between clusters. To retain power, the sample size should be multiplied by 1+(m - 1)ρ, called the design effect, where m is the average cluster size. Hayes and Bennett describe a related coefficient of ...
The distributed K-means cluster algorithm which focused on multidimensional data has been widely used. However, the current distributed K-means clustering algor
In this study we have shown biclustering to be a useful approach to identifying subgroups of tumours, based on the use of stratified biomarkers that are personalised to specific subsets of patients. Biclustering determines gene modules and related clinical features which are important in determining phenotypic and clinical outcomes in those patients, but not in others.. In particular, we have applied biclustering to a large breast cancer expression data set that includes careful clinical annotations, and have used this method to identify clusters of breast tumours conditional on common expression profiles across a set of genes. We also demonstrated that biclusters do not simply recapitulate any obvious single, known clinical covariate (Figure 3 and Additional file 1: Figure S1), but instead represent a group of tumours co-expressing a set of genes that are associated with similar clinical presentation and give rise to recurrence risk. We found that biclusters have strong prognostic association ...
Let us now take a closer look at the results. Clik on the picture on the left to get to an interactive 3d-graph of the 4-cluster solution for which the R-code can be found below. The 4-cluster solution yields 4 ellipsoids aiming to reflect the areas with high observation densities for the clusters. These ellispoids should contribute to the ease of reading the graph, the actual observations are still represented by differently coloured dots just like in the 2-dimensional plot we used for exploration. The three upper clusters in the picture share a comparable level of Monetary Value and Recency. The dark blue ellispoid stand out of the three as it reflects higher Frequeny. The lower ellipsoid reflects observations that rank relatively low on all of the three RFM variables (remember, the higher the recency, the worse - knowing that we are working with a dataset of good donors). The video below contains a fixed-axis rotation. ...
A comprehensive study of the lattice dynamics, elastic moduli, and liquid metal resistivities for 16 simple metals in the bcc and fcc crystal structures is made using a density-based local pseudopotential. The phonon frequencies exhibit excellent agreement with both experiment and nonlocal pseudopotential theory. The bulk modulus is evaluated by the long wave and homogeneous deformation methods, which agree after a correction is applied to the former. Calculated bulk and Voigt shear moduli are insensitive to crystal structure, and long-wavelength soft modes are found in certain cases. Resistivity calculations confirm that electrons scatter off the whole Kohn-Sham potential, including its exchange-correlation part as well as its Hartree part. All of these results are found in second-order pseudopotential perturbation theory. However, the effect of a nonperturbative treatment on the calculated lattice constant is not negligible, showing that higher-order contributions have been subsumed into the ...
An urban land-cover classification of the 900 km(2) comprising the UK West Midland metropolitan area was generated for the purpose of facilitating stratified environmental survey and sampling. The classification grouped the 900 km(2) into eight urban land-cover classes. Input data to the classification algorithms were derived from spatial land-cover data obtained from the UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, and from the UK Ordnance Survey. These data provided a description of each km(2) in terms of the contributions to the land cover of 25 attributes (e.g. open land, urban, villages, motorway, etc.). The dimensionality of the land-cover dataset was reduced using principal component analysis, and eight urban classes were derived by cluster analysis using an agglomeration technique on the extracted components. The resulting urban land-cover classes reflected groupings of 1 km(2) pixels with similar urban land morphology. Uncertainties associated with this agglomerative classification were ...
This book provides the reader with a basic understanding of the formal concepts of the cluster, clustering, partition, cluster analysis etc.. The book explains feature-based, graph-based and spectral clustering methods and discusses their formal similarities and differences. Understanding the related formal concepts is particularly vital in the epoch of Big Data; due to the volume and characteristics of the data, it is no longer feasible to predominantly rely on merely viewing the data when facing a clustering problem.. Usually clustering involves choosing similar objects and grouping them together. To facilitate the choice of similarity measures for complex and big data, various measures of object similarity, based on quantitative (like numerical measurement results) and qualitative features (like text), as well as combinations of the two, are described, as well as graph-based similarity measures for (hyper) linked objects and measures for multilayered graphs. Numerous variants demonstrating ...
Fixes a problem where a clustering model that uses the K-means algorithm generates different results that are affected by PredictOnly columns in SQL Server 2008 R2 Analysis Services.
TEDDER, Michelle J. et al. Classification and mapping of the composition and structure of dry woodland and savanna in the eastern Okavango Delta. Koedoe [online]. 2013, vol.55, n.1, pp.00-00. ISSN 2071-0771.. The dry woodland and savanna regions of the Okavango Delta form a transition zone between the Okavango Swamps and the Kalahari Desert and have been largely overlooked in terms of vegetation classification and mapping. This study focused on the species composition and height structure of this vegetation, with the aim of identifying vegetation classes and providing a vegetation map accompanied by quantitative data. Two hundred and fifty-six plots (50 m χ 50 m) were sampled and species cover abundance, total cover and structural composition were recorded. The plots were classified using agglomerative, hierarchical cluster analysis using group means and Bray-Curtis similarity and groups described using indicator species analysis. In total, 23 woody species and 28 grass species were recorded. ...
Chronic pain represents a major health problem among older people. The aims of the present study were to: (i) identify various profiles of pain and distress experiences among older patients; and (ii) compare whether background variables, sense of coherence, functional ability and experiences of interventions aimed at reducing pain and distress varied among the patient profiles. Interviews were carried out with 42 older patients. A cluster analysis yielded three clusters, each representing a different profile of patients. Case illustrations are provided for each profile. There were no differences between the clusters, regarding intensity and duration of pain. One profile, with subjects of advanced age, showed a decreased functional ability and favourable scores in most of the categories of pain and distress. Another profile of patients showed favourable mean scores in all categories. The third cluster of patients showed unfavourable scores in most categories of pain and distress. There appears to ...
This paper deals with several problems in cluster analysis. It appears that the suggested solutions have not been considered in current literature. First, the author proposes the use of a permuted matrix as a tool for interpretation of clusters generated by hierarchical agglomerative clustering algorithms. Second, a new method of defining similarity between a pair of clusters is shown. This method leads to a new class of hierarchical agglomerative clustering. Third, two criteria are defined to optimize dendrograms that are outputs of hierarchical clustering.. This paper has been presented at the Task Force Seminar Session on New Advances in Decision Support Systems, Laxenburg, Austria, November 3-5, 1986.. ...
In this paper, we illustrate an application of Ascendant Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (AHCA) to complex data taken from the literature (interval data), based on the standardized weighted generalized affinity coefficient, by the method of Wald and Wolfowitz. The probabilistic aggregation criteria used belong to a parametric family of methods under the probabilistic approach of AHCA, named VL methodology. Finally, we compare the results achieved using our approach with those obtained by other authors. ...
Clustering or cluster analysis is a type of data analysis. The analyst groups objects so that objects in the same group (called a cluster) are more similar to each other than to objects in other groups (clusters) in some way. This is a common task in data mining. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The XMM Cluster Survey. T2 - X-ray analysis methodology. AU - Lloyd-Davies, E. J.. AU - Romer, A. Kathy. AU - Mehrtens, Nicola. AU - Hosmer, Mark. AU - Davidson, Michael. AU - Sabirli, Kivanc. AU - Mann, Robert G.. AU - Hilton, Matt. AU - Liddle, Andrew R.. AU - Viana, Pedro T. P.. AU - Campbell, Heather C.. AU - Collins, Chris A.. AU - Dubois, E. Naomi. AU - Freeman, Peter. AU - Harrison, Craig D.. AU - Hoyle, Ben. AU - Kay, Scott T.. AU - Kuwertz, Emma. AU - Miller, Christopher J.. AU - Nichol, Robert C.. AU - Sahlén, Martin. AU - Stanford, S. A.. AU - Stott, John P.. PY - 2011/11/21. Y1 - 2011/11/21. N2 - The XMM Cluster Survey (XCS) is a serendipitous search for galaxy clusters using all publicly available data in the XMM-Newton Science Archive. Its main aims are to measure cosmological parameters and trace the evolution of X-ray scaling relations. In this paper we describe the data processing methodology applied to the 5776 XMM observations used to construct the current XCS ...
My presentation aims at showing how these limitations can be solved by means of affinity propagation clustering. This is a mathematical method that is able to uses the phylogenetic distance matrix to allocate sequences to generic clusters. I will present you how affinity propagation clustering was applied to the distance matrices derived from the RABV full genome sample sets, resulting in a cluster structure which strongly corresponds to the structure of the Maximum Likelihood-based phylogenetic tree. At the end of my presentation I would like to discuss on strategies to implement a workflow based on this method to validate evidence for space-dependent clustering of rabies virus sequences ...
My presentation aims at showing how these limitations can be solved by means of affinity propagation clustering. This is a mathematical method that is able to uses the phylogenetic distance matrix to allocate sequences to generic clusters. I will present you how affinity propagation clustering was applied to the distance matrices derived from the RABV full genome sample sets, resulting in a cluster structure which strongly corresponds to the structure of the Maximum Likelihood-based phylogenetic tree. At the end of my presentation I would like to discuss on strategies to implement a workflow based on this method to validate evidence for space-dependent clustering of rabies virus sequences ...
Learn Disease Clusters from Johns Hopkins University. Do a lot of people in your neighborhood all seem to have the same sickness? Are people concerned about high rates of cancer? Your community may want to explore the possibility of a disease ...
The aim of this study is to investigate the profiles of students in MIS department by performing cluster analysis on various dimensions of academic abilities
To explore the clinical patterns of patients with IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) based on laboratory tests and the number of organs involved. Twenty-two baseline variables were obtained from 154 patients with IgG4-RD. Based on principal component analysis (PCA), patients with IgG4-RD were classified into different subgroups using cluster analysis. Additionally, IgG4-RD composite score (IgG4-RD CS) as a comprehensive score was calculated for each patient by principal component evaluation. Multiple linear regression was used to establish the
Cluster analysis is used in data mining and is a common technique for statistical data analysis used in many fields of study, such as the medical & life science
Multimorbidity is highly prevalent in the elderly and relates to many adverse outcomes, such as higher mortality, increased disability and functional decline. Many studies tried to reduce the heterogeneity of multimorbidity by identifying multimorbidity clusters or disease combinations, however, the internal structure of multimorbidity clusters and the linking between disease combinations and clusters are still unknown. The aim of this study was to depict which diseases were associated with each other on person-level within the clusters and which ones were responsible for overlapping multimorbidity clusters. The study analyses insurance claims data of the Gmünder ErsatzKasse from 2006 with 43,632 female and 54,987 male patients who were 65 years and older. The analyses are based on multimorbidity clusters from a previous study and combinations of three diseases (triads) identified by observed/expected ratios ≥ 2 and prevalence rates ≥ 1%. In order to visualise a disease network, an edgelist was
Discover how segmentation & cluster analysis can benefit market research for Major Retailers and how Fuel Cycle can help with these techniques today.
Subspace models: in biclustering (also known as co-clustering or two-mode-clustering), clusters are modeled with both cluster ... Cluster analysis or clustering is the task of grouping a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group (called a ... alternative clustering, multi-view clustering): objects may belong to more than one cluster; usually involving hard clusters ... each object belongs to a cluster or not Soft clustering (also: fuzzy clustering): each object belongs to each cluster to a ...
... is the cluster analysis of data with anywhere from a few dozen to many thousands of dimensions ... Projected clustering seeks to assign each point to a unique cluster, but clusters may exist in different subspaces. The general ... Not all algorithms try to either find a unique cluster assignment for each point or all clusters in all subspaces; many settle ... Thrun, M. C., & Ultsch, A. : Using Projection based Clustering to Find Distance and Density based Clusters in High-Dimensional ...
Cluster analysis Complete-linkage clustering Hierarchical clustering Molecular clock Neighbor-joining UPGMA WPGMA Everitt B ( ... The clusters are then sequentially combined into larger clusters, until all elements end up being in the same cluster. At each ... It is based on grouping clusters in bottom-up fashion (agglomerative clustering), at each step combining two clusters that ... into a single cluster to form the next clustering m {\displaystyle m} . Set the level of this clustering to L ( m ) = d [ ( r ...
Cluster analysis Hierarchical clustering Molecular clock Neighbor-joining Single-linkage clustering UPGMA WPGMA Sorensen T ( ... The clusters are then sequentially combined into larger clusters until all elements end up being in the same cluster. The ... In complete-linkage clustering, the link between two clusters contains all element pairs, and the distance between clusters ... into a single cluster to form the next clustering m {\displaystyle m} . Set the level of this clustering to L ( m ) = d [ ( r ...
In statistics, k-medians clustering is a cluster analysis algorithm. It is a variation of k-means clustering where instead of ... Stata kmedians cluster analysis k-means medoid silhouette A. K. Jain and R. C. Dubes, Algorithms for Clustering Data. Prentice- ... This has the effect of minimizing error over all clusters with respect to the 1-norm distance metric, as opposed to the squared ... The criterion function formulated in this way is sometimes a better criterion than that used in the k-means clustering ...
Mahout description of Canopy-Clustering Retrieved 2022-07-02. (Cluster analysis algorithms). ... These relatively cheaply clustered canopies can be sub-clustered using a more expensive but accurate algorithm. An important ... The canopy clustering algorithm is an unsupervised pre-clustering algorithm introduced by Andrew McCallum, Kamal Nigam and Lyle ... It is often used as preprocessing step for the K-means algorithm or the Hierarchical clustering algorithm. It is intended to ...
European Commission launched the European Cluster Excellence Programme from which the European Secretariat for Cluster Analysis ... Cluster development (or cluster initiative or economic clustering) is the economic development of business clusters. The ... An example of an ESCA Gold label Cluster is the North East of England Process Industry Cluster (NEPIC). The concept of cluster ... The European Cluster Observatory Development of Clusters and Networks of SMEs (pdf) Sector (and Business Cluster) Development, ...
Artificial intelligence, Cluster analysis algorithms). ... is an incremental system for hierarchical conceptual clustering ... Fisher, Douglas H. (July 1987). "Improving inference through conceptual clustering". Proceedings of the 1987 AAAI Conferences. ... "Knowledge acquisition via incremental conceptual clustering". Machine Learning. 2 (2): 139-172. doi:10.1007/BF00114265. ...
Paper Varshney, Shweta; Kuma, Rakesh (2018). "Variants of LEACH Routing Protocol in WSN: A Comparative Analysis". 2018 8th ... each node that is not a cluster head selects the closest cluster head and joins that cluster. The cluster head then creates a ... Or cluster head selection based on sensor having highest energy Cluster membership adaptive Data aggregation at cluster head ... Nodes that have been cluster heads cannot become cluster heads again for P rounds, where P is the desired percentage of cluster ...
"The application of cluster analysis in Strategic Management Research: An analysis and critique". Strategic Management Journal. ... In statistics and data mining, X-means clustering is a variation of k-means clustering that refines cluster assignments by ... Cluster X with k clusters (e.g., with k-means) Let d = Distortion of the resulting clustering D[k] = d^(-Y) Define J(i) = D[i ... Cluster analysis, Clustering criteria, Articles with example pseudocode). ...
Gershenfeld, N.; Schoner; Metois, E. (1999). "Cluster-weighted modelling for time-series analysis". Nature. 397 (6717): 329-332 ... However, CWM can be extended to multiple clusters which are still associated with the same input cluster. Each cluster in CWM ... and normal distributions for the cluster-weighting densities pj(x). The basic CWM algorithm gives a single output cluster for ... The procedure for cluster-weighted modeling of an input-output problem can be outlined as follows. In order to construct ...
"Analysis of the physical nature of 22 New VVV Survey Globular Cluster candidates in the Milky Way bulge". Monthly Notices of ... "Spectroscopic analysis of VVV CL001 cluster with MUSE". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 513 (3): 3993-4003. ... "Structure and Dynamics of Globular Clusters", ASP Conf. Ser. vol. 50, p. 325 [4] LMC Clusters database, University of Cambridge ... These are globular clusters within the halo of the Milky Way galaxy. The diameter is in minutes of arc as seen from Earth. For ...
2011). "The XMM Cluster Survey: Optical analysis methodology and the first data release". Monthly Notices of the Royal ... 2011). "The XMM Cluster Survey: Optical analysis methodology and the first data release". Monthly Notices of the Royal ... The XMM Cluster Survey (XCS) is a serendipitous X-ray galaxy cluster survey being conducted using archival data taken by ESA's ... "The XMM Cluster Survey: X-ray analysis methodology". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 418: 14. arXiv: ...
Leonard Kaufman; Peter J. Rousseeuw (1990). Finding groups in data : An introduction to cluster analysis. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley- ... If the cluster centers are medoids (as in k-medoids clustering) instead of arithmetic means (as in k-means clustering), this is ... An s(i) near zero means that the datum is on the border of two natural clusters. The mean s(i) over all points of a cluster is ... If there are too many or too few clusters, as may occur when a poor choice of k is used in the clustering algorithm (e.g., k- ...
All cluster analysis relies on evaluation of local and regional employment patterns, based on industrial categorizations such ... The term business cluster, also known as an industry cluster, competitive cluster, or Porterian cluster, was introduced and ... The cluster effect does not continue forever though. To sustain cluster performance in the long term, clusters need to manage ... Several types of business clusters, based on different kinds of knowledge, are recognized: High-tech clusters - These clusters ...
In cluster analysis, the k-means algorithm can be used to partition the input data set into k partitions (clusters). However, ... They both use cluster centers to model the data; however, k-means clustering tends to find clusters of comparable spatial ... Internal cluster evaluation measures such as cluster silhouette can be helpful at determining the number of clusters. Minkowski ... Hierarchical variants such as Bisecting k-means, X-means clustering and G-means clustering repeatedly split clusters to build a ...
"Experimental Analysis of a 4-Qubit Cluster State". Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 (21): 210502. arXiv:quant-ph/0508128. Bibcode:2005PhRvL ... A cluster C is a connected subset of a d-dimensional lattice, and a cluster state is a pure state of the qubits located on C. ... Cluster states have been created also in optical lattices of cold atoms. After a cluster state was created in an experiment, it ... Cluster states can be realized experimentally. One way to create a cluster state is by encoding logical qubits into the ...
Decheng, F.; Jon, S.; Pang, C.; Dong, W.; Won, C. (2018). "Improved quantum clustering analysis based on the weighted distance ... Maignan, A.; Scott, T. C. (2021). "A Comprehensive Analysis of Quantum Clustering : Finding All the Potential Minima" (PDF). ... Quantum Clustering (QC) is a class of data-clustering algorithms that use conceptual and mathematical tools from quantum ... QC belongs to the family of density-based clustering algorithms, where clusters are defined by regions of higher density of ...
11 December 2012). "Dynamical analysis of strong-lensing galaxy groups at intermediate redshift". Astronomy & Astrophysics ( ... clusters of galaxies. Clusters are then formed relatively recently between 10 billion years ago and now. Groups and clusters ... The cluster gas can be studied using both X-ray imaging and X-ray spectroscopy. Clusters are quite prominent in X-ray surveys ... Clusters are larger than groups, although there is no sharp dividing line between the two. When observed visually, clusters ...
July 2014). "Insights into secondary metabolism from a global analysis of prokaryotic biosynthetic gene clusters". Cell. 158 (2 ... Metabolic gene clusters or biosynthetic gene clusters are tightly linked sets of mostly non-homologous genes participating in a ... "METACLUSTER-an R package for context-specific expression analysis of metabolic gene clusters". Bioinformatics. 35 (17): 3178- ... and some metabolic clusters have evolved convergently in multiple species. Horizontal gene cluster transfer has been linked to ...
In their work they proposed a probabilistic analysis of the underlying implicit model that allows the correlation clustering ... Correlation clustering provides a method for clustering a set of objects into the optimum number of clusters without specifying ... It may not be possible to find a perfect clustering, where all similar items are in a cluster while all dissimilar ones are in ... See also Clustering high-dimensional data. Correlation clustering (according to this definition) can be shown to be closely ...
In cluster analysis, the elbow method is a heuristic used in determining the number of clusters in a data set. The method ... In clustering, this means one should choose a number of clusters so that adding another cluster doesn't give much better ... "The application of cluster analysis in Strategic Management Research: An analysis and critique". Strategic Management Journal. ... clustering with more than k clusters will "explain" more of the variation (since it can use smaller, tighter clusters), but ...
... (or text clustering) is the application of cluster analysis to textual documents. It has applications in ... Cluster Cluster Analysis Fuzzy clustering Manning, Chris, and Hinrich Schütze, Foundations of Statistical Natural Language ... See the algorithm section in cluster analysis for different types of clustering methods. 6. Evaluation and visualization ... Examples of document clustering include web document clustering for search users. The application of document clustering can be ...
"Clusterer: extendable java application for sequence grouping and cluster analyses". bugaco.com. "Index of /pub/nrdb". Archived ... Sequence clustering is often used to make a non-redundant set of representative sequences. Sequence clusters are often ... Some clustering algorithms use single-linkage clustering, constructing a transitive closure of sequences with a similarity over ... Virus Orthologous Clusters: A viral protein sequence clustering database; contains all predicted genes from eleven virus ...
Fischera, M; Marziniak, M; Gralow, I; Evers, S (2008). "The Incidence and Prevalence of Cluster Headache: A Meta-Analysis of ... Cluster headaches are named for the occurrence of groups of headache attacks (clusters). They have also been referred to as " ... Cluster-like head pain may be diagnosed as secondary headache rather than cluster headache. A detailed oral history aids ... The cause of cluster headache is unknown. Cluster headaches were historically described as vascular headaches, with the belief ...
Some techniques include the Geographical Analysis Machine and Besag and Newell's cluster detection method. Ian Turton, Stan ... Identifying geographical clusters can be an important stage in a geographical analysis. Mapping the locations of unusual ... A geographical cluster is a localized anomaly, usually an excess of something given the distribution or variation of something ... detection via the identification of such geographical clusters is a very simple and generic form of geographical analysis that ...
Clustering criteria, Network analysis, Cluster analysis algorithms, Data mining). ... In contrast with other cluster analysis techniques, automatic clustering algorithms can determine the optimal number of ... "Improving hierarchical cluster analysis: A new method with outlier detection and automatic clustering" (PDF). Chemometrics and ... "Improving hierarchical cluster analysis: A new method with outlier detection and automatic clustering" (PDF). Chemometrics and ...
Implementation in Python (Orphaned articles from June 2015, All orphaned articles, Algorithms, Cluster analysis algorithms). ... Chinese whispers is a clustering method used in network science named after the famous whispering game. Clustering methods are ... Chinese whispers is a hard partitioning, randomized, flat clustering (no hierarchical relations between clusters) method. The ... In the case of equality the cluster is randomly chosen from the equally linked classes. Step two repeats itself until a ...
MATLAB includes hierarchical cluster analysis. SAS includes hierarchical cluster analysis in PROC CLUSTER. Mathematica includes ... also called hierarchical cluster analysis or HCA) is a method of cluster analysis that seeks to build a hierarchy of clusters. ... NCSS includes hierarchical cluster analysis. SPSS includes hierarchical cluster analysis. Qlucore Omics Explorer includes ... DIvisive ANAlysis Clustering) algorithm. Initially, all data is in the same cluster, and the largest cluster is split until ...
The cluster have facilities for testing and analysis, process product validation, safety study and manufacture. The cluster is ... Thrissur Ayurveda cluster is an Ayurveda cluster situated in KINFRA Park in Koratty in Thrissur District. The cluster is meant ... The cluster unit was set up on 5 acres of land at the Kinfra Park and started working in 2010. The cluster includes five ... The cluster has 53 manufacturing units as members and can be increased. About 20,000 direct job opportunities would be ...
SOAP: One Clean Analysis of All Age-Based Scheduling Policies." vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 16:1 -- 16:30, March 2018, Los Angeles, CA. ... "Thread Cluster Memory Scheduling: Exploiting Differences in Memory Access Behavior." , Atlanta, Georgia, December 2010, pp. 65- ... She is the author of a popular textbook, Performance Analysis and Design of Computer Systems, published by Cambridge University ... TetriSched: Optimistic Global Continuous Rescheduling in Dynamic Heterogeneous Clusters." , London, UK, April 2016. Winner of ...
... a science of applying copula and rank methods to problems of correspondence and cluster analysis together with outlier ... Grade Models and Methods for Data Analysis with Applications for the Analysis of Data Populations. Studies in Fuzziness and ... Grade Models and Methods for Data Analysis with Applications for the Analysis of Data Populations. Studies in Fuzziness and ... "Clustering Respondents in Clinical Databases Using Ordered Grade Clustering". In Bobrowski L.; Doroszewski J.; Victor N. (eds ...
According to this study the factors that lead to crime should be collected into different clusters: personality of the ... A theoretical and empirical analysis". American Sociological Review, 50, 317-32. Clarke, Ronald R. (ed.) (1997). Situational ...
They vendors mainly sold everyday food at low prices and clustered around temples, theatres, bathhouses and forums where to ... Hemlata, Sharma (2015). "Laws Pertaining to the Rights of Street Vendors in India: An Analysis". Pranjana. 18 (2). Winarno, F.G ...
... clusters of spheres and clusters of cylinders. There are also known series solutions for scattering by ellipsoidal particles. A ... "ISO 13320:2009 - Particle size analysis -- Laser diffraction methods". www.iso.org. Retrieved 2015-11-02. He, L; Kear-Padilla, ... and cluster of cylinders. A generalization that allows a treatment of more generally shaped particles is the T-matrix method, ... and cluster of spheres; Codes for electromagnetic scattering by cylinders - solutions for a single cylinder, multilayer ...
The authors' analysis of the strains showed that many carried blaNDM-1 on plasmids, which will allow the gene to be readily ... In July 2010, a team in New Delhi reported a cluster of three cases of Acinetobacter baumannii bearing blaNDM-1 that were found ...
Nguyen GT, Phan K, Teng I, Pu J, Watanabe T (October 2017). "A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of ... which can be further divided into different genetic clusters or genotypes. Noroviruses commonly isolated in cases of acute ... August 2014). "Global prevalence of norovirus in cases of gastroenteritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Lancet ... Molecular evolutionary analyses of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase region in Norovirus genogroup II Front Microbiol Victoria M ...
Deletions that remove the entire HOXD gene cluster or the 5' end of this cluster have been associated with severe limb and ... 2002). "Complete mutation analysis panel of the 39 human HOX genes". Teratology. 65 (2): 50-62. doi:10.1002/tera.10009. PMID ... Limongi MZ, Pelliccia F, Gaddini L, Rocchi A (2000). "Clustering of two fragile sites and seven homeobox genes in human ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ...
serene cluster'), Huangyan Island (Mandarin Chinese: 黄岩岛; pinyin: Huáng Yán Dǎo; lit. 'yellow rock island'), and Democracy Reef ... Rosen, Mark E. (August 2014). Philippine Claims in the South China Sea: A Legal Analysis (PDF). CNA. pp. 25-26. Archived from ...
Lightcurve analysis gave a short rotation period of 3.345±0.001 hours with a high brightness variation of 0.47±0.02 magnitude, ... Lalage is a non-family asteroid of the main belt's background population when applying the hierarchical clustering method to ...
Primary education was relegated to private schools founded by kinship clusters during the Ming dynasty, although private ... and political analysis. Then he abolished the examinations two years later because he preferred appointment by referral. In ... the annual average figures are a necessary artifact of quantitative analysis.[incomplete short citation] The operations of the ...
1381, 1401-1414 (2021) (history and analysis of the presumption of competence for VA medical examiners). Yelena Duterte, Duty ... A cluster-randomized trial". Journal of Traumatic Stress. 25 (6): 607-15. doi:10.1002/jts.21759. PMID 23225029. The findings of ... Critical analysis and strategies for remediation". Psychology, Public Policy, and Law. doi:10.1037/law0000359. ISSN 1939-1528. ...
Factor analysis was also brought into play by both psychologists and sociologists of religion, to establish a fixed core of ... The first cluster amounts to objective, quantitative, and preferably experimental procedures for testing hypotheses for causal ... Gary Leak's Faith Development Scale, or FDS, has been subject to factor analysis by Leak. Other theorists in developmental ... Leak, Gary K (2002). "Exploratory factor analysis of the religious maturity scale". BNET UK. CBS Interactive Inc. Retrieved 22 ...
Partially adjusted regression analyses produced similar results, as did analyses restricted to domestic and non-domestic mass ... The Violence Project's comprehensive mass shooting database also showed that mass shootings tend to occur in clusters, that ... In 2018, the FBI Behavioral Analysis Unit released a survey of 63 active shooter cases between 2000 and 2013 that found that ... Lankford, A; Silver, J.; Cox, J. (2021). "An epidemiological analysis of public mass shooters and active shooters: Quantifying ...
PCR analysis identified the homozygous null mutation to be in the ODZ3 gene, which is important for the early developing eye. ... Immunostaining reveals a cluster of high Ten-m3 protein expression in the areas involved in this ipsilateral mapping. In Ten-m3 ... Minet AD, Chiquet-Ehrismann R (October 2000). "Phylogenetic analysis of teneurin genes and comparison to the rearrangement hot ... Tucker RP, Beckmann J, Leachman NT, Schöler J, Chiquet-Ehrismann R (March 2012). "Phylogenetic Analysis of the Teneurins: ...
... and actual location of troops tends to be in clusters of positions. Low troop density is a particular problem as a period of ... and had devoted considerable resources to the analysis of troop density, including these in almost all considerations of ...
Torkar M, Haude A, Milne S, Beck S, Trowsdale J, Wilson MJ (December 2000). "Arrangement of the ILT gene cluster: a common null ... Zhang Z, Henzel WJ (October 2004). "Signal peptide prediction based on analysis of experimentally verified cleavage sites". ... with a preference for free heavy chains of HLA-C alleles Cluster of differentiation "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center ... Clusters of differentiation, Immunoglobulin superfamily, All stub articles, Immunology stubs, Membrane protein stubs, Human ...
Human Rights Watch reports that Syrian government and Russian aircraft have been using cluster munitions that have killed ... Ryan, Missy, "Pentagon: Initial analysis suggests Libya strike killed senior militant," washingtonpost.com, "U.S. planes target ... priority search area rather than because of Hardy's analysis. Although a flaperon from Flight 370 found in July 2015 washed up ...
... estate Textile cluster at Doddaballapur Foundry cluster at Belgaum Industrial valve cluster at Hubli-Dharwad Coir clusters at ... Economy of Bangalore Economy of Mangalore Mysore "Karnataka Budget Analysis 2022-23". PRS Legislative Research. Retrieved 12 ... Key industrial clusters IT/ITES cluster in electronic city and Whitefield (Bangalore). Food Parks - 4 old State sponsored and 2 ... Handicrafts cluster at Channapatna. Coffee production and processing cluster in Madekeri SEZs in Karnataka Notified: 27 Formal ...
Although most are clustered around the Old Montreal area, such as the Sulpician Seminary adjacent to Notre Dame Basilica that ... An historical analysis of the development of Montreal's architecture. Montréal, Qc: Les Éditions de l'Homme. "Geographical Name ... People of European ethnicities formed the largest cluster of ethnic groups. The largest reported European ethnicities in the ... "Demographics: 2011 National Household Survey Analysis The Jewish Community of Montreal". Federation CJA. Archived from the ...
The small world attribute refers to the many loosely connected nodes, non-random dense clustering of a few nodes (i.e., trophic ... Tavares-Cromar, A. F.; Williams, D. D. (1996). "The importance of temporal resolution in food web analysis: Evidence from a ... Published examples that are used in meta analysis are of variable quality with omissions. However, the number of empirical ... Ecologists identify feeding relations and organize species into trophic species through extensive gut content analysis of ...
Gregg C, Zhang J, Weissbourd B, Luo S, Schroth GP, Haig D, Dulac C (August 2010). "High-resolution analysis of parent-of-origin ... Around 80% of imprinted genes are found in clusters such as these, called imprinted domains, suggesting a level of co-ordinated ... ISBN 0-470-02262-0. Wolf JB, Cheverud JM, Roseman C, Hager R (June 2008). "Genome-wide analysis reveals a complex pattern of ... The grouping of imprinted genes within clusters allows them to share common regulatory elements, such as non-coding RNAs and ...
"3 alternatives to Chrome OS on Google's Chromebook Pixel - Tech News and Analysis". Gigaom.com. February 26, 2013. Retrieved ... "Samsung Chromebook launched in India for Rs.26990". Gadget Cluster. December 5, 2013. Retrieved December 9, 2013. Pogue, David ...
Kuan G, Dassa E, Saurin W, Hofnung M, Saier MH (1995). "Phylogenetic analyses of the ATP-binding constituents of bacterial ... "Identification of a second Mycobacterium tuberculosis gene cluster encoding proteins of an ABC phosphate transporter". FEBS ... Webb DC, Rosenberg H, Cox GB (1992). "Mutational analysis of the Escherichia coli phosphate-specific transport system, a member ...
A 2010 review argued that an invasion analysis should be used as the critical test of coexistence. In an invasion analysis, one ... in which the phylogeny of members of a set of communities can be tested for evidence of trait clustering, which would suggest ... Demographic analyses, which can be used to recognize frequency- or density-dependent processes simply by measuring the number ... An invasion analysis could be performed using experimental manipulation, or by parameterizing a mathematical model. The authors ...
The flowers are small, 4-8 mm (0.16-0.31 in) diameter, each with four purplish-brown petals; they are produced in clusters of ... "Aucuba bacilliform (Aucuba ringspot virus)". Taranaki Educational Resource: Research, Analysis and Information Network. ...
An analysis of data from Tsesevich and subsequent observations by B. S. Whitney in 1972 suggested that the period is variable. ... It was determined to be a W UMa-type variable and was noted for being located in the region of the Pleiades open cluster. ... January 2015), "New light curve analysis and period changes of the overcontact binary EQ Tauri", New Astronomy, 34: 262-265, ...
These are organized with clustering of end to end elements, and their distance between residues that flank the top of the ... a database of protein building blocks for structural analysis, modeling and design". Nucleic Acids Res. England. 39 (Database ...
The gene is located in the major histocompatibility complex, on the short arm of chromosome 6, in a cluster with two paralogous ... Nellist M, Burgers PC, van den Ouweland AM, Halley DJ, Luider TM (August 2005). "Phosphorylation and binding partner analysis ...
... and ICOS gene cluster: analysis by computational, comparative, and microarray approaches". Genomics. 78 (3): 155-68. doi: ... "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proceedings of the National ...
Cluster analysis of 500 US cities, summarized at the state level, plus Washington, DC, based on kidney disease-related factors ... Exploratory Cluster Analysis to Identify Patterns of Chronic Kidney Disease in the 500 Cities Project. ... The states initially split into two clusters of approximately equal size. Then, Utah split from the other states in its cluster ... using a tree structure to depict clustering. ...
Using 30-cluster survey to assess neonatal and perinatal mortality [‎letter]‎  Aras, Radha; Velhal, Gajanan; Pai, Nalini P.; ... A Simplified general method for cluster-sample surveys of health in developing countries / Steve Bennett ... [‎et al.]‎  ... Description and comparison of the methods of cluster sampling and lot quality assurance sampling to assess immunization ... Report on the first regional health cluster meeting Cairo, Egypt 5 - 7 November 2018  ...
Once the cluster is up and running, the Bright cluster management daemon monitors details of every node, and reports problems ... With Bright Cluster Manager, IT/system administrators can quickly get clusters up and running and keep them running reliably ... Bright Cluster Manager enables the University to deploy complete clusters over bare metal and manage them effectively. Managing ... Bright Cluster Manager lets Fayetteville State University administer the cluster as a single entity, provisioning the hardware ...
... the goal of this article is to explore the challenges posed for the analysis of clustered RCTs and to propose a potential ... With a focus on cluster switching that violates treatment assignment, ... Switching Cluster Membership in Cluster Randomized Control Trials. Implications for Design and Analysis ... When fitting the HLM, these individuals who switch clusters can be assigned to either their as-assigned cluster (the cluster ...
Buyer Cluster Analysis to Go-to-Market Strategies ... Buyer Cluster Analysis to Go-to-Market Strategies. ... Enterprises in the "Strict Planner" Enterprise Technology Adoption Marketing Cluster take a long-term view of technology for ... Gartner research, which includes in-depth proprietary studies, peer and industry best practices, trend analysis and ...
... Neuroimage. 2010 Jul 1;51(3):1126-39. doi: 10.1016/j. ... This bootstrap analysis of stable clusters (BASC) has several benefits: (1) it can be implemented in a multi-level fashion to ... The core of the method consists in bootstrapping the available datasets to replicate the clustering process a large number of ... stability maps demonstrated the capacity of BASC to establish successful correspondences between these two levels of analysis ...
... or the determination of cluster size given the number of clusters. The commands compute one of the number of clusters, cluster ... PSS] power oneproportion, cluster. [PSS] power twoproportions, cluster [PSS] power logrank, cluster. ORDER STATA UPGRADE NOW ... Cluster randomized designs (clustered data). Five of powers methods are extended to support CRDs or clustered data when you ... With clustered data, the sample size is determined by the number of clusters and the cluster size. The sample-size ...
Name of Periodical: Phys. Rev.. Issue Number: 79. Year of Publication: 2009. Page Numbers: 056104. ...
We propose a new hybrid clustering technique based on non-negative matrix factorization and independent component analysis for ... Keyphrases: Centroid initialization, dimensionality reduction, Independent Component Analysis, network clustering, NMF-k-means ... NICASN: Non-Negative Matrix Factorization and Independent Component Analysis for Clustering Social Networks. EasyChair Preprint ... Discovering clusters in social networks is of fundamental and practical interest. This paper presents a novel clustering ...
K-Means cluster analysis is a data reduction techniques which is designed to group similar observations by minimizing Euclidean ... As such, cluster analysis is often used in conjunction with factor analysis, where cluster analysis is used to describe how ... The cluster analysis "green book" is a classic reference text on theory and methods of cluster analysis, as well as guidelines ... Cluster Analysis, 5th ed. Wiley Series. In-depth and contemporary descriptions of the various types of cluster analysis methods ...
cookie: Clustering stability analysis in Python with a scikit-learn compatible API. - ... What is clustering stability?. Clustering stability is a method for model selection in clustering, based on the principle that ... skstab is a module for clustering stability analysis in Python with a scikit-learn compatible API. ... from skstab import StadionEstimator from skstab.datasets import load_dataset from sklearn.cluster import KMeans # 1. Load data ...
Space-Time Cluster Analysis of Invasive Meningococcal Disease On This Page Patients and Methods Results Discussion Appendix ... while a cluster is only identified after at least two connected cases. The field cluster analysis confirms this assessment, ... 7 daycare center clusters (2-3 cases), 1 swimming pool cluster (4 cases), and 21 household clusters (2-3 cases). The cases all ... Space-Time Cluster Analysis of Invasive Meningococcal Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(9):1621-1626. doi:10.3201/ ...
Two-Step Cluster Analysis (TSCA) was applied to select metabolically healthy and sick men and women. ROC curves were ... Furthermore, anthropometry is insufficient to determine healthiness, and, biochemical analysis is needed to properly filter ... 2.5.1. Cluster Analysis Protocol. Previously to the Two-Step Cluster Analysis, all individuals were classified according to BMI ... normal clustering process (S2-clusters) and (b) clustering based on centroids and distances obtained from S1 (S2 clusters ...
Climatic clustering and longitudinal analysis with impacts on food, bioenergy, and pandemics. View ORCID ProfileJohn Lagergren ... Climatic clustering and longitudinal analysis with impacts on food, bioenergy, and pandemics ... Climatic clustering and longitudinal analysis with impacts on food, bioenergy, and pandemics ... Climatic clustering and longitudinal analysis with impacts on food, bioenergy, and pandemics ...
In this paper, we introduce Geono-Cluster, a novel visual analysis tool designed to support cluster analysis for biologists who ... Title:Geono-Cluster: Interactive Visual Cluster Analysis for Biologists. Authors:Bahador Saket, Subhajit Das, Bum Chul Kwon, ... Visual cluster analysis is currently performed either programmatically or through menus and dialogues in many tools, which ... Abstract: Biologists often perform clustering analysis to derive meaningful patterns, relationships, and structures from data ...
... at least as important to allow for clustering in standard errors for longitudinal analyses as for crosssectional analyses. We ... Skinner, Chris J. and de Toledo Vieira, Marcel (2007) Variance estimation in the analysis of clustered longitudinal survey data ... We investigate the impact of cluster sampling on standard errors in the analysis of longitudinal survey data. We consider a ... the impact of ignoring clustering in standard error estimation will tend to increase with the number of waves in the analysis, ...
"Market Segmentation Analysis and Visualization Using K-Mode Clustering Algorithm for E-Commerce Business." Journal of computing ... "Market Segmentation Analysis and Visualization Using K-Mode Clustering Algorithm for E-Commerce Business." Journal of computing ... Market Segmentation Analysis and Visualization Using K-Mode Clustering Algorithm for E-Commerce Business. Journal of computing ... D. Kamthania, A. Pawa i S.S. Madhavan, "Market Segmentation Analysis and Visualization Using K-Mode Clustering Algorithm for E- ...
Guide to Cluster Analysis v/s Factor Analysis. Here we have discussed basic concept, objective, types, assumptions in detail. ... Cluster Analysis vs Factor Analysis. Both cluster analysis and factor analysis are unsupervised learning method which is used ... What is Cluster Analysis?. Cluster analysis groups data based on the characteristics they possess. Cluster analysis groups ... Cluster analysis is otherwise called Segmentation analysis or taxonomy analysis. Cluster analysis does not differentiate ...
Design and Performance Analysis of Heuristic Load-Balancing Strategies for Processing Divisible Loads on Ethernet Clusters. B. ... 27] J. Sohn, T.G. Robertazzi, & S. Luryi, Optimizing computing costs using divisible load analysis, IEEE Trans. on Parallel and ... 23] M. Drozdowski & P. Wolniewicz, Experiments with scheduling divisible tasks in clusters of workstations, Euro-Par 2000, LNCS ... Performance Analysis and Simulation, Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, 58, 2001, 71-92. doi:10.1016/S0378-4754(01)00329- ...
This study employs a two-arm, longitudinal cluster randomized trial design. The unit of randomization is the health facility. A ... A five-step, facility-level systems analysis and improvement intervention (SAIA) was designed to maximize effectiveness of ... The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) will guide collection and analysis of qualitative data on ... pMTCT service provision by improving understanding of inefficiencies (step one: cascade analysis), guiding identification and ...
Cluster your NEC SXs over a wide area. June 8, 2009 by Doug Black ... An interesting experiment in Japan on clustering together a couple NEC SX-9 vector machines over a long distance ... Home » Industry Segments » Research / Education » Cluster your NEC SXs over a wide area ... Sign up for our newsletter and get the latest big data news and analysis. ...
Performing a joint analysis of five of the possible correlation functions between these fields (excluding only the CMB lensing ... We present cosmological constraints from the joint analysis of the two-point correlation functions between galaxy density and ... These results provide a powerful test and confirmation of the results from the first year DES joint-probes analysis. ... We perform a joint analysis of the auto and cross-correlations between three cosmic fields: the galaxy density field, the ...
Classification by Cluster Analysis: A New Meta-Learning Based Approach. / Jurek, Anna; Bi, Yaxin; Wu, Shengli; Nugent, Chris. ... Jurek A, Bi Y, Wu S, Nugent C. Classification by Cluster Analysis: A New Meta-Learning Based Approach. 2011. Paper presented at ... title = "Classification by Cluster Analysis: A New Meta-Learning Based Approach",. author = "Anna Jurek and Yaxin Bi and ... Jurek, A., Bi, Y., Wu, S., & Nugent, C. (2011). Classification by Cluster Analysis: A New Meta-Learning Based Approach. 259-268 ...
... and cluster analysis, the standardization, dimension-reduction and de-correlation of multiple evaluation index system for fruit ... fruits according to the result of clustering. Studies show that principal component cluster method can not only carry on the ... and vegetable nutrition are performed to assign principal component factor based on cluster analysis of loading matrix and ... Different method of cluster analysis is used, which is likely to get different conclusions. Therefore, in the cluster analysis ...
GPC - Global Protection Cluster (Author), published by ReliefWeb. Original link:. https://reliefweb.int/attachments/b5df0399- ... Protection Analysis Update; November 2022; Cabo Delgado Province; Mozambique. https://reliefweb.int/attachments/b5df0399-9301- ...
Opinions and Analysis & more from India and South Asia. ... Jamshedpur: Work for the Adityapur Auto Cluster has gained ... Officials said a team of industrialists would soon leave for Pune and Nagpur to study auto clusters. The team will acquire ... The process will help incorporate the best methods and practices being followed by these clusters. ...
The Quarter 2 Protection Analysis Update recently published by the Protection Cluster in Afghanistan presents the protection ... It also follows the new guidelines of the Global Protection Cluster providing an analytical framework for protection (PAF). ...
  • Five of power 's methods are extended to support CRDs or clustered data when you specify the new option cluster . (stata.com)
  • For two-sample methods, you can also adjust for unequal numbers of clusters in the two groups. (stata.com)
  • Other methods that do not require all variables to be continuous, including some heirarchical clustering methods, have different assumptions and are discussed in the resources list below. (columbia.edu)
  • Generally, cluster analysis methods require the assumption that the variables chosen to determine clusters are a comprehensive representation of the underlying construct of interest that groups similar observations. (columbia.edu)
  • Correlation and network analysis methods of this kind are widely applicable across computational and predictive biology domains, including systems biology, ecology, carbon cycles, biogeochemistry, and zoonosis research. (biorxiv.org)
  • In SPSS there are three methods for the cluster analysis - K-Means Cluster, Hierarchical Cluster and Two Step Cluster. (educba.com)
  • The process will help incorporate the best methods and practices being followed by these clusters. (org.in)
  • In order to combine different sources of information on personal characteristics of prison inmates and administrative prison data in an efficient way, we propose the use of matched prison-prisoner data and application of cluster-sample methods such as GEE (generalized estimating equations). (iza.org)
  • All results papers reported use of Bayesian methods in the analysis but none in the design or sample size calculation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The fully automated methods are designed to make clustering more accurate, standardized and faster. (nature.com)
  • However, the adoption of these methods is still limited by the lack of intuitive visualization and cluster matching methods that would allow users to readily interpret fully automatically generated clusters. (nature.com)
  • In fact, since these manual analysis methods ultimately rely on user skills to define subset boundaries, subset identification, and quantitation is still more appropriately recognized as an art rather than a science, and, as such, automating this data analysis process and making it more objective is clearly desirable. (nature.com)
  • To facilitate statistical and biological inference from fully automated (and user-guided) clustering outcomes, we introduced a pipeline of multidimensional cluster matching and display methods. (nature.com)
  • Methods for investigating localized clustering of disease / edited by F. E. Alexander and P. Boyle. (who.int)
  • In addition you also should understand that extreme values already have more weight with variance-based analysis methods (i.e. regression analysis, Anova, factor analysis, etc.) since since distances are computed as squares. (unige.ch)
  • The former employs statistical methods to group Passo Marinaro with a Greek, rather than a Sicilian, population, and mtDNA analysis of two individuals suggests H and I haplogroups or European ancestry. (ajaonline.org)
  • Application of epidemiologic methods to current health problems through analysis of secondary data. (sc.edu)
  • Clustering methods are widely used to discover interesting substructure in bulk or single-cell RNA sequencing ("RNA-seq") data. (wustl.edu)
  • In this short vignette, we show that a topic model picks up a very different kind of substructure that cannot be identified by (hard) clustering methods. (wustl.edu)
  • Despite this limitation of the clustering methods, it can nonetheless be useful to identify the clusters exhibiting markedly different gene expression patterns. (wustl.edu)
  • Modelling childhood caries using parametric competing risks survival analysis methods for clustered data. (bvsalud.org)
  • In order to perform k-means clustering, the algorithm randomly assigns k initial centers (k specified by the user), either by randomly choosing points in the "Euclidean space" defined by all n variables, or by sampling k points of all available observations to serve as initial centers. (columbia.edu)
  • At this point, the algorithm is considered to have converged, and the final cluster assignments constitute the clustering solution. (columbia.edu)
  • The standard algorithm is the Hartigan-Wong algorithm, which aims to minimize the Euclidean distances of all points with their nearest cluster centers, by minimizing within-cluster sum of squared errors (SSE). (columbia.edu)
  • Clustering stability is a method for model selection in clustering, based on the principle that if we repeatedly perturb a data set, a good clustering algorithm should output similar partitions. (github.com)
  • Let us start with the K-means algorithm and Stadion [3], since it effectively selects the number of clusters K even in the case where data is not clusterable (i.e. (github.com)
  • Market Segmentation Analysis and Visualization Using K-Mode Clustering Algorithm for E-Commerce Business', Journal of computing and information technology , 26(1), str. (srce.hr)
  • D. Kamthania, A. Pawa i S.S. Madhavan, "Market Segmentation Analysis and Visualization Using K-Mode Clustering Algorithm for E-Commerce Business", Journal of computing and information technology , vol.26, br. (srce.hr)
  • In this paper architecture of business intelligence tool and decision process has been discussed with a focus on market segmentation, based on user behavior analysis using k-mode clustering algorithm and user geographical distributions. (srce.hr)
  • Apply both clustering algorithm (kmeans and HAC) and decision tree induction algorithm to the weather forest training data and construct models. (sweetstudy.com)
  • Using an improved analysis algorithm, Max Planck scientists and international partners have now discovered a number of previously unknown gamma-ray pulsars with low luminosity in data from the Fermi satellite. (mpg.de)
  • To illustrate a clustering analysis, we use the t -SNE algorithm to project the samples onto a 2-d embedding. (wustl.edu)
  • In practice, one could automate the clustering of these data using a community detection method such as the Louvain algorithm, or by applying \(k\) -means to the \(t\) -SNE projection. (wustl.edu)
  • With clustered data, the sample size is determined by the number of clusters and the cluster size. (stata.com)
  • Cluster analysis is a set of data reduction techniques which are designed to group similar observations in a dataset, such that observations in the same group are as similar to each other as possible, and similarly, observations in different groups are as different to each other as possible. (columbia.edu)
  • Compared to other data reduction techniques like factor analysis (FA) and principal components analysis (PCA), which aim to group by similarities across variables (columns) of a dataset, cluster analysis aims to group observations by similarities across rows. (columbia.edu)
  • The data object on which to perform clustering is declared in x. (columbia.edu)
  • Though this can be done empirically with the data (using a screeplot to graph within-group SSE against each cluster solution), the decision should be driven by theory, and improper choices can lead to erroneous clusters. (columbia.edu)
  • This week's RCC will be about clustering of rank data, in particular the article "Cluster Analysis of Heterogeneous Rank Data" by LM Busse, JM Buhmann and myself. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Sign up for our newsletter and get the latest big data news and analysis. (insidehpc.com)
  • In particular, it allows to select the correct number of clusters in an unlabeled data set. (github.com)
  • A stability based method for discovering structure in clustered data. (github.com)
  • Biologists often perform clustering analysis to derive meaningful patterns, relationships, and structures from data instances and attributes. (arxiv.org)
  • Though clustering plays a pivotal role in biologists' data exploration, it takes non-trivial efforts for biologists to find the best grouping in their data using existing tools. (arxiv.org)
  • In this paper, we introduce Geono-Cluster, a novel visual analysis tool designed to support cluster analysis for biologists who do not have formal data science training. (arxiv.org)
  • Geono-Cluster enables biologists to apply their domain expertise into clustering results by visually demonstrating how their expected clustering outputs should look like with a small sample of data instances. (arxiv.org)
  • Results of our study with six biologists provide initial evidence that Geono-Cluster enables biologists to create, refine, and evaluate clustering results to effectively analyze their data and gain data-driven insights. (arxiv.org)
  • We investigate the impact of cluster sampling on standard errors in the analysis of longitudinal survey data. (lse.ac.uk)
  • We illustrate this theoretical argument with empirical evidence from a regression analysis of longitudinal data on gender role attitudes from the British Household Panel Survey. (lse.ac.uk)
  • We also compare two approaches to variance estimation in the analysis of longitudinal survey data: a survey sampling approach based upon linearization and a multilevel modelling approach. (lse.ac.uk)
  • Cluster analysis groups data based on the characteristics they possess. (educba.com)
  • Cluster analysis is used in a wide variety of fields such as psychology, biology, statistics, data mining, pattern recognition and other social sciences. (educba.com)
  • In the purpose of Utility, it provides the characteristics of each data object to the clusters to which they belong. (educba.com)
  • K-Means cluster method classifies a given set of data through a fixed number of clusters. (educba.com)
  • Two Step cluster analysis is a tool designed to handle large data sets. (educba.com)
  • Recently, the development of next-generation sequencing has enabled researchers to accumulate metagenomic profile data, and perform large-scale and comprehensive microbiome analyses. (inderscience.com)
  • Studies show that principal component cluster method can not only carry on the reasonable classification of multivariate data effectively, but also make reasonable evaluation on the sample object, and provide powerful basis for evaluation of fruits and vegetables' nutrition. (scirp.org)
  • The authors received no funding for the data analysis, data interpretation, manuscript writing, authorship, and/or publication of this article. (medrxiv.org)
  • The use of these clusters in classifying ground-based ozone measurements at Mace Head is described, including the need to exclude data which have been influenced by local perturbations to the regional flow pattern, for example, by sea breezes. (reading.ac.uk)
  • Even with a limited data set, based on 2 months of intensive field measurements in 1996 and 1997, there are statistically significant differences in ozone concentrations in air from the different clusters. (reading.ac.uk)
  • In order to further improve our offer and our website, we collect anonymous data for statistics and analyses. (iza.org)
  • The analysis is based on qualitative and quantitative data gathered by the Cluster from its partners in the field, local and international NGOs and UN agencies, as well as on expert knowledge and open-source material. (globalprotectioncluster.org)
  • Integrating Bioinformatics and Clustering Analysis for Disease Surveillance Integrating Bioinformatics and Clustering Analysis for Disease Surveillance There has been a tremendous focus in bioinformatics on translation of data from the bench into information and knowledge for clinical decision-making. (elsevier.com)
  • This involves data acquisition, integration, and analyses of viral genetics to infer origin, spread, and evolution such as the emergence of new strains. (elsevier.com)
  • This includes software to produce disease maps using an array of data types such as clinical, geographical, or human mobility data for tasks such as, geocoding, clustering, or outbreak detection. (elsevier.com)
  • In Aim 3, I will then evaluate my system for cluster detection and prediction against a system that does not consider viral genetics and relies on traditional spatiotemporal data, and perform validation of the predictive capability. (elsevier.com)
  • This tool is designed to improve enrichment analysis by firstly identifying active subnetworks in differential expression/methylation data using a protein-protein interaction network. (biostars.org)
  • as the distance metric), determines the optimal number of clusters by maximizing the average silhouette width and returns a data frame with cluster assignments. (biostars.org)
  • The ubiquity of multidimensional data has motivated the replacement of user-guided clustering with fully automated clustering. (nature.com)
  • To address these issues, we developed a fully automated subset identification and characterization (SIC) pipeline providing robust cluster matching and data visualization tools for high-dimensional flow/mass cytometry (and other) data. (nature.com)
  • This new approach allows more robust and reproducible data analysis,+ facilitating the development of new gold standard practices across laboratories and institutions. (nature.com)
  • The traditional approach to locating clusters (subsets) in high-dimensional (Hi-D) data sets such as those acquired by flow cytometry is to reduce the data set dimensionality, usually by linear and/or nonlinear one-/two-dimensional mapping or projection strategies. (nature.com)
  • Several groups have recently developed fully automated computational approaches that operate simultaneously in four or more dimensions to identify the subsets (clusters) within a given Hi-D data set 3 . (nature.com)
  • Discuss the potential data quality issues you identify about the dataset and how you apply various data preprocessing techniques to cope with those issues and perform Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA). (sweetstudy.com)
  • Using Monte Carlo simulation, we evaluate the properties of point estimates and standard errors (SEs) generated by ordinary least squares (OLS) as applied to both individual-level and cluster-level data. (yale.edu)
  • Assumes that we have data pdl dim [observation, variable] and the goal is to put observations into clusters based on their values on the variables. (metacpan.org)
  • [ 20 ] Data for analysis were extracted from existing patients' files. (medscape.com)
  • Aims The main objective of this research was to calculate child mortality rates (‎CMRs)‎indirectly, using census data, and to investigate using spatial pattern analysis the presence of any clustering patterns among provincial regions. (who.int)
  • He co-authored monographs 'Exploratory Analysis of Spatial and Temporal Data' (Springer, 2006) and "Visual Analytics of Movement" (Springer, 2013) and 100+ peer-reviewed journal papers. (city.ac.uk)
  • Exploratory Analysis of Spatial and Temporal Data. (city.ac.uk)
  • Developments in Data Extraction, Management, and Analysis (pp. 1-22). (city.ac.uk)
  • and providing the most comprehensive market and data analysis worldwide for renewable technologies like wind and solar. (lbl.gov)
  • The principal hypothesis of this study was that a robust set of uranium (238U) and thorium (232Th) decay series data from multiple wellfields representing different confining and geochemical conditions would cluster in a meaningful manner using a fuzzy c-means technique for better understanding of aquifer dynamics for management purposes. (who.int)
  • The data clustered successfully into three cluster types providing discrimination of behavior within each wellfield. (who.int)
  • The data clustered as expected between the well-confined, window, and regional recharge conceptual models with insights into individual well behavior. (who.int)
  • In addition to their data types, many statistical analysis types only work for given sets of data distributions and relations between variables. (unige.ch)
  • In practical terms this means that not only you have to adapt your analysis techniques to types of measures but you also (roughly) should respect other data assumptions. (unige.ch)
  • The goal of statistical analysis is quite simple: find structure in the data. (unige.ch)
  • The data were grouped by hierarchical cluster analysis based on the unpaired-group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA). (usda.gov)
  • Cluster analysis and principal component analysis of the data displayed that the achene characters were taxonomically informative and can be used as reliable criteria to distinguish species of the genus. (tubitak.gov.tr)
  • Statistical Analysis and Data Mining, 7(4): 272-281 (2014). (msu.edu)
  • This can also be done within a topic modeling analysis: the topic model contains enough information to identify these clusters, at least in the artificial setting where the data are simulated from a topic model. (wustl.edu)
  • As well as the workhorse clusters which support the numerical simulations and data analysis required for scientific research, a range of additional supporting hardware and software services is required. (ichec.ie)
  • Molecular data analysis can also help identify HIV clusters or outbreaks. (cdc.gov)
  • Molecular data analysis can help detect HIV clusters and outbreaks more rapidly and comprehensively than had previously been possible. (cdc.gov)
  • Molecular data analysis has helped to identify hundreds of growing HIV transmission clusters across the United States, many of which were not detected before. (cdc.gov)
  • Later, molecular data revealed that these cluster were much larger than initially thought. (cdc.gov)
  • Molecular data can also be compared across geographic areas to help public health officials find out if a cluster or outbreak is contained. (cdc.gov)
  • These data can tell if a cluster or outbreak is limited to a single community or expands across counties or even across states. (cdc.gov)
  • The resulting cluster effect at the GPs level is statistically corrected during data analysis. (who.int)
  • Furthermore, anthropometry is insufficient to determine healthiness, and, biochemical analysis is needed to properly filter subjects during classification. (hindawi.com)
  • The limitations of this type of analysis for classification and interpretation of ground-based chemistry measurements are discussed. (reading.ac.uk)
  • In your analysis writeup, include the discussion regarding how to repurpose the unsupervised learning algorithms like clustering for classification and how to judge the performance of the algorithms. (sweetstudy.com)
  • We argue theoretically that the impact of ignoring clustering in standard error estimation will tend to increase with the number of waves in the analysis, under some patterns of clustering which are realistic for many social surveys. (lse.ac.uk)
  • In addition, advances in geospatial statistics have enabled health agencies to perform more powerful space-time analyses to infer spatiotemporal patterns. (elsevier.com)
  • In this study, clustering is used to group and analyze large-scale wind patterns in California using model simulations from the variable-resolution Community Earth System Model (VR-CESM). (lbl.gov)
  • Once clustered, observed changes to wind patterns can be analyzed in terms of both the change in frequency of those clusters and changes to winds within-clusters. (lbl.gov)
  • The groups were revealed by a statistical technique known as cluster analysis that searched for patterns in the way these self-identified middle class Americans answered key survey questions. (pewtrusts.org)
  • In STATA, use the command: cluster kmeans [varlist], k(#) [options]. (columbia.edu)
  • cluster import KMeans # 1. (github.com)
  • Both Bayesian approaches gave similar results in terms of the identification of numbers of clusters and the estimation of proportions of genetic components. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our simulations assess efficiency across a variety of scenarios involving varying sample sizes and numbers of clusters. (yale.edu)
  • Article: Clustering analysis of soil microbial community at global scale Journal: International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications (IJBRA) 2022 Vol.18 No.3 pp.219 - 233 Abstract: In the soil there are huge numbers of bacteria, and their function affect soil properties, also they are a part of the microbiome. (inderscience.com)
  • Gartner research, which includes in-depth proprietary studies, peer and industry best practices, trend analysis and quantitative modeling, enables us to offer innovative approaches that can help you drive stronger, more sustainable business performance. (gartner.com)
  • Quantitative analyses of number of correct responses as a function of time as well as qualitative analyses of clustering and switching were conducted. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • Qualitative and quantitative Design Fluency (DF) outcome measures support the notion that the numbers of switches/clusters are valid measures of higher order cognitive functions, such as strategy use and cognitive flexibility. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • Whether interrogating hundreds of thousands of individual fixed samples or fewer samples collected over time, automated image analysis has become necessary to identify interesting samples and extract quantitative information by microscopy. (nih.gov)
  • Although differences in modality may complicate direct quantitative analysis of such controls, such 'artificial' controls are often helpful during assay development and optimization, and provide a sense of the dynamic range to be expected in the screen. (nih.gov)
  • Multivariate analysis was used to estimate the potential contribution of the quantitative and qualitative traits to the species relationships. (tubitak.gov.tr)
  • The approach aimed to illustrate the local TB burden in the context of the geography of this remote region of PNG, using mapping to illustrate the results as a complement to the underlying quantitative spatial analysis. (who.int)
  • We applied the latent class analysis to identify groups of clustering and used Bayesian 2-level logistic regressions to evaluate the correlation of school health promotion programs on these clusters. (medrxiv.org)
  • Bayesian methodology offers a flexible, intuitive framework to deal with such issues, but its use within CRCT design and analysis appears limited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This review aims to explore and quantify the use of Bayesian methodology in the design and analysis of CRCTs, and appraise the quality of reporting against CONSORT guidelines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There is an opportunity to further develop Bayesian methodology for the design and analysis of CRCTs in order to expand the accessibility, availability, and, ultimately, use of this approach. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In SPSS you can find the cluster analysis option in Analyze/Classify option. (educba.com)
  • CDC and health departments can then analyze these sequences to identify groups, or clusters, of similar HIV sequences. (cdc.gov)
  • When examining datasets of any dimensionality, researchers frequently aim to identify individual subsets (clusters) of objects within the dataset. (nature.com)
  • The system then predicts users' intentions and generates potential clustering results. (arxiv.org)
  • These results provide a powerful test and confirmation of the results from the first year DES joint-probes analysis. (harvard.edu)
  • As background, the inconsistent analysis problem is where a read query may return different results on subsequent executions because of intermediate writes/updates. (itprotoday.com)
  • Figure 1 provides an illustration of this increase in popularity by displaying the number of search results by year for "cluster randomised controlled trials" with restriction to publication title. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, the results of spatial clustering tests gave some support for the hypothesis of exposure (and risk) associated with secondary sources of asbestos. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results confirm that conventional OLS SEs are severely biased downward and that, for all estimators, gains in efficiency come mainly from increasing the number of clusters, not increasing the number of individuals within clusters. (yale.edu)
  • Results of search for 'su:{Cluster analysis. (who.int)
  • Introduction: The results of a 2001-2005 polycythemia vera (PV) investigation in Eastern Pennsylvania revealed a disease cluster plus underreporting and false reporting to the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry (PCR). (cdc.gov)
  • Outside this setting, topic modeling and clustering can reveal very different sorts of substructure, so a topic modeling analysis should not be expected to recapture the results of a clustering analysis, and vice versa. (wustl.edu)
  • Given below are the steps for performing Hierarchical Cluster analysis in SPSS. (educba.com)
  • Dendrogram is the graphical representation of the hierarchical cluster analysis method. (educba.com)
  • We used multivariate analyses to examine changes on key outcome variables, controlling for major covariates. (cdc.gov)
  • Green, Donald P. & Lynn Vavreck (2008) 'Analysis of Cluster-Randomized Experiments: A Comparison of Alternative Estimation Approaches. (yale.edu)
  • Analysts of cluster-randomized field experiments have an array of estimation techniques to choose from. (yale.edu)
  • We illustrate the application of alternative estimation approaches using a clustered experiment in which Rock the Vote TV advertisements were used to encourage young voters in 85 cable TV markets to vote in the 2004 presidential election. (yale.edu)
  • We propose here a generic statistical framework to quantify the stability of such resting-state networks (RSNs), which was implemented with k-means clustering. (nih.gov)
  • Air-mass back trajectories calculated using winds from ECMWF analyses, arriving at the site in 1995-1997, were allocated to clusters based on a statistical analysis of the latitude, longitude and pressure of the trajectory at 12 h intervals over 5 days. (reading.ac.uk)
  • This has methodological implications for study design and statistical analysis, since clustering often leads to correlation between observations which, if not accounted for, can lead to spurious conclusions of efficacy/effectiveness. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This correlation creates an additional level of complexity, which must be accounted for in both the study design and sample size calculation, and the statistical analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The software package was originally created to perform statistical analysis of atomistic simulations of interfaces and has since grown to encompass lots of analysis modules for Molecular Dynamics simulations (MD). (uni-stuttgart.de)
  • In addition to having epidemiologic and statistical expertise, health agencies should recognize the social dimensions of a cluster and should develop an approach for investigating clusters that best maintains critical community relationships and that does not excessively deplete resources. (cdc.gov)
  • Although a systematic approach is vital, health agencies should be flexible in their method of analysis and tests of statistical significance. (cdc.gov)
  • To provide epidemiologic and statistical source material to state and local health agencies to aid in their development of a systematic approach to the evaluation of clusters of health events. (cdc.gov)
  • In dealing with cluster reports, the general public is not likely to be satisfied with complex epidemiologic or statistical arguments that deny the existence or importance of a cluster. (cdc.gov)
  • Let's have look of what we mean be statistical analysis and what your typically have to do. (unige.ch)
  • Whereas most genes were well conserved relative to fim genes previously described, comparison of the fimA gene from strain MT78 with homologous sequences from other strains of E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae revealed that most differences were clustered in four well defined regions. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • A gender analysis is an examination of the relationships and role differences between women and men, it is the first step of mainstreaming. (who.int)
  • What Does New Cluster Headache Research Show About Sex Differences? (medscape.com)
  • The fim gene cluster of strain MT78 was cloned and its sequence was determined in a region spanning upstream of fimB to the beginning of fimD. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • By default the gene sets used for enrichment analysis is KEGG pathways. (biostars.org)
  • Molecular analysis of the fibrinogen gene cluster in 16 patients with congenital afibrinogenemia: novel truncating mutations in the FGA and FGG genes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In a topic modeling analysis, the gene expression programs are the topics. (wustl.edu)
  • In particular, the distribution of genes in the middle cluster is an equal mixture of the gene distributions in the other clusters. (wustl.edu)
  • In general, a clustering will align closely with the topic modeling whenever the samples can be largely explained by a single topic or gene program. (wustl.edu)
  • Analysis of their genomes show a wealth of biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) that indicate their ability to create a large variety of compounds that are synthesized in ways similar to antibiotics. (purdue.edu)
  • The incidence of such clusters was compared to the incidence that would be expected by chance by using space-time nearest-neighbor analysis of 4,887 confirmed invasive meningococcal cases identified in the 9-year surveillance period 1993-2001 in the Netherlands. (cdc.gov)
  • Outbreaks are recognized when place (e.g., an educational institution like a primary school), time (e.g., within 1 month), and conventional phenotypic markers (same serogroup, serotype, and subtype) make a connection likely (field cluster) or when an excess of incidence (e.g., 20x normal) is noticed in a retrospectively specified geographic or population area within a chosen period (community outbreak). (cdc.gov)
  • The objective of our study was to explore the phenomenon of meningococcal clustering in a more objective way by using a nearest-neighbor analysis in space and time that compares the actual occurrence of clusters with their background incidence. (cdc.gov)
  • We calculated the global and local Moran's I by using spatial autocorrelation analysis to detect the spatial clustering of TB incidence each year. (biomedcentral.com)
  • High TB incidence areas were mainly concentrated in south-western Qinghai, while low TB incidence areas clustered in eastern and north-western Qinghai. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The analyses were conducted to determine sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of case reporting to the PCR, estimate cancer incidence rates, and evaluate the presence of cancer clusters. (cdc.gov)
  • To perform a spatial analysis and determine the incidence pattern of breast cancer in the Islamic Republic of Iran. (who.int)
  • Stata and Arc GIS software were used to calculate incidence rates and conduct spatial analysis. (who.int)
  • There was a significant cluster of high incidence of breast cancer in Iranian women. (who.int)
  • We show analytically and via simulation, that using the as-treated cluster in HLM will bias the estimate of the ITT effect and using the as-assigned cluster will bias the standard error estimates when heterogeneity among clusters is because of heterogeneity in treatment effects. (rand.org)
  • Latent class analysis detected 23% males and 18% females being at higher risk of lifestyle behaviors. (medrxiv.org)
  • Symptom Clusters, Physical Activity, and Quality of Life: A Latent Class Analysis of Children During Maintenance Therapy for Leukemia. (duke.edu)
  • As can be seen in the diagram, there are two options for clustering: (1) hierarchical clustering and (2) fuzzy clustering. (biostars.org)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Efficacy of Fuzzy c-Means Cluster Analysis of Naturally Occurring Radioisotope Datasets for Improved Groundwater Resource Management under the Continued Risk of Climate Change. (who.int)
  • The core of the method consists in bootstrapping the available datasets to replicate the clustering process a large number of times and quantify the stable features across all replications. (nih.gov)
  • Randomized control trials (RCTs) often use clustered designs, where intact clusters (such as classroom, schools, or treatment centers) are randomly assigned to treatment and control conditions. (rand.org)
  • In a cluster randomised controlled trial (CRCT), randomisation occurs at the group (or "cluster") level as opposed to the individual level that is typical in traditional Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • To evaluate the richness of its nutrition according to the score of nutrition of fruit and vegetable, finally equivalent replacement suggestions are given in different seasons of vegetables & fruits according to the result of clustering. (scirp.org)
  • The default intraclass correlation of 0.5 may be too high for this type of study, and so we want to explore the required cluster size for a range of smaller intraclass correlations. (stata.com)
  • We then apply Markov clustering and our novel Correlation of Correlations method to the resulting climatic networks, which provides unprecedented agglomerative and longitudinal views of climatic relationships across the globe. (biorxiv.org)
  • We present cosmological constraints from the joint analysis of the two-point correlation functions between galaxy density and galaxy shear with CMB lensing. (harvard.edu)
  • Utilizing principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis, the standardization, dimension- reduction and de-correlation of multiple evaluation index system for fruit and vegetable nutrition are performed to assign principal component factor based on cluster analysis of loading matrix and combining with actual meaning and evaluation direction of index categories. (scirp.org)
  • besides, based on multiple logistic regression model, a risk factor analysis correlation was applied. (bvsalud.org)
  • Fourier phases are statistically independent of the Fourier amplitudes, thus the phase statistics plays a complementary role to the conventional two-point statistics of galaxy clustering. (aanda.org)
  • Méthodologie: Entre septembre 2021 et février 2022, des écouvillonnages oropharyngés et/ou nasopharyngés de travailleurs symptomatiques COVID-19 et apparemment en bonne santé sélectionnés consécutivement du site minier de Wahgnion dans le sud-ouest du Burkina Faso qui ont consenti à l'étude ont été prélevés selon les deux programme de quart de semaines et testé pour le SRAS-CoV-2 à l'aide d'un test RT-PCR. (bvsalud.org)
  • The Quarter 2 Protection Analysis Update recently published by the Protection Cluster in Afghanistan presents the protection situation in the country, based on the findings and outcomes of the Protection Monitoring that our partners are carrying out country-wide through Focus Group Discussions, Key Informant Interviews and Household-level interview modalities. (globalprotectioncluster.org)
  • It also follows the new guidelines of the Global Protection Cluster providing an analytical framework for protection (PAF). (globalprotectioncluster.org)
  • The National Protection Cluster recently published an up-to-date analysis of the protection situation in Ethiopia, including in the Northern parts of the country. (globalprotectioncluster.org)
  • The analysis has been carried out by the National Protection Cluster with a view of identifying the most serious protection risks, impacting the civilian population, in all conflict- and drought-affected areas. (globalprotectioncluster.org)
  • We apply the wavelet analysis to follow the evolution of high-density regions (clusters and superclusters) of the cosmic web. (aanda.org)
  • The analysis in Fourier space is, however, not sensitive to the location of particular high-density features in real space, such as filaments, clusters, and superclusters. (aanda.org)
  • The additional allocation constraint, that all GPs of the same (group) practice be allocated to the same study group (thus forming "superclusters" of clusters), will help prevent contamination between GPs. (who.int)
  • Additionally, we conducted a multinomial logistic regression analysis to examine the predictors of health -related abilities and problem-cluster group membership. (bvsalud.org)
  • A cluster analysis was also performed to identify the overall health status subgroups of elderly , multimorbid patients with diabetes. (bvsalud.org)
  • We did not identify any PV cancer clusters, but we did identify a cluster of 9 ET cases in the Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania area. (cdc.gov)
  • We conclude that CFA analysis may be used to identify commercial products. (usda.gov)
  • We used whole-genome sequencing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients to identify genotypic clusters and assess the association between previous incarceration and TB transmission in the community. (cdc.gov)
  • The fragmentary nature of this sample and, apparently, an inability to use X-rays or destructive analysis on the remains mean that Sulosky Weaver is further limited in the kinds of pathologies she can identify. (ajaonline.org)
  • This study aims to describe the spatial distribution of TB in the Balimo District Hospital (BDH) catchment area to identify TB patient clusters and factors associated with high rates of TB. (who.int)
  • The locations of TB patients were mapped, and the spatial scan statistic was used to identify high- and low-rate TB clusters in the BDH catchment area. (who.int)
  • This study used spatial epidemiology techniques to (1) define the catchment area of BDH, (2) identify clustering of TB in the BDH catchment area and (3) investigate factors associated with high rates of TB. (who.int)
  • CDC and health departments can identify HIV clusters or outbreaks in a few different ways. (cdc.gov)
  • When public health agencies identify an HIV cluster or outbreak, they can work with local partners to address a community's specific needs. (cdc.gov)
  • We present a novel two-stage, stopped-flow, continuous centrifugal sedimentation strategy to measure the size distributions of events (defined here as cells or clusters thereof) in a blood sample. (nature.com)
  • In the presence of clustering, observations within the same cluster are correlated. (stata.com)
  • K-means is one method of cluster analysis that groups observations by minimizing Euclidean distances between them. (columbia.edu)
  • Next, it calculates the new center for each cluster as the centroid mean of the clustering variables for each cluster's new set of observations. (columbia.edu)
  • K-means re-iterates this process, assigning observations to the nearest center (some observations will change cluster). (columbia.edu)
  • This process repeats until a new iteration no longer re-assigns any observations to a new cluster. (columbia.edu)
  • While variable choice remains a debated topic, the consensus in the field recommends clustering on as many variables as possible, as long as the set fits this description, and the variables that do not describe much of the variance in Euclidean distances between observations will contribute less to cluster assignment. (columbia.edu)
  • Finally, there is a lack of tools to readily interpret fully automated clustering outcomes. (nature.com)
  • The precise mechanisms generating clusters or outbreaks puzzle public health workers, epidemiologists, and microbiologists ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Field clusters and community outbreaks are rarely seen in the Netherlands, possibly because of underreporting. (cdc.gov)
  • Numerous related issues--such as the epidemiologic workup of infectious disease outbreaks, the assessment of the health effects of environmental exposures, the prospective detection of clusters, and the investigation of interpersonal networks--are not addressed. (cdc.gov)
  • HIV clusters or outbreaks refer to the rapid HIV transmission of HIV among a group of people in a sexual or social network, or in a specific geographic location. (cdc.gov)
  • While study designs that utilize intact clusters have many potential advantages, there is little guidance in the literature on how to respond when cluster switching induces noncompliance with the randomization protocol. (rand.org)
  • We want to compute the required number of clusters for the study. (stata.com)
  • Officials said a team of industrialists would soon leave for Pune and Nagpur to study auto clusters. (org.in)
  • This study examined changes in symptoms and QOL during ALL maintenance in children categorized by symptom cluster and explored the influence of PA and symptoms on QOL. (duke.edu)
  • In the present study, we examined the spatial variation of MM risk in an area with high levels of asbestos pollution and secondly, and we explored the pattern of clustering. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we found an increasing pattern of mesothelioma risk in the area around a big AC factory and we detected secondary clusters of cases due to local exposure points, possibly associated to the use of asbestos materials. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study suggested that the Estonian grey cattle included in the analysis are a genetic composite resulting from cross-breeding of European dairy breeds. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Purpose: The objectives of this study were 1) to assess PV reporting to the PCR in 2006-2009, 2) to determine whether a cancer cluster persisted, and 3) to determine whether other myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), including essential thrombocytopenia (ET), were subject to similar reporting problems. (cdc.gov)
  • Further analyses present case-study time-series of a bloom in order to better understand the time-resolved change in phytoplankton biomass and how it relates to physical drivers of biomass growth and accumulation. (oceanopticsconference.org)
  • All patients will be allocated to their recruiting GP's study group without further randomization and will be part of her/his cluster. (who.int)
  • A group of unrelated cases that occur in temporal and spatial proximity may be misinterpreted as a cluster or outbreak, but these cases would not justify additional public health measures, except perhaps to reassure the public. (cdc.gov)
  • An HIV cluster or outbreak signifies increased HIV transmission among a group of people in an area or in a sexual or social network. (cdc.gov)
  • Public health agencies can scale responses to the size of the cluster or outbreak and the needs of the people affected by it. (cdc.gov)
  • HIV cluster detection and response (CDR) identifies communities affected by rapid HIV transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • 24] S.K. Chan, V. Bharadwaj, & D. Ghose, Large matrix-vector products on distributed bus networks with communication Delays using the divisible load paradigm: Performance Analysis and Simulation, Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, 58, 2001, 71-92. (actapress.com)
  • Cluster analysis of 500 US cities, summarized at the state level, plus Washington, DC, based on kidney disease-related factors (unhealthy behaviors, prevention measures, and outcomes related to CKD) and adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics. (cdc.gov)
  • According to cluster analysis, the low birth weight and premature babies born to mothers who reported heightened depression symptoms during and after pregnancy had the worst motor outcomes. (news-medical.net)
  • Patients from the cluster-SCIT group received two doses (30 min between doses) each week for 4 weeks, and patients from the SC-SCIT group received one dose each week for 8 weeks, according to the titration schedules in Table 1 , to a target daily dose of 8 IR (usual maintenance dose). (medscape.com)
  • Cluster analysis for the overall health status of elderly, multimorbid patients with diabetes. (bvsalud.org)
  • 28% (14/50) of the patients in those clusters were formerly incarcerated. (cdc.gov)
  • Formerly incarcerated TB patients were more likely than nonincarcerated patients to be included in large clusters. (cdc.gov)
  • TB patients within the large genotype clusters were geographically dispersed throughout Chiang Rai Province. (cdc.gov)
  • Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) patients were divided into four distinct clusters correlating to perceived health, a potentially important factor in providing care. (medscape.com)
  • Contexte: Pour contrôler la propagation de la maladie à coronavirus 19 (COVID-19) causée par le syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère coronavirus-2 (SRAS-CoV-2), il est nécessaire d'identifier et d'isoler de manière adéquate les patients infectieux, en particulier sur le lieu de travail. (bvsalud.org)
  • GPs who return the signed consent form will be randomized as clusters (more precisely: as cluster-defining units) to avoid contamination among their patients, and in batches to avoid delays for already included GPs due to slow recruitment. (who.int)
  • The implication is that it is, in general, at least as important to allow for clustering in standard errors for longitudinal analyses as for crosssectional analyses. (lse.ac.uk)
  • Gender analysis identifies, analyses, and informs action to address inequalities that arise from the different roles of women and men, or the unequal power relationships between them, and the consequences of these inequalities on their lives, their health and well-being. (who.int)
  • CDR work routinely identifies and prioritizes clusters, responds to small clusters, and expands or escalates responses when needed. (cdc.gov)
  • We recommend this method replace HLM as the method of choice for testing intervention effects with cluster-randomized trials with noncompliance and cluster switching. (rand.org)
  • method to obtain cluster memberships. (github.com)
  • Hierarchical cluster is the most commonly used method of cluster analysis. (educba.com)
  • You can mention the distance and clustering method here. (educba.com)
  • This is a limitation of any clustering method that does not allow for partial membership to clusters. (wustl.edu)
  • The robustness of the analysis was assessed by using an ensemble of back trajectories calculated for four points around Mace Head. (reading.ac.uk)
  • 1) (every fall and spring) Analysis of current and prospective issues in epidemiology, including historical foundations. (sc.edu)
  • Methylation-based markers of aging and lifestyle-related factors and risk of breast cancer: a pooled analysis of four prospective studies. (who.int)
  • We conclude that the impact of clustering can be seriously underestimated if it is simply handled by including an additive random effect to represent the clustering in a multilevel model. (lse.ac.uk)
  • We conclude that staff de- ployment could be refined by analyses of the skill-mix needed to provide quality care. (who.int)
  • In a cluster randomised controlled trial (CRCT), randomisation units are "clusters" such as schools or GP practices. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Examples of naturally-occurring clusters include schools, villages and GP practices. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A group of 58 employees was examined in an attempt to verify possible clustering of cancer cases. (cdc.gov)
  • An apparent clustering of cancer in recent years was demonstrated. (cdc.gov)
  • The overarching aim of the Epigenetics common cause of gastric cancer, Pan-cancer genoMe and Group (EGE) is to advance the which is the third most common cause tranScriPtoMe analySiS and understanding of the role of epigenetic of cancer-related deaths worldwide. (who.int)
  • We show that using linear regression with two-way cluster adjusted standard errors can yield unbiased ITT estimates and consistent standard errors regardless of the source of the random effects. (rand.org)
  • It's a little confusing because the independent is nominal (the clusters as if in within design) and the dependent is scale, is that a two-way ANOVA or regression with dummy coding? (talkstats.com)
  • In other words: regression analysis tries to find a line that will maximize prediction and minimize residuals. (unige.ch)
  • Bright Cluster Manager enables the University to deploy complete clusters over bare metal and manage them effectively. (insidehpc.com)
  • Decomposition of the capacity factor changes into frequency changes and within-cluster changes enables a better understanding of their drivers. (lbl.gov)
  • In this note we consider non-stationary cluster point processes and we derive their local intensity, i.e. the intensity of the process given the locations of one or more events of the process. (ias-iss.org)
  • Health agencies should understand the potential legal ramifications of reported clusters, how risks are perceived by the community, and the influence of the media on that perception. (cdc.gov)
  • We extract the important features of the network and then perform clustering on independent and important components of the network. (easychair.org)
  • We perform a joint analysis of the auto and cross-correlations between three cosmic fields: the galaxy density field, the galaxy weak lensing shear field, and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) weak lensing convergence field. (harvard.edu)
  • Using the genes in each active subnetwork, it performs enrichment analyses. (biostars.org)
  • This figure presents the hierarchical relationship and partitions among the 500 cities, plus Washington, DC, using a tree structure to depict clustering. (cdc.gov)
  • It then clusters the terms and partitions them into relevant clusters. (biostars.org)