###### Cluster Analysis

A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.

###### Multigene Family

A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)

###### Gene Expression Profiling

###### Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

###### Principal Component Analysis

###### Molecular Sequence Data

Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.

###### Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique

Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.

###### Discriminant Analysis

###### Space-Time Clustering

###### DNA Fingerprinting

A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.

###### Sequence Analysis, DNA

###### Algorithms

###### Bacterial Typing Techniques

###### Cluster Headache

A primary headache disorder that is characterized by severe, strictly unilateral PAIN which is orbital, supraorbital, temporal or in any combination of these sites, lasting 15-180 min. occurring 1 to 8 times a day. The attacks are associated with one or more of the following, all of which are ipsilateral: conjunctival injection, lacrimation, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, facial SWEATING, eyelid EDEMA, and miosis. (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)

###### Genotype

###### Phenotype

###### Base Sequence

###### Iron-Sulfur Proteins

###### Reproducibility of Results

The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.

###### Amino Acid Sequence

###### Geography

###### Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis

###### Polymerase Chain Reaction

In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.

###### Species Specificity

The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.

###### RNA, Ribosomal, 16S

###### Software

###### Data Interpretation, Statistical

###### Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length

###### Computational Biology

A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.

###### Sequence Alignment

The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.

###### Models, Statistical

###### Genetic Markers

###### Classification

###### Pattern Recognition, Automated

###### Dental Fissures

###### Microsatellite Repeats

###### Factor Analysis, Statistical

A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.

###### Analysis of Variance

###### Molecular Epidemiology

###### Spatio-Temporal Analysis

###### Sequence Homology, Amino Acid

###### Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field

Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.

###### Questionnaires

###### Evolution, Molecular

###### Expressed Sequence Tags

###### DNA Primers

###### DNA, Ribosomal

###### Models, Genetic

###### Electrophoresis, Starch Gel

###### Ecotype

###### Genetic Structures

###### Computer Simulation

###### Polymorphism, Genetic

The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.

###### Statistics as Topic

###### Cloning, Molecular

###### Topography, Medical

The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.

###### Minisatellite Repeats

Tandem arrays of moderately repetitive, short (10-60 bases) DNA sequences which are found dispersed throughout the GENOME, at the ends of chromosomes (TELOMERES), and clustered near telomeres. Their degree of repetition is two to several hundred at each locus. Loci number in the thousands but each locus shows a distinctive repeat unit.

###### Bacteria

One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.

###### Bayes Theorem

A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.

###### Escherichia coli

A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.

###### Gene Expression Regulation

###### Geographic Information Systems

###### Models, Molecular

###### Transcription, Genetic

###### Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic

###### Neoplasms, Plasma Cell

###### Chromosome Mapping

###### Serotyping

###### Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

###### Microarray Analysis

###### Catastrophization

###### Mutation

###### Protein Array Analysis

###### Multivariate Analysis

###### RNA, Bacterial

###### Nucleic Acid Hybridization

Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)

###### Soil Microbiology

###### Gene Expression

###### Molecular Typing

###### Gene Library

###### Cross-Sectional Studies

###### Demography

###### Chorda Tympani Nerve

###### Databases, Factual

Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.

###### Transcriptome

###### RNA, Messenger

RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.

###### Models, Biological

###### Artificial Intelligence

###### Ecosystem

###### Risk Factors

###### Phylogeography

###### Immunohistochemistry

###### Cohort Studies

Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.

###### Binding Sites

###### DNA, Ribosomal Spacer

###### Genetics, Population

###### Severity of Illness Index

###### Disease Outbreaks

###### Alleles

###### Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared

###### Biodiversity

###### Tumor Markers, Biological

Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.

###### Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid

###### Rivers

###### Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial

###### Sensitivity and Specificity

###### Least-Squares Analysis

###### Protein Structure, Secondary

###### Pain Measurement

###### Conserved Sequence

###### Pseudomonas

###### Sequence Analysis, Protein

###### Protein Conformation

The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).

###### Enzymes

###### DNA, Complementary

###### Cattle

###### Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy

A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.

###### Restriction Mapping

###### Image Processing, Computer-Assisted

###### Proteins

Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.

###### Ferredoxins

###### Socioeconomic Factors

###### Fibromyalgia

A common nonarticular rheumatic syndrome characterized by myalgia and multiple points of focal muscle tenderness to palpation (trigger points). Muscle pain is typically aggravated by inactivity or exposure to cold. This condition is often associated with general symptoms, such as sleep disturbances, fatigue, stiffness, HEADACHES, and occasionally DEPRESSION. There is significant overlap between fibromyalgia and the chronic fatigue syndrome (FATIGUE SYNDROME, CHRONIC). Fibromyalgia may arise as a primary or secondary disease process. It is most frequent in females aged 20 to 50 years. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1494-95)

###### Taste

## Ringo, Doty, Demeter and Simard, Cerebral Cortex 1994;4:331-343: a proof of the need for the spatial clustering of interneuronal connections to enhance cortical computation. (1/16506)

It has been argued that an important principle driving the organization of the cerebral cortex towards local processing has been the need to decrease time lost to interneuronal conduction delay. In this paper, I show for a simplified model of the cerebral cortex, using analytical means, that if interneuronal conduction time increases proportional to interneuronal distance, then the only way to increase the numbers of synaptic events occurring in a fixed finite time period is to spatially cluster interneuronal connections. (+info)## Cluster survey evaluation of coverage and risk factors for failure to be immunized during the 1995 National Immunization Days in Egypt. (2/16506)

BACKGROUND: In 1995, Egypt continued to experience endemic wild poliovirus transmission despite achieving high routine immunization coverage with at least three doses of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV3) and implementing National Immunization Days (NIDs) annually for several years. METHODS: Parents of 4188 children in 3216 households throughout Egypt were surveyed after the second round of the 1995 NIDs. RESULTS: Nationwide, 74% of children are estimated to have received both NID doses, 17% one NID dose, and 9% neither NID dose. Previously unimmunized (47%) or partially immunized (64%) children were less likely to receive two NID doses of OPV than were fully immunized children (76%) (P < 0.001). Other risk factors nationwide for failure to receive NID OPV included distance from residence to nearest NID site >10 minute walk (P < 0.001), not being informed about the NID at least one day in advance (P < 0.001), and residing in a household which does not watch television (P < 0.001). Based on these findings, subsequent NIDs in Egypt were modified to improve coverage, which has resulted in a marked decrease in the incidence of paralytic poliomyelitis in Egypt. CONCLUSIONS: In selected situations, surveys can provide important information that is useful for planning future NIDs. (+info)## Clusters of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: analysis of person-to-person transmission by genotyping. (3/16506)

Genotyping at the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear rRNA operon was performed on isolates of P. carinii sp. f. hominis from three clusters of P. carinii pneumonia among eight patients with haematological malignancies and six with HIV infection. Nine different ITS sequence types of P. carinii sp. f. hominis were identified in the samples from the patients with haematological malignancies, suggesting that this cluster of cases of P. carinii pneumonia was unlikely to have resulted from nosocomial transmission. A common ITS sequence type was observed in two of the patients with haematological malignancies who shared a hospital room, and also in two of the patients with HIV infection who had prolonged close contact on the ward. In contrast, different ITS sequence types were detected in samples from an HIV-infected homosexual couple who shared the same household. These data suggest that person-to-person transmission of P. carinii sp. f. hominis may occur from infected to susceptible immunosuppressed patients with close contact within hospital environments. However direct transmission between patients did not account for the majority of cases within the clusters, suggesting that person-to-person transmission of P. carinii sp. f. hominis infection may be a relatively infrequent event and does not constitute the major route of transmission in man. (+info)## Influence of sampling on estimates of clustering and recent transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis derived from DNA fingerprinting techniques. (4/16506)

The availability of DNA fingerprinting techniques for Mycobacterium tuberculosis has led to attempts to estimate the extent of recent transmission in populations, using the assumption that groups of tuberculosis patients with identical isolates ("clusters") are likely to reflect recently acquired infections. It is never possible to include all cases of tuberculosis in a given population in a study, and the proportion of isolates found to be clustered will depend on the completeness of the sampling. Using stochastic simulation models based on real and hypothetical populations, the authors demonstrate the influence of incomplete sampling on the estimates of clustering obtained. The results show that as the sampling fraction increases, the proportion of isolates identified as clustered also increases and the variance of the estimated proportion clustered decreases. Cluster size is also important: the underestimation of clustering for any given sampling fraction is greater, and the variability in the results obtained is larger, for populations with small clusters than for those with the same number of individuals arranged in large clusters. A considerable amount of caution should be used in interpreting the results of studies on clustering of M. tuberculosis isolates, particularly when sampling fractions are small. (+info)## Newly recognized focus of La Crosse encephalitis in Tennessee. (5/16506)

La Crosse virus is a mosquito-borne arbovirus that causes encephalitis in children. Only nine cases were reported in Tennessee during the 33-year period from 1964-1996. We investigated a cluster of La Crosse encephalitis cases in eastern Tennessee in 1997. Medical records of all suspected cases of La Crosse virus infection at a pediatric referral hospital were reviewed, and surveillance was enhanced in the region. Previous unreported cases were identified by surveying 20 hospitals in the surrounding 16 counties. Mosquito eggs were collected from five sites. Ten cases of La Crosse encephalitis were serologically confirmed. None of the patients had been discharged from hospitals in the region with diagnosed La Crosse encephalitis in the preceding 5 years. Aedes triseriatus and Aedes albopictus were collected at the case sites; none of the mosquitos had detectable La Crosse virus. This cluster may represent an extension of a recently identified endemic focus of La Crosse virus infection in West Virginia. (+info)## Hierarchical cluster analysis applied to workers' exposures in fiberglass insulation manufacturing. (6/16506)

The objectives of this study were to explore the application of cluster analysis to the characterization of multiple exposures in industrial hygiene practice and to compare exposure groupings based on the result from cluster analysis with that based on non-measurement-based approaches commonly used in epidemiology. Cluster analysis was performed for 37 workers simultaneously exposed to three agents (endotoxin, phenolic compounds and formaldehyde) in fiberglass insulation manufacturing. Different clustering algorithms, including complete-linkage (or farthest-neighbor), single-linkage (or nearest-neighbor), group-average and model-based clustering approaches, were used to construct the tree structures from which clusters can be formed. Differences were observed between the exposure clusters constructed by these different clustering algorithms. When contrasting the exposure classification based on tree structures with that based on non-measurement-based information, the results indicate that the exposure clusters identified from the tree structures had little in common with the classification results from either the traditional exposure zone or the work group classification approach. In terms of the defining homogeneous exposure groups or from the standpoint of health risk, some toxicological normalization in the components of the exposure vector appears to be required in order to form meaningful exposure groupings from cluster analysis. Finally, it remains important to see if the lack of correspondence between exposure groups based on epidemiological classification and measurement data is a peculiarity of the data or a more general problem in multivariate exposure analysis. (+info)## A taxonomy of health networks and systems: bringing order out of chaos. (7/16506)

OBJECTIVE: To use existing theory and data for empirical development of a taxonomy that identifies clusters of organizations sharing common strategic/structural features. DATA SOURCES: Data from the 1994 and 1995 American Hospital Association Annual Surveys, which provide extensive data on hospital involvement in hospital-led health networks and systems. STUDY DESIGN: Theories of organization behavior and industrial organization economics were used to identify three strategic/structural dimensions: differentiation, which refers to the number of different products/services along a healthcare continuum; integration, which refers to mechanisms used to achieve unity of effort across organizational components; and centralization, which relates to the extent to which activities take place at centralized versus dispersed locations. These dimensions were applied to three components of the health service/product continuum: hospital services, physician arrangements, and provider-based insurance activities. DATA EXTRACTION METHODS: We identified 295 health systems and 274 health networks across the United States in 1994, and 297 health systems and 306 health networks in 1995 using AHA data. Empirical measures aggregated individual hospital data to the health network and system level. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified a reliable, internally valid, and stable four-cluster solution for health networks and a five-cluster solution for health systems. We found that differentiation and centralization were particularly important in distinguishing unique clusters of organizations. High differentiation typically occurred with low centralization, which suggests that a broader scope of activity is more difficult to centrally coordinate. Integration was also important, but we found that health networks and systems typically engaged in both ownership-based and contractual-based integration or they were not integrated at all. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we were able to classify approximately 70 percent of hospital-led health networks and 90 percent of hospital-led health systems into well-defined organizational clusters. Given the widespread perception that organizational change in healthcare has been chaotic, our research suggests that important and meaningful similarities exist across many evolving organizations. The resulting taxonomy provides a new lexicon for researchers, policymakers, and healthcare executives for characterizing key strategic and structural features of evolving organizations. The taxonomy also provides a framework for future inquiry about the relationships between organizational strategy, structure, and performance, and for assessing policy issues, such as Medicare Provider Sponsored Organizations, antitrust, and insurance regulation. (+info)## Double blind, cluster randomised trial of low dose supplementation with vitamin A or beta carotene on mortality related to pregnancy in Nepal. The NNIPS-2 Study Group. (8/16506)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact on mortality related to pregnancy of supplementing women of reproductive age each week with a recommended dietary allowance of vitamin A, either preformed or as beta carotene. DESIGN: Double blind, cluster randomised, placebo controlled field trial. SETTING: Rural southeast central plains of Nepal (Sarlahi district). SUBJECTS: 44 646 married women, of whom 20 119 became pregnant 22 189 times. INTERVENTION: 270 wards randomised to 3 groups of 90 each for women to receive weekly a single oral supplement of placebo, vitamin A (7000 micrograms retinol equivalents) or beta carotene (42 mg, or 7000 micrograms retinol equivalents) for over 31/2 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause mortality in women during pregnancy up to 12 weeks post partum (pregnancy related mortality) and mortality during pregnancy to 6 weeks postpartum, excluding deaths apparently related to injury (maternal mortality). RESULTS: Mortality related to pregnancy in the placebo, vitamin A, and beta carotene groups was 704, 426, and 361 deaths per 100 000 pregnancies, yielding relative risks (95% confidence intervals) of 0. 60 (0.37 to 0.97) and 0.51 (0.30 to 0.86). This represented reductions of 40% (P<0.04) and 49% (P<0.01) among those who received vitamin A and beta carotene. Combined, vitamin A or beta carotene lowered mortality by 44% (0.56 (0.37 to 0.84), P<0.005) and reduced the maternal mortality ratio from 645 to 385 deaths per 100 000 live births, or by 40% (P<0.02). Differences in cause of death could not be reliably distinguished between supplemented and placebo groups. CONCLUSION: Supplementation of women with either vitamin A or beta carotene at recommended dietary amounts during childbearing years can lower mortality related to pregnancy in rural, undernourished populations of south Asia. (+info)###### Implementation of the algorithm of hierarchical cluster analysis on GPU by means of CUDA technology | The Bulletin of NCC

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**Cluster**

**Analysis**". Journal of the Royal ... graph-theoretic

**clustering**,[22] and

**clustering**gene expression data.[23]. *Constructing trees for broadcasting in computer ... Asano, T.; Bhattacharya, B.; Keil, M.; Yao, F. (1988).

**Clustering**algorithms based on minimum and maximum spanning trees. ...

###### k-means **clustering**

**Cluster**

**analysis**[edit]. Main article:

**Cluster**

**analysis**. In

**cluster**

**analysis**, the k-means algorithm can be used to partition the ... that is popular for

**cluster**

**analysis**in data mining. k-means

**clustering**aims to partition n observations into k

**clusters**in ... from the

**cluster**S. n. {\displaystyle S_{n}}. to the

**cluster**S. m. {\displaystyle S_{m}}. as soon as an x. ,. n. ,. m. {\ ... Principal component

**analysis**[edit]. The relaxed solution of k. -means

**clustering**, specified by the

**cluster**indicators, is given ...

###### Related changes

m

**Cluster**analysis; 12:40 . . (+20) . . . MartinLjungqvist. (talk , contribs) (Adding wiki link for Raymond Cattell) ... Independent component analysis; 18:42 . . (+1) . . . 129.69.118.87. (talk) (fix typo). *(diff , hist) . . Temporal ...###### Taa language

DoBeS

**cluster**.**analysis**. Miller (2011).**analysis**[20] bilabial. clicks. dental. clicks. lateral. clicks. alveolar. clicks. ... West ǃXoon has 164 consonants in a strict unit**analysis**, including 111 clicks in 23 series, which under a**cluster****analysis**... The DoBeS project takes Traill's**cluster****analysis**to mean that only the twenty tenuis, voiced, nasal, and voiceless nasal ... Taa may have as few as 83 click sounds, if the more complex clicks are analyzed as**clusters**. Given the intricate**clusters**...###### Large low-shear-velocity provinces

Lekic, V.; Cottaar, S.; Dziewonski, A. & Romanowicz, B. (2012). "

**Cluster****analysis**of global lower mantle". Earth and Planetary ... The resulting motion forms small**clusters**of small plumes right above the core-mantle boundary that combine to form larger ... The boundaries of these features appear fairly consistent across models when applying objective k-means**clustering**. The global ...###### Mark Aldenderfer

**Cluster**

**Analysis**. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications. ISBN 0-8039-2376-7. Aldenderfer, Mark S. (1993). "Ritual, Hierarchy, ...

###### Pågen

"Bread loves Health - Pågen".

**Cluster****analysis**. Øresund Food Network. 21 January 2008. Retrieved 2010-02-05. "The Florentine ...###### UPGMA

Neighbor-joining

**Cluster****analysis**Single-linkage**clustering**Complete-linkage**clustering**Hierarchical**clustering**Models of DNA ... the nearest two**clusters**are combined into a higher-level**cluster**. The distance between any two**clusters**A {\displaystyle {\ ... Everitt, B. S.; Landau, S.; Leese, M. (2001).**Cluster****Analysis**. 4th Edition. London: Arnold. p. 62-64. Legendre P, Legendre L ( ... Complete linkage**clustering**avoids a drawback of the alternative single linkage**clustering**method - the so-called chaining ...###### JEL classification codes

**Cluster**

**Analysis**• Principal Components • Factor Models C39 Other C4 Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics C40 ... Oceania O1 Economic Development O10 General O11 Macroeconomic

**Analyses**of Economic Development O12 Microeconomic

**Analyses**of ... Prices Q12 Micro

**Analysis**of Farm Firms, Farm Households, and Farm Input Markets Q13 Agricultural Markets and Marketing • ... Spatial Production

**Analysis**, and Firm Location R30 General R31 Housing Supply and Markets R32 Other Spatial Production and ...

###### Эукариоты - Википедия

Gene-

**cluster****analysis**in chloroplast genomics. Trends Genet. 1999. *Durnford DG, Deane JA, Tan S, McFadden GI, Gantt E, et al. ... Complete sequence and**analysis**of the plastid genome of the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. DNA Res. 2003 ... Germot a, Philippe H. Critical**analysis**of eukaryotic phylogeny: a case study based on the HSP70 family. J Eukaryot Microbiol. ... Phylogenomic**analysis**supports the monophyly of cryptophytes and haptophytes and the association of Rhizaria with ...###### CrimeStat

**Cluster**

**analysis**statistics for points, zones or lines. CrimeStat has a range of routines available for

**cluster**identification: ... Journey-to-crime

**analysis**for modeling the likely origin of a serial offender based on the location of prior events committed ... 2009). "Spatial

**analysis**of falls in an urban community of Hong Kong", International Journal of Health Geography, 17:8-14 ... Correlated Walk

**Analysis**, based on random walk theory, for modeling the sequential behavior of a serial offender in space and ...

###### Occupational burnout

Bianchi, R., Schonfeld, I. S., & Laurent, E. (2014). "Is burnout separable from depression in

**cluster****analysis**? A longitudinal ... Alarcon, G.; Eschleman, K. J.; Bowling, N. A. (2009). "Relationships between personality variables and burnout: A meta-**analysis**... A multitrait-multimethod**analysis**". European Journal of Psychological Assessment. 18 (1): 296-307. doi:10.1037/a0037726. PMID ...###### Bottromycin

Bioinformatic

**analysis**identified four methyltransferases within the**cluster**. Bioinformatics suggest that btmB, is an O- ... The presence of a follower peptide was identified by bioinformatic**analysis**of the bottromycin biosynthetic**cluster**. The ... Crone, W. J. K.; F. J. Leeper; A. W. Truman (2012). "Identification and characterisation of the gene**cluster**for the anti-MRSA ... As such, there are still three predicted radical SAM dependent enzymes in the bottromycin D biosynthetic**cluster**: bstC, bstF, ...###### Statistical classification

... normally refers to

**cluster****analysis**. Classification and**clustering**are examples of the more general problem of pattern ... Binder, D. A. (1978). "Bayesian**cluster****analysis**". Biometrika. 65: 31-38. doi:10.1093/biomet/65.1.31. Binder, David A. (1981 ... ISBN 0-471-30845-5 (p. 83-86) Rao, C.R. (1952) Advanced Statistical Methods in Multivariate**Analysis**, Wiley. (Section 9c) ... Computer vision Medical imaging and medical image**analysis**Optical character recognition Video tracking Drug discovery and ...###### Jeffrey Owen Katz

Functionpoint

**cluster****analysis**. Systematic Zoology, September 1973, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 295-301. Katz is fluent in written and ... Jeffrey Owen Katz (born 1950) is an American scientist best known for his pivotal contribution to the field of factor**analysis**... Katz, Jeffrey Owen, and McCormick, Donna L. (May 1998). "Using Barrier Stops in Exit Strategies." Technical**Analysis**of Stocks ... Katz, Jeffrey Owen, and McCormick, Donna L. (November 1997). "Adding the Human Element to Neural Nets." Technical**Analysis**of ...###### 民主與獨裁指數 - 维基百科，自由的百

The Democracy

**Cluster**Classification Index. Political**Analysis**. 2013-07-01, 21 (3): 334-349 [2014-03-24]. ISSN 1047-1987. doi: ... Gugiu＆Centellas使用集群分類法，將五種常用民主指標（含DD資料集、政體資料集、自由之家###### Tibor Šalát

"Sets of statistical

**cluster**points and ℐ-**cluster**points". Real**Analysis**Exchange. 30 (2): 565-580. MR 2177419. Pavel Kostyrko; ... Tibor Šalát; S. James Taylor; János T. Tóth (1998). "Radii of Convergence of Power Series". Real**Analysis**Exchange. 24 (1): 263 ... Real**Analysis**Exchange. 21 (2): 725-731. MR 1407285. M. Dindoš; T. Šalát; V. Toma (2003). "Statistical Convergence of Infinite ... and Doctor of Mathematics who specialized in number theory and real**analysis**. He was the author and co-author of undergraduate ...###### Quantitative genetics

**Cluster**

**analysis**for applications. New York: Academic Press. Mendel, Gregor (1866). "Versuche über Pflanzen Hybriden". ... Such coefficients are used particularly in regression

**analysis**. A standardized version of regression

**analysis**is path

**analysis**...

**analysis**is more informative, and that a "Fisher"

**analysis**can always be constructed from it. The opposite conversion is not ... Path

**analysis**demonstrates that these are tantamount to the same thing. Arising from this background, the inbreeding ...

###### Cosine similarity

H. Charles Romesburg (1984).

**Cluster****Analysis**for Researchers. Belmont, California: Lifetime Learning Publications. p. 149. ... The technique is also used to measure cohesion within**clusters**in the field of data mining. The term cosine distance is often ...###### Aphelion (software)

2004). "PMMC

**cluster****analysis**". Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences. 5 (2): 171-188. doi:10.3970/cmes.2004.005.171. ... Dermatology Osteoporosis**analysis**. Radiology Chromosome classification. Cytogenetics Seed**Analysis**. Metrology In the field of ... Measurements based on shape**analysis**(surface area, perimeter, volume, elongation, compactness, etc.) and texture**analysis**(e.g ... Image**analysis**also helps to study composite polymers strengthen by glass fiber, and to measure the impact of the size of micro ...###### Oklahoma

"Manufacturing

**Cluster****Analysis**" (PDF). Oklahoma Chamber of Commerce. 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 8, 2007. ... "GDP by state current dollars". US Bureau of Economic**Analysis**. Retrieved September 27, 2011. "Per capita real GDP by state". US ... Bureau of Economic**Analysis**. Retrieved September 27, 2011. Snead, Mark (2006). "Outlook Update-OKC GM Plant Closing" (PDF). ...###### Yanosuke Otsuka

H. Charles Romesburg (1984).

**Cluster****Analysis**for Researchers. Belmont, California: Lifetime Learning Publications. p. 149. ...###### Verbal fluency test

Curve fitting allows an

**analysis**of the global (macro) structure as well as the temporal dynamics of**clusters**and switches, and ... other**analyses**such as number of repetitions, number and length of**clusters**of words from the same semantic or phonemic ... the figure on the right shows a hierarchical**clustering****analysis**of animal semantic fluency data from 55 British schoolchildren ... Furthermore, by means of curve fitting, temporal**clusters**, switches,[6][7] and the initial slope can be determined. Whereas the ...###### Paola Sebastiani

According to Scopus the most cited ones are: Ramoni M.F.; Sebastiani P.; Kohane I.S. "

**Cluster****analysis**of gene expression ... "Human longevity and common variations in the LMNA gene: a meta-**analysis**". Aging Cell. 11: 475-481. doi:10.1111/j.1474-9726.2012 ... "Meta-**analysis**of genetic variants associated with human exceptional longevity". Aging. 5: 653-61. doi:10.18632/aging.100594. ...###### Peter Rousseeuw

With L. Kaufman he coined the word medoid when proposing the k-medoids method for

**cluster****analysis**, also known as Partitioning ... Kaufman, L.; Rousseeuw, P.J. (1987). "**Clustering**by means of Medoids". Statistical Data**Analysis**Based on the L1-Norm and ... Kaufman, Leonard; Rousseeuw, Peter J. (1990). Finding groups in data : an introduction to**cluster****analysis**(3. print. ed.). New ... His silhouette display shows the result of a**cluster****analysis**, and the resulting index is often used to select the number of ...###### Oklahoma, den frie encyklopædi

"Manufacturing

**Cluster****Analysis**" (pdf). Oklahoma Chamber of Commerce. 2005. Arkiveret (PDF) fra originalen 8. august 2007. ...###### Functional somatic syndrome

An answer by

**cluster****analysis**". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 74 (1): 6-11. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2012.09.013. ISSN ... Some have proposed to group symptoms into**clusters**or into one general functional somatic disorder given the finding of ... A systematic review with meta-**analysis**". Arthritis Care & Research. 63 (6): 808-820. doi:10.1002/acr.20328. ISSN 2151-464X. ... A Systematic Review and Meta-**Analysis**". Psychosomatic Medicine. 76 (1): 2-11. doi:10.1097/PSY.0000000000000010. ISSN 0033-3174 ...###### Tse Wen Chang

Abu-Jamous, Basel; Fa, Rui; Nandi, Asoke K. (2015-04-16). Integrative

**Cluster****Analysis**in Bioinformatics. John Wiley & Sons. p ...###### HOXD8

Deletions that remove the entire HOXD gene

**cluster**or the 5' end of this**cluster**have been associated with severe limb and ... 2002). "Complete mutation**analysis**panel of the 39 human HOX genes". Teratology. 65 (2): 50-62. doi:10.1002/tera.10009. PMID ... Limongi MZ, Pelliccia F, Gaddini L, Rocchi A (2000). "**Clustering**of two fragile sites and seven homeobox genes in human ... Mammals possess four similar homeobox gene**clusters**, HOXA, HOXB, HOXC and HOXD, located on different chromosomes, consisting of ...###### Food web

The small world attribute refers to the many loosely connected nodes, non-random dense

**clustering**of a few nodes (i.e., trophic ... Published examples that are used in meta**analysis**are of variable quality with omissions. However, the number of empirical ... such as those used in other kinds of network**analysis**(e.g., graph theory), to study emergent patterns and properties shared ... Ecologists identify feeding relations and organize species into trophic species through extensive gut content**analysis**of ...###### Alternative medicine

Ernst, E. (2008). "Placebo and other Non-specific Effects". In Ernst, E. (ed.). Healing, Hype, or Harm? A Critical

**Analysis**of ... "A**cluster**of lead poisoning among consumers of Ayurvedic medicine". International Journal of Occupational and Environmental ... An**analysis**of the conclusions of only the 145 Cochrane reviews was done by two readers. In 83% of the cases, the readers ... An**analysis**of trends in the criticism of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in five prestigious American medical ...###### Group 3 element

... and lawrencium by the relativistic coupled-

**cluster**method". Phys. Rev. A. 52 (1): 291-296. Bibcode:1995PhRvA..52..291E. doi: ... and published his completed**analysis**in 1794;[3] in 1797, the new oxide was named yttria.[4] In the decades after French ... "Formation of Yttrium Oxide**Clusters**Using Pulsed Laser Vaporization". Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 26 (2): 345-348. doi:10.5012/ ...###### Leaf

At the core of each bundle are

**clusters**of two distinct types of conducting cells: Xylem. Cells that bring water and minerals ...**Analyses**of vein patterns often fall into consideration of the vein orders, primary vein type, secondary vein type (major veins ... A Fractal**Analysis**Approach to Tune Mechanical Rigidity of Scaffolding Matrix in Thin Films". Advanced Materials Research. 1141 ... "Leaf Vascular Systems in C3 and C4 Grasses: A Two-dimensional**Analysis**". Annals of Botany. 97 (4): 611-621. doi:10.1093/aob/ ...###### GABRA4

... further evidence that modern GABAA receptor gene

**clusters**are derived from an ancestral**cluster**". Genomics. 26 (3): 580-586. ... "Generation and initial**analysis**of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A ... to human chromosome 4 defines an alpha 2-alpha 4-beta 1-gamma 1 gene**cluster**: ...###### Level of measurement

**Cluster**

**analysis**. *Classification. *Structural equation model *Factor

**analysis**. *Multivariate distributions *Elliptical ... This ensures that subsequent user errors cannot inadvertently perform meaningless

**analyses**(for example correlation

**analysis**... Mosteller, Frederick (1977). Data

**analysis**and regression : a second course in statistics. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley Pub. ... Cliff, N. (1996). Ordinal Methods for Behavioral Data

**Analysis**. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. ISBN 0-8058-1333-0 ...

###### Chloroplast DNA

In primitive red algae, the chloroplast DNA nucleoids are

**clustered**in the center of a chloroplast, while in green plants and ... "Evolutionary**analysis**of Arabidopsis, cyanobacterial, and chloroplast genomes reveals plastid phylogeny and thousands of ...###### Rituximab

In contrast, when the B cell lacked this asymmetric protein

**cluster**, it was killed only 40% of the time.[36][37] ... "Treatment of neuromyelitis optica with rituximab: retrospective**analysis**of 25 patients". Arch Neurol. 65 (11): 1443-1448. doi ...###### Códigos de classificação JEL - Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre

JEL: Q11 - Aggregate Supply and Demand

**Analysis**; Prices. JEL: Q12 - Micro**Analysis**of Farm Firms, Farm Households, and Farm ... C38 - Métodos de classificação; Análise de**clusters**; Análise de fatores. *C39 - Outros ... JEL: I11 -**Analysis**of Health Care Markets. JEL: I12 - Health Production: Nutrition, Mortality, Morbidity, Substance abuse and ... JEL: R2 - Household**Analysis**JEL: R20 - Geral. JEL: R21 - Housing Demand. JEL: R22 - Outros Demand. JEL: R23 - Regional ...###### Apolipoprotein C4

2007). "Proteomic

**analysis**of human very low-density lipoprotein by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF". ... 2002). "Regulated expression of the apolipoprotein E/C-I/C-IV/C-II gene**cluster**in murine and human macrophages. A critical ... "Generation and initial**analysis**of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A ... "Large-scale candidate gene**analysis**of spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus". J. Infect. Dis. 201 (9): 1371-80. doi ...###### Rituximab

In contrast, when the B cell lacked this asymmetric protein

**cluster**, it was killed only 40% of the time.[37][38] ... Kriston, Levente (2009). "Challenges in Reporting Meta-**analyses**of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies". Annals of Internal Medicine. ... "Treatment of neuromyelitis optica with rituximab: retrospective**analysis**of 25 patients". Arch Neurol. 65 (11): 1443-1448. doi ...###### Glossary of graph theory terms

3. Modularity of a graph

**clustering**, the difference of the number of cross-**cluster**edges from its expected value.. monotone. A ... 2. Power graph**analysis**is a method for analyzing complex networks by identifying cliques, bicliques, and stars within the ... A branch-decomposition of G is a hierarchical**clustering**of the edges of G, represented by an unrooted binary tree with its ...###### Caulobacter crescentus

The genome contains multiple

**clusters**of genes encoding proteins essential for survival in a nutrient-poor habitat. Included ... "The diversity and evolution of cell cycle regulation in alpha-proteobacteria: A comparative genomic**analysis**". BMC Systems ...###### Palawa kani

Consonant

**clusters**include pr, tr and kr. Like most mainland languages, Tasmanian languages lacked sibilants (which is apparent ... of the Australian Mainland languages as a guide to Palawa phonology without undertaking an adequate comparative**analysis**of the ... The sequence 'tr' is treated as a consonant**cluster**, when it was presumably a postalveolar affricate closer to English j or ch. ...###### Berlin Brandenburg Airport

The check-in area is located in the public area at Level 1 and houses 118 counters organised in eight

**clusters**, called check-in ... Central demand: an**analysis**of BER capacity and airplane noise]. tagesspiegel. Retrieved 22 October 2017.. ... new TUV**analysis**, diverging passenger number predictions- further lack of time and as well whether Tegel will carry on]. ...###### Hans-Peter Kriegel

His most important contributions are the database index structures R*-tree, X-tree and IQ-Tree, the

**cluster****analysis**algorithms ... His current research is focused around correlation**clustering**, high-dimensional data indexing and**analysis**, spatial data mining ... He was also awarded the 2015 ACM SIGKDD Innovation Award for his contributions to data mining in**clustering**, outlier detection ... E. Rahm, A. Thor (2005). "Citation**analysis**of database publications" (PDF). SIGMOD Record. Association for Computing Machinery ...###### Cultured neuronal network

This

**analysis**yielded the conclusion that, in their culture of Wistar rat neocortical cells, the AWSR has long rise and fall ... It follows that each electrode in the array services a large**cluster**of neurons and cannot provide resolute information ... Moreover, chemical**analysis**of the neurons and their environment is more easily accomplished than in an in vivo setting. ... Stegenga J, Feber JL, Marani E, Rutten WL (2008). "**Analysis**of Cultured Neuronal Networks Using Intraburst Firing ...###### Mann-Whitney U test

**Cluster**

**analysis**. *Classification. *Structural equation model *Factor

**analysis**. *Multivariate distributions *Elliptical ... Kruskal-Wallis one-way

**analysis**of variance. Notes[edit]. *^ a b Mann, Henry B.; Whitney, Donald R. (1947). "On a Test of ... Zar, Jerrold H. (1998). Biostatistical

**Analysis**. New Jersey: Prentice Hall International, INC. p. 147. ISBN 0-13-082390-2.. ... A thorough

**analysis**of the statistic, which included a recurrence allowing the computation of tail probabilities for arbitrary ...

###### Voxel-based morphometry

Example of a VBM

**analysis**on patients who experience**cluster**headaches.. Voxel-based morphometry is a computational approach to ... The usual approach for statistical**analysis**is mass-univariate (**analysis**of each voxel separately), but pattern recognition may ... Tutorial: A Critical**Analysis**of Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM). *Voxel-Based Morphometry Should Not Be Used with Imperfectly ... Actual statistical**analysis**by the general linear model, i.e., statistical parametric mapping. ...###### Pinophyta

Interpretation of concentrations determined by

**analysis**is easy only when a nutrient occurs in excessively low or occasionally ... giving the appearance of a**cluster**of berries. ... Phylogeny of the Pinophyta based on cladistic**analysis**of ...###### Ohio State University

"Ohio State University SAT Score

**Analysis**(New 1600 SAT)". prepscholar.com. PrepScholar. Retrieved April 18, 2019.. ... Ohio State operates 41 on-campus residence halls divided into three geographic**clusters**: South Campus (site of the university's ... Center for Urban and Regional**Analysis**and Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center. ...###### Lyme disease

The full syndrome now known as Lyme disease was not recognized until a

**cluster**of cases originally thought to be juvenile ... Lyme disease fact sheet**Analysis**of CDC data on VoxHealth. Retrieved on 2013-30-1 ... Demonstration by lumbar puncture and CSF**analysis**of pleocytosis and intrathecal antibody production are required for definite ... American guidelines consider CSF**analysis**optional when symptoms appear to be confined to the peripheral nervous system (PNS), ...###### Alkali metal

4 ions.[66] The chemistry of alkali metal germanides, involving the germanide ion Ge4− and other

**cluster**(Zintl) ions such as ... "Chemical risk**analysis**: a practical handbook. p. 215. ISBN 978-1-903996-65-2. .. ... 3**cluster**, composed of three regular octahedra where each octahedron is connected to both of the others by one face each. All ... 2**cluster**, composed of two regular octahedra connected to each other by one face ...###### Species distribution

In this

**analysis**, it is imperative that data from at least 50 sample plots is considered. The number of individuals present in ... Individuals might be**clustered**together in an area due to social factors such as selfish herds and family groups. Organisms ... However, many researchers believe that species distribution models based on statistical**analysis**, without including ecological ... point pattern**analysis**of the burrows of great gerbils in Kazakhstan". Journal of Biogeography. 42 (7): 1281-1292. doi:10.1111/ ...###### Bengal famine of 1943

Such diseases

**clustered**around the tracks of railways.[54]. Soil and water supplyEdit. The soil profile in Bengal differs ... However, FEE**analyses**do not consider shortage the main factor,[321] while FAD-oriented scholars such as Bowbrick (1986) hold ... More recent**analyses**often stress political factors.[BA] Discussions of the government's role split into two broad camps: those ... Sen, Amartya (1981b). "Ingredients of Famine**Analysis**: Availability and Entitlements". The Quarterly Journal of Economics. 96 ( ...###### T-72 operators and variants

Centre for

**Analysis**of Strategies and Technologies. 2010. p. 19. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 September 2018. ... totaling 22 sensor**clusters**installed at several points on the turret. A new 125/EPpSV-97 APFSDS round was developed for use ...###### Cold fusion

2, pp.85-93 and "Atomic Structure

**Analysis**of Pd Nano-**Cluster**in Nano-Composite Pd⁄ZrO2 Absorbing Deuterium" - Journal of High ... Wilson, R.H.; Bray, J.W.; Kosky, P.G.; Vakil, H.B.; Will, F.G. (1992), "**Analysis**of experiments on the calorimetry of LiOD-D2O ... Cold fusion reports continued to be published in a small**cluster**of specialized journals like Journal of Electroanalytical ... Miskelly, GM; Heben MJ; Kumar A; Penner RM; Sailor MJ; Lewis NL (1989), "**Analysis**of the Published Calorimetric Evidence for ...###### Alpha-1 antitrypsin

There are several

**clusters**, the first being albumin, the second being the alpha, the third beta and the fourth gamma ( ... Kolarich D, Weber A, Turecek PL, Schwarz HP, Altmann F (June 2006). "Comprehensive glyco-proteomic**analysis**of human alpha1- ... Mahr AD, Neogi T, Merkel PA (2006). "Epidemiology of Wegener's granulomatosis: Lessons from descriptive studies and**analyses**of ... and glycoproteomic**analyses**of alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor products used for replacement therapy". Transfusion. 46 (11): 1959 ...###### Ndryshimi mes inspektimeve të "Përdoruesi:Tiimiii/I ftohti i zakonshem"

A re-

**analysis**and review,url=,journal=Breastfeeding Review,language=en,volume=18,issue=2,pages=25-32,pmid=20879657,via=}},/ref ... and Echinacea in Three Main Immune Interactive**Clusters**(Physical Barriers, Innate and Adaptive Immunity) Involved during an ... Sequencing and**Analyses**of All Known Human Rhinovirus Genomes Reveals Structure and Evolution,url=,journal=Science,language=en, ... An Individual Patient Data Meta-**Analysis**,url=,journal=Open Forum Infect Diseases,language=en,volume=4,issue=2,pages=ofx059,doi= ...**Cluster** **Analysis** | Encyclopedia.com

**Cluster**

**Analysis**BIBLIOGRAPHY [1] Quantitative social science [2] often involves measurements of several variables for a number ... of cases (individuals or subjects). Searching for groupings, or

**clusters**, is an important exploratory technique. ... Hierarchical

**cluster**

**analysis**methods form

**clusters**in sequence, either by amalgamation of units into

**clusters**and

**clusters**... John Hartigans

**Clustering**Algorithms (1975) did much to stimulate interest in

**cluster**

**analysis**. Geoff McLachlan and David Peel ...

**Cluster** **Analysis** Based on Bipartite Network

The optimal

**cluster**number can be obtained by the proposal, while partitioning the data into**clusters**by FCM (Fuzzy ,i ,c,/i,- ... The method works by converting the fuzzy**cluster**result into a weighted bipartite network and then the optimal**cluster**number ... However it is difficult to find a set of**clusters**that best fits natural partitions without any class information. In this ... It overcomes the drawback of FCM algorithm which needs to define the**cluster**number ,svg style=vertical-align:-0.1638pt;width: ...###### 5. **Cluster** **Analysis** - R: Data **Analysis** and Visualization [Book]

The objective of the

**clustering**algorithm is to divide the given dataset (a set of points ... - Selection from R: Data**Analysis**...**Cluster****Analysis****Clustering**is defined as an unsupervised classification of a dataset. ...**Clustering**is defined as an unsupervised classification of a dataset. The objective of the**clustering**algorithm is to divide ... R: Data**Analysis**and Visualization by Ágnes Vidovics-Dancs, Kata Váradi, Tamás Vadász, Ágnes Tuza, Balázs Árpád Szucs, Julia ...**Cluster** **Analysis** - Module 3 | Coursera

**Cluster**

**Analysis**. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that supports HTML5 ... A final

**analysis**that wed like to do with these data is whats called a

**cluster**... The middle three

**clusters**, these are kind of one tool

**clusters**, the analyst, ... This is a

**cluster**I wouldnt have known existed. I kind of discovered it over the years when I would do the debrief of students ...

**Cluster** **analysis** - Wikipedia

Hard

**clustering**: each object belongs to a**cluster**or not. *Soft**clustering**(also: fuzzy**clustering**): each object belongs to ... Main category:**Cluster****analysis**algorithms.**Clustering**algorithms can be categorized based on their**cluster**model, as listed ...**Cluster**tendencyEdit. To measure**cluster**tendency is to measure to what degree**clusters**exist in the data to be**clustered**, and ... Overlapping**clustering**(also: alternative**clustering**, multi-view**clustering**): objects may belong to more than one**cluster**; ...**Cluster** **analysis** and display of genome-wide expression patterns | PNAS

...

**cluster**A), the cell cycle (**cluster**B), the immediate-early response (**cluster**C), signaling and angiogenesis (**cluster**D), and ... When the**clustering****analysis**described here is applied to all of the approximately 6,200 genes of S. cerevisiae, the**clusters**...**Cluster****analysis**and display of genome-wide expression patterns. Michael B. Eisen, Paul T. Spellman, Patrick O. Brown, David ...**Cluster****analysis**and display of genome-wide expression patterns. Michael B. Eisen, Paul T. Spellman, Patrick O. Brown, David ...###### Mining Weather Data Using Fuzzy **Cluster** **Analysis** | SpringerLink

Fuzzy

**Cluster**Weather Data Validity Index**Cluster**Validity Index Fuzzy**Cluster****Analysis**These keywords were added by machine ... Liu Z., George R. (2005) Mining Weather Data Using Fuzzy**Cluster****Analysis**. In: Petry F.E., Robinson V.B., Cobb M.A. (eds) Fuzzy ... Forgy, E.,**Cluster****Analysis**of Multivariate Data: Efficiency Versus Interpretability of Classifications. Biometry, 1965. 21(785 ... It introduces an unsupervised fuzzy**clustering**algorithm, based on the fuzzy KMeans and defines a**cluster**validity index which ...**ANALYSIS**: Future turning bright for Montreal's aerospace **cluster**

**ANALYSIS**: Future turning bright for Montreals aerospace

**cluster**.

**ANALYSIS**: Future turning bright for Montreals aerospace ... Montreals aerospace industry

**cluster**has good reason to celebrate. First came Bombardiers recently announced CSeries orders, ...

**ANALYSIS**: Puerto Rico advances effort to establish itself as hub a day ago ... Registration gives you instant free access to FlightGlobals news, in-depth

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###### Algorithm34

- The K -means algorithm assigns each case to the cluster having the nearest centroid. (encyclopedia.com)
- The optimal cluster number can be obtained by the proposal, while partitioning the data into clusters by FCM (Fuzzy c -means) algorithm. (hindawi.com)
- A weighted bipartite network is first constructed by using of membership matrix and centers of each clusters obtained by FCM algorithm. (hindawi.com)
- No matter what, we take crisp partitioning method or fuzzy clustering algorithm to separate data set into groups, the generated partitions may not reflect the desired clustering of the data because of inappropriate choice of algorithmic parameters. (hindawi.com)
- The objective of the clustering algorithm is to divide the given dataset (a set of points or objects) into groups of data instances or objects (or points) with distance or probabilistic measures. (oreilly.com)
- Cluster analysis itself is not one specific algorithm , but the general task to be solved. (wikipedia.org)
- The appropriate clustering algorithm and parameter settings (including parameters such as the distance function to use, a density threshold or the number of expected clusters) depend on the individual data set and intended use of the results. (wikipedia.org)
- for example, the k-means algorithm represents each cluster by a single mean vector. (wikipedia.org)
- clusters are modeled using statistical distributions, such as multivariate normal distributions used by the expectation-maximization algorithm . (wikipedia.org)
- Relaxations of the complete connectivity requirement (a fraction of the edges can be missing) are known as quasi-cliques, as in the HCS clustering algorithm . (wikipedia.org)
- It proposes the extension of the fuzzy K-Means clustering algorithm to account for the spatio-temporal nature of weather data. (springer.com)
- It introduces an unsupervised fuzzy clustering algorithm, based on the fuzzy KMeans and defines a cluster validity index which is used to determine an optimal number of clusters. (springer.com)
- A New Shared Nearest Neighbor Clustering Algorithm and Its Applications. (springer.com)
- What the algorithm does is finds the cluster (centroid) positions that minimize the distances to all points in the cluster. (oreilly.com)
- On Spectral Clustering: Analysis and an Algorithm - Ng, Jordan, et al. (psu.edu)
- 7] present a min-max cut algorithm for graph partitioning and data clustering. (psu.edu)
- 8]-=- present a clustering algorithm based on KMeans after the spectral relaxation. (psu.edu)
- This method uses a cluster algorithm to identify groupings by performing pre-clustering first, and then performing hierarchical methods. (surveygizmo.com)
- Implement K-means clustering algorithm using OpenMP and apply it to the clustering of the medical data. (guru.com)
- Hierarchical clustering, which groups states on the basis of their mutual similarities, is a top-down approach in which all states are initially included in the same cluster, and the algorithm splits the states based on differences down the hierarchy. (cdc.gov)
- The algorithm ends when each state is in its own cluster. (cdc.gov)
- Selection of a clustering algorithm, to ensure relevant and strong correlations between datasets. (computerweekly.com)
- Deciding heuristics for the clustering algorithm, to pinpoint and group "malicious" Internet traffic. (computerweekly.com)
- The clustering algorithm then classifies traffic, after which heuristics are applied. (computerweekly.com)
- ACDC: An Algorithm for Comprehension-Driven Clustering. (program-transformation.org)
- Intensity and seasonality of cyclones, though not used by the clustering algorithm, are both highly stratified from cluster to cluster. (columbia.edu)
- We present an algorithm for quantum-assisted cluster analysis that makes use of the topological properties of a D-Wave 2000Q quantum processing unit. (frontiersin.org)
- We explain how the problem can be expressed as a quadratic unconstrained binary optimization problem and show that the introduced quantum-assisted clustering algorithm is, regarding accuracy, equivalent to commonly used classical clustering algorithms. (frontiersin.org)
- Our first and foremost aim is to explain how to represent and solve parts of these problems with the help of the QPU, and not to prove supremacy over every existing classical clustering algorithm. (frontiersin.org)
- The introduced quantum-assisted clustering algorithm falls into that category, as it utilizes the topological properties of the chip for assigning clusters. (frontiersin.org)
- We propose a K-mean based algorithm in which gene expression levels fluctuate in parallel will be clustered together. (spie.org)
- Under the assumption that the views are uncorrelated given the cluster label, we show that the separation conditions required for the algorithm to be successful are significantly weaker than prior results in the literature. (videolectures.net)
- The output of this algorithm is a flat structure of clusters. (igi-global.com)
- The following algorithm is an agglomerative scheme that erases rows and columns in a proximity matrix as old clusters are merged into new ones. (wikipedia.org)

###### Algorithms21

- There are two broad types of clustering algorithms: hierarchical clustering and nonhierarchical clustering (partitioning). (encyclopedia.com)
- In past decades, a number of clustering algorithms have been proposed, attempting to classify the given data set into groups by using different similarities. (hindawi.com)
- Generally, these algorithms can be classified into three cases: hard (crisp) cluster, soft (fuzzy) cluster, and possibilistic clustering [ 1 - 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
- However, these algorithms require the user to specify the number , of clusters which the user does not usually know in advance or may not want to specify. (hindawi.com)
- It can be achieved by various algorithms that differ significantly in their notion of what constitutes a cluster and how to efficiently find them. (wikipedia.org)
- The notion of a "cluster" cannot be precisely defined, which is one of the reasons why there are so many clustering algorithms. (wikipedia.org)
- However, different researchers employ different cluster models, and for each of these cluster models again different algorithms can be given. (wikipedia.org)
- The notion of a cluster, as found by different algorithms, varies significantly in its properties. (wikipedia.org)
- Understanding these "cluster models" is key to understanding the differences between the various algorithms. (wikipedia.org)
- A system of cluster analysis for genome-wide expression data from DNA microarray hybridization is described that uses standard statistical algorithms to arrange genes according to similarity in pattern of gene expression. (pnas.org)
- Discover the basic concepts of cluster analysis, and then study a set of typical clustering methodologies, algorithms, and applications. (coursera.org)
- Robust Cluster Analysis and Variable Selection includes all of the important theoretical details, and covers the key probabilistic models, robustness issues, optimization algorithms, validation techniques, and variable selection methods. (routledge.com)
- This provides you with guidance in how to use clustering methods as well as applicable procedures and algorithms without having to understand their probabilistic fundamentals. (routledge.com)
- Using clustering algorithms in LegacySystems remodularization. (program-transformation.org)
- Unfortunately, there has been no rigorous experimentation or evaluation of fuzzy hashing algorithms for malware similarity analysis in the research literature. (usenix.org)
- In this paper, we perform extensive study of existing fuzzy hashing algorithms with the goal of understanding their applicability in clustering similar malware. (usenix.org)
- Our experiments indicate that current popular fuzzy hashing algorithms suffer from serious limitations that preclude them from being used in similarity analysis. (usenix.org)
- Traditional web pages clustering typically uses only the page content (usually the page text) in an appropriate feature vector representation such as bags of words, term frequency/inverse document frequency, etc. and then applies standard clustering algorithms(e.g. k-means, suffix tree, query directed clustering). (techrepublic.com)
- A number of efficient clustering algorithms developed in recent years address this problem by projecting the data into a lower dimensional subspace, e.g. via Principal Components Analysis (PCA) or random projections, before clustering. (videolectures.net)
- There are two major categories of clustering algorithms with respect to the output structure: partitional and hierarchical (Romesburg, 1990). (igi-global.com)
- Hierarchical clustering algorithms produce a hierarchical structure often presented graphically as a dendrogram. (igi-global.com)

###### Methods33

- It is not the purpose of this paper to survey the various methods available to cluster genes on the basis of their expression patterns, but rather to illustrate how such methods can be useful to biologists in the analysis of gene expression data. (pnas.org)
- Clustering methods can be divided into two general classes, designated supervised and unsupervised clustering ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
- Although various clustering methods can usefully organize tables of gene expression measurements, the resulting ordered but still massive collection of numbers remains difficult to assimilate. (pnas.org)
- MacQueen, J.B. Some Methods for Classification and Analysis of Multivariate Observations. (springer.com)
- deGruijter, J.J. and A.B. McBratney, A Modified Fuzzy K Means for Predictive Classification, in Classification and Related Methods of Data Analysis, H.H. Bock, Editor. (springer.com)
- Moreover, learn methods for clustering validation and evaluation of clustering quality. (coursera.org)
- We present some methods for (multivariate) visualisation of cluster analysis results and cluster validation results. (springer.com)
- The author focuses on the robust clustering methods he found to be the most useful on simulated data and real-time applications. (routledge.com)
- Cluster analysis differs from many other statistical methods due to the fact that it's mostly used when researchers do not have an assumed principle or fact that they are using as the foundation of their research. (surveygizmo.com)
- Two-step clustering is best for handling larger datasets that would otherwise take too long a time to calculate with strictly hierarchical methods. (surveygizmo.com)
- The clustering methods have to assume some cluster relationship among the data objects that they are applies on. (techrepublic.com)
- In this paper, the authors introduce a novel multi viewpoint based similarity measure and two related clustering methods. (techrepublic.com)
- Most clustering done in practice is based largely on heuristic but intuitively reasonable procedures and most clustering methods available in commercial software are also of this type. (psu.edu)
- However, there is little systematic guidance associated with these methods for solving important practical questions that arise in cluster analysis, such as \How many clusters are there? (psu.edu)
- Methods of cluster analysis, classification and multivariate graphics can be used in order to extract hidden knowledge from huge data sets containing numerical and non-numerical information. (wias-berlin.de)
- In case of big data, the methods based on clustering of cores (representative points, mean vectors) can be recommended. (wias-berlin.de)
- Partitioning methods start with an initial (random) partition and proceed by exchanging observations between clusters. (wias-berlin.de)
- The objective of this paper is to address this limitation, by proposing a novel methodological approach in the evaluation of CDPs based on the application of concepts and methods of social network analysis (SNA). (repec.org)
- Plus it can actually output a single cluster if that's what the data tell you - some of the methods in @Ben's excellent answers won't help you determine whether k=1 is actually best. (stackoverflow.com)
- The wikipedia article on determining numbers of clusters has a good review of some of these methods. (stackoverflow.com)
- In particular this allows the checking of the differences and agreements between different methods of analysis. (nih.gov)
- Both approaches are illustrated on a fMRI data set involving visual stimulation, and we show that the feature space clustering approach yields nontrivial results and, in particular, shows interesting differences between individual voxel analysis performed with traditional methods. (nih.gov)
- The book also presents the latest clustering methods and clustering validation, thereby offering the reader a comprehensive review of clustering analysis in bioinformatics from the fundamentals through to state-of-the-art techniques and applications. (researchandmarkets.com)
- Although the research considered herein has created a meaningful body of literature, refining both the factor and cluster analysis methods will help to further establish eating patterns as a sound dietary assessment method. (nih.gov)
- However, statistical methods for the analysis of binary data arising from such designs are not well developed. (nih.gov)
- Cluster seed selection methods. (sas.com)
- Reaching across disciplines, Aldenderfer and Blashfield pull together the newest information on cluster analysis--providing the reader with a pragmatic guide to its current uses, statistical techniques, validation methods, and compatible software programs. (booktopia.com.au)
- In agglomerative methods of hierarchical cluster analysis , the clusters obtained at the previous step are fused into larger clusters. (statistics.com)
- Agglomerative methods start with N clusters comprising a single object, then on each step two clusters from the previous step are fused into a bigger cluster. (statistics.com)
- This course will teach you how to use various cluster analysis methods to identify possible clusters in multivariate data. (statistics.com)
- Methods discussed include hierarchical clustering, k-means clustering, two-step clustering, and normal mixture models for continuous variables. (statistics.com)
- In statistics, single-linkage clustering is one of several methods of hierarchical clustering. (wikipedia.org)
- The function used to determine the distance between two clusters, known as the linkage function, is what differentiates the agglomerative clustering methods. (wikipedia.org)

###### KMeans2

- how can I determine how many clusters are appropriate for a kmeans analysis of my data? (stackoverflow.com)
- See http://www.statmethods.net/advstats/cluster.html & http://www.mattpeeples.net/kmeans.html for more. (stackoverflow.com)

###### Dataset7

- An alternative to starting with an initial clustering is to start with an initialization of the centroids - for example, as the first K cases in the dataset or as K cases randomly chosen from it. (encyclopedia.com)
- Clustering is defined as an unsupervised classification of a dataset. (oreilly.com)
- The data cleaning process When working with a real dataset we need to take into account the fact that some data might be missing or corrupted, therefore we need to prepare the dataset for our analysis. (pearltrees.com)
- Cluster analysis, or clustering, is a core unsupervised learning technique that attempts to group the data points in a dataset into groups, or clusters, such that data points in the same cluster are similar to one another while being sufficiently different from data points in another cluster. (zenoss.com)
- The best-track 1950-2002 dataset is described by seven distinct clusters. (columbia.edu)
- The objective of conducting a cluster analysis is to discover if members of the dataset can be classified as pertaining to one of a small number of types. (thefreelibrary.com)
- In order to facilitate user understanding, we use the provided example dataset to illustrate the standard analysis work-flow of PASCCA. (github.com)

###### Similarity4

- The major difference between a traditional dissimilarity/similarity measure and that the former uses only a single viewpoint which is the origin while the latter utilizes many different viewpoints which are objects assumed to not be in the same cluster with the two objects being measures. (techrepublic.com)
- The objects in one cluster are more related and have high similarity when compared to the objects that are in other cluster. (bartleby.com)
- Find clusters of DNA sequences based on their global similarity to two reference sequences. (wolfram.com)
- If the sequences are of vastly different lengths, the clustering procedure will group them in different clusters, even if they share a region of high sequence similarity. (rcsb.org)

###### Unsupervised classification1

- Clustering is the unsupervised classification of data points into groups or clusters, such that samples in the same group are similar to each other, while patterns in different groups are dissimilar. (hindawi.com)

###### Statistical14

- The municipality of Eindhoven and CBS have jointly conducted a statistical cluster analysis on all Eindhoven residents aged 16 and over. (cbs.nl)
- The report provides a comprehensive statistical description of the individual clusters and shows their mutual connection as well as an overall picture. (cbs.nl)
- You'll also explore statistical analysis examining the relative effectiveness of soft, hard, and smart power strategies. (coursera.org)
- It is a main task of exploratory data mining , and a common technique for statistical data analysis , used in many fields, including machine learning , pattern recognition , image analysis , information retrieval , bioinformatics , data compression , and computer graphics . (wikipedia.org)
- Popular notions of clusters include groups with small distances between cluster members, dense areas of the data space, intervals or particular statistical distributions . (wikipedia.org)
- The LOVE clustering approach is a rigorous, adaptable, and scalable latent model-based statistical method that can be used in basic science or medical research to identify potentially significant biological or functional pathways. (pcrm.org)
- Cluster analysis is a statistical method used to group similar objects into respective categories. (surveygizmo.com)
- We outline a general methodology for model-based clustering that provides a principled statistical approach to these issues. (psu.edu)
- When the clusters are relatively homogeneous (that is, the intra-cluster correlation is small), parallel studies tend to deliver better statistical performance than a stepped wedge trial. (bmj.com)
- To identify differences between states, we implemented hierarchical cluster analysis (8-10) using the hclust function in R version 3.2.5 (free statistical computing software) with Euclidean distance as the distance measure and included the adjusted unhealthy behaviors and the prevention and outcome prevalence measures. (cdc.gov)
- I sometimes find K-means clustering tough to explain as a statistical technique, but this makes for a great example: if you're a fielder facing Ichiro, it might be a good idea to keep an eye on those six spots when he hits. (smartdatacollective.com)
- This paper presents a procedure for clustering analysis that combines Kohone's Self organizing Feature Map (SOFM) and statistical schemes. (repec.org)
- The procedure outperformed others clustering techniques in the job of identifying consistent groups of countries from the economic and statistical viewpoints. (repec.org)
- Although clustering--the classifying of objects into meaningful sets--is an important procedure, cluster analysis as a multivariate statistical procedure is poorly understood. (booktopia.com.au)

###### Larger clusters2

- Agglomerative clustering starts with each case as a unique cluster, and with each step combines cases to form larger clusters until there is only one or a few larger clusters. (encyclopedia.com)
- The clusters are then sequentially combined into larger clusters, until all elements end up being in the same cluster. (wikipedia.org)

###### Mixture Model Clustering1

- Smyth, P., K. Ide, and M. Ghil, Multiple Regimes in Nothern Hemisphere Height Fields Via Mixture Model Clustering. (springer.com)

###### Methodology5

- Growth in both the theory and applications of this clustering methodology has been steady since its inception. (scholarpedia.org)
- The research methodology used to estimate and forecast the instrument cluster market begins with capturing data on key vendor revenues through secondary research. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- Based on this novel methodology, we argue that verb cluster ordering in Dutch dialects can be reduced to three grammatical parameters (largely similar to the ones described in Barbiers et al. (jhu.edu)
- It develops a methodology for clustering a large number of developing countries, identifying and ranking their welfare regimes, assessing their stability over the decade 1990-2000, and relating these to important structural variables. (bath.ac.uk)
- In this paper , Italian school buildings' stock was analyzed by cluster analysis with the aim of providing a methodology able to identify the best energy retrofit interventions from the perspective of cost-benefit , and to correlate them with the specific characteristics of the educational buildings. (buildup.eu)

###### Approaches5

- Hierarchical clustering follows one of two approaches. (encyclopedia.com)
- While there are no best solutions for the problem of determining the number of clusters to extract, several approaches are given below. (pearltrees.com)
- Clustering functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series has emerged in recent years as a possible alternative to parametric modeling approaches. (nih.gov)
- These are the two basic approaches used in cluster analysis. (outsource2india.com)
- Apply various approaches to clustering, including K-Means and Kohonen/SOM networks. (sas.com)

###### Visualization8

- Cluscorr98 for Excel 2007: Clustering, multivariate visualization, and validation. (springer.com)
- This document demonstrates, on several famous data sets, how the dendextend R package can be used to enhance Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (through better visualization and sensitivity analysis). (r-project.org)
- Appro ( http://www.appro.com ), a leading provider of supercomputing solutions, today announces the deployment of Appro HyperPower™ Clusters, based on the Appro CPU/GPU GreenBlade System to provide Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Computing Center with a new visualization cluster called "Edge" geared to support data analysis and visualization projects. (prweb.com)
- Post-processing tasks are heavily I/O bound, so specialized visualization servers that optimize I/O rather than CPU speed are better suited for this work, which will be now enabled through the "Edge" cluster. (prweb.com)
- The inclusion of GPU boards provides a critical technology for the increasingly complicated visualization and data analysis applications needed to support petascale simulations and beyond," said Bert Still, Exascale Computing Research Project Leader for LLNL. (prweb.com)
- Appro is proud to be able to provide Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory with a powerful GPU cluster for its visualization and exascale software development computing projects," said John Lee, VP of Advanced Technology Solutions for Appro. (prweb.com)
- This cluster solution demonstrates Appro's continued growth for hybrid computing deployments requiring higher memory for I/O bandwidth needed for efficient data analysis and complex visualization tasks. (prweb.com)
- available complete software platform for comprehensive and integrated analysis and visualization of large proteomics datasets. (bestsoftware4download.com)

###### Patterns12

- Clustering allows researchers to identify and define patterns between data elements. (surveygizmo.com)
- We can distinguish and sparse regions in object space by automated clustering and from that we can find general interesting correlations and overall distribution patterns among data attributes. (bartleby.com)
- In business, clustering can offer marketers some assistance with discovering distinct groups in their client bases and portray client groups taking into account the purchasing patterns. (bartleby.com)
- Liu SH, Li Y, Liu B. Exploratory Cluster Analysis to Identify Patterns of Chronic Kidney Disease in the 500 Cities Project. (cdc.gov)
- We used cluster analysis to explore patterns of chronic kidney disease in 500 of the largest US cities. (cdc.gov)
- To circumvent the difficult problem of model selection, we used a data-driven analytic tool, cluster analysis, which extracts representative temporal and spatial patterns from the voxel-time series. (dtu.dk)
- Empirically derived eating patterns using factor or cluster analysis: a review. (nih.gov)
- This paper reviews studies performed to date that have employed cluster or factor analysis to empirically derive eating patterns. (nih.gov)
- Since 1980, at least 93 studies were published that used cluster or factor analysis to define dietary exposures, of which 65 were used to test hypotheses or examine associations between patterns and disease outcomes or biomarkers. (nih.gov)
- Studies were conducted in diverse populations across many countries and continents and suggest that patterns are associated with many different biomarkers and disease outcomes, whether measured by cluster or factor analysis. (nih.gov)
- Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated distinct patterns of vestibular end-organ impairment, showing that the results for the same end-organs on both sides are more similar than to other end-organs. (frontiersin.org)
- Hierarchical cluster analysis may help differentiate characteristic patterns of BVL. (frontiersin.org)

###### Sequences7

- The cluster analysis is conducted with the aim of assigning data points (sequences) into reasonably homogenous groups (clusters). (thefreelibrary.com)
- This study aimed to develop a novel, practical sequencing protocol that covered both conserved and variable regions of the viral genome and assess the influence of each subregion, sequence concatenation and unrelated reference sequences on phylogenetic clustering analysis. (plos.org)
- NS5B concatenation, the inclusion of reference sequences and removal of HVR1 all influenced clustering outcome. (plos.org)
- Seven HCV genotypes (1 to 7) with approximately 100 sub-types (1a, 1b, etc.) have been identified on the basis of molecular phylogenetic analyses of HCV sequences [ 4 ]. (plos.org)
- D2_cluster: A Validated Method for Clustering EST and Full-length cDNA Sequences' John Burke, Dan Davison, and Winston Hide. (bio.net)
- BACKGROUND: A computational system for analysis of the repetitive structure of genomic sequences is described. (jcvi.org)
- The associated software (RepeatFinder), should prove helpful in the analysis of repeat structure for both complete and partial genome sequences. (jcvi.org)

###### Method25

- Joe Ward ' s method (1963) is based on the sum of squares between the two clusters, summed over all variables. (encyclopedia.com)
- The centroid method is based on the distance between cluster centroids. (encyclopedia.com)
- If the within-cluster type of distribution is specified (such as multivariate normal), then the method of maximum likelihood can be used to estimate the parameters. (encyclopedia.com)
- In this paper, a method for detecting the optimal cluster number is proposed. (hindawi.com)
- The method works by converting the fuzzy cluster result into a weighted bipartite network and then the optimal cluster number can be detected by the improved bipartite modularity. (hindawi.com)
- This is the most common method of clustering. (surveygizmo.com)
- This method is used to quickly cluster large datasets. (surveygizmo.com)
- Which clustering method should be used? (psu.edu)
- scale(mydata) # standardize variables Partitioning K-means clustering is the most popular partitioning method. (pearltrees.com)
- The optimal number of clusters was chosen using a cross-validated likelihood method, which highlights the clustering pattern that generalizes best over the subjects. (dtu.dk)
- The rows are ordered based on the order of the hierarchical clustering (using the "complete" method). (r-project.org)
- In this contribution we investigate the applicability of a clustering method applied to features extracted from the data. (nih.gov)
- In the first method, objects/respondents are segmented into a pre-decided number of clusters. (outsource2india.com)
- In this case, a method called non-hierarchical or k-means clustering can be used, which will partition the data into the specified number of clusters. (outsource2india.com)
- Healthy beagle dogs under fasting conditions were used for in vivo studies and plasma samples were analyzed by a fluorescence polarization immunoassay analysis (FPIA method). (biomedsearch.com)
- We adopted the widely-used clustering method, hierarchical clustering, to cluster genes, which was implemented by the R function using "hclust" default parameters. (github.com)
- heatmap.2, as default uses euclidean measure to obtain distance matrix and complete agglomeration method for clustering, while heatplot uses correlation , and average agglomeration method, respectively. (stackoverflow.com)
- The Core-E2 region, which represented the highest genetic diversity and longest sequence length in this study, provides an ideal method for clustering analysis to address a range of molecular epidemiological questions. (plos.org)
- CONCLUSIONS: We propose a new clustering method for analysis of the repeat data captured in suffix trees. (jcvi.org)
- The agglomerative method uses a bottom-up approach, i.e., starts with the individual objects, each considered to be in its own cluster, and then merges the clusters until the desired number of clusters is achieved. (igi-global.com)
- Analysts use this method implicitly when viewing data graphically to identify clusters or other structure in data visually. (salford-systems.com)
- In the first analytical step (based on the single-linkage method) companies are shown to mostly gather into a main cluster, although with the presence of several isolated outlier companies. (francoangeli.it)
- The second step (based on Ward's method) proposes a more detailed analysis resulting in 4 clusters during the specified period. (francoangeli.it)
- A drawback of this method is that it tends to produce long thin clusters in which nearby elements of the same cluster have small distances, but elements at opposite ends of a cluster may be much farther from each other than two elements of other clusters. (wikipedia.org)
- The method is also known as nearest neighbour clustering. (wikipedia.org)

###### Hierarchical Clustering9

- It is sometimes suggested that researchers start with hierarchical clustering to generate initial centroids, and then use nonhierarchical clustering. (encyclopedia.com)
- for example, hierarchical clustering builds models based on distance connectivity. (wikipedia.org)
- Automatic validation of hierarchical clustering. (springer.com)
- On validation of hierarchical clustering. (springer.com)
- Hierarchical clustering can group variables together in a manner similar to factor analysis . (surveygizmo.com)
- From data to distances and then finally to results of (hierarchical) clustering. (wias-berlin.de)
- So, hierarchical clustering of millions of observations is possible. (wias-berlin.de)
- Typical cluster models include: Connectivity models: for example, hierarchical clustering builds models based on distance connectivity. (wikipedia.org)
- SAS code for hierarchical clustering. (sas.com)

###### Datasets2

- In this study, LOVE generates meaningful clusters from datasets spanning from a large range of biological areas and is used to identify and accurately quantify similarities and differences in the data. (pcrm.org)
- Clustering techniques are increasingly being put to use in the analysis of high-throughput biological datasets. (researchandmarkets.com)

###### Distances3

- This can be done by forming all pairs of objects, with one object in one cluster and one in the other, and computing the distances between the members of these pairs. (encyclopedia.com)
- Without loss of generality, we focus on visualisation of clustering based on pairwise distances. (springer.com)
- The shortest of these pairwise distances that remain at any step causes the two clusters whose elements are involved to be merged. (wikipedia.org)

###### Vectors5

- In supervised clustering, vectors are classified with respect to known reference vectors. (pnas.org)
- In unsupervised clustering, no predefined reference vectors are used. (pnas.org)
- The problem of clustering multivariate observations is viewed as the replacement of a set of vectors with a set of labels and representative vectors. (bell-labs.com)
- Fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering processes \(n\) vectors in \(p\)-space as data input, and uses them, in conjunction with first order necessary conditions for minimizing the FCM objective functional, to obtain estimates for two sets of unknowns. (scholarpedia.org)
- The other set of unknowns in the original FCM model is a set of \(c\) cluster centers or prototypes, arrayed as the \(c\) columns of a \(p\times c\) matrix \(V\ .\) These prototypes are vectors (points) in the input space of \(p\)-tuples. (scholarpedia.org)

###### Groupings4

- Searching for groupings, or clusters , is an important exploratory technique. (encyclopedia.com)
- Cluster analysis is an exploratory tool designed to reveal natural groupings within a large group of observations, segmenting the survey sample - respondents or companies - into a small number of groups. (b2binternational.com)
- Cluster analysis can suggest, based on complex input, groupings that would not otherwise be apparent, such as the needs of specific groupings or segments in the market. (b2binternational.com)
- We cannot promise that we can find clusters or groupings in data that you will find useful. (salford-systems.com)

###### Genes7

- We have found in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that clustering gene expression data groups together efficiently genes of known similar function, and we find a similar tendency in human data. (pnas.org)
- Typically, it's good to conduct some data filtering prior to the analysis: This could include removing spots that are outside of the tissue or removing spots or genes that have a low number of reads. (bioconductor.org)
- The package PASCCA is an easy-to-use R package for analyses of APA related gene expression, including the characterization of poly(A) sites, quantification of association between genes with/without repeated measurements, clustering of APA-related genes to infer significant APA specific gene modules, and the evaluation of clustering performance with a variety of indexes. (github.com)
- The resulting cluster suggests some functional relationships between genes, and some known genes belongs to a unique functional classes shall provide indication for unknown genes in the same clusters. (spie.org)
- We describe a core gene cluster, comprised of eight genes (designated CTB1-8 ), and associated with cercosporin toxin production in Cercospora nicotianae . (wiley.com)
- Sequence analysis identified 10 putative open reading frames (ORFs) flanking the previously characterized CTB1 and CTB3 genes that encode, respectively, the polyketide synthase and a dual methyltransferase/monooxygenase required for cercosporin production. (wiley.com)
- Disruption of the CTB2 gene encoding a methyltransferase or the CTB8 gene yielded mutants that were completely defective in cercosporin production and inhibitory expression of the other CTB cluster genes. (wiley.com)

###### Groups22

- A criterion such as between-groups sum of squares or likelihood can be plotted against the number of clusters in a scree plot . (encyclopedia.com)
- Cluster analysis or clustering is the task of grouping a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group (called a cluster ) are more similar (in some sense) to each other than to those in other groups (clusters). (wikipedia.org)
- To be precise, in the first stage I need to create clusters on the basis of a set of variables, s1, and in the second stage I need to create clusters, within the groups formed in the first stage, using a different set of variables, s2. (stata.com)
- The goal of performing a cluster analysis is to sort different objects or data points into groups in a manner that the degree of association between two objects is high if they belong to the same group, and low if they belong to different groups. (surveygizmo.com)
- For example, when cluster analysis is performed as part of market research , specific groups can be identified within a population. (surveygizmo.com)
- The analysis of these groups can then determine how likely a population cluster is to purchase products or services. (surveygizmo.com)
- If these groups are defined clearly, a marketing team can then target varying cluster with tailored, targeted communication. (surveygizmo.com)
- Clustering or Cluster analysis is defined as the process of organizing objects into groups whose members are similar in some way. (bartleby.com)
- Clustering can be utilized to organize the query results in groups and present the outcomes in a concise and effectively available way. (bartleby.com)
- Cluster analysis is the automated search for groups of related observations in a data set. (psu.edu)
- The analyst groups objects so that objects in the same group (called a cluster) are more similar to each other than to objects in other groups (clusters) in some way. (wikipedia.org)
- Cluster Randomised Controlled Trials (cRCTs) are trials which randomise groups of patients rather than individual patients. (sheffield.ac.uk)
- Finding Groups in Data: An Introduction to ClusterAnalysis . (program-transformation.org)
- Value cluster analysis is a research technique that is used for classifying objects into groups. (outsource2india.com)
- The result of value cluster analysis is a grouping of the data into groups called clusters. (outsource2india.com)
- Clustering is a form of unsupervised machine learning, where instances are organized into groups whose members share similarities. (frontiersin.org)
- A more significant clustering is one which groups distinct combinations into separate clusters. (bookdepository.com)
- Kaleidoscope Pro detects similar vocalizations and quickly sorts them into groups to streamline your analysis. (wildlifeacoustics.com)
- Kaleidoscope Pro automatically scans your recordings and pulls out distinct sounds and phrases, such as frog calls or bird songs, and groups them into clusters. (wildlifeacoustics.com)
- Cluster analysis is a systematic quantitative technique used to discover groups in data (Kaufman & Rousseeuw 1990). (yogamag.net)
- Firstly, segmentations lie at the core of many submissions to IJMR, but simply because a cluster analysis has produced a number of discrete groups of consumers, that does not mean it provides a valid interpretation of the market. (mrs.org.uk)
- Secondly, segmentations need to facilitate action, but often the clusters are somewhat meaningless if it is not possible to use the output in a practical way, for example, to develop a marketing strategy that can communicate differentiated messages to the target groups. (mrs.org.uk)

###### Discriminant Analysis1

- We also show that this can be useful for other problems in multivariate analysis, such as discriminant analysis and multivariate density estimation. (psu.edu)

###### Homogeneous2

- Windows and/or Unix-like systems to a homogeneous, load-releasing cluster . (bestsoftware4download.com)
- The refurbished buildings were classified in homogeneous clusters and, for each of them, the most representative building was identified. (buildup.eu)

###### Demographic6

- consumers are clustered according to psychographic, demographic, and purchasing behavior variables. (encyclopedia.com)
- Through close collaboration and an iterative process, a division was made into nine clusters of residentsbased on 25 demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. (cbs.nl)
- Cluster analysis of 500 US cities, summarized at the state level, plus Washington, DC, based on kidney disease-related factors (unhealthy behaviors, prevention measures, and outcomes related to CKD) and adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics. (cdc.gov)
- We used the regression residuals for each measure (hereafter "adjusted prevalence measures") in the subsequent cluster analysis, as they indicate the portion of variability that cannot be explained by the socio-demographic characteristics. (cdc.gov)
- An example of its use can be clustering similar locations across the USA based on various demographic characteristics like average income, number of Housing Starts (an economic indicator that tracks the number of new single-family homes or buildings that were constructed throughout the month), the number of people in an age group or income group, the number of sports goods shops, etc. (outsource2india.com)
- Demographic clusters. (sas.com)

###### Neighboring nodes1

- Detection of BotNets starts with monitoring the Internet traffic, followed by analysis and clustering of the data to compare it with the neighboring nodes to determine a bot-infection (Fig. 2). (computerweekly.com)

###### DBSCAN1

- for example, DBSCAN and OPTICS defines clusters as connected dense regions in the data space. (wikipedia.org)

###### Fuzzy Cluster Analysis2

- Liu Z., George R. (2005) Mining Weather Data Using Fuzzy Cluster Analysis. (springer.com)
- Fuzzy Cluster Analysis. (scholarpedia.org)

###### Define2

- Here, researchers define the number of clusters prior to performing the actual study. (surveygizmo.com)
- Ideally, the mean values of the variables used to form the clusters should also be used to define them. (outsource2india.com)

###### Results16

- Morales-Merino C. (2013) Visualisation of Cluster Analysis Results. (springer.com)
- In Robust Cluster Analysis and Variable Selection , Gunter Ritter presents an overview of the theory and applications of probabilistic clustering and variable selection, synthesizing the key research results of the last 50 years. (routledge.com)
- The results from cluster analysis show practice-related activity in a fronto-parieto-cerebellar network, in agreement with previous studies of motor learning. (dtu.dk)
- as.numeric(which.max(fit$results[2,])) cat("Calinski criterion optimal number of clusters:", calinski.best, "\n") # 5 clusters! (stackoverflow.com)
- Researchers can then analyze the clusters for their characteristics and give the clusters appropriate names based on the results. (outsource2india.com)
- How are the Results of Cluster Analysis Interpreted? (outsource2india.com)
- Kaleidoscope Pro presents the cluster or classifier results, along with other metadata such as timestamps, temperature, etc., in a table that is easily exported into Excel and other applications for pivot table and chart creation. (wildlifeacoustics.com)
- The weaker "clusterability axiom" (no cycle has exactly one negative edge) yields results with more than two clusters, or subgraphs with only positive edges. (wikipedia.org)
- The appropriate results depend on the analysis but I'm trying to understand why the defaults are so different, and how to get both functions to give the same result (or highly similar result) so that I understand all the 'blackbox' parameters that go into this. (stackoverflow.com)
- Pairwise distance, genetic distance and bootstrap support were computed to assess the impact of HCV region on clustering results as measured by the identification and percentage of participants falling within all clusters, cluster size, average patristic distance, and bootstrap value. (plos.org)
- Our results demonstrated that the genomic region of HCV analysed influenced phylogenetic tree topology and clustering results. (plos.org)
- Projection or mapping of analysis results into a biological context. (scribd.com)
- We provide a quantitative analysis of word-order variation in verb clusters in 185 dialects of Dutch and map the results of that analysis against linguistic parameters extracted from the theoretical literature on verb clusters. (jhu.edu)
- Dendrograms of the cluster analysis results are drawn automatically. (bestsoftware4download.com)
- Clustering results are inconsistent. (sas.com)
- Furthermore, we use these results to contrast clustering with concept analysis techniques. (program-transformation.org)

###### Criterion2

- A general criterion for clustering is derived as a measure of representation error. (bell-labs.com)
- Calinsky criterion: Another approach to diagnosing how many clusters suit the data. (stackoverflow.com)

###### Correlations1

- However, if substantial cluster-level effects are present (that is, larger intra-cluster correlations) or the clusters are large, the stepped wedge design will be more powerful than a parallel design, even one in which the intervention is preceded by a period of baseline control observations. (bmj.com)

###### Observations4

- What is needed instead is a holistic approach to analysis of genomic data that focuses on illuminating order in the entire set of observations, allowing biologists to develop an integrated understanding of the process being studied. (pnas.org)
- Here n k denotes the number of observations of the k th cluster. (wias-berlin.de)
- Data collection continues throughout the study, so that each cluster contributes observations under both control and intervention observation periods. (bmj.com)
- We compare the resulting weak lensing mass profile and total mass estimate to those obtained from our re-analysis of XMM-Newton observations, derived under the hypothesis of hydrostatic equilibrium. (uio.no)

###### Centroid2

- The mean profile of a cluster is the centroid , the set of means of the variables, for the individuals in that cluster. (encyclopedia.com)
- The process begins by partitioning the cases into K initial clusters and assigning each case to the cluster whose centroid is nearest. (encyclopedia.com)

###### Probabilistic1

- A new probabilistic clustering technique, based on a regression mixture model, is used to describe tropical cyclone trajectories in the western North Pacific. (columbia.edu)

###### Identify2

- In the case of Image Recognition the concept of clustering can be applied to identify the clusters in handwritten character recognition systems. (bartleby.com)
- Model-based Gaussian clustering allows to identify clusters of quite different shapes, see the application to ecology in Figure 2. (wias-berlin.de)

###### Techniques8

- This analysis technique is typically performed during the exploratory phase of research, since unlike techniques such as factor analysis , it doesn't make any distinction between dependent and independent variables. (surveygizmo.com)
- Several techniques exist for analysing the data from such studies, but the essence of them is that the experimental unit (district or general practitioner) is the unit of analysis. (bmj.com)
- Clustering techniques based on cores (representative points) are appropriate tools for data mining of large data sets. (wias-berlin.de)
- Simulation studies were carried out in order to compare core-based clustering techniques with well-known model-based ones. (wias-berlin.de)
- This is because the clustering techniques use a distance measure to find the closest objects to group into a cluster. (outsource2india.com)
- We acquire data of terrorist events from reliable online sources, and apply data pre-processing techniques followed by cluster analysis. (bookdepository.com)
- Web mining techniques such as clustering help to organize the web content into appropriate subject based categories so that their efficient search and retrieval becomes manageable. (techrepublic.com)
- Advanced techniques for metabolomic data analysis. (scribd.com)

###### Heatmap1

- differences in heatmap/clustering defaults in R (heatplot versus heatmap.2)? (stackoverflow.com)

###### Graphically1

- The output is displayed graphically, conveying the clustering and the underlying expression data simultaneously in a form intuitive for biologists. (pnas.org)

###### Determine3

- The main task in the cluster analysis is to determine how many clusters are to be used (Cattrell, 1998). (thefreelibrary.com)
- Determine the number of clusters present in data. (sas.com)
- Determine which variables should be used in clustering. (sas.com)

###### Data Mining5

- Clustering data has a wide range of applications and has attracted considerable attention in data mining and artificial intelligence. (hindawi.com)
- in Workshop on Clustering High Dimensional Data and its Applications, SIAM Data Mining. (springer.com)
- Data mining in telecommunications: case study of cluster analysis. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Clustering analysis has been widely applied in diverse fields such as data mining, access structures, knowledge discovery, software engineering, organization of information systems, and machine learning. (igi-global.com)
- CART and other Salford data mining modules now include an approach to cluster analysis, density estimation and unsupervised learning using ideas that we trace to Leo Breiman , but which may have been known informally in among statisticians at Stanford and elsewhere for some time. (salford-systems.com)

###### Enterprise Miner2

###### Gaussian4

- Application of model-based Gaussian clustering to ecology. (wias-berlin.de)
- In the following, as a special approach in big data clustering, let us propose simple Gaussian core-based clustering. (wias-berlin.de)
- The simplest Gaussian model is when the covariance matrix of each cluster is constrained to be diagonal. (wias-berlin.de)
- There are 250 artificially generated Gaussian samples of size 250 with equal class probabilities drawn ( K = 2 clusters). (wias-berlin.de)

###### Dissimilar2

- Therefore, a cluster is the collection of objects which are similar to each other and are dissimilar to the objects belonging to other clusters. (bartleby.com)
- Ideally, the cases in each group should have a very similar profile towards specific characteristics - for example attitudinal or behavioral questions - while the profiles of respondents belonging to different clusters should be very dissimilar. (b2binternational.com)

###### Dendrogram2

- We can visualize the result of running it by turning the object to a dendrogram and making several adjustments to the object, such as: changing the labels, coloring the labels based on the real species category, and coloring the branches based on cutting the tree into three clusters. (r-project.org)
- The result of the clustering can be visualized as a dendrogram, which shows the sequence in which clusters were merged and the distance at which each merge took place. (wikipedia.org)

###### Instrument clusters3

- The bottom-up approach also included analyzing the different types of instrument clusters installed in various types of vehicles such as two-wheelers, passenger cars, agriculture vehicles, commercial vehicles, and off-highway vehicles, among others, considering the shipments of vehicles. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- It was followed by multiplying the average selling price (ASP) of instrument clusters by the number of units to calculate the market size, in terms of value. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- The major drivers for this market are rising demand for electric vehicles, growing demand for advanced cluster technology by OEMs, increasing demand for luxury vehicles, and decreasing price of digital instrument clusters. (yahoo.com)

###### Distinct clusters1

- So what we find is that there are distinct clusters in our data. (coursera.org)

###### Variables6

- Indeed, the command cluster creates three variables (stage1cl_id, stage1cl_ord and stage1cl_hgt). (stata.com)
- Data Preparation Prior to clustering data, you may want to remove or estimate missing data and rescale variables for comparability. (pearltrees.com)
- After this, the clusters will be analyzed based on the mean values of the variables used for clustering, as in the first step. (outsource2india.com)
- Incorporate categorical and binary variables in clustering. (sas.com)
- If the terminal nodes are sufficiently pure in a single target class the analysis will be considered successful even if two or more terminal nodes are very similar on most predictor variables. (salford-systems.com)
- More in detail, after finding that the trend of the means of six financial ratios has improved in the defined period, with the exception of ROE, the six ratios are used as variables to perform a cluster analysis. (francoangeli.it)

###### Optimal3

- They give a nearly global-optimal discrete clustering solution by using singular value decomposition and nonmaximum suppression in an i. (psu.edu)
- See http://www.jstatsoft.org/v18/i06/paper # http://www.stat.washington.edu/research/reports/2006/tr504.pdf # library(mclust) # Run the function to see how many clusters # it finds to be optimal, set it to search for # at least 1 model and up 20. (stackoverflow.com)
- This choice may not be optimal, as it should be made in the very beginning, when there may not exist an informal expectation of what the number of natural clusters would be. (igi-global.com)

###### Search3

- Many applications of clustering are also found in Web search. (bartleby.com)
- Websites providing cluster headache information were determined on the search engine MetaCrawler and classified as either patient oriented or healthcare provider oriented. (ingentaconnect.com)
- Customize cluster settings to help you more easily search for a specific species or refine for classifiers. (wildlifeacoustics.com)

###### Sequence4

- A well-known clustering is that of stars into a main sequence, white giants, and red dwarfs, according to temperature and luminosity. (encyclopedia.com)
- and 'A comprehensive approach to clustering of expressed human gene sequence: The Sequence Tag Alignment and Consensus Knowledgebase. (bio.net)
- To reduce the number of hits, a 40% sequence identity clustering has been applied and a representative chain taken from each cluster. (rcsb.org)
- The clusterings are assigned sequence numbers 0 , 1 , … , n − 1 {\displaystyle 0,1,\ldots ,n-1} and L ( k ) {\displaystyle L(k)} is the level of the k {\displaystyle k} -th clustering. (wikipedia.org)

###### Gene5

- Gasch, A.P. and M.B. Eisen, Exploring the Conditional Coregulation of Yeast Gene Expression through Fuzzy K-Means Clustering. (springer.com)
- Although the responsible gene cluster has been identified, the biosynthetic pathway remains to be elucidated. (mdpi.com)
- In the present study, members of the gene cluster were deleted individually in a Fusarium graminearum strain overexpressing the local transcription factor. (mdpi.com)
- By providing a better treatment of the noise inherent in repeated measurements and taking into account multiple layers of poly(A) site data, PASCCA could be a general tool for clustering and analyzing APA-specific gene expression data. (github.com)
- STACK_PACK 1.0 has been developed by SANBI in collaboration with Electric Genetics, Cape Town (PTY) LTD, to support analysis of the increasing EST load for Gene Discovery. (bio.net)

###### Squares1

- The result of a cluster analysis shown as the coloring of the squares into three clusters. (wikipedia.org)

###### Describe2

- Used to describe and quantify customer segments, cluster analysis enables you to target customers according to their needs, instead of having one general marketing approach. (b2binternational.com)
- Google research scientist Peter Hauck used Weka and k-means cluster analysis to describe where Mariners right-fielder Ichiro favours hitting the baseball. (smartdatacollective.com)

###### Analyze1

- Once grouped, view, sort and label each cluster to efficiently analyze your recordings. (wildlifeacoustics.com)

###### Segmentation8

- Clay sediments analysis in the troad and its segmentation. (springer.com)
- Contour and texture analysis for image segmentation - Malik, Belongie, et al. (psu.edu)
- It can also be referred to as segmentation analysis, taxonomy analysis, or clustering. (surveygizmo.com)
- The idea is to cluster the data in two stages: run SOFM and then minimize the segmentation dispersion. (repec.org)
- The marketing application of value cluster analysis is in customer segmentation and in the estimation of segment sizes. (outsource2india.com)
- The aim of this paper is to present a case study on the segmentation of the industrial market in a telecommunication company by means of cluster analysis. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Use clustering and segmentation. (sas.com)
- Segmentation analysis: Market by display type, by display size, by embedded technology, by end use, and by region. (yahoo.com)

###### Estimate3

- n = 91 clusters with feeding events) to estimate caracal diet in South Africa's Succulent Karoo, a global biodiversity hotspot. (bioone.org)
- Market size estimate: Digital instrument cluster market size estimation in terms of value ($M) shipment. (yahoo.com)
- We present a mass estimate of the Planck-discovered cluster PLCK G100.2-30.4, derived from a weak lensing analysis of deep Subaru griz images. (uio.no)