The mangosteen plant family (sometimes classified as Guttiferae; also known as Hypericaceae) of the order THEALES, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes trees and shrubs with resinous, sticky sap, usually with broad-ended, oblong, leathery leaves with a strong, central vein, flowers with many stamens.
A plant genus of the family CLUSIACEAE. Members contain benzophenones.
A plant genus of the family CLUSIACEAE. Members contain costatolide, calanolides and 4-phenylfuranocoumarins (FUROCOUMARINS).
A plant genus of the family CLUSIACEAE. Members contain XANTHONES.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.
A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. It is the source of the familiar fig fruit and the latex from this tree contains FICAIN.
Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.
The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)
It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)
Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.
The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.
The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
A type of COUMARINS with added pyran ring(s).
A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
Analysis of the energy absorbed across a spectrum of x-ray energies/wavelengths to determine the chemical structure and electronic states of the absorbing medium.
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.
Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees with long, flat, spirally arranged needles that grow directly from the branch.
Rare leukoencephalopathy with infantile-onset accumulation of Rosenthal fibers in the subpial, periventricular, and subependymal zones of the brain. Rosenthal fibers are GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN aggregates found in ASTROCYTES. Juvenile- and adult-onset types show progressive atrophy of the lower brainstem instead. De novo mutations in the GFAP gene are associated with the disease with propensity for paternal inheritance.
A sac or recess formed by a fold of the peritoneum.
Method in which repeated blood pressure readings are made while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It allows quantitative analysis of the high blood pressure load over time, can help distinguish between types of HYPERTENSION, and can assess the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
A plant family of the order Polygalales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.
A monocot plant family of the Liliopsida class. It is classified by some in the Liliales order and some in the Asparagales order.
A plant family of the order Celastrales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.

Morphology and anatomy of developing fruits and seeds of Mammea americana L. (Clusiaceae). (1/44)

Morphological, structural and developmental features of fruits and seeds of Mammea americana L. are here studied, with the purpose to give a proper classification of their fruit and embryo type and to contribute to future taxonomical and ecological studies. The fruit is a berry and the "rind" consists of the exocarp, represented by a periderm with lenticels, and by the parenchymatic mesocarp, with branched secretory ducts and vascular bundles. The edible pulpy is formed by the endocarp, destituted of secretory ducts, and derived from the activity of a ventral meristem, which emerges early in the fruit development. The inner endocarp cell layers undergo a radial elongation and become firmly attached to the testal outer layers. At maturation the endocarp may be released from the rest of the pericarp. The ovules are unitegmic and they turn into unitegmic and exalbuminous seeds. The multiseriate testa consists of thick-walled cells and sclerenchymatous fibers. This last features have carried out to a wrong interpretation that the fruit of this species is a drupe. The embryo is pseudo-conferruminate, with two massive foodstoring cotyledons, rich in starch, firmly attached.  (+info)

High light-induced switch from C(3)-photosynthesis to Crassulacean acid metabolism is mediated by UV-A/blue light. (2/44)

The high light-induced switch in Clusia minor from C(3)-photosynthesis to Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is fast (within a few days) and reversible. Although this C(3)/CAM transition has been studied intensively, the nature of the photoreceptor at the beginning of the CAM-induction signal chain is still unknown. Using optical filters that only transmit selected wavelengths, the CAM light induction of single leaves was tested. As controls the opposite leaf of the same leaf pair was studied in which CAM was induced by high unfiltered radiation (c. 2100 micromol m(-2) s(-1)). To evaluate the C(3)-photosynthesis/CAM transition, nocturnal CO(2) uptake, daytime stomatal closure and organic acid levels were monitored. Light at wavelengths longer than 530 nm was not effective for the induction of the C(3)/CAM switch in C. minor. In this case CAM was present in the control leaf while the opposite leaf continued performing C(3)-photosynthesis, indicating that CAM induction triggered by high light conditions is wavelength-dependent and a leaf internal process. Leaves subjected to wavelengths in the range of 345-530 nm performed nocturnal CO(2) uptake, (partial) stomatal closure during the day (CAM-phase III), and decarboxylation of citric acid within the first 2 d after the switch to high light conditions. Based on these experiments and evidence from the literature, it is suggested that a UV-A/blue light receptor mediates the light-induced C(3)-photosynthesis/CAM switch in C. minor.  (+info)

Antibacterial xanthones from Kielmeyera variabilis mart. (Clusiaceae). (3/44)

The bioassay-guided fractionation of stems from Kielmeyera variabilis, traditionally used in Brazilian folk medicine, yielded assiguxanthone-B (1), kielcorin (4), 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3), and a mixture of xanthones containing assiguxanthone-B (1) and 1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxy-2-prenylxanthone (2) (1:1 w/w). The xanthone mixture inhibited Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis at a concentration of 6.25 g/ml. When tested alone, the minimal inhibitory concentration of assiguxanthone-B was 25 g/ml against B. subtilis. Kielcorin and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid were inactive against both strains. None of the fractions was active against Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Viable cells of S. aureus were reduced by a 1-3 log CFU/ml within 12 h after exposure of one to eight times the MIC of the xanthone mixture. It is not known whether the tetrahydroxy-2-prenylxanthone or other components of the xanthone mixture are responsible for the main antibacterial activity or whether additive or synergistic action is involved  (+info)

HIV-1 inhibition by extracts of Clusiaceae species from Mexico. (4/44)

The organic plant extracts of 21 species of Clusiaceae from Mexico were screened for anti HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity in a non-radioactive immuno colorimetric assay. The extracts of 5 species (23.8%) exhibited significant inhibition (> or =70%) of HIV-1 RT activity; of these, only 4 extracts showed reduced toxicity to human lymphocytic MT2 cells and were further tested as inhibitors of HIV-1 IIIb/LAV replication in a cellular system. The best extracts were Calophyllum brasiliense (hexane) and Clusia quadrangula (CH(2)Cl(2)-MeOH) which inhibited HIV-1 RT (IC(50)=29.6 microg/ml and 42 microg/ml), and showed an EC(50)=92.5 microg/ml and 91 microg/ml, respectively, on MT2 cells. However, only Calophyllum brasiliense hexane extract showed significant inhibition on viral replication (ED(50)=37.1 microg/ml), while Clusia quadrangula was less active (ED(50)=124 microg/ml). These results support the idea that plant extracts represent a valuable source of potential anti HIV compounds.  (+info)

Prenylated xanthone derivatives with antiplasmodial activity from Allanblackia monticola STANER L.C. (5/44)

Further study of the methanol extract of the stem bark of Allanblackia monticola STANER L.C. resulted in the isolation of a new prenylated xanthenedione, designated allanxanthone C, together with the five known xanthones, garciniafuran, tovophyllin A, rubraxanthone, norcowanin and mangostin and one saponin, stigmasterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside. The structure of the new compound was established by detailed spectroscopic analysis to be 1,2-dihydro-3,6,8-trihydroxy-1,1,7-tri(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthen-2,9-dione (3-hydroxyapetalinone C). The methanol extract and pure compounds were tested on two strains of Plasmodium falciparum, F32 (chloroquine sensitive) and FcM29 (chloroquine resistant). The IC50 values obtained ranged from 0.6 to 8.9 microg/ml. Their cytotoxicity was estimated on human melanoma cells (A375) and the cytotoxicity/antiplasmodial ratio was found to be between 15.45 and 30.46. The antimicrobial activities against a range of microorganisms of the crude extract and some of these compounds are also reported.  (+info)

Cytotoxic and antimalarial prenylated xanthones from Cratoxylum cochinchinense. (6/44)

A new prenylated xanthone, 5-O-methylcelebixanthone (1), together with six known compounds; celebixanthone (2), 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2,4-di(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone (3), cochinchinone A (4), alpha-mangostin (5), beta-mangostin (6) and cochinchinone C (7) were isolated from roots of Cratoxylum cochinchinense. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 2 and 4-7 showed cytotoxic activity against the human lung cancer cell line (NCI-H187) with IC(50) values ranging from 0.65 to 5.2 microg/ml. Compounds 1, 2, 6 and 7 also showed antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum with IC(50) values of 3.2, 4.9, 7.2 and 2.6 microg/ml, respectively.  (+info)

Antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of Brazilian plant extracts--Clusiaceae. (7/44)

Twelve extracts obtained from nine plants belonging to six different genera of Clusiaceae were analyzed against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis) bacteria using the microdilution broth assay. Tovomita aff. longifolia, T. brasiliensis, Clusia columnaris, Garcinia madruno, Haploclathra paniculata, and Caraipa grandifolia extracts showed significant results against the bacteria. The organic extract obtained from the leaves of T. aff. longifolia showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 70 microg/ml and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) = 90 microg/ml against E. faecalis and the organic extract made with the stem of C. columnaris showed MIC = 180 microg/ml and MBC = 270 microg/ml against P. aeruginosa. None of the antibacterial extracts showed lethal activity against brine shrimp nauplii. On the other hand, both aqueous and organic extracts obtained from the aerial organs of Vismia guianensis that were cytotoxic to brine shrimp nauplii did not show a significant antibacterial activity in the assay.  (+info)

Cytotoxic activities of chemical constituents from Mesua daphnifolia. (8/44)

Detail chemical investigations on the stem bark of Mesua daphnifolia gave three triterpenoids and four xanthones. They are friedelin (1), friedelan-1,3-dione (2), lup-20(29)- en-3ss-ol (3), cudraxanthone G (4), ananixanthone (5), 1,3,5-trihydroxy-4-methoxyxanthone (6) and euxanthone (7). These chemical constituents were tested in vitro for their cytotoxic activities against four cell lines, MDA-MB-231 (human estrogen receptor negative breast cancer), HeLa (cervical carcinoma), CEM-SS (T-lymphoblastic leukemia) and CaOV3 (human ovarian cancer). Compound 4 showed a broad spectrum of activity against the MDA-MB-231, HeLa and CEM-SS cell lines with IC5 0 values of 1.3, 4.0 and 6.7 microg/ml respectively. Meanwhile, the other compounds 1, 2, 3, 5, 6 and 7 gave only selective activities against the cell lines.  (+info)

Understanding the history of forests and their species demographic responses to past disturbances is important for predicting impacts of future environmental changes. Tropical rainforests of the Guineo-Congolian region in Central Africa are believed to have survived the Pleistocene glacial periods in a few major refugia, essentially centred on mountainous regions close to the Atlantic Ocean. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the phylogeographic structure of a widespread, ancient rainforest tree species, Symphonia globulifera L. f. (Clusiaceae), using plastid DNA sequences (chloroplast DNA [cpDNA], psbA-trnH intergenic spacer) and nuclear microsatellites (simple sequence repeats, SSRs). SSRs identified four gene pools located in Benin, West Cameroon, South Cameroon and Gabon, and São Tomé. This structure was also apparent at cpDNA. Approximate Bayesian Computation detected recent bottlenecks approximately dated to the last glacial maximum in Benin, West Cameroon and São
In addition, postmarketing cases of Torsade de Pointes have been reported in patients using ondansetron. Hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia, congestive heart failure, bradyarrhythmias, typical weight loss on topamax or patients taking other medicinal products tales of symphonia tenebrae female viagra that lead to QT prolongation. The drug tales of symphonia tenebrae female viagra should be infused intravenously over 15 minutes, avoid zofran in patients tales of symphonia tenebrae female viagra transactivator tetracycline uses with congenital long qt syndrome, it should not be used instead of nasogastric suction. Ondansetron was not what does viagra cost per pill mutagenic in standard tests tales of symphonia tenebrae female viagra for mutagenicity. It tales of symphonia tenebrae female viagra is not known whether ondansetron is excreted in human milk. As a precaution, it is recommended that patients younger than 4 months receiving this drug be closely how many times a day can tales of symphonia ...
In a preliminary antiprotozoal screening of several Clusiaceae species, the methanolic extracts of Allanblackia monticola and Symphonia globulifera showed high in vitro leishmanicidal activity. Further bioguided phytochemical investigation led to the isolation of four benzophenones: guttiferone A (1), garcinol (2), cambogin (3) and guttiferone F (4), along with three xanthones: allanxanthone A (5), xanthone V1 (6) and globulixanthone C (7) as active constituents. Compounds 1 and 6 were isolated from S. globulifera leaves, while compounds 2-5 were obtained from A. monticola fruits. Guttiferone A (1) and F (4) showed particulary strong leishmanicidal activity in vitro, with IC50 values (0.2 μM and 0.16 μM, respectively) comparable to that of the reference compound, miltefosine (0.46 μM). Although the leishmanicidal activity is promising, the cytotoxicity profile of these compounds prevent at this state further in vivo biological evaluation. In addition, all the isolated compounds were tested in vitro
Phylogenetic models of the Clusiaceae have so far been based on morphological data only. As an additional source of phylogenetic information, the chloroplast gene rbcL was sequenced for 26 species, representing all available genera of Clusiaceae. The DNA data were analyzed cladistically together with previously published sequences. The results show that the aquatic family Podostemaceae is nested inside Clusiaceae as the sister group of subfamily Hypericoideae or tribe Hypericeae. The subfamilies Kielmeyeroideae and Clusioideae, as delimited in recent morphology-based classifications, are largely supported as monophyletic. The sole exception is Clusiella, which links with Kielmeyeroideae rather than with Clusioideae. We conclude that pollination by resin-collecting bees arose independently in Clusiella and the Clusioideae: Clusieae ...
Title:Synthesis of 1,3,6-Trioxygenated Prenylated Xanthone Derivatives as Potential Antitumor Agents. VOLUME: 9 ISSUE: 8. Author(s):Chan K. Lim, Lai-Yeng Tho, Yang M. Lim, Syed A. A. Shah and Jean-Frederic F. Weber. Affiliation:Department of Chemical Science, Faculty of Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, 31900 Kampar, Perak, Malaysia.. Keywords:2H-xanthene-3, 9-dione scaffold, antiproliferation, antitumor agent, cytotoxicity, synthesis, xanthone derivatives, cervical, breast cancers, cancer cell lines, O-prenylated.. Abstract:To investigate the antitumor activities of xanthonic compounds, 10 prenylated xanthone derivatives 2-11 along with their key building block 1,3,6-trihydroxyxanthone 1 were evaluated for their potential cytotoxic activities against HeLa and MDA-MB-231 cancer cell lines. The synthesis afforded a series of prenylated derivatives with typical and new xanthone skeletons. Compounds 2, 3, 4 and 9 were reported for the first time to possess a new scaffold of 2H-xanthene- ...
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Taxonommical information on Erica globulifera Dulfer. Botanical information such as scientific names, english common names and plant family group on Erica globulifera Dulfer . Plant of Ericaceae botanical family. Plant id # id # 139213.
Anemia is a condition that has multiple origins. One such origin is the destruction of red blood cells (RBCs) membrane induced by free radicals. Treatment of anemia could therefore be enhanced by the use of free radicals scavengers potentially found in some medicinal plants. In this study, the protective effect of Harungana madagascariensis on the RBCs membrane physiology was investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro hemolytic anemia was induced by incubation of fresh human RBCs with carbontetrachloride (CCl4) in Olive oil (Oo). Relaxation times of protons excited at 20 MHz (Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill pulse sequence) in the absence or presence of paramagnetic Mn2+ ions (T 2i for
Psorospermun aurantiacum and Hypericum lanceolatum are plants locally used in Cameroon and other parts of Africa for the treatment of gastrointestinal and urinary tract infections, skin infections, venereal diseases, gastrointestinal disorder, infertility, epilepsy as well as microbial infections. The present study was designed in order to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial and radical scavenging activities of the extracts and isolated compounds from the leaves of these plants. The plant extract was prepared by maceration in ethyl acetate and methanol and fractionated by column chromatography. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses in conjunction with literature data. The broth microdilution method was used to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity against bacteria, yeasts and dermatophytes. The antioxidant potentials of the extracts and their isolated compounds were evaluated using the DPPH radical scavenging method. Five known compounds: physcion (1),
The extracts of 14 Julianaceae and 5 Clusiaceae species growing in Mexico were tested (50?H37Rv and HIV change transcriptase (HIV-RT). style aimed to disease control and eradication [3, 4]. Because of the latest rise of TB from the individual immunodeficiency pathogen VIH as well as the fast pass on of multidrug level of resistance TB strains, brand-new classes of antimycobacterial substances are needed [5]. Compounds extracted from plants is definitely an important way to obtain novel leads in neuro-scientific antituberculosis therapeutic GSK1904529A supplier real estate agents [6C8], aswell as against individual immunodeficiency pathogen (HIV) [9]. Primary data reveal thatAmphipterygium adstringens(Julianaceae) can be a promising way to obtain anti-TB compounds, because the stem bark remove inhibited in 95% the development ofM. tuberculosisat 50?M. tuberculosis A. adstringensbark, a build up of masticadienonic and 3M. tuberculosisCalophyllum brasilienseis exceptional [9]: its leaves include ...
Sastra, Cero, Chaparrón Glabrous, polygamodioecious tree, to 10 (30) m tall; trunk usually less than 15 cm dbh, with sparse yellow sap; outer bark thin; inner bark reddish; younger parts with white or pale yellowish sap. Petioles 1-2.5 cm long, somewhat swollen at base with a short appendage on the inner side above the articulation; blades narrowly elliptic, acute to weakly acuminate, +/- attenuate at base, 12-20 (25) cm long, 4-7 (10) cm wide, thick; lateral veins and collecting vein scarcely visible, not prominulous above when dry. Fascicles dense, globular, sessile, ca 4 cm wide, usually borne on leafless stems; pedicels 7-20 mm. long; flowers small, aromatic, numerous; sepals 2, concave, rounded at apex, +/- united at base; petals 4, ovate to orbicular-, rounded at apex, white, 5-7 mm. long, strongly reflexed at anthesis; staminate flowers with the stamens free, 16-30 (usually nearer 16), ca 3 mm. long, erect to somewhat spreading, borne around a fleshy disk; anthers minute, about as broad ...
Philantomba monticola (blue duiker), Adult Weight: 13.78 lbs (6.25 kg), Birth Weight: 1.76 lbs (800 g), Female Maturity: 1 year 4 months, |span class=ultooltip title=Incubation|Gestation|/span|: 6 months 13 days, |span class=ultooltip title=Brood / Clutch|Litter|/span| Size: 1, Maximum Longevity: 16 years, Male Maturity: 1 year 10 months
Head as shown in figure 1 and 2. Mandibles triangular, smooth and shining, with sparse piligerous punctulae, baso-laterally inconspicuously rugulose-punctate; chewing border with approximately 8 small teeth, apical and subapical teeth stronger: basal angle rectangular; a shallow curved groove parallels the basal border. Clypeus convex in the middle, with a strong sagittal carina prolonged more faintly caudad over the dorsum of head, fading on occiput; anterior clypeal apron narrow, its border gently convex, its lateral corners bluntly rectangular. Frontal area smooth, distinctly impressed. Frontal carinae forming convex lobes in front, covering the antennal sockets from above, then running parallel caudad and fading out at level of middle of eyes. Antennal scrobes weakly defined, terminating indefinitely in front and above eyes. Eyes strongly convex, each with a circummarginal sulcus; facet count across greatest diameter about 14. Occipital corners lobate, projecting both in dorsal and lateral ...
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149. Rhododendron pruniflorum Hutchinson & Kingdon Ward in J. B. Stevenson, Sp. Rhodod. 302. 1930. 桃花杜鹃 tao hua du juan Rhododendron tsangpoense Kingdon Ward var. pruniflorum (Hutchinson & Kingdon Ward) Cowan & Davidian.. Shrubs, evergreen, 0.3-1.2 m tall; stem and branches with brown smooth flaking bark. Petiole 2-8 mm, scaly; leaf blade leathery, aromatic, obovate to oblong, 2-4(-5) × 1-2(-2.5) cm; base obtuse or tapering; apex obtuse or rounded, mucronate; abaxial surface glaucous, scales almost contiguous, unequal, the smaller pale yellow, larger brown, widely separated; adaxial surface dark green, shiny, usually scaly. Inflorescence 3-5(-7)-flowered. Pedicel slender, 1.3-3.5 cm, scaly; calyx lobes 3-5 mm, oblong-ovate, persisting to enclose mature capsule, scaly, margin usually sparsely ciliate; corolla campanulate, dull crimson to plum purple, or rarely pink, 1-1.3 cm, tube 5-8 mm; outer surface not or only sparsely scaly; stamens 10, nearly as long as corolla, filaments densely ...
Description: Tree, to 20 m tall; bark smooth or with boat-shaped fissures, brown to pale grey; exudate milky or yellow; branchlets compressed, slightly flat or 4-angled, glabrous. Leaves broadly elliptic-oblong or obovate, cuneate to rounded at base, slightly recurved and margined, rounded, acute, slightly emarginate, retuse or sub-acute at apex, 6-15 x 3-10.5 cm, coriaceous, glabrous; midnerve channelled above; raised beneath; lateral nerves 4-20 pairs; petioles flat, 1-1.7 cm long, glabrous. Racemes axillary, 5-12 cm long, (5-)7-12 flowered. Flowers polygamous, 2-2.5 cm across, white, fragrant; bracts ovate, 3-4 mm long, caducous; pedicels 1-3 cm long, glabrous. Sepals 4, reflexed; outer pair ovate to suborbicular, concave, 5.5-6.5 x 4.5-6.5 mm, nerved; the inner subelliptic, 9-15 x 7.5-9.5 mm, petaloid, nerved. Petals usually 4, rarely 3 or 5, obovate to elliptic or oblong, reflexed, 9-12 x 5-9 mm, rarely glabrous, nerved. Stamens (175-) 210-360(-440); filaments 3.5-5.5 mm long, connate for ...
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Map of Hypericum formosum -- Discover Life
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I just went to make some crackers.I love crackers. They require a lot of fucking around to make, but its worth it in the end. Crackers go especially well with a bottle of wine. Unfortunately, Im too poor to buy any wine at the moment, but that doesnt stop me enjoying my crackers.So, I go to the fridge to grab my cracker ingredients:1 Tomato1 Stick of Danish Salami (mild, no garlic)3 different types of cheese (Edam, Creamy Blue, Camembert)I lay these ingedients out on the bench along with a knife and cutting board (for cutting the ingredients). Next, the most essential part of crackers....crackers.What the fuck?No crackers.There are NO CRACKERS in the CRACKER tin. What is the point of the cracker tin if there are no crackers in it? Now it just a fucking tin!!!!HOW AM I MEANT TO MAKE CRACKERS WHEN THERE ARE NO FUCKING CRACKERS!!!!!So I went to work and bought some. The staff laughed at my slippers while enquiring what I am doing back at work at 2 in the morning?So, I told them. I was going to ...
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A verified doctor answered: You can: You can, but Ritz crackers have considerably more fat content than saltines so are a little...
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You can see this in action by playing the following game with a baby under the age of 2. Show the baby two small boxes. Put a single graham cracker into one of the boxes. Then put, one at a time, two graham crackers into the other box. Assuming your baby likes graham crackers, shell crawl to the box with two graham crackers. Interestingly, this wont work if you put two graham crackers in one box and four in the other. Then, the baby chooses between the boxes randomly. This is understood to happen because the need to represent 6 different objects all in memory simultaneously overloads the poor babys brain, and she just loses track. (If you want to experience something similar, try to find a multiple object tracking demo with 5 or more objects. I wasnt able to find one, but you can try this series of demos to get a similar experience ...
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Here is a quick and easy fun summer project to use to decorate for the 4th of July. I bet it would make a fun centerpiece. pop on over to Craftside for the tutorial on how to make a recycled bottle fire cracker decoration with just a bit of washi tape, Duck tape and pipe cleaners.. ...
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doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Stevens, P.F. (2004). "Clusiaceae". In Kubitzki, K. (ed.). Flowering Plants. The families ...
Clusiaceae). Play media The food of this species is nectar, taken from a wide variety of flowers, and some small insects; it ...
Clusiaceae). White-throated spadebills are solitary active birds, difficult to see as they move rapidly through the undergrowth ...
Clusiaceae". The Useful Plants of India, second edition. London: William H. Allen & Co. p. 220. "G. Gummi-Gutta (Garcinia ... Garcinia gummi-gutta is one of several closely related Garcinia species from the plant family Clusiaceae. With thin skin and ...
Cola acuminata, source of the true kola nut, is not related to Garcinia kola belonging not to Clusiaceae but to a subfamily of ... is a species of flowering plant belonging to the Mangosteen genus Garcinia of the family Clusiaceae (a.k.a. Guttiferae). It is ...
This Clusiaceae article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. ...
Clusiaceae Lindl. Ctenolophonaceae Exell & Mendonça $$Dichapetalaceae Baill. Elatinaceae Dumort. $$§Erythroxylaceae Kunth ( ...
Clusiaceae (0.02%). The most important species consumed during six months in this study are listed as follows: 13.88% ...
"Mesua ferrea L. - Clusiaceae". biotik.org. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2012-12-06. Kostermans, A.J.G.H ... classify Mesua ferrea in the family Clusiaceae, while in the AgroForestryTree Database it is allocated to the Guttiferae. Young ... 1980). "Clusiaceae (Guttiferae)". In Dassanayaka, M.D.; Fosberg, F.R. (eds.). A revised handbook to the flora of Ceylon. I. New ...
"Calophyllum polyanthum - CLUSIACEAE". www.biotik.org. Retrieved 2019-01-14.. ...
Triana) Zappi (Clusiaceae)". Acta Botanica Brasilica. 25 (43-52): 43-52. doi:10.1590/S0102-33062011000100007. Wong, Leslie P; ... Garcinia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Clusiaceae native to Asia, America, Australia, tropical and southern ...
"Calophyllum austroindicum - CLUSIACEAE". www.biotik.org. Retrieved 2020-10-30. v t e. ...
Triana) Zappi (Clusiaceae)". Acta Botanica Brasilica. 25 (43-52). K. V. Peter (Editor); V.K. Raju (author); M. Reni (author) ( ... Garcinia indica, a plant in the mangosteen family (Clusiaceae), commonly known as kokum, is a fruit-bearing tree that has ... The genus Garcinia, belonging to the family Clusiaceae, includes about 200 species found in the Old World tropics, mostly in ...
"Hypericum humifusum (Clusiaceae), nueva especie adventicia en la Argentina. [Hypericum humifusum (Clusiaceae). new adventive ... "Family: Clusiaceae, Genus: Hypericum". davesgarden.com. Retrieved 2018-01-04. "Plant Finder". Online Atlas of the British and ... Xi-chun, Du; Yi, Ren (2005). A New Species of Hypericum (Clusiaceae) from Shaanxi Province, China (PDF). Xi'an, People's ...
"Clusiaceae - Guttiferae". pages 48-66. In: Klaus Kubitzki (editor). 2007. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants volume IX ... In his Prodromus, he placed Godoya in the family that would later be known as Clusiaceae. He regarded Lauradia (Lavradia) as ... The clusioids were once regarded as a group of four families, but Clusiaceae was divided in 2009 and the name Calophyllaceae ... "Violaceae" (as Violarieae), pages 287-316; Clusiaceae (as Guttiferae), pages 557-564; "Ochnaceae", pages 735-738. In: Prodromus ...
Clusiaceae order 3. Physenales family 1. Physenaceae order 4. Ochnales family 1. Medusagynaceae family 2. Strasburgeriaceae ...
Clusiaceae Hypericum formosissimum Takht. www.ipni.org. 9. Retrieved 2018-11-20. Crockett, Sara L.; Robson, Norman K. B. (2011 ...
"Mesua ferrea L. - Clusiaceae". biotik.org. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2017-03-19. "Nestegis apetala". ...
ex Nakai Clusiaceae Lindl., nom. cons. (= Guttiferae Juss., nom. cons.) Calophyllaceae J.Agardh Podostemaceae Rich. ex Kunth, ...
family CLUSIACEAE] on JSTOR". plants.jstor.org. "Garcinia pseudoguttifera Seem". www.gbif.org. Retrieved 18 January 2021. " ... is a species of flowering tree in the family Clusiaceae or Guttiferae. Garcinia pseudoguttifera is native to Oceania and is ... Clusiaceae)". Phytochemistry. 53 (2): 281-284. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(99)00511-7. ISSN 0031-9422. Retrieved 12 February 2021. v ...
"Family: Clusiaceae, Genus: Hypericum". davesgarden.com. Retrieved 2018-01-04. "Online Virtual Flora of Wisconsin - Hypericum". ...
family CLUSIACEAE] on JSTOR". plants.jstor.org. Retrieved 2017-03-13. Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) v t e. ...
Clusiaceae Lindl.. *Ctenolophonaceae Exell & Mendonça. *ººDichapetalaceae Baill.. *Elatinaceae Dumort.. *ºº§Erythroxylaceae ...
Clusiaceae Lindl., nom. cons. (=Guttiferae Juss., nom. cons.). *Ctenolophonaceae Exell & Mendonça. *Dichapetalaceae Baill., nom ...
cons., §Clusiaceae Lindl. (1836), nom. cons., Ctenolophonaceae Exell & Mendonça (1951), Dichapetalaceae Baill. (1886), nom. ...
f. ex T. Anderson (Clusiaceae)". Research Gate. Retrieved 17 March 2018. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Infraspecific ...
"Nagkesar, Mesua, Mesua ferrea, Clusiaceae". Nagkesar.com. Retrieved 2013-11-21. SEA HandBook-2009, By The Solvent Extractors' ...
"Clusiaceae Hypericum huber-morathii N.Robson". International Plant Names Index (IPNI). 2005. Retrieved 2018-12-22. ROBSON, ...
Labourdonnaisia spp., Hernandiaceae Hernandia mascarenensis, Clusiaceae Calophyllum spp., and Myrtaceae Syzygium spp., Eugenia ...
It belongs to the family Clusiaceae. Puerto Rico was ceded by Spain in the aftermath of the Spanish-American War under the ...
... all three rewards are found in different species of the Clusiaceae). The family Clusiaceae was divided by Cronquist into two ... The Clusiaceae or Guttiferae Juss. (1789) (nom. alt. et cons. = alternative and valid name) are a family of plants including 13 ... Their inclusions make the Clusiaceae in a wide sense polyphyletic, and Stevenss subfamilies need to be recognised at family ... doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1. Gustafsson, Mats H. G. (2002), "Phylogeny of Clusiaceae Based on rbcL sequences", International ...
Their inclusions make Clusiaceae in a wide-sense polyphyletic, and Stevenss subfamilies need to be recognised at family level ... The family Clusiaceae was divided by Cronquist into 2 subfamilies: the Clusioideae (typical subfamily) and the Hypericoideae. ... Clusioideae as Clusiaceae sensu stricto; Hypericoideae as Hypericaceae; and Kielmeyeroideae as Calophyllaceae. Tribe Clusieae ...
... N. M. U. Seruji, H. Y. Khong, and C ... Clusiaceae)," Journal of Chemistry, vol. 2013, Article ID 913406, 5 pages, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/913406. ...
Use of Guttiferae as an alternative family name for Clusiaceae is authorized by the ICBN, Articles 18.5-18.6 (McNeill et al ...
... ," Systematic ... Playing the Taxonomic Cupid: Matching Pistillate and Staminate Conspecifics in Dioecious Clusia (Clusiaceae). ... Playing the Taxonomic Cupid: Matching Pistillate and Staminate Conspecifics in Dioecious Clusia (Clusiaceae)," Systematic ...
Clusiaceae). Acta Botanica Brasilica 23(3): 797-804. [ Links ]. Notis, C. 2004. Phylogeny and character evolution of ... Clusiaceae). Acta Scientiarum, Biological Sciences 32: 437-444. [ Links ]. Cordemoy, M.H.J. 1911. Contribution a létude de la ... Clusiaceae. Pp.45-62. In: Wanderley, M.G.L.; Shepherd, G.J.; Giulietti, A.M. & Melhem T.S. (Eds.). Flora Fanerogâmica do Estado ... Clusiaceae-Guttiferae. Pp. 48-66. In: Kubitzki, K. (Ed.). The families and genera of vascular plants 10: 48-66. Berlin ...
In the case of Clusiaceae species, only C. brasiliense was analyzed by HPLC (Figure 3). Apetalic acid (. ), calanolide B (. ), ... Table 1: HIV-1 RT and M. tuberculosis inhibition by Julianaceae and Clusiaceae and their cytotoxicity to THP-1 human cell line. ... The extracts of 14 Julianaceae and 5 Clusiaceae species growing in Mexico were tested in vitro (50 µg/mL) against Mycobacterium ... Concerning Clusiaceae, the leaf extracts of the 5 species tested showed good activity against both targets. All the extracts ...
Abstract: Garcinia indica is a tree species of the family Clusiaceae. This species is endemically distributed only in Ratnagiri ... A Comparative Study of Karyomorphology among Three Populations of Garcinia indica (Clusiaceae) (Thomas-Dupetite) Choisy. ... A Comparative Study of Karyomorphology among Three Populations of Garcinia indica (Clusiaceae) (Thomas-Dupetite) Choisy. ...
Clusiaceae. 山羊百科,林文智老師的植物、山岳、攝影紀錄. (重定向自Guttiferae) ... 取自"http://plant.climb.com.tw/modules/mediawiki/
... Ateba JET, Toghueo RMK ... J.E.T. Ateba, et al., "Antiplasmodial Properties and Cytotoxicity of Endophytic Fungi from Symphonia globulifera (Clusiaceae ... Antiplasmodial Properties and Cytotoxicity of Endophytic Fungi from Symphonia globulifera (Clusiaceae). JOURNAL OF FUNGI. 2018; ... Antiplasmodial Properties and Cytotoxicity of Endophytic Fungi from Symphonia globulifera (Clusiaceae). JOURNAL OF FUNGI, 4(2 ...
Kuboje aptinkamų šeimos (? Clusiaceae Lindl., 1836 [0-0]) rūšių sąrašas. *100px,link=Clusia callosa table class=sortable ... Rūšis priklauso šeimai::Clusiaceae]][[Rūšis aptinkama šalyje::Kuba]]. was answered by the SMWSQLStore3. in 0.0094 seconds. ... ask:[[Rūšis priklauso šeimai::Clusiaceae]][[Rūšis aptinkama šalyje::Kuba]] ,?Lotyniškai ,format=ul ,limit=50 ,offset=0 ,link= ...
Zvaniche or Hypericum (Hypericum) is a genus of herbaceous plants Clusiaceae family (Clusiaceae). Its most famous ...
Clusiaceae. Garcinia kola. purgative, antiparasitic, antimicrobial. SD. [68]. Combretaceae. Anogeissus leiocarpus. ... 3. Capparaceae, Celastraceae, Clusiaceae, Combretaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Ebenaceae and Euphorbiaceae. The plants in the families ... Clusiaceae) seeds was observed in the alkaloid fraction which brought about 92.25% reduction in parasitaemia at 100 mg/kg in T ...
Cola acuminata, source of the true kola nut, is not related to Garcinia kola belonging not to Clusiaceae but to a subfamily of ... is a species of flowering plant belonging to the Mangosteen genus Garcinia of the family Clusiaceae (a.k.a. Guttiferae). It is ...
This Clusiaceae article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. ...
The role of these substances in the pollination process and their relation to the evolution of flower biology in Clusiaceae are ... The results of this study are compared with observations in some other Clusiaceae (Caraipa, Clusia, Garcinia, Mahurea), where ...
Clusiaceae, family Clusiaceae, family Guttiferae, Guttiferae, St Johns wort family - widely distributed family of chiefly ... Clusiaceae: La especie Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess.. Anatomia de anillos de crecimiento de 80 especies arboreas potenciales ... Clusiaceae)/Efeito do envoltorio na germinacao da semente e no desenvolvimento de plantulas de Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess ... Quantitative and qualitative analysis of (-) mammea A/BB coumarin in extracts of Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess (Clusi-aceae) ...
Clusiaceae • Genus: Calophyllum • Species: Calophyllum soulattri Burm. f. ...
Phylogenetic models of the Clusiaceae have so far been based on morphological data only. As an additional source of ... The results show that the aquatic family Podostemaceae is nested inside Clusiaceae as the sister group of subfamily ... representing all available genera of Clusiaceae. The DNA data were analyzed cladistically together with previously published ...
Clusiaceae Lindl.. *Ctenolophonaceae Exell & Mendonça. *ººDichapetalaceae Baill.. *Elatinaceae Dumort.. *ºº§Erythroxylaceae ...
Clusiaceae Lindl., nom. cons. (=Guttiferae Juss., nom. cons.). *Ctenolophonaceae Exell & Mendonça. *Dichapetalaceae Baill., nom ...
Johns-wort, Clusiaceae. St. Andrews Cross, Clusiaceae. Stenoporpia, Butterflies and Moths. Sterna, Birds. Sternula, Birds. ... Clusiaceae (St. Johns worts). Creeping St. Johns wort Hypericum adpressum T. Giant St. Johns wort Hypericum ascyron E. St. ... Hypericum, Clusiaceae. Hypomecis, Butterflies and Moths. Ilex, Aquifoliaceae. Inchworm, Butterflies and Moths. Isoetes, ...
cons., §Clusiaceae Lindl. (1836), nom. cons., Ctenolophonaceae Exell & Mendonça (1951), Dichapetalaceae Baill. (1886), nom. ...
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Clusiaceae), Hyssopus seravschanicus (HS), Mentha longifolia (ML), Origanum tyttanthum (OT), Ocimum basilicum (OB), Salvia ...
In the Manual Clusiaceae treatment, C. pratensis would key out next to C. minor, from which it differs by its tan rather than ... CLUSIACEAE. Stopping for breakfast near Guayabo de Mora during an excursion to the Puriscal region, Manual co-PI Barry Hammel, ...
Clusiaceae ⁄ Guttiferae - Mangosteen family Genus. Hypericum L. - St. Johnswort Species. Hypericum boreale (Britton) E.P. ...
Clusiaceae. Botany. The genus Calophyllum consists of approximately 130 species. C. inophyllum is indigenous to Southeast Asia ... Tamanu oil may cause hypersensitivity reactions in patients with an existing allergy to plants in the Clusiaceae family. ... Le Coz 2004 Tamanu oil may cause hypersensitivity reactions in patients with an existing allergy to plants in the Clusiaceae ...
Clusiaceae). Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 98(4):549-552CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
  • 2011) Tribe Clusieae Chrysochlamys Clusia Dystovomita Tovomita Tovomitopsis Tribe Garcinieae Allanblackia Garcinia (including Rheedia) - saptree, mangosteen Tribe Symphonieae Lorostemon Montrouziera Moronobea Pentadesma Platonia Symphonia Thysanostemon List of Clusiaceae genera Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). (wikipedia.org)
  • Garcinia gardneriana (Clusiaceae) is a small to medium-sized tree that usually occurs on the floodplains of the Paraná River and it is an important food source for the local inhabitants. (scielo.br)
  • Garcinia gardneriana (Clusiaceae) é árvore de pequeno a médio porte frequente na Planície de Inundação do Alto Rio Paraná e de importância na alimentação das populações ribeirinhas, sendo consumida in natura e na forma de sucos e doces. (scielo.br)
  • Garcinia L. (Clusiaceae - Clusioideae - Garcinieae) is a pantropical genus comprising approximately 500 species, most of which are found in the Indo-Malaysian region. (scielo.br)
  • Garcinia indica is a tree species of the family Clusiaceae. (scialert.net)
  • Garcinia kola ( bitter kola (a name sometimes also used for G. afzelii ) is a species of flowering plant belonging to the Mangosteen genus Garcinia of the family Clusiaceae (a.k.a. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cola acuminata , source of the true kola nut, is not related to Garcinia kola belonging not to Clusiaceae but to a subfamily of the mallow family Malvaceae . (wikipedia.org)
  • The results of this study are compared with observations in some other Clusiaceae (Caraipa, Clusia, Garcinia, Mahurea), where floral oils or floral resin occur. (unicamp.br)
  • The Clusiaceae or Guttiferae Juss. (wikipedia.org)
  • Use of Guttiferae as an 'alternative' family name for Clusiaceae is authorized by the ICBN, Articles 18.5-18.6 (McNeill et al. (itis.gov)
  • specifically, some species offer resin which bees use in nest construction (all three rewards are found in different species of the Clusiaceae). (wikipedia.org)
  • The extracts of 14 Julianaceae and 5 Clusiaceae species growing in Mexico were tested in vitro (50 µ g/mL) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and HIV reverse transcriptase (HIV-RT). (hindawi.com)
  • As an additional source of phylogenetic information, the chloroplast gene rbcL was sequenced for 26 species, representing all available genera of Clusiaceae. (unicamp.br)
  • This monograph on palynology and systematics of Clusiaceae covers 49 genera and 542 species. (ifpindia.org)
  • Clusiaceae)/Efeito do envoltorio na germinacao da semente e no desenvolvimento de plantulas de Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Clusiaceae: La especie Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In addition to palynology, Mor-phological diversifications of pollen, Variations of the stamens and fruits, Polarity of Character States, Phylogeny with special reference to Geographical distribution, Classification and key to the genera of Clusiaceae s.l. and Affinities of Clusiaceae are dealt with. (ifpindia.org)
  • Clusiaceae), Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil / Observations on stingless bees (Hymenoptera: meliponini) collecting of latex in mammy Mammea americana (L.) Jacq. (bvsalud.org)
  • O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a coleta de látex em Mammea americana ( Clusiaceae ) e os padrões de abundância dos visitantes. (bvsalud.org)
  • The objective of this study is to observe collecting latex in Mammea americana tree ( Clusiaceae ) and abundance patterns of visitors. (bvsalud.org)
  • Antiplasmodial Properties and Cytotoxicity of Endophytic Fungi from Symphonia globulifera (Clusiaceae)", JOURNAL OF FUNGI , vol. 4, 2018, : UNSP 70. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • The family Clusiaceae was divided by Cronquist into two subfamilies: the Clusioideae (typical subfamily) and the Hypericoideae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results show that the aquatic family Podostemaceae is nested inside Clusiaceae as the sister group of subfamily Hypericoideae or tribe Hypericeae. (unicamp.br)
  • Tamanu oil may cause hypersensitivity reactions in patients with an existing allergy to plants in the Clusiaceae family. (drugs.com)
  • Bonnetiaceae, Calophyllaceae, Clusiaceae s.s. (harvard.edu)
  • Playing the Taxonomic Cupid: Matching Pistillate and Staminate Conspecifics in Dioecious Clusia (Clusiaceae)," Systematic Botany 44(3), 548-559, (6 August 2019). (bioone.org)
  • I have long been interested in the Malesian flora, especially that of New Guinea, and in phylogenetic/monographic studies (currently mostly in Clusiaceae, also Ericaceae). (umsl.edu)
  • Material of Clusiaceae in particular and Ericaceae is curated. (umsl.edu)
  • The role of these substances in the pollination process and their relation to the evolution of flower biology in Clusiaceae are briefly discussed. (unicamp.br)
  • Phylogenetic models of the Clusiaceae have so far been based on morphological data only. (unicamp.br)
  • En plus de la palynologie sont traitées la diversification morphologique du pollen, les variations des étamines et des fruits, la polarité des états de caractère, la phylogénie avec des références spéciales à la distribution géographique, la classification. (ifpindia.org)
  • Clusiaceae), using plastid DNA sequences (chloroplast DNA [cpDNA], psbA-trnH intergenic spacer) and nuclear microsatellites (simple sequence repeats, SSRs). (scienceopen.com)
  • Clusiaceae) em diferentes períodos sazonais / Characterization of anatomical specimens of leaf Platonia insignis Mart. (bvsalud.org)
  • Data are provided by Institut de Recherche en Ecologie Tropicale (IRET), Herbier National du Gabon and the Smithsonian Institution via the Rabi plot. (gbif.org)