Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.Clubfoot: A deformed foot in which the foot is plantarflexed, inverted and adducted.Fitness Centers: Facilities having programs intended to promote and maintain a state of physical well-being for optimal performance and health.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Soccer: A game in which a round inflated ball is advanced by kicking or propelling with any part of the body except the hands or arms. The object of the game is to place the ball in opposite goals.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Dancing: Rhythmic and patterned body movements which are usually performed to music.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Penicillium: A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.Mycelium: The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.Hypocreales: An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA that includes a number of species which are parasitic on higher plants, insects, or fungi. Other species are saprotrophic.Street Drugs: Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.Fusarium: A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.MycosesAspergillus: A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.Beauveria: A mitosporic fungal genus. Teleomorphs are found in the family Clavicipitaceae and include Cordyceps bassiana. The species Beauveria bassiana is a common pathogen of ARTHROPODS and is used in PEST CONTROL.Sports: Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.Magnaporthe: A genus of FUNGI, in the family Magnaporthaceae of uncertain position (incertae sedis). It is best known for its species, M. grisea, which is one of the most popular experimental organisms of all fungal plant pathogens. Its anamorph is PYRICULARIA GRISEA.Glomeromycota: A phylum of fungi that are mutualistic symbionts and form ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE with PLANT ROOTS.Hyphae: Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.Football: A competitive team sport played on a rectangular field. This is the American or Canadian version of the game and also includes the form known as rugby. It does not include non-North American football (= SOCCER).Xylariales: An order of ascomycetous FUNGI which includes many economically important plant parasites as well as saprophytes.Endophytes: An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine: An N-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as MDMA or ecstasy.Trichoderma: A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Public Facilities: An area of recreation or hygiene for use by the public.Metarhizium: A mitosporic fungal genus in the family Clavicipitaceae. It has teleomorphs in the family Nectriaceae. Metarhizium anisopliae is used in PESTICIDES.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Golf: A game whose object is to sink a ball into each of 9 or 18 successive holes on a golf course using as few strokes as possible.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Agaricales: An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.Chytridiomycota: A phylum of fungi that was formerly considered a subdivision of Phycomycetes. They are the only fungi that produce motile spores (zoospores) at some stage in their life cycle. Most are saprobes but they also include examples of plant, animal, and fungal pathogens.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Sodium Oxybate: The sodium salt of 4-hydroxybutyric acid. It is used for both induction and maintenance of ANESTHESIA.Cladosporium: A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including some economically important plant parasites. Teleomorphs include Mycosphaerella and Venturia.Genome, Fungal: The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.Alternaria: A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including several plant pathogens and at least one species which produces a highly phytotoxic antibiotic. Its teleomorph is Lewia.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Aspergillus nidulans: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.Connectome: A comprehensive map of the physical interconnections of an organism's neural networks. This modular organization of neuronal architecture is believed to underlie disease mechanisms and the biological development of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Fruiting Bodies, Fungal: The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Hallucinogens: Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.Ustilago: A genus of basidiomycetous smut fungi comprising the loose smuts.Polyporaceae: A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.Tarsal Bones: The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.Mucor: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order Mucorales. It is primarily saprophytic, but may cause MUCORMYCOSIS in man from spores germinating in the lungs.Mycotoxins: Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.Mucorales: An order of zygomycetous fungi, usually saprophytic, causing damage to food in storage, but which may cause respiratory infection or MUCORMYCOSIS in persons suffering from other debilitating diseases.Aspergillus fumigatus: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic fumigatin is obtained. Its spores may cause respiratory infection in birds and mammals.Sports Medicine: The field of medicine concerned with physical fitness and the diagnosis and treatment of injuries sustained in exercise and sports activities.Colletotrichum: A genus of mitosporic Phyllachoraceae fungi which contains at least 40 species of plant parasites. They have teleomorphs in the genus Glomerella (see PHYLLACHORALES).Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Dermatomycoses: Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Aspergillus niger: An imperfect fungus causing smut or black mold of several fruits, vegetables, etc.Talus: The second largest of the TARSAL BONES. It articulates with the TIBIA and FIBULA to form the ANKLE JOINT.Paecilomyces: A mitosporic fungal genus occasionally causing human diseases such as pulmonary infections, mycotic keratitis, endocarditis, and opportunistic infections. Its teleomorph is BYSSOCHLAMYS.Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: Semisynthetic derivative of ergot (Claviceps purpurea). It has complex effects on serotonergic systems including antagonism at some peripheral serotonin receptors, both agonist and antagonist actions at central nervous system serotonin receptors, and possibly effects on serotonin turnover. It is a potent hallucinogen, but the mechanisms of that effect are not well understood.Drug Users: People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users.Ketamine: A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Laccase: A copper-containing oxidoreductase enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 4-benzenediol to 4-benzosemiquinone. It also has activity towards a variety of O-quinols and P-quinols. It primarily found in FUNGI and is involved in LIGNIN degradation, pigment biosynthesis and detoxification of lignin-derived products.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Rhizopus: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, a common saprophyte and facultative parasite of mature fruits and vegetables. It may cause cerebral mycoses in diabetes and cutaneous infection in severely burned patients.Mortierella: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mortierellaceae, order MUCORALES. Its species are abundant in soil and can cause rare infections in humans and animals. Mortierella alpinais is used for production of arachidonic acid.Paracoccidioides: A mitosporic fungal genus. P. brasiliensis (previously Blastomyces brasiliensis) is the etiologic agent of PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS.Manipulation, Orthopedic: The planned and carefully managed manual movement of the musculoskeletal system, extremities, and spine to produce increased motion. The term is sometimes used to denote a precise sequence of movements of a joint to determine the presence of disease or to reduce a dislocation. In the case of fractures, orthopedic manipulation can produce better position and alignment of the fracture. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p264)Sordariales: An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA that includes many valuable experimental organisms. There are eight families and very few anamorphic forms.Anesthetics, Dissociative: Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Casts, Surgical: Dressings made of fiberglass, plastic, or bandage impregnated with plaster of paris used for immobilization of various parts of the body in cases of fractures, dislocations, and infected wounds. In comparison with plaster casts, casts made of fiberglass or plastic are lightweight, radiolucent, able to withstand moisture, and less rigid.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cryptococcus neoformans: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.Histoplasma: A mitosporic Onygenales fungal genus causing HISTOPLASMOSIS in humans and animals. Its single species is Histoplasma capsulatum which has two varieties: H. capsulatum var. capsulatum and H. capsulatum var. duboisii. Its teleomorph is AJELLOMYCES capsulatus.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Arthrogryposis: Persistent flexure or contracture of a joint.Rhizoctonia: A mitosporic Ceratobasidiaceae fungal genus that is an important plant pathogen affecting potatoes and other plants. There are numerous teleomorphs.Phanerochaete: A genus of fungi in the family Corticiaceae, order Stereales, that degrades lignin. The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is a frequently used species in research.Mycology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of fungi, and MYCOSES.Botrytis: A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.Polyporales: An order of fungi in the phylum BASIDIOMYCOTA having macroscopic basidiocarps. The members are characterized by their saprophytic activities as decomposers, particularly in the degradation of CELLULOSE and LIGNIN. A large number of species in the order have been used medicinally. (From Alexopoulos, Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp504-68)Chaetomium: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Chaetomiaceae, order SORDARIALES. Many members are cellulolytic and some mycotoxic. They occur naturally on paper and cotton fabric.New York CitySprains and Strains: A collective term for muscle and ligament injuries without dislocation or fracture. A sprain is a joint injury in which some of the fibers of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. A strain is an overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature.Aspergillus flavus: A species of imperfect fungi which grows on peanuts and other plants and produces the carcinogenic substance aflatoxin. It is also used in the production of the antibiotic flavicin.Polynesia: The collective name for the islands of the central Pacific Ocean, including the Austral Islands, Cook Islands, Easter Island, HAWAII; NEW ZEALAND; Phoenix Islands, PITCAIRN ISLAND; SAMOA; TONGA; Tuamotu Archipelago, Wake Island, and Wallis and Futuna Islands. Polynesians are of the Caucasoid race, but many are of mixed origin. Polynesia is from the Greek poly, many + nesos, island, with reference to the many islands in the group. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p966 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p426)Laccaria: A genus of white-spored mushrooms in the family Tricholomataceae. They form symbiotic partnerships (MYCORRHIZAE) with trees.Acremonium: A mitosporic fungal genus with many reported ascomycetous teleomorphs. Cephalosporin antibiotics are derived from this genus.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Sporothrix: A mitosporic Ophiostomataceae fungal genus, whose species Sporothrix schenckii is a well-known animal pathogen. The conidia of this soil fungus may be inhaled causing a primary lung infection, or may infect independently via skin punctures.Neurospora crassa: A species of ascomycetous fungi of the family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, much used in biochemical, genetic, and physiologic studies.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Exophiala: A normally saprophytic mitosporic Chaetothyriales fungal genus. Infections in humans include PHAEOHYPHOMYCOSIS; and PERITONITIS.. Exophiala jeanselmei (previously Phialophora jeanselmei) is an etiological agent of MYCETOMA.Neocallimastigales: An order of fungi in the phylum NEOCALLIMASTIGOMYCOTA comprising anaerobic chytrids that inhabit the RUMEN; and CECUM of herbivorous animals. Genera (all in the lone family Neocallimastigaceae) include NEOCALLIMASTIX, Orpinomyces, PIROMYCES, Anaeromyces, Cyllamyces, and Caecomyces.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)RNA, Fungal: Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Oplopanax: A plant genus in the family ARALIACEAE, order Apiales, subclass Rosidae. It is the source of cirensenosides (triterpenoid saponins).Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Biological Control Agents: Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.Blastomyces: A genus of onygenacetous mitosporic fungi whose perfect state is Ajellomyces (see ONYGENALES). The species Blastomyces dermatitidis (perfect state Ajellomyces dermatitidis) causes blastomycosis.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Claviceps: A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Clavicipitaceae, order Hypocreales, parasitic on various grasses (POACEAE). The sclerotia contain several toxic alkaloids. Claviceps purpurea on rye causes ergotism.Students, Premedical: Individuals enrolled in a preparatory course for medical school.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Volunteers: Persons who donate their services.Organizations: Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.Genes, Mating Type, Fungal: Fungal genes that mostly encode TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. In some FUNGI they also encode PHEROMONES and PHEROMONE RECEPTORS. The transcription factors control expression of specific proteins that give a cell its mating identity. Opposite mating type identities are required for mating.Mycological Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.Aspergillus oryzae: An imperfect fungus present on most agricultural seeds and often responsible for the spoilage of seeds in bulk storage. It is also used in the production of fermented food or drink, especially in Japan.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Podospora: A genus of ascomycete FUNGI in the order SORDARIALES, which is found on SOIL and herbivore dung (FECES).Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Phialophora: A mitosporic fungal genus. Phialophora verrucosa is a cause of chromomycosis (CHROMOBLASTOMYCOSIS). Ophiobolus is the teleomorph of Phialophora.Lichens: Any of a group of plants formed by a symbiotic combination of a fungus with an algae or CYANOBACTERIA, and sometimes both. The fungal component makes up the bulk of the lichen and forms the basis for its name.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Coriolaceae: A family of fungi, order POLYPORALES, found on decaying wood.Cellulase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Foot Deformities, Acquired: Distortion or disfigurement of the foot, or a part of the foot, acquired through disease or injury after birth.Entomophthorales: An order of fungi comprising mostly insect pathogens, though some infect mammals including humans. Strict host specificity make these fungi a focus of many biological control studies.Paracoccidioidomycosis: A mycosis affecting the skin, mucous membranes, lymph nodes, and internal organs. It is caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It is also called paracoccidioidal granuloma. Superficial resemblance of P. brasiliensis to Blastomyces brasiliensis (BLASTOMYCES) may cause misdiagnosis.Candida: A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Recreation: Activity engaged in for pleasure.Motion Therapy, Continuous Passive: Movement of a body part initiated and maintained by a mechanical or electrical device to restore normal range of motion to joints, muscles, or tendons after surgery, prosthesis implantation, contracture flexion, or long immobilization.Foot Deformities, Congenital: Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the foot occurring at or before birth.Verticillium: A mitosporic fungal genus commonly isolated from soil. Some species are the cause of wilt diseases in many different plants.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.Amniotic Band Syndrome: A disorder present in the newborn infant in which constriction rings or bands, causing soft tissue depressions, encircle digits, extremities, or limbs and sometimes the neck, thorax, or abdomen. They may be associated with intrauterine amputations.Nematoda: A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.Societies: Organizations composed of members with common interests and whose professions may be similar.Gibberella: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Hypocreaceae, order Hypocreales including several pathogens of grains and cereals. It is also the source of plant growth regulators such as gibberellin and gibberellic acid.RNA, Ribosomal, 5.8S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5.8S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Tenotomy: Surgical division of a tendon for relief of a deformity that is caused by congenital or acquired shortening of a muscle (Stedman, 27th ed). Tenotomy is performed in order to lengthen a muscle that has developed improperly, or become shortened and is resistant to stretching.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.RestaurantsCloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Eye Infections, Fungal: Infection by a variety of fungi, usually through four possible mechanisms: superficial infection producing conjunctivitis, keratitis, or lacrimal obstruction; extension of infection from neighboring structures - skin, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx; direct introduction during surgery or accidental penetrating trauma; or via the blood or lymphatic routes in patients with underlying mycoses.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Chitin: A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.Credentialing: The recognition of professional or technical competence through registration, certification, licensure, admission to association membership, the award of a diploma or degree, etc.Space-Time Clustering: A statistically significant excess of cases of a disease, occurring within a limited space-time continuum.Splints: Rigid or flexible appliances used to maintain in position a displaced or movable part or to keep in place and protect an injured part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Lung Diseases, Fungal: Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.Cordyceps: A genus of ascomycetous fungi (ASCOMYCOTA), family Clavicipitaceae, order HYPOCREALES, that grows by infecting insect larvae or mature insects with spores that germinate often before the cocoon is formed.Music: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.Flunitrazepam: A benzodiazepine with pharmacologic actions similar to those of DIAZEPAM that can cause ANTEROGRADE AMNESIA. Some reports indicate that it is used as a date rape drug and suggest that it may precipitate violent behavior. The United States Government has banned the importation of this drug.Phycomyces: A genus of zygomycetous fungi in the family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, forming mycelia having a metallic sheen. It has been used for research on phototropism.RNA, Ribosomal, 28S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Cryptococcus: A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.Microsporum: A mitosporic Oxygenales fungal genus causing various diseases of the skin and hair. The species Microsporum canis produces TINEA CAPITIS and tinea corporis, which usually are acquired from domestic cats and dogs. Teleomorphs includes Arthroderma (Nannizzia). (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th edition, p305)Hand Deformities, Congenital: Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the hand occurring at or before birth.Pinus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.Schizophyllum: A genus of fleshy shelf basidiomycetous fungi, family Schizophyllaceae, order POLYPORALES, growing on woody substrata. It is pathogenic in humans.Achilles Tendon: A fibrous cord that connects the muscles in the back of the calf to the HEEL BONE.Pythium: A genus of destructive root-parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Pythiaceae, order Peronosporales, commonly found in cultivated soils all over the world. Differentiation of zoospores takes place in a vesicle.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Reproduction, Asexual: Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).Physical Education and Training: Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.Aspergillosis: Infections with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS.Cunninghamella: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Cunninghamellaceae, order MUCORALES. Some species cause systemic infections in humans.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Hypocrea: A genus of fungus in the family Hypocreaceae, order HYPOCREALES. Anamorphs include TRICHODERMA.ChitinaseIlizarov Technique: A bone fixation technique using an external fixator (FIXATORS, EXTERNAL) for lengthening limbs, correcting pseudarthroses and other deformities, and assisting the healing of otherwise hopeless traumatic or pathological fractures and infections, such as chronic osteomyelitis. The method was devised by the Russian orthopedic surgeon Gavriil Abramovich Ilizarov (1921-1992). (From Bull Hosp Jt Dis 1992 Summer;52(1):1)Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Chitin Synthase: An enzyme that converts UDP glucosamine into chitin and UDP. EC 2.4.1.16.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Pleurotus: A genus of basidiomycetous fungi, family POLYPORACEAE, order POLYPORALES, that grows on logs or tree stumps in shelflike layers. The species P. ostreatus, the oyster mushroom, is a choice edible species and is the most frequently encountered member of the genus in eastern North America. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, p531)Bronchioles: The small airways branching off the TERTIARY BRONCHI. Terminal bronchioles lead into several orders of respiratory bronchioles which in turn lead into alveolar ducts and then into PULMONARY ALVEOLI.BooksBisexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of both the same and the opposite SEX.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Histoplasmosis: Infection resulting from inhalation or ingestion of spores of the fungus of the genus HISTOPLASMA, species H. capsulatum. It is worldwide in distribution and particularly common in the midwestern United States. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Onygenales: An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA containing many medically important species. There are four families and mitosporic (anamorphic) forms are prominent.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
1895). "New species of fungi". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 22 (5): 198-211. doi:10.2307/2478162. JSTOR 2478162. Wood ... Mycena californiensis is a species of fungus in the Mycenaceae family. It is a common and abundant species in the coastal oak ... The basidia (the spore-bearing cells) are club-shaped, four-spored, and typically have dimensions of 26-37.5 by 7-10.5 µm. M. ... 1860). "Characters of new fungi, collected in the North Pacific Exploring Expedition by Charles Wright". 4: 112. Retrieved 2010 ...
"Notes concerning entomogenous fungi". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 78 (2): 122-133. 1952. ---. "Entomogenous species ... "Entomogenous fungi". Mycologia 40 (4): 402-416. 1948. ---. "Two unusual fungi from Glacier National Park, Montana". Mycologia ... "Michigan fungi. I". Papers from the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and Letters 20: 81-93. 1935. ---. "Rusts and smuts from ... While at Michigan, Mains was active in the Ann Arbor Garden Club. Mains was highly interested in photography and was a noted ...
... is a species of poroid fungus in the family Polyporaceae. It was described as new to science in 1946 by ... The basidia of S. alutacea are club-shaped, measuring 9-12 by 4-5 µm. Its spores are hyaline, smooth, cylindrical, straight to ... 19 (2): 57-388 (see p. 339). Reid, D.A. (1969). "Spring fungi in Corsica". Revue de Mycologie. 33: 232-267. Bondartseva, M.A. ( ... Christiansen, M.P. (1960). "Danish resupinate fungi. Part II. Homobasidiomycetes". Dansk botanisk Arkiv. ...
1874). "New Fungi". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 5 (1): 42-3. Saccardo PA. (1891). Sylloge Fungorum IX (in Latin). p ... The cheilocystidia (cystidia found on the edge of a gill) are 23.3-31.5 by 11.6-15.7 µm, ellipsoid, club- to pear-shaped cells ... Fungi in Forest Ecosystems: Systematics, Diversity, and Ecology. New York Botanical Garden Press. pp. 33-59. ISBN 978-0-89327- ... The basidia (spore-bearing cells) are 38-46 by 9-11 µm, club-shaped, mostly 4-spored but some are 2- or 3- spored, with clamps ...
1882). "Fungi in wrong genera". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 9 (1): 1-4. doi:10.2307/2476912. JSTOR 2476912. Hennings ... Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA (2008). Dictionary of the Fungi (10th ed.). Wallingford, UK: CAB International. p. ... Physalacria is a genus of fungi in the family Physalacriaceae. The genus contains 30 species widely distributed in tropical ... P. (1897). "Fungi camerunenses II". Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie. 23: 537-58 ...
Peck CH (1907). "New Species of Fungi". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 34 (7): 345-349. Berkeley MJ, Curtis MA (1849 ... "Decades of fungi. Decades XXIII and XXIV. North and South Carolina Fungi". Hooker's Journal of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany ... Fungi. Familia Hydnaceae (in Russian). 6. Moscow, Leningrad. p. 194. Moreno G, Blanco MN, Olariaga I, Checa J (2007). " ... Climacodon pulcherrimus is a species of tooth fungus in the family Phanerochaetaceae. It was first described as a species of ...
1904). New species of fungi. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 31(4): 177-182. Hesler, L. R. (1969). North American species ... It is widespread in the eastern U.S, and present in the western U.S. Fungi portal List of Gymnopilus species "Gymnopilus ... Gymnopilus braendlei is a species of agaric fungus that contains the hallucinogens psilocybin and psilocin. It was originally ... Gastón Guzmán , John W. Allen , Jochen Gartz (1998). "A worldwide geographical distribution of the neurotropic fungi, an ...
1895). "New species of fungi". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 22: 198-211 (see p. 207). doi:10.2307/2478162. Coker WC, ... Fungi portal List of Boletus species List of North American boletes "Boletus curtisii Berk. 1853". MycoBank. International ... Boletus curtisii is a species of fungus in the Boletaceae family. It produces small- to medium-sized fruit bodies (mushrooms) ... The geographical distribution of the fungus is limited to eastern and southern North America. In the United States, it occurs ...
Peck, C. H. (1900). "New species of Fungi". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 27 (12): 609-613. doi:10.2307/2477998. JSTOR ... This fungus, like most parasitic fungi, reproduces sexually. The fungi begin life as spores, released into the environment by a ... With this particular fungus it will produce mycelial cords also known as rhizomorphs. These rhizomorphs allow the fungus to ... Fungi portal Largest organisms List of Armillaria species List of bioluminescent fungi Richardson Dodge, Sherri (24 July 2000 ...
1896). "New species of fungi". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 23 (10): 411-20. JSTOR 2477789. Murrill WA. (1945). " ... Tylopilus tabacinus is a species of bolete fungus in the Boletaceae family. It is characterized by a tawny-brown cap measuring ... The basidia (spore-bearing cells) of T. tabacinus are club-shaped and measure 23.5-37.0 by 8.5-13.0 μm. The pleurocystidia ( ... The caulocystidia (cystidia on the stem) form the reticulations on the stem; they are usually club-shaped and measure 21.0-40.5 ...
1897). "New species of fungi". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 24 (3): 137-47. Bessette AE, Bessette AR, Trudell SA, ...
1903). "New species of fungi". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 30: 95-101. doi:10.2307/2478879. Singer R. (1951). The ... The fungus was originally described in 1903 by American mycologist Charles Horton Peck as Cortinarius punctifolius. Alexander H ... Fungi portal List of Gymnopilus species "Gymnopilus punctifolius (Peck) Singer, Lilloa 22: 561 (1951)". MycoBank. International ... A Field Guide Companion to Seldom-Illustrated Fungi. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press. pp. 26-7. ISBN 0-8156-2666- ...
Eyre published few papers himself (mainly a series on Hampshire fungi for the local Field Club), His collections of fungi are ... He also joined the Woolhope Club, as a result of which he developed an expertise in fungi. In 1896 he became a founder member ... Eyre, W.L.W. (1887). A list of Hampshire fungi. Papers and proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club 1: 49-50. Eyre, W.L.W. (1900 ... Notes on Hants fungi. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 1: 110-112. Eyre, W.L.W. (1900). Fungi. In: Doubleday, H. ...
Peck CH (1895). "New species of fungi". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 22 (12): 485-493. JSTOR 2477972. Peck CH (1897 ... Fungi portal List of Coprinopsis species Peck CH (1873). "V. Descriptions of new species of fungi". Bulletin of the Buffalo ... The fungus is found in the United States, in areas east of the Great Plains. Coprinus ebulbosus and Coprinus quadrifidus are ... The fungus achieves this by growing specialized hyphae in the direction of the bacteria, sensing them with some chemoattractive ...
Fungi portal List of Lepiota species Peck CH. (1905). "New species of fungi". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 32 (2): 77 ... Cheilocystidia (cystidia on the gill edge) are club-shaped to somewhat cylindrical, and measure 13-19-29 by 6.0-7.5-11 μm. The ... The basidia (spore-bearing cells) are club-shaped to somewhat cylindrical, four-spored, and have dimensions of 22-27-32 by 8-9- ... Lepiota maculans is a rare species of agaric fungus in the family Agaricaceae. It was originally collected in Missouri, and ...
1904). "New species of fungi". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 31: 177-182. Corner EJH. (1950). A Monograph of Clavaria ... Ramaria myceliosa is a species of coral fungus in the family Gomphaceae. Found in North America, it was originally described by ... In a recent (2014) publication on California fungi, the authors propose the transfer of Ramaria myceliosa to the genus ...
1903). "New species of fungi". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 30 (2): 95-101. doi:10.2307/2478879. JSTOR 2478879. ... Lichenicolous Fungi, Lichenized Fungi, Slime Molds, Mosses, and Liverworts. College, Alaska: University of Alaska Press. p. 32 ... The height is usually approximately 2-5 cm (0.8-2.0 in), and up to 8 cm (3.1 in). The fungus fruits on the ground in mosses, ... The fungus is able to protect itself from mycophagy by the springtail Ceratophysella denisana, a common mushroom feeder, by ...
1907). "New species of fungi". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 34 (7): 345-49. doi:10.2307/2478989. JSTOR 2478989. ... The fungus forms an ectomycorrhizae-characterized by an external sheath that surround the rootlets of the oak. The fungus ... Fungi portal List of Lactarius species Arora gives a larger maximum range for both the stem length and width-12 cm (4.7 in) and ... Lactarius rufulus, commonly known as the rufous candy cap, is a species of fungus in the Russulaceae family. The fruit bodies ...
1898). "New species of fungi". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 25: 321-8. Tricholoma odorum in Index Fungorum. ...
Missing or empty ,title= (help) Peck CH (1897). "New species of fungi". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 24: 137-47. doi: ... ISBN 962-201-556-5. Park S-S, Cho D-H (1988). "The flora of higher fungi in Mt. Jiri South Korea areas II". Korean Journal of ... Rolf Singer suggested that the fungus was not mycorrhizal, noting that as well as occurring under or on the bases of both pine ... The fungus was reported as forming mycorrhizal associations with eucalypts in Australia, based on fruit body association with ...
... is a genus of fungi in the Russulaceae family. The genus contains 32 species that are distributed in Australia and ... The astrogastraceous series". Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club. 21 (3): 67. Buyck B, Hofstetter V, Verbeken A, Walleyn R ( ... Trierveiler-Pereira L, Smith ME, Trappe JM, Nouhra E (2014). "Sequestrate fungi from Patagonian Nothofagus forests: Cystangium ... ISBN 978-0-85199-826-8. Singer R, Smith AH (1960). "Studies on secotiaceous fungi. IX. ...
1940). "Additions to Florida Fungi: 2". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 67 (1): 57-67. Singer R. (1944). "New genera of ... Xanthoconium stramineum is a species of bolete fungus and the type species of the genus Xanthoconium. First described as a ... fungi". Mycologia. 36 (4): 358-68. doi:10.2307/3754752. Xanthoconium stramineum in Index Fungorum. ...
List of North American boletes Peck CH (1896). "New species of fungi". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 23 (10): 411-20. ... Suillus appendiculatus is a species of bolete fungus in the family Suillaceae. It was first described scientifically in 1896 as ...
... is a North American secotioid fungus species in the family Russulaceae. Like other members of its genus, ... The astrogastraceous series". Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club. 21 (3): 1-112. "MycoBank: Arcangeliella crassa". Retrieved ... Singer R, Smith AH (1960). "Studies on secotiaceous fungi. IX. ... with detailed description from original publication)\ Fungi ...
1895). "New species of fungi". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 22: 198-211. doi:10.2307/2478162. Bessette A, Miller OK ... The basidia are four-spored, club shaped, and measure 21-30 by 4.5-5.4 µm. Cheilocystidia (cystidia on the gill edge) are club- ... Mycena semivestipes is a species of agaric fungus in the family Mycenaceae. It is found in eastern North America First ... Jr, Bessette AR, Miller HR (1995). Mushrooms of North America in Color: A Field Guide Companion to Seldom-Illustrated Fungi. ...
Fungi digest organic matter outside their bodies as opposed to animals that digest their food inside their bodies. For humans, ... dining club).[1] At their highest level of sophistication, these places become "theatrical spectacles of global cosmopolitanism ... fungus eating). The digestive tract of an herbivore is host to bacteria that ferment these complex substances, and make them ...
... s Fungi. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Fungi and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, ... The division of fungi known as the club fungi, Basidiomycota, includes some of the most familiar fungi. Mushrooms, puffballs, ... Like all fungi, Basidiomycota can undergo both asexual and sexual reproduction. Asexual Reproduction Basidiomycota reproduce ... This group, which contains approximately 15,000 known species, is distinguished by the presence of a club- shaped reproductive ...
Fungi that, if multicellular, bear the products of meiosis on club-shaped basidia and possess a long-lasting dikaryotic stage. ...
Text function: club fungi ([[t:14914;Basidiomycota]]); [[t:14914;club fungi]]. Reference: club fungi (,a href="https://www. ... Pucciniales, Agaricales, Boletales - boletes, Cantharellales - chanterelles, Polyporales - shelf fungi, Russulales - brittle ... Hibbett, D. S. et al. (2007): A Higher-level Phylogenetic Classification of the Fungi, Mycological Research 111: 509-547. [Data ...
Basidiomycetes (club fungi, coprinus, puccinia graminis) Microscope Slides. 3 Items Basidiomycetes (club fungi, coprinus, ...
Small fungi, on app. 10 cm stalk. Cup diameter 1,5 cm, pinkish-brownish-yellow. ...
... club fungi explanation free. What is club fungi? Meaning of club fungi medical term. What does club fungi mean? ... Looking for online definition of club fungi in the Medical Dictionary? ... redirected from club fungi). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.. Related to club fungi: Imperfect fungi Ba·sid ... Club fungi , definition of club fungi by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/club+fungi ...
Fungi life style.. Fungi for the most part are hidden from view. The mushrooms and toadstools that can be transiently so ... First it is necessary to consider what fungi are and how they fit into the wider biosphere:. Fungi are a large and very diverse ... There are around 2000 gilled fungi in the UK, and a thousand or so other larger fungi. Many differ only in microscopic details ... The following are a few personal thoughts on how a biodiversity approach may help towards fungi conservation, and how fungi ...
Pipe Club fungus: identification pictures (images), habitat, edible or poisonous; taxonomy, etymology, synonyms, similar ... Some club-like and coral-like fungi are ascomycetous, but fairy clubs of Typhula and related genera belong to the Basidiomycota ... This club fungus is found in most countries in mainland Europe, and it is reported also from parts of North America. ... Fascinated by Fungi, Pat OReilly 2016.. Petersen RH. (1972). Notes on clavarioid fungi. XII. Miscellaneous notes on ...
Project Noah is a tool that nature lovers can use to explore and document local wildlife and a common technology platform that research groups can use to harness the power of citizen scientists everywhere.
Fungi Features. The second talk of the new year taken from our archives of presentations from talks at meetings or education ... The presentation is on Fungi features by Richard Jacob. You can see our back catalog of talks here. ... Copyright © 2018 · All Rights Reserved · Western Pennsylvania Mushroom Club. Seed Theme v2 by Organic Themes · WordPress ...
Club lamb fungus disease is a relatively new health problem encountered mostly in sheep being exhibited at fairs and other ... Club lamb fungus disease is a threat to both animals and humans. This guide reports on the disease cause, symptoms and ... Club lamb fungus disease is a threat to both animals and humans. This guide reports on the disease cause, symptoms and ... Club lamb fungus disease is a relatively new health problem encountered mostly in sheep being exhibited at fairs and other ...
About the Club. The Western Pennsylvania Mushroom Club was created to promote the enjoyment, study, and exchange of information ... As the club works around the social distancing and pandemic restrictions we have two very different kinds of walks from this ... Last year I received two separate donations of printed copies of old club newsletters. I would like to thank John and Kim ... Copyright © 2020 · All Rights Reserved · Western Pennsylvania Mushroom Club. Seed Theme v2 by Organic Themes · WordPress ...
July STEM Review: The Magic School Bus Science Club (Bacteria and Fungi) Reviewed by Linsey Knerl on 11:09 PM Rating: 5 ... July STEM Review: The Magic School Bus Science Club (Bacteria and Fungi) ... This was a super interesting unit to do with the kids, however, it does take time for mold and fungi samples to grow. Be aware ... Its the second month of our series of reviews on the Magic School Bus science club subscription! We had the fun of teaching ...
As stated in the details there are numerous varieties of fungi present in the area. These pictures are of a log within 5m of a ...
See WHATs NEW for more details.Meeting reports for 2018 Club field meetings to Oxford, Brampton Bryan and Bath are now ...
Who Cares About Fungi and Mycotoxins?. Fungi produce toxins called mycotoxins ("Myco" from the Greek "Mykes", means "fungus"). ... This content is only visible to Wellness Club Members. Please purchase a membership to view it:. Wellness Club Membership ... These organisms are part of The Fungi Kingdom and include yeasts, molds, mildew, mushrooms, fungi and others.. Although most ... Fungus, Yeasts and Molds: Hidden Cause of Many "Unexplained" Diseases. Every day, thousands of microscopic, decay-eating ...
... affects the skin of sheep and is also known as woolrot, lumpy wool, sheep ringworm, and sheep dermatophytosis ...
Find out information about club fungi. The common name for members of the class Basidiomycetes Explanation of club fungi ... Related to club fungi: Imperfect fungi. club fungi. [′kləb ‚fən‚jī] (mycology) The common name for members of the class ... Club fungi , Article about club fungi by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/club+fungi ... club fungi. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical. ... Club Français des Pêcheurs à la Mouche. *Club Français du ...
Make research projects and school reports about Fungi easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... Club fungi. Club fungi species reproduce sexually by forming spores on top of club-shaped structures called basidia. The club ... The kingdom of fungi is divided into four major groups: conjugating fungi, sac fungi, club fungi, and imperfect fungi. ... The main groups of fungi are chytrids, water molds, zygosporangium-forming fungi, sac fungi, and club fungi. Chyrids live in ...
UK Fungi. A forum for fungi enthusiasts - help to identify your fungus ... If I find any fungus, then I "draw" a 5 m. radius circle around it, and just look very carefully. Firstly, fungi generally have ... Fungi ID requests (post here if you arent sure what type of fungus youve found) ... Secondly, if you find one fungus youll probably find another close by - fungi have "hot spots" and "cold spots". Steve ...
Claret stiped club fungus. Please try to include photos to show all parts of the fungus, eg top, stem, and gills.. Note any ... Fungi forum. Fungi ID requests (post here if you arent sure what type of fungus youve found). ... UK Fungi. A forum for fungi enthusiasts - help to identify your fungus ... Return to "Fungi ID requests (post here if you arent sure what type of fungus youve found)" ...
Classifications of fungi math classification of fungi math games online.. Classifications of fungi math figure 1 fung phyla and ... Classifications of fungi math zoom mathematics of data management.. Classifications of fungi math how fungi respond to external ... Classifications of fungi math classifications of fungi math prodigy pets.. Classifications of fungi math download figure math ... Classifications of fungi math figure examples of fungi mathrubhumi news.. Classifications of fungi math constructing a mnemonic ...
The Club Fungi. Eric Swann and David S. Hibbett Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window ... Tom Volks Fungi. An amazing collection of information, images, and lore about fungi. *Bioimages: The Virtual Field Guide (UK) ... This was the "fungus of the month" in May, 1999, at Tom Volks Fungi web site ... The Club Fungi. Version 20 April 2007. http://tolweb.org/Basidiomycota/20520/2007.04.20 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http ...
Fungi Study Group. Fungi Books and Resources. Please check out our Fungi Books and Resources page, especially if you are ... Each year the Fungi Group organises some Fungi events during the Perth fungi season, winter: in June and July. Please check the ... The Fungi Study Group of the Western Australian Naturalists Club was formed at the conference. Since then, the Study Group has ... In 2010 and 2011, the WA Naturalists Club funded the Community Education Officer position part time so that fungi events could ...
Palmerstown Camera Club are successful in the Photographer of The Year finals held in Carlow recently. Aoife Tierney, Lorraine ... Palmerstown Camera Club meets every Wednesday at 8pm to 10pm at the Parish Hall Palmerstown Kennellsfort Road opposite the ... Palmerstown Camera Club Win Again. Mar 1, 2019 , Community News, Palmerstown News, Photography ...
  • When mycelia of different species of fungi meet, they fight, mostly by 'chemical warfare' - producing inhibitory chemicals that pass through the air, like the gas warfare of the World War 1 trenches, or that diffuse through the water in the resource in which the fungus is growing. (rsb.org.uk)
  • It contained all species of fungi with erect, club-shaped or branched (coral-like) fruit bodies, including many that are now referred to the Ascomycota. (wikipedia.org)
  • Field meetings to find interesting species of fungi are known as 'forays', after the first such meeting organized by the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club in 1868 and entitled "A foray among the funguses"[ sic ]. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is difficult to distinguish the various species of fungi from photographs alone, so you will want to identify it on the spot. (wikibooks.org)
  • At governmental level, scientific neglect of Australian fungi continues: in the country's National Biodiversity Conservation Strategy for 2010-2030, fungi are mentioned only once, in the caption of one illustration, and some states currently lack mycologists in their respective fungal reference collections. (wikipedia.org)
  • The total number of fungi which actually occur in Australia, including those not yet discovered, has been estimated at around 250,000 fungal species, including about 5,000 mushrooms, of which roughly 5% have been described. (wikipedia.org)
  • John Burton Cleland conducted the first systematic review of Australian fungi in a landmark monograph of fungal specimens at the South Australian Herbarium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apart from pathogenic fungi, many fungal species are very important in controlling the plant diseases caused by different pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beginning at 10 am and concluding around 5/6 pm, we will be foraging in different fungal habitats, for example, woodlands of various kinds as well as grassland (exact locations will depend on the quality/quantity of available fungi I spot when doing a recce the day before). (eventbrite.co.uk)
  • When one mycelium (the main body of the fungus, comprising a network of fine filaments, termed hyphae) meets another, chemical recognition shows whether it is a different species, a different individual of the same species or, indeed, itself. (rsb.org.uk)
  • Most fungus is made up of fine filaments called hyphae which are the basic structural units. (prezi.com)
  • The hyphae of the fungi grow into these spaces to absorb oxygen from them by diffusing it through the cell membrane. (prezi.com)
  • In club fungi , cells from compatible hyphae fuse upon contact. (academic.ru)
  • Classically, the fungi were classified into the yeasts (which are unicellular) and the molds (which have a mat of fibers called hyphae as the main body of the organism). (slideserve.com)
  • Other conditions known to be caused by fungi, yeasts and their mycotoxins include: postpartum depression, immune system weakness, bladder disease (especially non-bacterial interstitial cystitis in women and chronic non-bacterial prostatitis in men), pneumonitis and lung infections, endometriosis and weight gain. (drmyattswellnessclub.com)
  • There are quite probably many other medical conditions associated with fungi, yeasts and mycotoxins in the human body. (drmyattswellnessclub.com)
  • Some scientists believe that lichens (a stable self-supporting association of a fungus and an alga) might be transmigrants, the earliest colonizers of land. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This book considers the processes, origin, conservation and restoration of this very special but harsh biotope, one that is characterised by fields of lichens with sparse grasses and heather alongside a range of special animal, fungi and plant species. (knnvuitgeverij.nl)
  • Fungi are fundamental for life on earth in their roles as symbionts , e.g. in the form of mycorrhizae , insect symbionts, and lichens . (wikipedia.org)
  • This entry was posted in Nature notes and tagged mycology , toadstools , wakefield fungi by Francis Hickenbottom . (wakefieldnaturalists.org)
  • Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi , including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and their use to humans as a source for tinder , traditional medicine , food , and entheogens , as well as their dangers, such as toxicity or infection . (wikipedia.org)
  • Mycology branches into the field of phytopathology , the study of plant diseases, and the two disciplines remain closely related because the vast majority of plant pathogens are fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Historically, mycology was a branch of botany because, although fungi are evolutionarily more closely related to animals than to plants, this was not recognized until a few decades ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some fungi can cause disease in humans and other animals - The study of pathogenic fungi that infect animals is referred to as medical mycology . (wikipedia.org)
  • While this will ignore a large part of the fungi kingdom, including the economically important moulds, rusts, blights, and yeast like fungi, it will include those groups considered worthy of conservation consideration. (caithness.org)
  • Sac fungi (yeast and mildew). (mixbook.com)
  • A picture of the mating type mechanism has begun to emerge from studies of particular fungi such as yeast . (academic.ru)
  • Mating-type region - The mating type region is a specialized region in the genomes of some yeast and other fungi, usually organized into heterochromatin and possessing unique histone methylation patterns. (academic.ru)
  • This fungus is used in baker's yeast. (wikibooks.org)
  • Ringworm is a skin and scalp disease caused by fungi. (cdc.gov)
  • Ringworm is actually a fungus, not a worm. (akc.org)
  • Adult dogs who are malnourished or stressed, or whose immune system is diminished, are also at risk, and the ringworm fungus is easily transmitted. (akc.org)
  • One of the four major classes of fungi, characterized by a spore-bearing organ (basidium), usually a single clavate cell, which bears basidiospores after karyogamy and meiosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1. Give the name of five classes of fungi and examples of each. (wikibooks.org)
  • Fungi are a proven source of antibiotics, such as penicillin, and most antibiotics in clinical use are from soil microbes. (scoop.co.nz)
  • Bracket fungi on a tree stump When Jean-Francois Borel, who describes himself as a "mouse doctor," refused to give up research on a white fungus first identified in soil samples from above the Arctic Circle, organ transplant surgery had virtually stopped. (thecreationclub.com)
  • Previous research has found that when mycorrhizal fungi in the soil ta. (bio-medicine.org)
  • It has long been known when soil nitrogen is in short supply, mycorrhizal fungi (those living symbiotically on the roots of plants) transfer nutrients to their host plants in exchange for plant sugars derived from photosynthesis, but the rates of transfer have never been quantified in the field. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Previous research has found that when mycorrhizal fungi in the soil take up nitrogen from the soil and transfer it to small trees and shrubs, the heavy nitrogen isotope, nitrogen-15, is reduced in abundance in the plants and enriched in the fungi. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Fungi like the pink meadowcap are easily killed off by any distrubance such as ploughing or changes to the soil chemistry such as the application of fertilisers. (breconbeaconstourism.co.uk)
  • The fungus survives on decaying organic matter or in soil, but will use living plant tissue if available. (osu.edu)
  • Find out more about UK Fungus Day and Biology Week 2015. (rsb.org.uk)
  • He produced with help of Alfred Slote and Marcia Jablonski a 20-part TV series entitled, “House Botanist.†He was past chairman of the Michigan Natural Areas Council (MNAC), past president of the Michigan Botanical Club (MBC), and former Secretary-Treasurer of the American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology (ASGSB). (ebooks.com)
  • We had the fun of teaching the kids about Fungi and Bacteria with a sample of the kit. (lillepunkin.com)
  • We took agar and chicken bullion to create a place for the fungi and bacteria to grow. (lillepunkin.com)
  • Fungi rarely live alone, so they frequently encounter other fungi, bacteria and invertebrates, and sometimes vertebrates too. (rsb.org.uk)
  • The results of the work to date are promising - Dr Wiles' team have piloted the approach, screening 300 fungi, using a cultivated form of bacteria that's been engineered to glow when alive. (scoop.co.nz)
  • When the bacteria stop glowing, it signals potential antimicrobial qualities in the fungi which then undergo more tests. (scoop.co.nz)
  • We are particularly hopeful we will identify fungi that are able to kill the bacteria responsible for many of the serious diseases rife in New Zealand such as Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)," says Dr Wiles. (scoop.co.nz)
  • I will confine my comments to the larger fungi, those which can be referred to as mushrooms or toadstools. (caithness.org)
  • Before most of the larger fungi can produce a new generation of fruit bodies two of the hyphal growths, of differing sexual types, must first merge into a common organism. (caithness.org)
  • There are around 2000 gilled fungi in the UK, and a thousand or so other larger fungi. (caithness.org)
  • The larger fungi can be broadly grouped into 3 different habitat types. (caithness.org)
  • This resulted in two comprehensive volumes (1934-35) on the larger fungi of South Australia, and was reprinted in 1976. (wikipedia.org)
  • These were reworked and published in 1997 as Larger Fungi of Southern Australia by contemporary mycologist Cheryl Grgurinovic, though funding only allowed the publication of a volume on larger fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • A rather distinctive fungus 4 to 5 inches high. (fungi.org.uk)
  • I couldn't resist a second visit to the common today and I found a ring of field bewit - quite a distinctive fungus, with a brown cap and a pale violet stem. (wakefieldnaturalists.org)
  • Fungi and other organisms traditionally recognized as fungi, such as oomycetes and myxomycetes ( slime molds ), often are economically and socially important, as some cause diseases of animals (such as histoplasmosis ) as well as plants (such as Dutch elm disease and rice blast ). (wikipedia.org)
  • [A] Many fungi fill a major roll in decomposing and recycling dead organic material Their precise habitat will depend on the enzymes they can use to break down plant structural matter or other organic materials, and the conditions under which those enzymes can work effectively. (caithness.org)
  • Some fungi can use a large range of plant types, and may be found in almost any moist plant remains. (caithness.org)
  • The Central American garden escapee Mist flower, currently the most widely spread plant pest in the north is coming under attack from an introduced Jamaican fungus. (scoop.co.nz)
  • Values of percentage root length colonized (%RLC) by AM fungi, AM abundance, and host plant availability were compiled or calculated from published studies to determine biome-level means. (springer.com)
  • Rust fungi penetrate the plant by using the natural pores on the underside of a leaf, but first the growing germ tube must locate it. (wikibooks.org)
  • Amid growing concern over the need to combat antibiotic resistance - considered one of the greatest public health threats of the modern age - a campaign has been launched to determine if a collection of fungi, unique to New Zealand and the Pacific, could hold the key to discovering new antibiotics. (scoop.co.nz)
  • Many fungi produce toxins , antibiotics , and other secondary metabolites . (wikipedia.org)
  • Firstly, fungi generally have circular growth habits (around trees, as fairy rings, and likely, as mycelial colonies in the ground. (fungi.org.uk)