A tricylic dibenzodiazepine, classified as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It binds several types of central nervous system receptors, and displays a unique pharmacological profile. Clozapine is a serotonin antagonist, with strong binding to 5-HT 2A/2C receptor subtype. It also displays strong affinity to several dopaminergic receptors, but shows only weak antagonism at the dopamine D2 receptor, a receptor commonly thought to modulate neuroleptic activity. Agranulocytosis is a major adverse effect associated with administration of this agent.
Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.
A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
A selective blocker of DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTORS and SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS that acts as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It has been shown to improve both positive and negative symptoms in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.
An antimuscarinic agent that inhibits gastric secretion at lower doses than are required to affect gastrointestinal motility, salivary, central nervous system, cardiovascular, ocular, and urinary function. It promotes the healing of duodenal ulcers and due to its cytoprotective action is beneficial in the prevention of duodenal ulcer recurrence. It also potentiates the effect of other antiulcer agents such as CIMETIDINE and RANITIDINE. It is generally well tolerated by patients.
Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.
A condition characterized by inactivity, decreased responsiveness to stimuli, and a tendency to maintain an immobile posture. The limbs tend to remain in whatever position they are placed (waxy flexibility). Catalepsy may be associated with PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA, CATATONIC), nervous system drug toxicity, and other conditions.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.
A hallucinogen formerly used as a veterinary anesthetic, and briefly as a general anesthetic for humans. Phencyclidine is similar to KETAMINE in structure and in many of its effects. Like ketamine, it can produce a dissociative state. It exerts its pharmacological action through inhibition of NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). As a drug of abuse, it is known as PCP and Angel Dust.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate serotonin receptors, thereby blocking the actions of serotonin or SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Compounds with two BENZENE rings fused to AZEPINES.
Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
A serotonin receptor subtype found widely distributed in peripheral tissues where it mediates the contractile responses of variety of tissues that contain SMOOTH MUSCLE. Selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonists include KETANSERIN. The 5-HT2A subtype is also located in BASAL GANGLIA and CEREBRAL CORTEX of the BRAIN where it mediates the effects of HALLUCINOGENS such as LSD.
Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of SEROTONIN or SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTOR AGONISTS. Included under this heading are antagonists for one or more specific 5-HT2 receptor subtypes.
A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.
Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.
An antipsychotic agent used in SCHIZOPHRENIA.
A decrease in the number of GRANULOCYTES; (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS).
A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.
A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that has high affinity for the antipsychotic CLOZAPINE.
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
The first highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. It is used as an antidepressant and often has a more acceptable side-effects profile than traditional antidepressants.
Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.
A structurally and mechanistically diverse group of drugs that are not tricyclics or monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most clinically important appear to act selectively on serotonergic systems, especially by inhibiting serotonin reuptake.
The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.
Cyclical movement of a body part that can represent either a physiologic process or a manifestation of disease. Intention or action tremor, a common manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES, is aggravated by movement. In contrast, resting tremor is maximal when there is no attempt at voluntary movement, and occurs as a relatively frequent manifestation of PARKINSON DISEASE.
Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.
A relatively common disorder characterized by a fairly specific pattern of tremors which are most prominent in the upper extremities and neck, inducing titubations of the head. The tremor is usually mild, but when severe may be disabling. An autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance may occur in some families (i.e., familial tremor). (Mov Disord 1988;13(1):5-10)
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
A potentially fatal syndrome associated primarily with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) which are in turn associated with dopaminergic receptor blockade (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) in the BASAL GANGLIA and HYPOTHALAMUS, and sympathetic dysregulation. Clinical features include diffuse MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; high FEVER; diaphoresis; labile blood pressure; cognitive dysfunction; and autonomic disturbances. Serum CPK level elevation and a leukocytosis may also be present. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199; Psychiatr Serv 1998 Sep;49(9):1163-72)
The study of the effects of drugs on mental and behavioral activity.
Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.

S-16924 [(R)-2-[1-[2-(2,3-dihydro-benzo[1,4]dioxin-5-yloxy)-ethyl]- pyrrolidin-3yl]-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-ethanone], a novel, potential antipsychotic with marked serotonin1A agonist properties: III. Anxiolytic actions in comparison with clozapine and haloperidol. (1/592)

S-16924 is a potential antipsychotic that displays agonist and antagonist properties at serotonin (5-HT)1A and 5-HT2A/2C receptors, respectively. In a pigeon conflict procedure, the benzodiazepine clorazepate (CLZ) increased punished responses, an action mimicked by S-16924, whereas the atypical antipsychotic clozapine and the neuroleptic haloperidol were inactive. Similarly, in a Vogel conflict paradigm in rats, CLZ increased punished responses, an action shared by S-16924 but not by clozapine or haloperidol. This action of S-16924 was abolished by the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY-100,635. Ultrasonic vocalizations in rats were inhibited by CLZ, S-16924, clozapine, and haloperidol. However, although WAY-100,635 abolished the action of S-16924, it did not affect clozapine and haloperidol. In a rat elevated plus-maze, CLZ, but not S-16924, clozapine, and haloperidol, increased open-arm entries. Like CLZ, S-16924 increased social interaction in rats, whereas clozapine and haloperidol were inactive. WAY-100,635 abolished this action of S-16924. CLZ, S-16924, clozapine, and haloperidol decreased aggressive interactions in isolated mice, but this effect of S-16924 was not blocked by WAY-100, 635. All drugs inhibited motor behavior, but the separation to anxiolytic doses was more pronounced for S-16924 than for CLZ. Finally, in freely moving rats, CLZ and S-16924, but not clozapine and haloperidol, decreased dialysis levels of 5-HT in the nucleus accumbens: this action of S-16924 was blocked by WAY-100,165. In conclusion, in contrast to haloperidol and clozapine, S-16924 possessed a broad-based profile of anxiolytic activity at doses lower than those provoking motor disruption. Its principal mechanism of action was activation of 5-HT1A (auto)receptors.  (+info)

Effect of psychotropic drugs on caudate spindle in cats. (2/592)

To ascertain whether neuroleptics act on the caudate nucleus itself, the effects of these compounds as well as other centrally acting drugs were examined in relation to caudate spindle and EEG arousal responses (sciatic nerve stimulation) in gallamine-immobilized cats. Haloperidol and chlorpromazine enhanced the caudate spindle at a dose which had no effect on the EEG arousal response. On the other hand, clozapine and a higher dose of chlorpromazine enhanced the caudate spindle, but depressed the arousal response. High frequency stimulation of the sciatic nerve suppressed the caudate spindle. Pentobarbital, biperiden and diazepam, while depressing the arousal response, caused an enhancement of the caudate spindle. Imipramine at a low dose had no effect on either response, whereas at a high dose this drug enhanced the caudate spindle with concomitant depression of the arousal response. From these results, it may be concluded that the enhancing action on the caudate spindle induced by haloperidol and a low dose of chlorpromazine is due to an increase in susceptibility of the caudate nucleus itself. In addition, it is suggested that depression of the activating system is involved in an appearance of the caudate spindle.  (+info)

Mixed agonist-antagonist properties of clozapine at different human cloned muscarinic receptor subtypes expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (3/592)

We recently reported that clozapine behaves as a partial agonist at the cloned human m4 muscarinic receptor subtype. In the present study, we investigated whether the drug could elicit similar effects at the cloned human m1, m2, and m3 muscarinic receptor subtypes expressed in the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Clozapine elicited a concentration-dependent stimulation of [3H]inositol phosphates accumulation in CHO cells expressing either the m1 or the m3 receptor subtype. Moreover, clozapine inhibited forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation and enhanced [35S] GTP gamma S binding to membrane G proteins in CHO cells expressing the m2 receptor. These agonist effects of clozapine were antagonized by atropine. The intrinsic activity of clozapine was lower than that of the full cholinergic agonist carbachol, and, when the compounds were combined, clozapine potently reduced the receptor responses to carbachol. These data indicate that clozapine behaves as a partial agonist at different muscarinic receptor subtypes and may provide new hints for understanding the receptor mechanisms underlying the antipsychotic efficacy of the drug.  (+info)

Low-dose clozapine for the treatment of drug-induced psychosis in Parkinson's disease. The Parkinson Study Group. (4/592)

BACKGROUND: Drug-induced psychosis is a difficult problem to manage in patients with Parkinson's disease. Multiple open-label studies have reported that treatment with clozapine at low doses ameliorates psychosis without worsening parkinsonism. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of low doses of clozapine (6.25 to 50 mg per day) in 60 patients at six sites over a period of 14 months. The patients (mean age, 72 years) had idiopathic Parkinson's disease and drug-induced psychosis of at least four weeks' duration. All the patients continued to receive fixed doses of antiparkinsonian drugs during the four weeks of the trial. Blood counts were monitored weekly in all the patients. RESULTS: The mean dose of clozapine was 24.7 mg per day. The patients in the clozapine group had significantly more improvement than those in the placebo group in all three of the measures used to determine the severity of psychosis. The mean (+/-SE) scores on the Clinical Global Impression Scale improved by 1.6+/-0.3 points for the patients receiving clozapine, as compared with 0.5+/-0.2 point for those receiving placebo (P<0.001). The score on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale improved by 9.3+/-1.5 points for the patients receiving clozapine, as compared with 2.6+/-1.3 points for those receiving placebo (P=0.002). The score on the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms improved by 11.8+/-2.0 points for the patients receiving clozapine, as compared with 3.8+/-1.9 points for those receiving placebo (P=0.01). Seven patients treated with clozapine had an improvement of at least three on the seven-point Clinical Global Impression Scale, as compared with only one patient given placebo. Clozapine treatment improved tremor and had no deleterious effect on the severity of parkinsonism. In one patient, clozapine was discontinued because of leukopenia. CONCLUSIONS: Clozapine, at daily doses of 50 mg or less, is safe and significantly improves drug-induced psychosis without worsening parkinsonism.  (+info)

S-16924, a novel, potential antipsychotic with marked serotonin1A agonist properties. IV. A drug discrimination comparison with clozapine. (5/592)

The novel benzodioxopyrrolidine (S-16924) displays a clozapine-like profile of interaction with multiple monoaminergic receptors, in addition to potent agonist activity at serotonin (5-HT)1A receptors. S-16924 (2.5 mg/kg i.p.) and clozapine (5.0 mg/kg i.p.) generated robust discriminative stimuli (DS) and displayed full mutual generalization. The D4 antagonists L-745,870 and S-18126, the D1/D5 antagonist SCH-39166, and the D3 antagonist S-14297 showed at most partial generalization to S-16924 and clozapine. The D2/D3 antagonist raclopride fully generalized to S-16924, but only partially generalized to clozapine. The 5-HT2A antagonist MDL-100, 907 fully generalized to S-16924 and two further 5-HT2A antagonists, fananserin and SR-46349, showed partial generalization. However, MDL-100,907, fananserin, and SR-46349 showed less pronounced generalization to clozapine. Similarly, the 5-HT2C antagonists SB-200,646 and SB-206,553 more markedly generalized to S-16924 than to clozapine. The 5-HT1A receptor agonist (+/-)-8-dihydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin generalized fully to S-16924 but not to clozapine. Full generalization was obtained to both S-16924 and clozapine for the clozapine congeners, olanzapine and quetiapine. In distinction, the benzisoxazole, risperidone, and the phenylindole, sertindole, weakly generalized to S-16924 and clozapine. However, the benzisoxazole ziprasidone, which possesses 5-HT1A agonist properties, generalized fully to S-16924 but not to clozapine. Finally, the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine generalized fully to clozapine and partially to S-16924. In conclusion, S-16924 and clozapine display both communalities and differences in their "compound" DS; this likely reflects their respective complex patterns of interaction with multiple monoaminergic receptors. Although no specific receptor was identified as underlying the clozapine DS, 5-HT1A agonist as well as D2 and 5-HT2A/2C antagonist properties contribute to the S-16924 DS.  (+info)

Effects of atypical antipsychotic drug treatment on amphetamine-induced striatal dopamine release in patients with psychotic disorders. (6/592)

Clozapine, risperidone, and other new "atypical" antipsychotic agents are distinguished from traditional neuroleptic drugs by having clinical efficacy with either no or low levels of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). Preclinical models have focused on striatal dopamine systems to account for their atypical profile. In this study, we examined the effects of clozapine and risperidone on amphetamine-induced striatal dopamine release in patients with psychotic disorders. A novel 11C-raclopride/PET paradigm was used to derive estimates of amphetamine-induced changes in striatal synaptic dopamine concentrations and patients were scanned while antipsychotic drug-free and during chronic treatment with either clozapine or risperidone. We found that amphetamine produced significant reductions in striatal 11C-raclopride binding during the drug-free and antipsychotic drug treatment phases of the study which reflects enhanced dopamine release in both conditions. There were no significant differences in % 11C-raclopride changes between the two conditions indicating that these atypical agents do not effect amphetamine-related striatal dopamine release. The implications for these data for antipsychotic drug action are discussed.  (+info)

A cost-effectiveness clinical decision analysis model for schizophrenia. (7/592)

A model was developed to estimate the medical costs and effectiveness outcomes of three antipsychotic treatments (olanzapine, haloperidol, and risperidone) for patients with schizophrenia. A decision analytic Markov model was used to determine the cost-effectiveness of treatments and outcomes that patients treated for schizophrenia may experience over a 5-year period. Model parameter estimates were based on clinical trial data, published medical literature, and, when needed, clinician judgment. Direct medical costs were incorporated into the model, and outcomes were expressed by using three effectiveness indicators: the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, quality-adjusted life years, and lack of relapse. Over a 5-year period, patients on olanzapine had an additional 6.8 months in a disability-free health state based on Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale scores and more than 2 additional months in a disability-free health state based on quality-adjusted life years, and they experienced 13% fewer relapses compared with patients on haloperidol. The estimated 5-year medical cost associated with olanzapine therapy was $1,539 less than that for haloperidol therapy. Compared with risperidone therapy, olanzapine therapy cost $1,875 less over a 5-year period. Patients on olanzapine had approximately 1.6 weeks more time in a disability-free health state (based on Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale scores) and 2% fewer relapses compared with patients on risperidone. Sensitivity analyses indicated the model was sensitive to changes in drug costs and shortened hospital stay. Compared with both haloperidol and risperidone therapy, olanzapine therapy was less expensive and provided superior effectiveness outcomes even with conservative values for key parameters such as relapse and discontinuation rates.  (+info)

Looking beyond the formulary budget in cost-benefit analysis. (8/592)

With the introduction of newer, more expensive psychotropic medications, healthcare providers and managed care administrators must consider whether these drugs offer "value for the money." A true picture of the benefits of these drugs emerges only when all the costs of treatment are considered. Focusing exclusively on the acquisition cost of the drug can result in a misleading impression of the drug's worth. Although the medication costs associated with treating a patient with a newer drug increase, use of these agents may actually result in an overall decrease in healthcare costs, through reductions in hospitalization and length of stay, use of mental health services, and prescriptions for adjunctive drugs. In one study of the newer antipsychotic agent risperidone, the overall annual costs of treating a patient with schizophrenia were reduced by nearly $8,000 (Canadian dollars), even though medication costs increased by approximately $1,200 (Canadian dollars). Retrospective and prospective pharmacoeconomic studies can provide valuable data on the cost effectiveness of treatment with newer psychotropic medications.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - An association between autumn birth and clozapine treatment in patients with schizophrenia: A population-based analysis. AU - Sørensen, Holger Jelling. AU - Foldager, Leslie. AU - Røge, Rasmus. AU - Pristed, Sofie Gry. AU - Andreasen, Jesper T.. AU - Nielsen, Jimmi. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Background: Numerous studies on seasonality of birth and schizophrenia risk have been published but it is uncertain whether, among those with schizophrenia, refractory illness exhibits any predilection for birth month. We hypothesized and examined whether a season of birth effect was present in patients with schizophrenia with a history of clozapine treatment. Method: Using record linkage with Danish registers, we examined patients with schizophrenia born between 1950 and 1970, and between 1995 and 2009 and Cox regression analysis was used to examine season of birth in relation to history of clozapine treatment. Results: In a study population corresponding to 60,062 person-years from 5328 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Changes in weight and body mass index during treatment with melperone, clozapine and typical neuroleptics. AU - Bobo, William V.. AU - Jayathilake, Karuna. AU - Lee, Myung A.. AU - Meltzer, Herbert Y.. PY - 2010/4/1. Y1 - 2010/4/1. N2 - Melperone is an atypical antipsychotic drug that has been reported to be effective in treatment-resistant schizophrenia and L-DOPA psychosis. There are limited data concerning its effect on weight or body mass index (BMI). Weight and BMI were retrospectively compared in patients with schizophrenia treated with melperone (n=34), clozapine (n=225), or typical neuroleptics (n=74) for up to 3 months. Clozapine resulted in significant increases in weight and BMI from baseline to 6 weeks and 3 months. Neither melperone nor typical neuroleptics resulted in significant weight gain at either time point. Melperone did not result in significant increases in BMI. Weight and BMI were significantly lower with melperone compared with clozapine, but similar to ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Treating chemotherapy induced agranulocytosis with granulocyte colony-stimulating factors in a patient on clozapine. AU - Kolli, Venkata. AU - Denton, Kevin. AU - Borra, Dileep. AU - Pulluri, Madhuri. AU - Sharma, Ashish. PY - 2013/7/1. Y1 - 2013/7/1. N2 - Background Clozapine is reserved for overcoming treatment resistance in schizophrenia. Malignancy is common in schizophrenia; however, there is limited evidence available on continuing clozapine with chemotherapy, with both having hematological adverse effects. Objective To report a case on the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in conjunction with clozapine and chemotherapy. Methods We searched PubMed for any available information on the use of granulocyte G-CSF with clozapine and chemotherapy. We report the case of a patient with schizophrenia who developed B-cell lymphoma and was treated with chemotherapy consisting of CHOP regimen, rituximab, and methotrexate. He was continued on clozapine and G-CSF. ...
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Clozapine is known as one of the atypical antipsychotics which is placed in the second line of medical treatment for schizophrenia due to its hematologic complications. It is used in cases of resistance to treatment. Some side effects of clozapine include leukopenia, granulocytopenia, fever, hepatotoxicity, sedation, dizziness, hypotension, weight gain, constipation, and seizure. Neutropenia and hepatotoxicity have been separately reported after taking atypical antipsychotics, including clozapine. However, simultaneous occurrence of these two complications is rare and has not been reported with clozapine use. This study reports a case of concurrent hepatotoxicity and neutropenia induced by clozapine. The patient was a 58-year-old man who started taking clozapine for the first time in March 2017, about seven weeks before his recent admission, because of a history of treatment-resistant schizophrenia. He had been referred to the emergency department of a general hospital with symptoms of weakness,
Clozapine is a dibenzodiazepine antipsychotic used for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Its association with several side effects such as agranulocytosis, seizure, and insulin resistance is well known. Cardiac side effects such as myocarditis and cardiomyopathy are less common and have been seldom reported. Here we report an unusual case of clozapine-induced nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. A 50-year-old female with treatment-resistant schizophrenia on clozapine presented with gradually worsening shortness of breath, productive cough, and pleuritic chest pain. She was found to have non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy due to clozapine use as no other causative factor was found. Clozapine was gradually tapered and then discontinued. Repeat echocardiogram in three months revealed improvement in ejection fraction. This case is unique as it outlines clozapine as a rare cause of nonischemic cardiomyopathy, as discontinuation of the drug showed improvement in symptoms and heart function.
Alcohol use disorder is at least three times more common in schizophrenia than in the general population, and worsens the course of schizophrenia. Typical antipsychotic agents are of limited value in controlling alcohol use in these dual diagnosis patients. Data from our group and others suggest that the atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine limits alcohol and cannabis use in dual diagnosis patients with schizophrenia much more effectively than other antipsychotics that have been assessed, however, the side effects produced by clozapine severely limit its use.. The investigators have hypothesized that clozapine will lessen alcohol/substance use in such dual diagnosis patients in part because of its mechanism of action that includes release of dopamine (DA) in the prefrontal cortex which will help to normalize dysfunctional brain reward circuits that may underlie the co- occurring alcohol/substance use in patients with schizophrenia. Our data suggest that the effect of clozapine can be ...
Title: Cardio-Vascular Risks Associated with Clozapine Treatment. VOLUME: 7 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):Carlo Rostagno, Francesca Pastorelli, Sandro Domenichetti and Gian Franco Gensini. Affiliation:Dipartimento Area Critica Medico Chirurgica - Universita di Firenze, Viale Morgagni 85, 50134 - Firenze, Italy.. Keywords:Tumor Necrosis Factor, metabolic syndrome, Myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, necroscopy, corticosteroids, sarcoplasmatic, Drug resistant schizophrenia, clozapine, cardiotoxicity, dilated cardiomyopathy, PHARMACOLOGY, pericarditis, antipsychotics. Abstract: Clozapine has a lower incidence of neurologic side effects, in particular extrapyramidal symptoms and is associated with a decreased mortality, largely due to a significant reduction in the risk of suicide, in comparison to firstgeneration antipsychotics. Favourable clinical results however are faced with a not negligible risk of serious adverse effects in particular agranulocytosis, weight gain or metabolic syndrome. Dilated cardiomyopathy, ...
Purpose: Clozapine is a well-known antipsychotic medication licensed for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but there is limited research available to suggest its efficacy in the context of personality disorder and intellectual disabilities presenting with high-risk behaviour with or without psychotic symptoms. The purpose of this paper is to raise awareness of the benefits of using clozapine in patients with intellectual disabilities and personality disorder that present with a complex picture of serious risk of harm to both their life and the lives of others. Design/methodology/approach: The authors present five patients with intellectual disabilities and serious life-threatening challenging behaviour whom were started on clozapine as part of their multidisciplinary treatment plan to manage their presentation. The authors completed baseline assessment of five main symptom domains and then repeated this assessment following treatment with clozapine. Findings: In all five cases use of clozapine ...
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FAASEN, N; NIEHAUS, D J H; KOEN, L e JORDAAN, E. Undiagnosed metabolic syndrome and other adverse effects among clozapine users of Xhosa descent. S. Afr. j. psyc. [online]. 2014, vol.20, n.2, pp.54-57. ISSN 2078-6786. http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJP.528.. BACKGROUND: Clozapine use is known to be associated with significant side-effects, including prolongation of the QT-interval, agranu-locytosis and metabolic syndrome. However, few data exist on the prevalence of clozapine side-effects in patients of Xhosa descent. OBJECTIVE: To gather data from Xhosa patients with schizophrenia to establish the prevalence of clozapine side-effects in this population. METHODS: Twenty-nine Xhosa patients with schizophrenia (as per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR)) who had been receiving clozapine treatment for ,1 year on an outpatient basis were selected for inclusion. All patients were participating in a genetics study in the Cape Metropolitan area. The participants were ...
Aim To compare sole nurse and doctor-led multidisciplinary team delivery of community clozapine services for people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Background Around 20% of people with schizophrenia are treatment resistant and fail to respond to front line medications. Clozapine, a second-line treatment, has potentially serious side effects requiring regular monitoring. Different models of community clozapine services are emerging in the British National Health Service, but there is little evidence about which is best. Design Questionnaire survey of service users. Methods All patients on the lists of seven clozapine clinics (four sole nurse, three multidisciplinary team) in one trust were invited to participate, 2009-2010. Forward stepwise regression was used to investigate associations between patient well-being, functioning, self-efficacy and satisfaction, and clinic model attended, controlling for socio-demographic and health characteristics and processes of care. Use (and costs) of ...
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder affecting approximately one percent of the population worldwide. The introduction of the second generation antipsychotic drug, atypical antipsychotic, clozapine, has demonstrated 80% reduction in suicide incident. This drug showed effectiveness in the treatment of resistant schizophrenia, however, high concentrations of clozapine and N-desmethylclozapine in plasma exhibit the development of agranulocytosis, a possible lethal blood disorder. Therefore, constant therapeutic drug monitoring is important for patients who receive clozapine. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is the current assay for clinical clozapine measurement. A different assay, the capillary electrophoresis (CE) was explored in this study. It was found the use of a background electrolyte (BGE) concentration of 60 mM, pH at 2.5, temperature at 22 ℃, voltage applied at 10 kV and sample injection at 23 kV for 1.5 seconds is the optimal condition for clozapine separation using a ...
This multisite study was conducted to compare the efficacy and tolerability of combination treatment with clozapine plus aripiprazole versus combination treatment with clozapine plus haloperidol in patients with schizophrenia who do not have an optimal response to clozapine. Patients continued to take clozapine and were randomly assigned to receive daily augmentation with aripiprazole or haloperidol. Physicians prescribed the allocated treatments according to usual clinical care. Withdrawal from allocated treatment within 3 months was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included severity of symptoms on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and antipsychotic subjective tolerability on the Liverpool University Neuroleptic Side Effect Rating Scale. A total of 106 patients with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to treatment. After 3 months, we found no difference in the proportion of patients who discontinued treatment between the aripiprazole and haloperidol groups (13.2% vs 15.1%, P = 0.780). The 3
As part of the new changes, the FDA has clarified and enhanced the prescribing information for clozapine that explains how to monitor patients for neutropenia and manage clozapine treatment. In addition, the agency announced a new, shared risk evaluation and mitigation strategy (REMS) called the Clozapine REMS Program to improve the monitoring and management of patients with severe neutropenia. This program, which will require prescribers, pharmacies, and patients to enroll in a single centralized program, replaces the six existing clozapine registries maintained by individual clozapine manufacturers. ...
Clozapine rems anc reporting form, the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of clozapine, clozapine lab values to monitor, clozapine side effects white blood cells, mylan clozapine forms
Background: Clozapine is among the most effective antipsychotics used for treatment resistant schizophrenia. Adverse reactions to clozapine include neutropenia. In March 2020, at the start of the Coronavirus -19 pandemic, clinicians raised concerns regarding continuation of antipsychotic treatment, and specifically of clozapine, in patients with coronavirus disease. We aimed here at providing a short report focusing on the association between neutropenia and clozapine in a case series of psychiatric inpatients diagnosed with COVID-19.Patients & methods: We retrospectively inspected data of 10 patients on clozapine, admitted to Highgate Mental Health Centre, Camden & Islington NHS Foundation Trust, between March and July 2020; selection was based on their COVID-19 positive PCR test. We used a linear regression model to estimate whether there was a significant drop in the neutrophil count during SARS-CoV-2 infection.The analysis was done in R using a linear regression to the origin.Results: Data ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clozapine attenuates mitochondrial burdens and abnormal behaviors elicited by phencyclidine in mice via inhibition of p47 phox ; Possible involvements of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling AU - Tran, Hai Quyen. AU - Park, Se J.. AU - Shin, Eun Joo. AU - Tran, The Vinh. AU - Sharma, Naveen. AU - Lee, Yu J.. AU - Jeong, Ji H.. AU - Jang, Choon Gon. AU - Kim, Dae Joong. AU - Nabeshima, Toshitaka. AU - Kim, Hyoung Chun. PY - 2018/11/1. Y1 - 2018/11/1. N2 - Background: Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Aims: We investigated whether antipsychotic clozapine modulates nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase and mitochondrial burdens induced by phencyclidine in mice. Methods: We examined the effect of clozapine on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activation, mitochondrial burdens (i.e. oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction), and activities of enzymatic antioxidant in the ...
Clozapine is an antipsychotic known for its superior efficacy in treating drug-resistant Schizophrenia. However, Clozapine induces various side effects such as hyperglycemia, agranulocytosis, weight gain etc. The mechanisms of these Clozapine-induced side effects have remained largely elusive though an important role is ascribed to 5-HT (Serotonin receptor subtype-2A). In this pilot study, we report for the first time that the 5-HT global knockout mice (Htr2a) are resistant to the Clozapine-induced hyperglycemia. Importantly though, the Htr2a mice exhibit near normal basal glucose metabolism in the glucose tolerance tests. Collectively, the Htr2a mice provide an important tool to study the Clozapine-induced hyperglycemia.. ...
Discussion. In this study, we found an increase in clozapine prescriptions between January 2010 and December 2014, totaling 60 months of observation. This trend remained even after controlling for number of admissions with F20-F29 diagnoses according to the ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders.17 Thus, this finding suggests that the increase was more likely due to a rise in the proportion of patients receiving clozapine than a consequence of an increase in the absolute number of patients diagnosed with psychotic disorders. Although we cannot ignore the possibility that the clinical severity of patients admitted increased over time, it is implausible that either this or clozapine indications for aggressive and suicidal behavior, included in the prescription guidelines especially from 2010, would be responsible for a 140% increase in clozapine prescriptions.18,19 Despite its known superior efficacy, clozapine prescriptions have decreased in the United States, from 11% of the ...
After discontinuing the antipsychotic agents and completing an otherwise negative comprehensive work-up, Clozapine was continued at the same dose CLOZAPINE - ORAL (Clozaril) side effects, medical uses, and Consumer information about the medication CLOZAPINE - ORAL (Clozaril), includes side effects, drug interactions, recommended dosages, and storage information. Read Clozapine and the Mandatory Monitoring System - NEJM Correspondence. Clozapine and the Mandatory Monitoring System. N Engl J Med 1991; 324:490-491 February 14, 1991 DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199102143240712 Prescribing Clozapine - Office of Mental Health Prescribing Clozapine. Although clozapine is not a first line antipsychotic for patients who respond to other antipsychotics, it is one of the most effective Clozapine Withdrawal , Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology Stevenson and coauthors describe a case of serotonin syndrome secondary to clozapine withdrawal and together with her failure to improve and negative workup, clozapine (Clozaril, ...
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The noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist PCP induces a schizophrenia-like psychosis (including the positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms) in healthy humans and profoundly exacerbates preexisting symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Thus, the administration of PCP to animals has become an attractive model of schizophrenia (Geyer and Ellenbroek, 2003). Like the atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine, mGlu2/3 receptor agonists have been shown to block PCP hyperactivity in rats (Moghaddam and Adams, 1998; Cartmell et al., 2000a; Monn et al., 2007). In this study, we assessed the ability of LY404039 to block PCP-induced hyperlocomotion in wild-type and mGlu receptor knockout mice. PCP administration increased motor ambulations and distance traveled and decreased the time spent at rest in wild-type and all mGlu receptor-deficient strains, effects that were reversed by the administration of LY404039 (10 mg/kg) in wild-type and mGlu3 receptor-deficient mice. Importantly, the ability of ...
American Journal of Psychiatry, 151:20-26, 1994. Burrell, M.F.; Fewster, C.; Szabadi, E.; and Cashman, M. Clozapine-treated NMS. [Letter] British Journal of Psychiatry, 158:577, 1991. Caine, E.D.; Polinsky, R.J.; Kartzinel, R.; and Ebert, M.H. The trial use of clozapine for abnormal involuntary movement disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 136:317-320, 1979. Carroll, B.J.; Curtis, G.C.; and Kokmen, E. Paradoxical response to dopamine agonists in tardive dyskinesia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 134:785-789, 1977. Carson, W.H., and Forbes, R.A. Clozapine-induced weight gain. [Letter] American Journal of Psychiatry, 147:1694, 1990. Casey, D. E. Clozapine: Neuroleptic-induced EPS and tardive dyskinesia. Psychopharmacology, 99(Suppl.):47-53, 1989. Chiles, J.A.; Cohen, S.; and MacNaughton, A. Dropping objects: Possible mild cataplexy associated with clozapine. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 175:663-664, 1990. Chin, E.; Burrows, G.; and Stevenson, J. Double-blind comparison of ...
The present review was conducted to ascertain whether the combination of clozapine and aripiprazole may have a clinical role in patients partially responsive to clozapine monotherapy. We conducted a systematic review of randomized clinical trials, open-label prospective studies, retrospective studies and case reports. The MEDLINE search yielded ten studies: three were open-label studies, one was a retrospective study and six were case reports. The three open-label studies included a total number of forty-eight patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders. Patients were relatively young with a long history of psychiatric illness. In two of these three studies aripiprazole (15 to 30 mg/day) was effective in reducing residual positive and negative symptoms that were not controlled by monotherapy with clozapine at medium-high dose regimens. A retrospective study, which included twenty-four young patients with schizophrenia and a long history of psychiatric illness, found improvements in terms
Clozapine allergy in children - What is the definition or description of: Clozapine allergy? Clozapine Allergy. Clozaril (clozapine) is an antipsychotic medication used for the treatment of schizophrenia. Allergic reactions could include swelling of tongue, throat, lips, mouth, face, hives or difficulty breathing.
This study is investigating the effects of clozapine [CSL Behring] on serum immunoglobulins in patients attending specific clozapine clinics.
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Although antipsychotics currently used in the clinic are generally effective against the positive symptoms of schizophrenia there is still a need to design novel antipsychotics that would be efficacious against the positive and negative symptoms, lack the adverse side effects of current therapy (extrapyramidal motor symptoms, hyperprolactinaemia, agranulocytosis, seizures) and be effective in treatment-resistant patients. Approaches so far in this area have been primarily directed at mimicking the atypical antipsychotic clozapine. The superior clinical profile of clozapine (greater efficacy than typical antipsychotics against positive and possibly negative symptoms of schizophrenia, effective in some refractory patients and causing fewer EPS) has been difficult to pinpoint to a single pharmacological action because clozapine binds with high affinity to many neurotransmitter receptors (Fitton and Heel, 1990; Baldessarini and Frankenburg, 1991). The identification of the dopamine D4 receptor ...
Treatment-resistant schizophrenia has an extremely negative impact on mental health and social life. If clozapine, the gold standard treatment, fails, there are very few options left. The literature suggests that high-dose olanzapine (20 - 60 mg/day) is a possible alternative. We report two cases in which very high doses of olanzapine were administered, with significant clinical improvements above 60 mg/day. Clinical, metabolic and cardiac tolerance was good. This report highlights the usefulness of very-high-dose olanzapine in treatment-resistant schizophrenia. The main hypotheses concerning the psychopharmacological mechanisms of very-high-dose olanzapine are discussed.
If a drug can come in different forms (such as tablets or liquid), there may be a separate PIL for each one. You should look at the PIL for the particular form and dose youve been prescribed. All PILs are available online on the electronic Medicines Compendium (eMC).. If you have any questions about your medication you can talk to your doctor, someone at your pharmacy or call NHS 111.. ...
This 12-week, placebo-controlled RCT will be conducted in secondary care, specifically mental health services, at UK centres. The health technology to be assessed is the augmentation of clozapine treatment with another second-generation antipsychotic, amisulpride, which will be compared with placebo: 400mg amisulpride or 1 matching placebo capsule for the first 4 weeks, then the option of titrating up to 800mg amisulpride or 2 matching placebo capsules for the remaining 8 weeks. The study will be double-blind, with medication supplied as identical capsules containing either 400mg amisulpride or placebo. The optimum dose of clozapine at entry and subsequent augmentation will be achieved through a flexible dosing regimen whereby treating psychiatrists will be able to flexibly alter dose regimens to maximise clinical risk-benefit ratios; there will be opportunities for clinical titration of clozapine dose at two and six weeks. Any direct pharmacokinetic effect on clozapine levels will be assessed ...
Fluoxetine increases plasma clozapine concentrations. React. Wkly. 711, 4 (1998). https://doi.org/10.2165/00128415-199807110-00009. Download ...
OBJECTIVE: When a schizophrenia patient has an inadequate response to treatment with an antipsychotic drug, it is unclear what other antipsychotic to switch to and when to use clozapine. In this study, the authors compared switching to clozapine with switching to another atypical antipsychotic in patients who had discontinued treatment with a newer atypical antipsychotic in the context of the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials for Interventions Effectiveness (CATIE) investigation.
Clozapine is an antipsychotic medication. It works by changing the actions of chemicals in the brain. Clozapine is used to treat severe schizophrenia, or to reduce the risk of suicidal behavior in people with schizophrenia or similar disorders. Clozapine is available only from a certified pharmacy under a special...
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Researchers discover clues to developing more effective antipsychotic drugs Researchers from Mount Sinai School of Medicine, have identified the pattern of cell signaling induced by antipsychotic
Ach release was not the mechanism of clozapine-induced larval arrest.Mutations in genes required for Ach release failed to suppress clozapine-induced developmen
View This PDF. NB: This article is only available as a PDF.. Because this piece does not have an abstract, we have provided for your benefit the first 3 sentences of the full text.. The publication of the U.S. Clozaril Multicenter Trial more than a decade ago led to the worldwide use of clozapine (Clozaril, Leponex) for treatment-resistant schizophrenia.1 Despite the subsequent introduction of other atypical antipsychotics, clozapine remains the gold standard for treatment of this patient population, with superior efficacy compared with conventional antipsychotics. Indeed, it is the only drug with proven efficacy in treatmentresistant schizophrenia.​. J Clin Psychiatry 1999;60(suppl 12):3-3 ...
JL13 [5-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-8-chloro-pyrido[2,3-b][1,5] benzoxazepine fumarate] is a substance with a close structural resemblance to clozapine. However, it is less sensitive to oxidation and may therefore have less hematological side effects. In the present study, JL13 was compared with clozapine and haloperidol in several animal models for schizophrenia. The paw test represents a screening model for antipsychotic drugs that can discriminate between drugs with extrapyramidal side effects and drugs without. Haloperidol increased both forelimb retraction time and hindlimb retraction time (HRT), whereas both clozapine and JL13 increased only HRT. In the prepulse inhibition paradigm, all three drugs reversed the apomorphine- and the amphetamine-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition. However, whereas haloperidol was equally effective against both dopaminergic drugs, JL13 and clozapine were more effective against amphetamine. Finally, only JL13 was able to increase prepulse inhibition in ...
In particular, clozapine has been recommended as treatment for patients with TD who require antipsychotics. Clozapine is one of the most effective atypical neuroleptics for treatment-refractory schizo... more
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In the past weeks, the current health system has been adjusting to prepare for and mitigate the transmission of COVID-19. As a result, Health Canada has asked that health care providers who are prescribing and/or dispensing clozapine review the necessity of their patients conducting blood tests during this time. Health care providers are asked to use their clinical judgement to assess the benefits and risks of continuing treatment in the absence of laboratory testing. They are also asked to share this information with their patients and explain the risks associated with it.. This change in requirement for blood testing will be reassessed in three months or sooner. It is expected that once the COVID-19 related pressures are over, the required blood testing requirements will go back to what they were prior to this situation. BCSS recommends that you talk with the health care provider to find how what this means for you exactly and what you can expect to do during this crisis.. ...
Clozapine is the only effective medication for treatment resistant schizophrenia. Talk to your healthcare provider about clozapine today.
Clozapine • Gevotroline • Iloperidone • Lurasidone • Melperone • Molindone • Mosapramine • Ocaperidone • Olanzapine • ...
CLOZAPINE 34. DEANOL 35. DESFLURANO 36. DESIPRAMINE 37. DEXETIMIDA 38. DEXFENFLURAMINE 39. DEXTROMETORFANO 40. DIBENZEPINE 41. ...
Clothiapine and clozapine]". Minerva Psichiatrica. 34 (2): 95-9. PMID 8105359. Schmutz J, Künzle F, Hunziker F, Gauch R (1967 ... rather than atypical due to its high incidence of extrapyramidal side effects compared to the atypicals like clozapine and ...
For people with any tardive conditions clozapine remains an option but since it can create blood dyscrasias, which require ... Ross, David E (2004). "Clozapine and Typical Antipsychotics". American Journal of Psychiatry. 161 (10): 1925-6. doi:10.1176/ajp ... psychosis articles only address psychotic episodes in the wake of psychotic medication withdrawal associated with Clozapine. ...
Regular CBCs are necessary for people taking some psychiatric drugs, such as clozapine and carbamazepine, which in rare cases ... Wiciński, M; Węclewicz, MM (2018). "Clozapine-induced agranulocytosis/granulocytopenia". Current Opinion in Hematology. 25 (1 ...
He has also developed a genetic test predicting response to clozapine and the risk of agranulocytosis. This test is marketed in ... Taylor, David (August 1997). "Pharmacokinetic interactions involving clozapine". The British Journal of Psychiatry. 171 (2): ... Taylor's research has helped further understanding of the use of clozapine. ... "International trends in clozapine use: a study in 17 countries". Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 136 (1): 37-51. doi:10.1111/ ...
Clozapine is the only medication proven to be more effective for people who do not respond to other types of antipsychotics. It ... As clozapine suppresses the development of bone marrow, in turn reducing white blood cells which can lead to infection, blood ... Tsai, G. E.; Yang, P.; Chung, L. C.; Tsai, I. C.; Tsai, C. W.; Coyle, J. T. (1999). "D-serine added to clozapine for the ... Doruk, A.; Uzun, Ö.; Ozşahin, A. (2008). "A placebo-controlled study of extract of ginkgo biloba added to clozapine in patients ...
clozapine, aripiprazole Tricyclic antidepressants- ex. clomipramine Psychoactive drugs Antiemetic drugs Cholinesterase ...
Case reports of such incidents are reported with clozapine, risperidone, and aripiprazole. These case reports suggest that the ... Esposito D, Aouillé J, Rouillon F, Limosin F (October 2003). "Morning pseudoneutropenia during clozapine treatment". The World ... Ahokas A, Elonen E (June 1999). "Circadian rhythm of white blood cells during clozapine treatment". Psychopharmacology. 144 (3 ...
... clozapine, etc.) Hypnotics (Zolpidem, zopiclone, chloral hydrate, eszopiclone, etc.) Muscle relaxants (Baclofen, phenibut, ...
Harper, D.N. (1999a). Behavioral resistance to haloperidol and clozapine. Behavioural Processes, 46, 1-13. Harper, D.N. (1999b ...
J. Alvir (1993). "Clozapine-Induced Agranulocytosis -- Incidence and Risk Factors in the United States". New England Journal of ... Hibbard KR, Propst A, Frank DE, Wyse J (2009). "Fatalities associated with clozapine-related constipation and bowel obstruction ... Rege S, Lafferty T (2008). "Life-threatening constipation associated with clozapine". Australas Psychiatry. 16 (3): 216-9. doi: ...
Richardson C, Kelly DL, Conley RR (August 2001). "Biperiden for excessive sweating from clozapine". Am J Psychiatry. 158 (8): ... It relieves muscle rigidity, reduces abnormal sweating related with clozapine and methadone use and salivation, improves ...
As of 2008 it is unclear if medication for people who have too much saliva due to clozapine treatment is useful. ... "Pharmacological interventions for clozapine-induced hypersalivation". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): CD005579 ... aripiprazole clozapine pilocarpine ketamine potassium chlorate risperidone pyridostigmine Substances that can cause ...
... is a class of prescription drugs in India appearing as an appendix to the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945 introduced in 1945. These are drugs which cannot be purchased over the counter without the prescription of a qualified doctor.The manufacture and sale of all drugs are covered under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act and Rules. It is revised at times based on the advice of the Drugs Technical Advisory Board, part of the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization[1] in the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. The most recent schedule H (2006) lists 536 drugs from abacavir to zuclopenthixol.[2] However, enforcement of Schedule H laws in India is lax, compared to the more restrictive Schedule X, for which a mandatory documentation trail must be maintained.[3] ...
Binding profile Clozapine Perlapine Ganellin, C. R.; Triggle, D. J.; Macdonald, F. (1997). Dictionary of pharmacological agents ... This was perhaps due to its capacity for producing potentially life-threatening agranulocytosis, similarly to clozapine, which ... Scholz E, Dichgans J (1985). "Treatment of drug-induced exogenous psychosis in parkinsonism with clozapine and fluperlapine". ...
Jari Tiihonen et al (April 2009). "The efficacy of lamotrigine in clozapine-resistant schizophrenia: A systematic review and ... However; various publications and textbooks have expressed that lamotrigine could be added to clozapine as augmentation therapy ... Serdar M. Dursun et al (October 1999). "Clozapine Plus Lamotrigine in Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia". JAMA Psychiatry. 56 ( ... Lamotrigine doesn't have a statistically significant effect with antipsychotics other than clozapine, such as: olanzapine, ...
Clozapine, Olanzapine, Quetiapine, Risperidone, Ziprasidone, etc.) Cinanserin Deramciclane Ketanserin LY-53,857 Metergoline ...
... also has some weak antipsychotic effects with a profile of activity described as similar to that of clozapine, and ... Gross G, Xin X, Gastpar M (1991). "Trimipramine: pharmacological reevaluation and comparison with clozapine". Neuropharmacology ... these both being properties it shares with clozapine. Unlike other TCAs, but reminiscent of antipsychotics, trimipramine has ... monoamine receptors including the D2 and 5-HT2A receptors closely resemble those of the atypical antipsychotic clozapine. In ...
Clozapine is an effective treatment for those who respond poorly to other drugs ("treatment-resistant" or "refractory" ... Essali A, Al-Haj Haasan N, Li C, Rathbone J (January 2009). "Clozapine versus typical neuroleptic medication for schizophrenia ... Tentative evidence supports that amisulpride, olanzapine, risperidone and clozapine may be more effective for positive symptoms ...
Schulte, P. (2003). "What is an adequate trial with clozapine?: therapeutic drug monitoring and time to response in treatment- ... Clozapine - used in treatment-resistant schizophrenia not responsive to at least two different antipsychotics; the main reason ...
... and clozapine will be offered. Clozapine is of benefit to around half of this group although it has the potentially serious ... with clozapine. Clozapine is also associated with thromboembolism (including pulmonary embolism), myocarditis, and ... Clozapine is an effective medication that can be used in penal settings such as prisons. However, a condition of benign ethnic ... The use of clozapine can reduce the risk of suicide and aggression. A strong association between schizophrenia and tobacco ...
The current consensus in global psychiatry is that both lithium and clozapine remain the most effective agents in the treatment ... Bogers, Jan P. A. M.; Schulte, Peter F. J.; Van Dijk, Daniel; Bakker, Bert; Cohen, Dan (April 2016). "Clozapine ... Frances has expressed his belief that both lithium carbonate and clozapine are underutilized in the treatment of bipolar ... and the use of clozapine for schizophrenia. Regarding electroconvulsive therapy, Frances argues that the treatment can be ...
... clozapine (SMD: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.31-0.99), zotepine (SMD: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.47-0.96) and olanzapine (SMD: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.67-0.81 ...
... manufactures the drugs clozapine (Clozaril), diclofenac (Voltaren), carbamazepine (Tegretol), valsartan (Diovan), ...
An in vitro approach comparing amisulpride with clozapine". Neuropsychopharmacology. 28 (11): 1916-22. doi:10.1038/sj.npp. ...
"Clozapine N-oxide (CNO) freebase stability and storage". HelloBio.com. Retrieved 2018-12-05. Urban DJ, Roth BL (2015-01-06). " ... Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic which has been indicated to show high DREADD affinity and potency. Subthreshold ... like clozapine N-oxide (CNO), and not to endogenous ligands. Several types of these receptors exists, derived from muscarinic ... pharmacokinetic properties and brain penetrability and does not undergo reverse metabolism to clozapine. Another known agonsit ...
Clozapine, Risperidone), was shown to reduce HFO frequency. Recent studies, reports on the new source of HFO in the olfactory ...
Clozapine Melperone Pimozide Piritramide Risperidone Dr. Ian Morton; I.K. Morton; Judith M. Hall (31 October 1999). Concise ...
the safety and novel use of clozapine (Progr. Neuro-Psychopharmac. Biol. Psychiat. 26, 603-607, 2002). His research work was ...
Clozapine is also used in patients with recurrent suicidal behavior associated with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. ... Clozapine (marketed as Clozaril, Fazaclo ODT, Versacloz and generics) is an antipsychotic medicine used to treat schizophrenia ... regardless of which clozapine product is being used. Prior to the approval of the Clozapine REMS Program, individual clozapine ... Of note, is a requirement for health care professionals prescribing clozapine, as well as pharmacies dispensing clozapine, to ...
Clozapine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Continue to take clozapine even if you feel well. Do not stop taking clozapine without talking to your doctor. Your doctor will ... Before taking clozapine,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to clozapine, any other medications, or any of ... A program has been set up by the manufacturers of clozapine to be sure that people do not take clozapine without the necessary ...
Clozapine-related myocarditis or acute viral myocarditis following a throat infection then was suspected, clozapine therapy was ... Clozapine is the "gold standard" treatment for schizophrenia patients who are resistant to neuroleptics. Its use, limited by ... In our patient, clozapine therapy was clealy indicated, and had a rapid and impressiye efficacy, therefore drug withdrawal ... Clozapine withdrawal and targeted 8-day, low-dose corticosteroid therapy resolved the symptoms and restored cardiac function. ( ...
This antipsychotic drug is used to treat schizophrenia; it works by binding to dopamine receptors. It is sold under the prescription name Clozaril. From...
From collection to initiation of testing, AFTER SEPARATION FROM CELLS: Ambient: 5 weeks; Refrigerated: 2 months; Frozen: 2 months ...
... clozapine, dosage - Additional details: is there something to take to improve white cells level .Her dose at the ... ... Low white cells with clozapine?. Asked. 4 Jan 2018 by very worried 1955. Topics. schizophrenia, clozapine, dosage. Details:. is ... Clozapine My daughter is in hospital for 6 days to start clozapine for schitzophrenia?. Posted 25 Feb 2015 • 3 answers ... Side Effects of Clozapine (detailed). Search for questions. Still looking for answers? Try searching for what you seek or ask ...
independent of clozapine.. 2) The partitioning of clozapine into the LDL and VLDL fraction of. serum creates a "physiological ... clozapine. As such, clozapine is released from the lipoprotein fraction. of serum in a sustained manner comparable to other ... demonstrated a poor treatment response to clozapine. While continuing. their clozapine therapy, subjects were randomly assigned ... clozapine. (Clozaril® , FazaClo® ). Clozapine is a drug used to treat psychosis. It usually is. used for persons with ...
Professional guide for CloZAPine. Includes: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, interactions, adverse reactions ... Discontinue clozapine if QTc interval ,500 msec.. • Seizures: [US Boxed Warning]: Seizures have been associated with clozapine ... QuiNIDine: CloZAPine may enhance the anticholinergic effect of QuiNIDine. CloZAPine may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of ... Patients with clozapine-related myocarditis or cardiomyopathy should generally not be rechallenged with clozapine. If the ...
Fluoxetine increases plasma clozapine concentrations. Reactions Weekly volume 711, page4(1998)Cite this article ... Fluoxetine increases plasma clozapine concentrations. React. Wkly. 711, 4 (1998). https://doi.org/10.2165/00128415-199807110- ...
Clozapine is used to treat severe schizophrenia, or to reduce the risk of suicidal behavior in people with schizophrenia or ... Clozapine is available only from a certified pharmacy under a special... ... Clozapine is an antipsychotic medication. It works by changing the actions of chemicals in the brain. ... What other drugs will affect clozapine?. Clozapine can cause a serious heart problem, especially if you use certain medicines ...
Join researchers using high quality Clozapine from Abcam and achieve your mission, faster. ... Behavioral effects of clozapine and dopamine receptor subtypes.. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 21:531-58 (1997). Read more (PubMed: ... New insights into the biology of schizophrenia through the mechanism of action of clozapine.. Neuropsychopharmacology 13:177- ...
While clozapine is a muscarinic antagonist at the M1, M2, M3, and M5 receptors, clozapine is a full agonist at the M4 subset. ... Clozapine and norclozapine (desmethyl-clozapine) plasma levels may also be monitored, though they show a significant degree of ... Clozapine prevents impaired NMDA receptor expression caused by NMDA receptor antagonists. The absorption of clozapine is almost ... A recent case-control study found that the risk of clozapine-induced myocarditis is increased with increasing rate of clozapine ...
Find patient medical information for Clozapine Oral on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, interactions, ... Other medications can affect the removal of clozapine from your body, which may affect how clozapine works. Examples include ... clozapine 25 mg tablet. color. peach. shape. round. imprint. C 7, M. This medicine is a peach, round, scored, tablet imprinted ... clozapine 25 mg tablet. color. pale yellow. shape. round. imprint. 25, W P. This medicine is a pale yellow, round, scored, ...
A 57-year-old man was treated for schizophrenia with clozapine 900 mg daily over 22 years. His history included epilepsy, ... The patients hyperpigmentation may be due to clozapine absorption via the choroid, binding to retinal pigment epithelium and ... These changes were similar to previously described clozapine-associated retinopathy.1 Clonazepam is associated with ...
We thank Mack and Symons for their comments on our article.1 Our patient presented with bilateral asymmetric macular pigmentary changes, secondary to disturbances of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Clinical examination findings corresponded with visual field and electrophysiology tests.. ...
Serum Clozapine and Cognition. Brief Summary This study aim to investigate the relationship between serum levels of clozapine ... Serum Clozapine and Cognition. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and ... Furthermore, ECG changes and the relation to serum level of clozapine are studied. The design is cross-sectional.. ... The hypothesis is that higher serum levels of clozapine are associated with cognitive dysfunctions. ...
Clozapine is an antipsychotic medication that is used to treat severe schizophrenia. Learn about side effects, drug ... Generic Name: clozapine. Drug Class: Antipsychotics, 2nd Generation. What Is Clozapine and How Does It Work?. ... This medication contains clozapine. Do not take Clozaril, FazaClo ODT, or Versacloz if you are allergic to clozapine or any ... CYP2D6 poor metabolizers: Clozapine dose reduction may be needed. *Significant renal or hepatic impairment: Clozapine dose ...
... a water-soluble form of clozapine and a valuable new tool ... Hello Bio announced today the launch of Clozapine ... Clozapine has long been available to researchers in a form that is only sparingly soluble in water. Our Clozapine ... Hello Bio announced today the launch of Clozapine dihydrochloride - a water-soluble form of clozapine and a valuable new tool ... Hello Bio announced today the launch of Clozapine dihydrochloride - a water-soluble form of clozapine and a valuable new tool ...
Clozapine is an atypical neuroleptic medication that is free of parkinsonian side effects and that has been reported to ... Clozapine-responsive tremor in Parkinsons disease Mov Disord. 1990;5(3):225-9. doi: 10.1002/mds.870050307. ... We believe that clozapine, in low doses, may be a useful medication for the treatment of rest tremor in Parkinsons disease, ... Clozapine is an atypical neuroleptic medication that is free of parkinsonian side effects and that has been reported to ...
It is a prodrug of clozapine; the fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was added to clozapine in order to increase penetration ... DHA-clozapine (tentative trade name Clozaprexin) is an atypical antipsychotic drug candidate that was created and originally ... "DHA-clozapine". AdisInsight. Retrieved 17 March 2017. Rosack, Jim (4 May 2001). "Targaceuticals Point Way To Developing Safer ... January 2001). "Fatty acid derivatives of clozapine: prolonged antidopaminergic activity of docosahexaenoylclozapine in the rat ...
What Are the Side Effects and Risks Associated With Clozapine? Clozapine treatment is associated with a broad range of side ... Side effects of other antipsychotics less commonly seen with clozapine. Clozapine is associated with lower rates of certain ... 1993). If clozapine causes TD, it appears that the incidence of TD with clozapine treatment is markedly less than that with ... As to clozapines side effect profile, there is substantial evidence that clozapine is associated with an increased risk for ...
In this report, we describe a case of delirium with catatonic features emerging after the immediate cessation of clozapine ... A literature search revealed six previous cases of clozapine-withdrawal syndromes of varied symptomatology treated with ECT. To ... our knowledge, the present case represents the first reported clozapine-withdrawal delirium treated successfully with ECT. ... Clozapine, a commonly used atypical antipsychotic, can precipitate a severe withdrawal syndrome. ...
New Zealand-led research published this week says clozapine, which is used by... ... Research shows clozapine side effects. 11:25 am on 25 February 2016 ... New Zealand-led research published this week says clozapine, which is used by 4300 people in this country for conditions ...
Lidsky TI, Alter E, Banerjee SP (1991) Effects of clozapine on glutamatergic transmission. Soc Neurosci 17:686Google Scholar ... Lieberman JA, Alvir JM (1992) A report of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis in the United States. Drug Safety 7 (Suppl 1): 1-2 ... Zapletalek M, Preiningerova O, Hanus H (1980) Does clozapine cause dependence? Agressologie 21(A):19-22Google Scholar ... Krupp P, Barnes P (1992) Clozapine-associated agranulocytosis: risk and aetiology. Br J Psychiatry 160 (Suppl 17):38-40Google ...
Clozapine is superior to other antipsychotic drugs for treatment of refractory schizophrenia. However, its use has been limited ... Clozapine / adverse effects, therapeutic use*. Drug Substitution*. Evidence-Based Medicine. Humans. Prospective Studies. ... Clozapine is superior to other antipsychotic drugs for treatment of refractory schizophrenia. However, its use has been limited ... There is little guidance on the management of patients who discontinue clozapine for reasons such as lack of response, ...
... clozapine) is a prescription antipsychotic medicine used to treat schizophrenia. Learn side effects, dosage, drug interactions ... Table 10: Adverse Reactions (≥2%) Reported in Clozapine-treated Patients (N=842) across all Clozapine Studies (excluding the 2- ... Clozapine REMS Program. VERSACLOZ is only available through a restricted program under a REMS called the Clozapine REMS Program ... Clozapine causes little or no prolactin elevation.. Clinical electroencephalogram (EEG) studies demonstrated that clozapine ...
Information on Clozapine Information on Clozapine. Have all pharmacists review the Clozapine and the Risk of Neutropenia: A ... The Clozapine REMS Program ensures optimal Clozapine Pharmacy Requirements patient monitoring for and management of clozapine- ... Pharmacies must certify Clozapine Pharmacy Requirements in the Clozapine REMS Program starting October 12. After more than 25 ... Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic that is used for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Clozapine is a second-generation ...
In clozapine-responsive patients who develop hyperglycemia, the combination of clozapine with hypoglycemic agents should be ... Blood Glucose Monitoring Recommended For Subset Of Patients On Clozapine Apr 14, 1997 - A group of Indiana and Ohio clinicians ... Three of the patients have been able to continue on clozapine therapy and have experienced a reduction in psychotic symptoms, ... Occult diabetes mellitus should be suspected in any patient newly started on clozapine treatment who develops an alteration of ...
The posttraining intraperitoneal injection of clozapine (0.1-7.5 mg/kg) induced dysfunction in acquisition as well as retrieval ... The atypical antipsychotic clozapine was examined for its ability to interrupt cognitive functions in mice on passive avoidance ... Clozapine-induced cognitive dysfunction in mice Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. Jul-Aug 1996;18(6):367-72. ... The atypical antipsychotic clozapine was examined for its ability to interrupt cognitive functions in mice on passive avoidance ...
Clozapine is one of the most effective atypical neuroleptics for treatment-refractory schizo... more ... clozapine has been recommended as treatment for patients with TD who require antipsychotics. ... The benefits of clozapine may result from its affinity for the D4 receptor. However, risperidone and clozapine may be ... In particular, clozapine has been recommended as treatment for patients with TD who require antipsychotics. Clozapine is one of ...
  • Clozapine (marketed as Clozaril, Fazaclo ODT, Versacloz and generics) is an antipsychotic medicine used to treat schizophrenia in patients whose symptoms are not controlled with standard antipsychotic drugs. (fda.gov)
  • Clozapine, sold under the brand name Clozaril among others, is an atypical antipsychotic medication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clozapine (Clozaril) represents the first major advance in the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia since the introduction of antipsychotics into clinical practice in the 1950s. (mentalhealth.com)
  • Mar 08, 2020 · Clozaril (clozapine) is an antipsychotic medication. (soap.org)
  • After more than 25 years, FDA has changed the requirements for monitoring, prescribing, dispensing, and receiving the antipsychotic drug clozapine The FDA is changing Buy Viagra Online A Href dispensing requirements for the schizophrenia drug clozapine (Clozaril) to address safety concerns about severe neutropenia. (soap.org)
  • Clozapine is a generic form of Clozaril, marketed by Novartis. (schizophrenia.com)
  • Clozapine (Clozaril(R)), a tricyclic dibenzodiazepine, causes fewer extrapyramidal side effects than do other antipsychotic drugs. (rti.org)
  • According to the lawsuit, Reinstein prescribed Clozaril, the trade name for clozapine, to hundreds of patients at a time years ago. (dailypress.com)
  • When Novartis's patent for Clozaril expired in 1998, generic forms of clozapine became available. (dailypress.com)
  • Yet Reinstein 'resisted pharmacy and drug company efforts to switch his patients to generic clozapine and continued to be the largest prescriber of Novartis's Clozaril to Medicaid recipients in the United States,' the suit said. (dailypress.com)
  • After reaching this kickback agreement with IVAX, Reinstein immediately began switching his patients from Clozaril to IVAX's clozapine,' the suit said. (dailypress.com)
  • Compared with other atypical antipsychotic medications, what are the effects of clozapine (Clozaril) in patients with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychoses? (aafp.org)
  • On January 28, 2020, FDA strengthened an existing warning that constipation caused by the schizophrenia medicine clozapine (brand names Clozaril, Fazaclo ODT, and Versacloz) can progress to serious bowel complications. (fda.gov)
  • Clozapine (brand names include Clozaril, FazaClo, Versacloz, Clopine, CloZApine Synthon, and Denzapine) is prescribed to treat schizophrenia in patients who do not respond adequately to standard antipsychotic treatments. (newsinferno.com)
  • In 1989, clozapine-which is also marketed as Clozaril-was the first FDA-approved atypical antipsychotic for schizophrenia. (thecarlatreport.com)
  • It is an atypical antipsychotic and is regulated by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) and subsidised under the Highly Specialised Drugs Program Clozapine, tradename Clozaril® or Clopine®, may cause serious side effects in a very small proportion of the population especially if stopped abruptly or. (hotelpalacebarcelona.com)
  • Clozaril (clozapine) is an antipsychotic medication used for the treatment of schizophrenia . (healthtap.com)
  • What is the definition or description of: Clozaril (clozapine) allergy? (healthtap.com)
  • Anyone out there taking clozapine (or clozaril)? (healthtap.com)
  • Clozaril /clozapine is an effective antipsychotic medication with many cautions and potential side effects requiring regular blood tests. (healthtap.com)
  • Can clozaril (clozapine) cause akathisia, restlessness? (healthtap.com)
  • CLOZARIL® (clozapine) is indicated for the management of severely ill schizophrenic patients who fail to respond adequately to standard drug treatment for schizophrenia. (medworksmedia.com)
  • Upon initiation of CLOZARIL® (clozapine) therapy, up to a 1-week supply of additional CLOZARIL tablets may be provided to the patient to be held for emergencies (e.g., weather, holidays). (medworksmedia.com)
  • CLOZARIL® (clozapine) is contraindicated in patients with a previous hypersensitivity to clozapine or any other component of this drug, in patients with myeloproliferative disorders, uncontrolled epilepsy, paralytic ileus, or a history of CLOZARIL-induced agranulocytosis or severe granulocytopenia. (medworksmedia.com)
  • Clozaril® (Clozapine) is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis (see boxed warning). (medworksmedia.com)
  • Clozapine (Clozaril, Denzapine, Zaponex) is a second generation antipsychotic . (mind.org.uk)
  • Studies have shown that older adults with dementia (a brain disorder that affects the ability to remember, think clearly, communicate, and perform daily activities and that may cause changes in mood and personality) who take antipsychotics (medications for mental illness) such as clozapine have an increased chance of death during treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Clozapine is in a class of medications called atypical antipsychotics. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug primarily used on people who are unresponsive to or intolerant to other antipsychotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. What is the efficacy (vs. placebo and/or conventional antipsychotics) of clozapine during acute symptom episodes for reduction of positive symptoms, negative/deficit symptoms (i.e., primary, enduring negative symptoms), and other outcomes? (mentalhealth.com)
  • 3. Is clozapine efficacious for schizophrenia patients who fail to respond to conventional antipsychotics? (mentalhealth.com)
  • The literature was searched for studies on the efficacy of antipsychotics that replaced clozapine in such patients. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In particular, clozapine has been recommended as treatment for patients with TD who require antipsychotics. (medscape.com)
  • Clozapine has efficacy in reducing symptoms in patients who have not responded to other antipsychotics ( 2 - 4 ), but carries risk of serious side effects and requires regular blood monitoring. (frontiersin.org)
  • For example, a recent study found that there was a delay of around 4 years between patients meeting TRS criteria and the initiation of clozapine, and that during this period patients were often treated with alternative drug regimens that are not evidence-based and are associated with adverse effects, such as antipsychotics at doses higher than the maximum recommended, and antipsychotic polypharmacy ( 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Clozapine belongs to a family of medications called antipsychotics . (medbroadcast.com)
  • Clinical studies with clozapine have clearly demonstrated its superior efficacy over that of conventional antipsychotics in treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Further research will be needed to determine whether novel antipsychotics may substitute for clozapine in the future or whether clozapine will retain its unique role in the management of patients suffering from difficult-to-treat schizophrenic disorders. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Clozapine was developed as an alternative to chlorpromazine and haloperidol for the treatment of schizophrenia, in part because the older antipsychotics cause movement disorders. (aafp.org)
  • CT scans were carried out on nineteen patients with schizophrenia who did not respond to conventional antipsychotics but who responded to Clozapine, 12 patients with schizophrenia who did not respond either to conventional antipsychotics or to Clozapine, 16 schizophrenics who responded to typical antipsychotics, and 16 normal volunteers. (priory.com)
  • We wished to find out if there were neuroradiological differences between people with schizophrenia who responded to typical antipsychotic drugs, who responded only to atypical antipsychotics, and those who were resistant to all drug treatments, including Clozapine. (priory.com)
  • Clozapine is the most effective antipsychotic, but is reserved for people with schizophrenia who have not adequately responded to two other antipsychotics. (nps.org.au)
  • The researchers found that those on clozapine had fewer hospitalizations, stayed on their new medication longer, and were less likely to need to use additional antipsychotics. (empr.com)
  • Several trials show it to be a superior treatment option, yet clozapine remains the "red-headed stepchild" of antipsychotics. (thecarlatreport.com)
  • And, before turning to clozapine, some psychiatrists will try a dozen other atypical antipsychotics and antipsychotic polypharmacy. (thecarlatreport.com)
  • But is clozapine really more effective than other antipsychotics? (thecarlatreport.com)
  • Clozapine was first shown to be superior to chlorpromazine (Thorazine) in patients who had inadequate response to at least 3 first-generation antipsychotics (Kane J et al, Arch Gen Psych 1988;45(9):789-796). (thecarlatreport.com)
  • All treatment guidelines for schizophrenia recommend clozapine after inadequate response to at least 2 antipsychotics. (thecarlatreport.com)
  • Clozapine is a medication that is more effective for people when other antipsychotics haven't worked. (thecarlatreport.com)
  • Clozapine (CLZ) is the "prototypical" of second-generation antipsychotics (APs), also named "atypical antipsychotics" (AAPs). (dovepress.com)
  • Schizophrenic patients resistant to antipsychotics are diagnosed as having treatment-refractory schizophrenia, and they are treated with clozapine. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • KW - Suicide KW - Treatment-refractory schizophrenia SP - 559 EP - 563 JF - Clinical psychopharmacology and neuroscience : the official scientific journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology JO - Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci VL - 17 IS - 4 N2 - Schizophrenic patients resistant to antipsychotics are diagnosed as having treatment-refractory schizophrenia, and they are treated with clozapine. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • national data were used to compare several outcomes between adults with TRS on clozapine therapy and those on other antipsychotics. (scielo.br)
  • In the largest comparative analysis of antipsychotic medications in schizophrenia to date, clozapine and long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics come out on top in terms of relapse prevention, reports a new study published online June 7 in JAMA Psychiatry. (schizophreniaforum.org)
  • However, studies on this are scarce and have been conducted with either various antipsychotics or only in small samples of patients receiving clozapine. (uta.fi)
  • Behavioral effects of clozapine and dopamine receptor subtypes. (abcam.com)
  • Lidsky TI, Alter E, Banerjee SP (1991) Effects of clozapine on glutamatergic transmission. (springer.com)
  • To evaluate the effects of clozapine compared with typical antipsychotic drugs in people with schizophrenia. (cochrane.org)
  • Cholinergic agonist effects of clozapine and olanzapine may, however, mitigate potential adverse cognitive effects associated with the cholinergic blocking actions of these agents. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • Its use, limited by the well-known agranulocytosis risk, has also been associated with severe cardiovascular side effects and sudden death.1-3 Both dilated cardiomyopathy and myocarditis, as result of direct toxicity and drug hypersensitivity, respectively, have been described at autopsy.2,3 We report a case of hypersensitivity myocarditis secondary to clozapine administration diagnosed for the first time in vivo by endomyocardial biopsy and successfully treated with corticosteroids. (redorbit.com)
  • Clozapine is associated with a relatively high risk of low white blood cells (agranulocytosis), a condition of suppressed immunity which may result in death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clozapine carries a black box warning for drug-induced agranulocytosis (lowered white blood cell count). (wikipedia.org)
  • Clozapine-induced agranulocytosis can be transient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anderman B, Griffith RW (1977) Clozapine-induced agranulocytosis: a situation report up to 1976. (springer.com)
  • Krupp P, Barnes P (1992) Clozapine-associated agranulocytosis: risk and aetiology. (springer.com)
  • Lieberman JA, Alvir JM (1992) A report of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis in the United States. (springer.com)
  • Treatment with clozapine requires regular hematologic evaluation to avoid fatal agranulocytosis. (medscape.com)
  • Because it can induce agranulocytosis, however, clozapine is indicated only for schizophrenia that is not responsive to other therapies. (rti.org)
  • Clozapine is also associated with having fewer movement disorders than chlorpromazine, but may induce life-threatening decreases in white blood cells (agranulocytosis). (cochrane.org)
  • Although it is effective for refractory symptoms, clozapine is associated with fatal agranulocytosis, seizures, myocarditis, orthostatic hypotension, and respiratory and cardiac arrest. (aafp.org)
  • Up to now direct toxic effects or immunological processes have been said to explain clozapine-induced agranulocytosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It is assumed that changes or abnormalities of clozapine uptake at the cell membrane might play a role in the development of clozapine-induced leukocytopenia and/or agranulocytosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Clozapine was introduced in the 1960s but was withdrawn in the 1970s because it caused agranulocytosis. (nps.org.au)
  • Genotype-guided blood sampling before clozapine initiation to guide monitoring decisions in patients with increased susceptibility to clozapine-induced agranulocytosis was shown to be cost effective, according to results of a pharmacoeconomic analysis published in The Pharmacogenomics Journal . (aphanet.org)
  • Clozapine is associated with a 0.8% incidence of agranulocytosis. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The Clozapine REMS Program ensures optimal patient monitoring for and management of clozapine-induced severe neutropenia, providing a centralized system for prescribers and pharmacists in managing patient risk, regardless of which clozapine product is being used. (fda.gov)
  • Clozapine treatment has caused severe neutropenia, defined as an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) less than 500/μL. (rxlist.com)
  • Because of the risk of severe neutropenia , Versacloz is available only through a restricted program under a Risk Evaluation Mitigation Strategy (REMS) called the Clozapine REMS Program [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS ]. (rxlist.com)
  • describe a patient treated with clozapine who had severe eosinophilia (55% of WBCs) followed by neutropenia (neutrophil count of 1840/μL) 7 days later. (psychiatrist.com)
  • We report a similar case of a clozapine-treated patient who developed eosinophilia (47% of WBCs) and subsequent neutropenia (neutrophil count of 1800/μL) 6 days later. (psychiatrist.com)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is making changes to the requirements for prescribing, monitoring, dispensing, and receiving the schizophrenia medicine clozapine, to address safety concerns about a serious blood condition called severe neutropenia. (newsinferno.com)
  • First, the FDA has clarified and enhanced the prescribing information for clozapine to explain how to monitor patients for neutropenia and manage clozapine treatment. (newsinferno.com)
  • The Clozapine REMS Program will improve monitoring and management of patients with severe neutropenia. (newsinferno.com)
  • The monitoring recommendations for neutropenia caused by clozapine treatment have changed. (newsinferno.com)
  • Because clozapine can decrease the number of neutrophils in the blood, health care professionals will now monitor neutropenia by the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) only, rather than in conjunction with the white blood cell count. (newsinferno.com)
  • Patients with benign ethnic neutropenia (BEN), which previously made them ineligible for clozapine treatment, will now be able to receive the drug. (newsinferno.com)
  • The revised prescribing information facilitates prescribers' ability to make individualized treatment decisions if they determine that the risk of psychiatric illness is greater than the risk of recurrent severe neutropenia, especially in patients for whom clozapine may be the treatment of last resort. (newsinferno.com)
  • Severe Neutropenia: Clozapine tablets can cause severe neutropenia, which can lead to serious and fatal infections. (nih.gov)
  • In the fall of 2015, the FDA updated the prescribing information for monitoring neutropenia and approved a new shared Clozapine REMS Program. (freece.com)
  • The data for this study represent a subset of data from a randomized, double-blinded trial that evaluated subjects with schizophrenia who demonstrated a poor treatment response to clozapine. (scienceblogs.com)
  • In this article we systematically review prospective or genetic studies of biological predictors of response to clozapine. (frontiersin.org)
  • Inclusion required that studies examined a biological variable in relation to symptomatic response to clozapine. (frontiersin.org)
  • Of the non-genetic variables, the most consistent predictors of a good response to clozapine are higher prefrontal cortical structural integrity and activity, and a lower ratio of the dopamine and serotonin metabolites, homovanillic acid (HVA): 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in CSF. (frontiersin.org)
  • Quantified EEG changes associated with a positive clinical response to clozapine in schizophrenia," Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry , vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 861-876, 1995. (hindawi.com)
  • Asymmetry of the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle was associated with lack of response to Clozapine. (priory.com)
  • The availability of a radiological predictor of non-response to Clozapine would clearly be of considerable clinical value. (priory.com)
  • For those with a poor response to clozapine, sodium benzoate may offer some hope. (bipolarnews.org)
  • This monitoring requirement serves as the basis for the Clozapine Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS). (fda.gov)
  • The Clozapine REMS Program was approved in September 2015 and is a "shared-system" program, meaning that it includes all clozapine medicines approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (fda.gov)
  • Prior to the approval of the Clozapine REMS Program, individual clozapine manufacturers operated separate patient registries. (fda.gov)
  • In response to implementation challenges identified following the approval of the Clozapine REMS Program, the FDA announced, in November 2015, that the deadlines for certification of prescribers and pharmacies would be extended to help ensure that health care professionals had sufficient time to complete certification and to ensure patient access to clozapine was maintained. (fda.gov)
  • If prescribers and pharmacies experience problems while attempting to become certified, they should contact the Clozapine REMS Call Center at 844-267-8678. (fda.gov)
  • In an effort to provide timely clozapine information to prescribers, pharmacies, patients, and distributors, the FDA will post any related updates on clozapine and the Clozapine REMS Program on this page. (fda.gov)
  • March 12, 2019---On January 16, 2019 the FDA approved a modification to the Clozapine Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) Program. (fda.gov)
  • Of note, is a requirement for health care professionals prescribing clozapine, as well as pharmacies dispensing clozapine, to be certified in the clozapine REMS program. (fda.gov)
  • For more information on the changes to the clozapine REMS program that took effect on February 28, 2019 please see the updated CDER Statement and the Clozapine Product Manufacturers' Group (CPMG) website . (fda.gov)
  • The Clozapine Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) Program Modification will go live on February 28, 2019 , 1/16/19, 12/16/16, 11/19/15, 11/13/15, and 10/20/15. (fda.gov)
  • If you have questions or concerns about the Clozapine REMS Program or its website please contact FDA at [email protected] , 1-855-543-3784 or 301-796-3400. (fda.gov)
  • A program has been set up by the manufacturers of clozapine to be sure that people do not take clozapine without the necessary monitoring called the Clozapine Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) Program. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your doctor and your pharmacist must be registered with the Clozapine REMS program, and your pharmacist will not dispense your medication unless he or she has received the results of your blood tests. (medlineplus.gov)
  • For patients to receive this medication , all doctors, pharmacists, and patients must agree to, understand, and carefully follow the requirements of the Clozapine REMS Program. (webmd.com)
  • If prescribers are not certified at the time of the 02/2019 Clozapine REMS Program Modification, a dispense of clozapine will not be authorized for patients under their care. (soap.org)
  • The Clozapine REMS (Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy) Program is an FDA-mandated program implemented by the manufacturers of Clozapine which is intended to help Healthcare Providers ensure the safety of patients on Clozapine. (soap.org)
  • Pharmacies must certify Clozapine Pharmacy Requirements in the Clozapine REMS Program starting October 12. (soap.org)
  • Prescribers are required to certify in the Clozapine REMS Program as soon as possible to continue patient therapy. (soap.org)
  • Before dispensing clozapine, outpatient pharmacies must obtain a predispense authorization (PDA) from the REMS Program by December 14, 2015. (soap.org)
  • The NEOMED Clozapine Assistance Service invites you to a free virtual CME event, Virtual Live Clozapine REMS Training, that will help clinicians better understand why, when, and how to use clozapine. (eventbrite.com)
  • There will only be one centralized clozapine registry, called the Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS). (nami.org)
  • Second, the FDA has approved a new, shared risk evaluation and mitigation strategy (REMS) for clozapine. (newsinferno.com)
  • The shared REMS is also expected to reduce the burden and possible confusion of having separate registries for individual clozapine medicines. (newsinferno.com)
  • All requirements for prescribing, dispensing, and monitoring clozapine medicines are now incorporated into the Clozapine REMS Program. (newsinferno.com)
  • The new Clozapine REMS Program replaces six existing clozapine registries maintained by individual manufacturers. (newsinferno.com)
  • Patients who are currently being treated with clozapine will be automatically transferred to the Clozapine REMS Program. (newsinferno.com)
  • Prescribers and pharmacies will be required to be certified in the Clozapine REMS Program in order to prescribe and dispense clozapine. (newsinferno.com)
  • In addition, in the Clozapine REMS Program, the requirements for ANC are being modified so that patients will be able to continue on clozapine treatment with a lower ANC, a change that will allow continued treatment for a greater number of patients. (newsinferno.com)
  • We may also hesitate to choose clozapine because of the extra time and perceived inconvenience involved in lab monitoring, patient education, and extra required training (REMS certification) for prescribers. (thecarlatreport.com)
  • For additional information about the Clozapine REMS. (hotelpalacebarcelona.com)
  • Beginning on 02/28/2019, if a pharmacy is not certified in the Clozapine REMS Program, a patient presenting a clozapine prescription at that pharmacy location will not receive clozapine regardless if the patient meets other Clozapine Pharmacy Registry program element requirements as defined by the Clozapine REMS Program (patient is enrolled and has ANC on file with. (hotelpalacebarcelona.com)
  • Prescribing clozapine for patients receiving inpatient care does not require prescriber certification in the Clozapine REMS Program if the patient is already enrolled in the program. (hotelpalacebarcelona.com)
  • Search results include contact information for pharmacies that are certified in the Clozapine REMS Program. (hotelpalacebarcelona.com)
  • Clozapine tablets are available only through a restricted program called the Clozapine REMS ( 5.2 ). (nih.gov)
  • Explain key elements of the Clozapine REMS Program. (freece.com)
  • A rare, but frequently fatal, side effect of the anti-psychotic drug clozapine is myocarditis. (redorbit.com)
  • The two-part series revealed that Reinstein's unusually heavy reliance on the drug clozapine - a potent psychotropic medication - has been linked to at least three deaths. (dailypress.com)
  • People who do not respond adequately to antipsychotic medication are sometimes given the 'atypical' antipsychotic drug clozapine, which has been found to be effective for some people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. (cochrane.org)
  • After stopping treatment with haloperidol, risperidone, and biperiden, which were ineffective and burdened the patient with severe akathisia, clozapine therapy was started. (redorbit.com)
  • Drew KL, O'Connor WT, Kehr J, Ungerstedt U (1990) Regional specificity of clozapine and haloperidol on GABA and dopamine release in rat basal ganglia. (springer.com)
  • Occupancy of central neurotransmitter receptors by risperidone, clozapine and haloperidol, measured ex vivo by quantitative autoradiography. (nih.gov)
  • In order to provide data on the degree to which various central neurotransmitter receptors are occupied in vivo, we performed ex vivo receptor occupancy studies with risperidone in comparison with clozapine and haloperidol in rats and guinea pigs. (nih.gov)
  • The dose-dependent occupancy of D2 receptors proceeded more gradually with risperidone (slope in the caudate-putamen: 0.85) than with clozapine (slope: 1.44) or haloperidol (slope: 1.51). (nih.gov)
  • The dose ratio for high (75%) vs. low (25%) D2 receptor occupancy in the caudate-putamen, was 37.3 for risperidone, 8.4 for clozapine, and 7.9 for haloperidol. (nih.gov)
  • [1] Clozapine induces zif268 but not c-fos mRNA in rat striatum, while Haloperidol induces c-Fos-like immunoreactivity in the caudate-putamen. (selleckchem.com)
  • Clozapine, but not haloperidol, produces bursts of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs), which are blocked by glutamate receptor antagonists, suggesting that these EPSPs are the result of increasing release of excitatory amino acids. (selleckchem.com)
  • Before clozapine initiation, haloperidol was given in 16 cases (55.17%, mean = 7.43 mg/d, SD = ±4.01), and the treatment was stopped mainly because of extrapyramidal side effects. (ovid.com)
  • Haloperidol- and clozapine-induced oxidative stress in the rat brain. (harvard.edu)
  • For this purpose, regulatory (R) and catalytic (Cat) activities of PKA and expression of various isoforms of regulatory and catalytic subunits were examined in rat brain after single or chronic (21-day) treatment with haloperidol (HAL, 1 mg/kg) or clozapine (CLOZ, 20 mg/kg). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Clozapine is a drug used to treat psychosis. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Data from a meta-analysis of 15 trials support the use of clozapine in treatment-resistant bipolar disorder with mania or psychosis [Li 2015] . (drugs.com)
  • Ekblom B, Eriksson K, Lindstrom LH (1984) Supersensitivity psychosis in schizophrenic patients after sudden clozapine withdrawal. (springer.com)
  • Apr 14, 1997 - A group of Indiana and Ohio clinicians thinks that close monitoring of blood glucose during initiation of clozapine treatment for refractory psychosis is warranted in patients with diabetes or a family history of diabetes. (schizophrenia.com)
  • Over the next few weeks clozapine was restarted at 25 mg QHS for his psychosis and. (hotelpalacebarcelona.com)
  • Increased Mortality in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis: Clozapine tablets are not approved for this condition ( 5.7 ). (nih.gov)
  • Clozapine is not approved for use in older adults with dementia-related psychosis. (uncmedicalcenter.org)
  • Clozapine may increase the risk of death in older adults with dementia-related psychosis and is not approved for this use. (uncmedicalcenter.org)
  • Clozapine is an antipsychotic medication. (cigna.com)
  • Clozapine is an antipsychotic medication that is used to treat severe schizophrenia symptoms in people who have not responded to other medications. (rxlist.com)
  • In comparative trials with these drugs, considerably more patients respond to treatment with clozapine than to conventional antipsychotic medication. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Clozapine, which is an antipsychotic medication, is shown to reduce suicide rates in people with schizophrenia. (afsp.org)
  • Clozapine is an antipsychotic medication that can cause movement problems to include extrapyramidal side effects. (healthtap.com)
  • In clinical studies, clozapine has been shown to have differential clinical efficacy for treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients and to be associated with a low incidence of extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) (Kane et al. (mentalhealth.com)
  • The clinical efficacy of clozapine for two outcomes, positive and negative symptoms, in acutely psychotic patients and in treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients has been most extensively studied. (mentalhealth.com)
  • Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic that is used for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. (soap.org)
  • Clozapine is a second-generation antipsychotic often reserved for use in treatment resistant schizophrenia. (soap.org)
  • Clozapine is the recommended antipsychotic for treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) but there is significant variability between patients in the degree to which clozapine will improve symptoms. (frontiersin.org)
  • Nonetheless a significant proportion of patients do not improve despite having adequate clozapine plasma concentrations ( 9 ), which may be termed "clozapine resistant schizophrenia" ( 11 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of non-clozapine antipsychotic combinations for people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. (cochrane.org)
  • Clozapine is an antipsychotic known for its superior efficacy in treating drug-resistant Schizophrenia. (ncbs.res.in)
  • Clozapine is the most effective antipsychotic for reducing positive symptoms and hospitalisations among people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. (nps.org.au)
  • As better drugs for treatment-resistant schizophrenia did not emerge, clozapine was reintroduced with a strict scheme for neutrophil monitoring. (nps.org.au)
  • As I detailed in my recent Advocate piece , Clozapine is the only FDA-approved medicine for treatment resistant schizophrenia. (nami.org)
  • Even though large studies reveal clozapine has impressive efficacy, particularly with treatment-resistant schizophrenia, many of us are reluctant to use it. (thecarlatreport.com)
  • According to one study, of the 30% of patients who have treatment-resistant schizophrenia, just 5% are put on clozapine (Olfson M et al, Psychiatr Serv 2016;67(2):152). (thecarlatreport.com)
  • We sought to assess the effectiveness of clozapine augmentation with ECT (C+ECT) in patients with clozapine-resistant schizophrenia. (open.ac.uk)
  • This study lends support to emerging evidence for the effectiveness of C+ECT in clozapine resistant schizophrenia. (open.ac.uk)
  • Clozapine is a well-recognized effective treatment for some patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS). (scielo.br)
  • Clozapine is the most effective antipsychotic available, but as many as 40-70% of patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia do not respond to it. (bipolarnews.org)
  • Clozapine is approved for treatment-resistant schizophrenia and suicidal behavior in schizophrenic patients. (freece.com)
  • Olanzapine was the most tested alternative to clozapine with most of the studies reporting positive outcome, especially in patients with less severe illness and those who stop clozapine for reasons other than poor response. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We concluded that in patients who discontinue clozapine, considering a trial of olanzapine would be worthwhile. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Several recent studies suggest olanzapine may be effective in some clozapine responders as well as in treatment resistant patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The study involves a six-month, double-blind protocol during which eighty patients, across three sites around the country, will be randomly assigned to receive clozapine or olanzapine. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The specific aims of the study are to evaluate the relative effects of olanzapine and clozapine on clinical outcomes and cognition in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who have demonstrated resistance to treatment in the past. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A randomized, double-blind comparison of clozapine and high-dose olanzapine in treatment-resistant patients with schizophrenia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Agents with relatively weak dopamine inhibiting effects (e.g. clozapine and quetiapine), for example, would theoretically have a cognitive profile superior to that of agents with higher degrees of dopaminergic inhibition (all traditional agents, risperidone, olanzapine and ziprasidone) when used for conditions associated with diminished dopamine function (e.g. idiopathic Parkinson's disease). (biopsychiatry.com)
  • Drugs with weak anticholinergic effects (high-potency traditional agents, risperidone, quetiapine and ziprasidone) would theoretically be less likely to cause cognitive impairment than agents with high degrees of cholinergic receptor blocking actions (clozapine and olanzapine) when treating patients with impaired cholinergic function (e.g. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • Most of the studies compared clozapine with olanzapine, risperidone, and quetiapine. (aafp.org)
  • The attrition rate due to adverse effects was higher for clozapine than for olanzapine or risperidone, but fewer patients taking clozapine left the study because of ineffectiveness versus those taking risperidone. (aafp.org)
  • Clozapine was not more effective at improving general mental state than olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, or ziprasidone. (aafp.org)
  • In a 2-year randomized controlled trial comparing clozapine with olanzapine (Zyprexa), clozapine was shown to significantly decrease suicide attempts, hospitalizations due to suicide, and suicide prevention treatment and interventions (Meltzer HY et al, Am J Psychiatry 2003;60(1):82-91). (thecarlatreport.com)
  • RESULTS: Time until treatment discontinuation for any reason was significantly longer for clozapine (median=10.5 months) than for quetiapine (median=3.3), or risperidone (median=2.8), but not for olanzapine (median=2.7). (rti.org)
  • Time to discontinuation because of inadequate therapeutic effect was significantly longer for clozapine than for olanzapine, quetiapine, or risperidone. (rti.org)
  • At 3-month assessments, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total scores had decreased more in patients treated with clozapine than in patients treated with quetiapine or risperidone but not olanzapine. (rti.org)
  • Clozapine, as well as monthly LAI formulations of paliperidone, zuclopenthixol, perphenazine, and olanzapine, were associated with the lowest risk of psychiatric rehospitalization, while flupentixol and quetiapine were associated with the highest risk. (schizophreniaforum.org)
  • When the researchers compared each antipsychotic only to the most commonly prescribed one-oral olanzapine-clozapine and LAI zuclopenthixol were associated with a significantly lower risk of rehospitalization. (schizophreniaforum.org)
  • Compared to oral olanzapine, clozapine and LAIs as a group had the lowest risk of treatment failure. (schizophreniaforum.org)
  • The FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation Research's announced that the requirements are intended to ensure safe and continued access to the medication Seizures Seizures have occurred with clozapine treatment. (soap.org)
  • Clozapine may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting when you stand up, especially when you first start taking it or when your dose is increased. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your doctor will probably start you on a low dose of clozapine and gradually increase your dose to give your body time to adjust to the medication and decrease the chance that you will experience this side effect. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your doctor will probably tell you to restart your treatment with a low dose of clozapine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Clozapine withdrawal and targeted 8-day, low-dose corticosteroid therapy resolved the symptoms and restored cardiac function. (redorbit.com)
  • is there something to take to improve white cells level .Her dose at the moments is 175mg of clozapine and still with low results. (drugs.com)
  • 3 High dose clozapine warrants ophthalmic follow-up. (mja.com.au)
  • Perenyi A, Kuncz E, Bagdy G (1986) Early relapse after sudden withdrawal or dose reduction of clozapine. (springer.com)
  • Clozapine showed dose-related effects on scopolamine-induced cognitive dysfunction, with higher doses having no significant effect and lower doses reversing the dysfunction. (nih.gov)
  • Changes to the dose of clozapine, especially treatment interruptions, should be discussed with the patient's psychiatrist. (nps.org.au)
  • Clozapine exhibits an "inverted-U" shaped dose-response curve, reversing the apomorphine-induced loss of prepulse inhibition (PPI) at low doses but not at high doses in the rats. (selleckchem.com)
  • Some experts believe that following clozapine serum levels is helpful in titrating the dose. (thecarlatreport.com)
  • Mean dose of clozapine was 59.16 mg/d, (SD = ±40.48), ranging from 12.5 to 200 mg/d. (ovid.com)
  • Contact the supplying pharmacy to find out the patient's current dose of clozapine, when he or she last collected supplies, the brand of clozapine and the directions prescribed RP is a 39-year-old man with no known medical history and a psychiatric history notable for chronic paranoid schizophrenia who was recently admitted to your psychiatric unit after 3+ weeks of medication nonadherence. (hotelpalacebarcelona.com)
  • In this study we obtained blood and hair samples from 12 grey haired patients treated with low-dose clozapine as an adjunct medication in their treatment against Parkinson disease. (diva-portal.org)
  • High correlations between dose and the measured concentration of analyte were found for both clozapine (r=0.91) and desmethylclozapine (r=0.88). (diva-portal.org)
  • Drooling is a known side effect of Clozapine and it may be dose-related -- meaning that you & your doctor can discuss whether a lower dose of Clozapine will still protect you from psychotic symptoms. (healthtap.com)
  • The initial dose is 1 mg is reported in a patient whose problem might otherwise leponex clozapine 100 mg have necessitated an abdominal port site. (yogachicago.com)
  • clarification needed] Clozapine may cause serious and potentially fatal adverse effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • The introduction of clozapine and further research regarding its novel clinical effects have stimulated renewed interest in drug development and fostered several hypotheses regarding ways in which the efficacy or adverse effects profile of antipsychotic drugs might be improved. (mentalhealth.com)
  • Although clozapine has efficacy in TRS, it can elicit adverse effects and initiation is often delayed. (frontiersin.org)
  • Clozapine is an antipsychotic drug, which is claimed to have superior efficacy and to cause fewer motor adverse effects than typical drugs for people with treatment-resistant illnesses. (cochrane.org)
  • Compared with those taking risperidone, the clozapine groups showed fewer extrapyramidal adverse effects but had an important weight gain not seen with risperidone. (aafp.org)
  • To verify this hypothesis the concentrations of clozapine were measured in the plasma and the leukocytes of a patient receiving clozapine who developed clozapine-induced leukocytopenia and in 10 patients receiving clozapine who did not show any serious adverse side effects. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Whether prescribed by the hospital specialist or the GP, the GP will often be responsible for the monitoring of adverse effects and overall health of patients taking clozapine. (nps.org.au)
  • A significant barrier to realization of the full potential of clozapine as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of schizophrenia is the substantial interpatient variability that exists along the therapeutic continuum of no response-efficacious response-adverse response. (aspetjournals.org)
  • While continuing their clozapine therapy, subjects were randomly assigned to receive either risperidone 3 mg daily or placebo for 8 weeks. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Dickson R, Williams R, Dalby JT (1994) Dystonic reaction and relapse with clozapine discontinuation and risperidone initiaton. (springer.com)
  • However, risperidone and clozapine may be ineffective in treating negative and positive symptoms in some patients. (medscape.com)
  • Although further trials are needed, there is some evidence that clozapine is slightly more effective than risperidone (Risperdal). (aafp.org)
  • What makes clozapine a unique and effective antipsychotic? (nami.org)
  • Clozapine is a very effective antipsychotic often used in the treatment of schizophrenia. (bcss.org)
  • Clozapine is one of the most effective atypical neuroleptics for treatment-refractory schizophrenia. (medscape.com)
  • We present a case of delirium with catatonic features following the abrupt cessation of clozapine treatment, which responded to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). (hindawi.com)
  • First-line treatment consists of benzodiazepines, while in case of resistance electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and clozapine have shown positive results. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • However, clozapine is sometimes combined with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) if clozapine monotherapy fails. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The therapeutic efficacy of clozapine (dibenzodiazepine antipsychotic) is proposed to be mediated through antagonism of the dopamine type 2 (D 2 ) and serotonin type 2A (5-HT 2A ) receptors. (drugs.com)
  • The results may suggest that patients at risk of developing clozapine-induced leukocytopenia show increased clozapine concentrations in the leukocytes although the clozapine plasma concentration is in the therapeutic range. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Radix Rehmanniae , Fructus Schisandrae , Radix Bupleuri , and Fructus Gardeniae are often used alongside with clozapine (CLZ) for schizophrenia patients in order to reduce side effects and enhance therapeutic efficacy. (mdpi.com)
  • The results obtained with clozapine and N -desmethylclozapine are considered a first step in the development of preclinical pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models that will support deeper mechanistic studies of clozapine in in vivo pharmacology, as well as the development of translational models that augment pharmacogenetic investigations that seek to improve the safety and efficacy of clozapine therapeutic intervention in the treatment of schizophrenia. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Unfortunately, this medication can cause serious side effects such as delirium, myoclonus and seizures particularly when clozapine levels exceed the normal therapeutic range. (bcss.org)
  • Investigators have reported that weight gain attributed to clozapine is associated with its clinical response. (scienceblogs.com)
  • First manufactured in 1959, clozapine is a dibenzodiazepine derivative with unique preclinical and clinical characteristics. (mentalhealth.com)
  • 1988). The combination of these preclinical and clinical characteristics has led clozapine to be termed an 'atypical antipsychotic' (Kane et al. (mentalhealth.com)
  • The studies examining the use of clozapine as a maintenance treatment are not as methodologically rigorous as those examining the drug's clinical efficacy in acutely psychotic or treatment-resistant patients. (mentalhealth.com)
  • Klimke A, Klieser E (1995) The atypical neuroleptic clozapine (Leponex): state of the art and recent clinical aspects. (springer.com)
  • The clinical effect of clozapine, however, is, at least in the short-term, not reflected in measures of global functioning such as ability to leave the hospital and maintain an occupation. (cochrane.org)
  • The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in the United Kingdom recommends clozapine for persons with schizophrenia who have not responded to two other antipsychotic medications, including another atypical antipsychotic. (aafp.org)
  • Although it has potential benefits and approximately 30% of patients have a clinical indication for clozapine use, prescription rates are low. (scielo.br)
  • In this study, the authors compared switching to clozapine with switching to another atypical antipsychotic in patients who had discontinued treatment with a newer atypical antipsychotic in the context of the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials for Interventions Effectiveness (CATIE) investigation. (rti.org)
  • Describe the pharmacology and clinical role of clozapine. (freece.com)
  • Describe the clinical role of clozapine. (freece.com)
  • Because of the risks with this medication, clozapine is available only through a special restricted distribution program. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Talk to the doctor who prescribed clozapine if you, a family member, or someone you care for has dementia and is taking this medication. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Clozapine may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. (cigna.com)
  • Clozapine is a psychiatric medication (anti-psychotic type) that works by helping to restore the balance of certain natural substances (neurotransmitters) in the brain . (webmd.com)
  • If you are using the liquid form of this medication , read the Patient Information Leaflet if available from your pharmacist before you start taking clozapine and each time you get a refill. (webmd.com)
  • Clozapine is an atypical neuroleptic medication that is free of parkinsonian side effects and that has been reported to ameliorate the tremor of Parkinson's disease. (nih.gov)
  • We believe that clozapine, in low doses, may be a useful medication for the treatment of rest tremor in Parkinson's disease, even in cases without mental abnormalities. (nih.gov)
  • Stopping clozapine too quickly can cause a return of the symptoms you originally started taking the medication for as well as headache, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. (medbroadcast.com)
  • If you miss 2 or more days of clozapine doses, talk to your doctor before restarting the medication. (medbroadcast.com)
  • Through its Clozapine Assistance Service, the Northeast Ohio Medical University (NEOMED) Best Practices in Schizophrenia Treatment (BeST) Center motivates, trains, coaches and supports licensed prescribing clinicians, or individuals about to acquire such licensure, to learn about clozapine and to prescribe it to patients who are likely to benefit from this medication. (eventbrite.com)
  • Clozapine levels can increase as a result of medication interactions, changes in nicotine and caffeine consumption, liver disease and overdoses. (bcss.org)
  • The injections encountered in a membrane of amoeba of six centres of the intrauterine clozapine generic medication by mr. then a parte of an care was spent without any goitre, when kindly, while the infant assumed a stooping com, the chairman reaction through a tuberculosis in the intervals, entered the prone lung, and glided against the present com of the walls. (itsaboutthyme.com)
  • Clozapine is used to treat the symptoms of schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual thinking, loss of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions) in people who have not been helped by other medications or who have tried to kill themselves and are likely to try to kill or harm themselves again. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The primary objective of this study was to determine whether an increase in serum lipids is associated with improvement in schizophrenia symptoms during steady state treatment with clozapine. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Elevation of serum lipids is associated with an improvement in schizophrenia symptoms in subjects treated with clozapine. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Data from a retrospective chart review of patients admitted with a DSM-IV diagnosis of treatment-resistant dementia and symptoms of agitation suggest that clozapine may be beneficial for the treatment of this condition [Lee 2007] . (drugs.com)
  • Extrapyramidal symptoms may subside somewhat after a person switches from another antipsychotic to clozapine. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is evidence to suggest that clozapine may improve social and occupational functioning and quality of life and may reduce affective symptoms, hospitalizations, secondary negative symptoms, and tardive dyskinesia. (mentalhealth.com)
  • The complexity and diagnostic difficulty of this case highlight the overlap of symptoms between various syndromes, including delirium, catatonia, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS), all of which can be associated with clozapine withdrawal. (hindawi.com)
  • Mr. J was treated for a presumptuous diagnosis of NMS with abrupt cessation of clozapine and intravenous fluids on a general medical ward, prior to transfer back to the acute psychiatric unit following resolution of his fevers and autonomic symptoms. (hindawi.com)
  • The withdrawal symptoms occurred the first day after drug discontinuation and could be stopped by readministering clozapine. (springer.com)
  • In our opinion, the sudden occurrence of the withdrawal symptoms cannot be explained by a dopaminergic hypersensitivity or a cholinergic rebound , but indicates an involvement of GABAergic and perhaps antiglutamatergic properties of clozapine. (springer.com)
  • Three of the patients have been able to continue on clozapine therapy and have experienced a reduction in psychotic symptoms,' the authors report. (schizophrenia.com)
  • Unfortunately, clozapine will still fail to improve symptoms in 40 to 70% of TRS patients ( 2 , 5 ), and currently this can only be determined through a trial of clozapine treatment. (frontiersin.org)
  • patients who have clozapine plasma concentrations of 350 ng/mL or above are more likely to show improvements in symptoms, with reported sensitivity and specificity of 64-86 and 55-78% ( 7 - 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Clozapine is used to treat schizophrenia in patients whose symptoms are not controlled with standard treatment. (fda.gov)
  • HealthDay News) - Clozapine reduces symptoms in patients with schizophrenia who don't benefit from other antipsychotic medications, according to research published online November 6 in The American Journal of Psychiatry . (empr.com)
  • You can have a serious rebound of symptoms which may take long time to get under control again, Clozapine is the gold standard for addressing symptoms that didn't respond to other meds, so NEVER attempt to do that, ask your treating physician and work with him/her. (healthtap.com)
  • Both groups taking sodium benzoate and clozapine showed improvements in negative symptoms of schizophrenia (which can include apathy and inability to experience pleasure) compared to the group taking only clozapine. (bipolarnews.org)
  • More community-based long-term randomised trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy of clozapine on global and social functioning as trials in special groups such as people with learning disabilities. (cochrane.org)
  • It is also of interest to DREADDs researchers - the DREADD ligand CNO is metabolised to clozapine, and recent reports suggest that clozapine itself may have high affinity and potency for DREADDs. (prweb.com)
  • You should not take clozapine if you have ever developed a severe infection or severe allergic reaction while taking this medicine. (cigna.com)
  • Clozapine is used to treat severe schizophrenia, or to reduce the risk of suicidal behavior in people with schizophrenia or similar disorders. (cigna.com)
  • Clozapine, a commonly used atypical antipsychotic, can precipitate a severe withdrawal syndrome. (hindawi.com)
  • In this report, a severe treatment-refractory schizophrenic patient who did not respond to clozapine even with ECT, but who recovered with asenapine monotherapy, is presented. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • T (rs2470890) was associated with significantly more severe side effects during clozapine treatment (p = 0.011). (uta.fi)
  • T (rs2470890) and the occurrence of more severe clozapine side effects. (uta.fi)
  • Clozapine may cause seizures. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Clozapine can also cause seizures , especially in higher doses. (webmd.com)
  • We searched the PubMed database until 20th January 2018 for studies investigating "clozapine" AND ("response" OR "outcome") AND "schizophrenia. (frontiersin.org)
  • After failing to respond to these medications, Mr. J was commenced on clozapine in week 10 of his admission. (hindawi.com)
  • Can medications such as clozapine cause kidney damage or kidney stones? (yahoo.com)
  • Clozapine is a uniquely effective medicine that restores lives for people with schizophrenia in ways that other medications just can't. (eventbrite.com)
  • Introduce the use of clozapine with a discussion about how other medications haven't been completely effective. (thecarlatreport.com)
  • In response promised to these reported cases, the FDA is whether restricting the use of methyldopa and clozapine medications in children. (rosesturn.com)
  • The results showed that clozapine treatment was associated with lower rates of psychiatric admission, antipsychotic discontinuation, and use of additional antipsychotic medications. (scielo.br)
  • improvement may continue 6 to 12 months after clozapine initiation (Meltzer 2003). (drugs.com)
  • Meltzer HY, Bastani B, Ramirez LF, Matsubara S (1989) Clozapine: new research on efficacy and mechanism of action. (springer.com)
  • Parsa MA, al-Lahham YH, Ramirez LF, Meltzer HY (1993) Prolonged psychotic relapse after abrupt clozapine withdrawal. (springer.com)
  • Clozapine may cause myocarditis (swelling of the heart muscle that may be dangerous) or cardiomyopathy (enlarged or thickened heart muscle that stops the heart from pumping blood normally). (medlineplus.gov)
  • We report a case of hypersensitivity myocarditis secondary to clozapine administration that was diagnosed in vivo for the first time through endomyocardial biopsy and was successfully treated with corticosteroids. (redorbit.com)
  • Clozapine-related myocarditis or acute viral myocarditis following a throat infection then was suspected, clozapine therapy was withdrawn, and the patient was transferred into the ICU. (redorbit.com)
  • background Treatment with clozapine can affect the heart, leading to serious complications such as myocarditis and cardiomyopathy. (tijdschriftvoorpsychiatrie.nl)
  • Recent analyses of clozapine data suggest that particularly myocarditis is possibly more common than has been assumed hitherto. (tijdschriftvoorpsychiatrie.nl)
  • T (rs2470890) polymorphism and side effects in a larger sample of patients during long-term clozapine treatment. (uta.fi)
  • Oct 01, 2015 · FDA simplifies clozapine dispensing requirements Red Cialis Yan Etkileri for pharmacists. (soap.org)
  • Identification of predictive biomarkers of clozapine response may aid initiation of clozapine treatment, as well as understanding of its mechanism of action. (frontiersin.org)
  • For all studies except genetic-studies, inclusion required that biological variables were measured before clozapine initiation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Some Australian states have allowed shared-care prescribing arrangements with GPs, but from 1 July 2015 GPs became eligible to prescribe maintenance clozapine without needing to be affiliated with a hospital. (nps.org.au)
  • For those reluctant to make clozapine their go-to antipsychotic for certain patients, this article will provide information to help you decide when it's right to prescribe. (thecarlatreport.com)
  • Prescribers and pharmacies must be certified by February 28 or they will no longer be able to prescribe/dispense clozapine. (hotelpalacebarcelona.com)
  • William J. Newman, MD, and Brianne M. Newman, MD, provide a glimpse of their 3-part series on the use of clozapine, which appears in the July, August, and October 2016 issues of Current Psychiatry . (mdedge.com)
  • However, unlike other antipsychotic drugs, clozapine does not cause catalepsy, block apomorphine- or amphetamine-induced stereotyped behaviors, elevate serum prolactin, or cause dopamine receptor hypersensitivity in laboratory animals (Fitton and Heel 1990). (mentalhealth.com)
  • This is certainly something where it may be better for staff members or the pharmacy to call for you to maximize your efficiency Clozapine tablets are contraindicated in: patients with a history of serious hypersensitivity to clozapine (e.g., photosensitivity,vasculitis, erythema multiforme, or Stevens-Johnson syndrome) or any other component of clozapine tablets. (hotelpalacebarcelona.com)
  • Known serious hypersensitivity to clozapine or any other component of clozapine tablets ( 4.1 ). (nih.gov)
  • Once the titration is complete, all or most of the clozapine can be given at night to help with adherence. (thecarlatreport.com)
  • Clozapine was given in standard titration, starting with 6.25 or 12.5 mg. (ovid.com)
  • Side effects involving clozapine should be reported to FDA's MedWatch program at www.fda.gov/medwatch . (fda.gov)
  • Rapid liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometer (LCMS) method for clozapine and its metabolite N-desmethyl clozapine (norclozapine) in human serum. (umassmed.edu)
  • Paired results from the analysis of pigmented and white hair confirmed the preference for binding to pigmented hair for both clozapine and its metabolite. (diva-portal.org)
  • Results obtained with clozapine and N -desmethylclozapine, a pharmacologically active human metabolite that was administered to a separate group of animals, support a conclusion of net carrier-mediated efflux of both compounds across the blood-brain barrier. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The cytotoxic metabolite of clozapine is identical to the protein-reactive metabolite that has been characterized previously. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A total of 237 patients receiving clozapine treatment completed the Liverpool University Neuroleptic Side-Effect Rating Scale (LUNSERS) assessing clozapine-induced side effects. (uta.fi)
  • The atypical antipsychotic clozapine was examined for its ability to interrupt cognitive functions in mice on passive avoidance paradigm and elevated plus maze. (nih.gov)
  • CONCLUSIONS: For these patients with schizophrenia who prospectively failed to improve with an atypical antipsychotic, clozapine was more effective than switching to another newer atypical antipsychotic. (rti.org)
  • The widely used atypical antipsychotic clozapine is a potent competitive antagonist at 5-HT(3) receptors which may contribute to its unique psychopharmacological profile. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Clozapine concentrations may be increased. (drugs.com)
  • Recommendations include that future studies should ensure adequate clozapine trial length and clozapine plasma concentrations, and may include multivariate models to increase predictive accuracy. (frontiersin.org)
  • High clozapine concentrations in leukocytes in a patient who developed leukocytopenia. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The patient who developed leukocytopenia showed clozapine concentrations in the leukocytes that were about 8 times higher than the mean clozapine concentrations in the leukocytes in the group of 10 patients receiving clozapine with no changes in the leukocyte count in the history. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, no major difference was found in the clozapine plasma concentrations. (biomedsearch.com)
  • First, to look for the ramifications of C2 and C1 on angiogenesis, we Clozapine N-oxide inhibition performed Matrigel cable development assays (a widely used morphogenetic assay to measure the angiogenic potential of ECs) with HmVEC-1 (a trusted immortalized individual dermal microvascular cell series, known as HmVECs hereafter) at different concentrations (25, 50, and 100 m) of every of both substances. (cylch.org)
  • Clozapine comes as a tablet, an orally disintegrating tablet (tablet that dissolves quickly in the mouth), and an oral suspension (liquid) to take by mouth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Clozapine is usually prescribed in tablet or liquid form, however an unlicensed short-acting intramuscular injectable formulation is available. (wikipedia.org)
  • The newest Food and Drug Administration approval follows approvals for Ivax to sell clozapine tablets in 100 mg, 25 mg and 12.5 mg tablet dosages. (schizophrenia.com)
  • Each round, light yellow tablet, with score on one side and 'C25' on the other side contains clozapine 25 mg. (medbroadcast.com)
  • Each pale yellow, round, bevelled-edged tablet, with 'CZ25' on one side and 'G/G' (pressure sensitive bisect) on the other side, contains clozapine 25 mg. (medbroadcast.com)
  • Each pale yellow, oblong, normal convex tablet with 'CZ200' on one side and 'G/G' on the other side, contains clozapine 200 mg. (medbroadcast.com)
  • Clozapine is also used in patients with recurrent suicidal behavior associated with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. (fda.gov)
  • Mr. J is a 30-year-old Australian man with schizoaffective disorder, who presented with delirium in the context of abrupt cessation of clozapine due to the development of suspected NMS. (hindawi.com)
  • Clozapine is also effective in reducing the risk of repeated suicidal behavior in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. (newsinferno.com)
  • Clozapine monitoring was one of the first formal Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy programs. (hotelpalacebarcelona.com)
  • The injectable form involves painful administration, higher doses involve injection into multiple sites simultaneously, and even more stringent monitoring than oral clozapine (often withdrawing blood samples for testing from non-consenting individuals). (wikipedia.org)
  • The risk is further increased at higher doses of clozapine and when co-prescribed with anticholinergics and other medicines that cause constipation, including opioids. (fda.gov)
  • However, more recent studies may suggest that not yet metabolized clozapine is taken up by leukocytes and transformed by oxidative processes to apoptosis-inducing metabolites. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Decomposition of clozapine N-oxide in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of clozapine and its metabolites. (nih.gov)
  • CLZ and its two inactive metabolites, norclozapine and clozapine N -oxide, were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. (mdpi.com)
  • In the absence of a full metabolizing system (i.e., lack of horseradish peroxidase and/or H 2 O 2 ), clozapine (0-100 μM) and its stable metabolites were not cytotoxic. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In conclusion, using a novel in vitro assay, we have shown that clozapine and its stable metabolites are not cytotoxic per se but are bioactivated to cytotoxic metabolites. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Clozapine undergoes extensive metabolism in several species including man, principally to the stable metabolites, demethylclozapine and clozapine N-oxide ( Gauch and Michaelis, 1971 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Additional data may be necessary to further define the role of clozapine in the treatment of this condition. (drugs.com)
  • What is the role of clozapine in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia (TD)? (medscape.com)
  • For patients who are extremely aggressive or suicidal, the APA treatment guidelines state a trial of clozapine may be reasonable as a first- or second-line antipsychotic. (thecarlatreport.com)
  • Generic forms of clozapine are marketed by Zenith Goldline and Mylan Pharmaceuticals. (depressionforums.org)
  • Health Canada specifically states that pharmacists must not switch a patient from one brand of clozapine to another unless they obtain a new, registry-specific patient registration form completed by the prescribing physician. (soap.org)
  • Many males have experienced cessation of ejaculation during orgasm as a side effect of clozapine, though this is not documented in official drug guides. (wikipedia.org)
  • The changes address a rare but serious side effect of clozapine, which is the reduction of a specific type of white cells called neutrophils. (nami.org)
  • Constipation is a frequent and known side effect of clozapine, but serious and fatal events continue to be reported. (fda.gov)
  • There is evidence for the involvement of genes engaged in intracellular signaling (i.e., genes that send messages within a cell), as risk factors for suicide and for a differential effect of clozapine on these crucial complex pathways, in particular, the EGF-MAPK-ERK pathway. (afsp.org)
  • Please, I need to know, will the drooling side effect of clozapine go away? (healthtap.com)
  • If tests could be developed to help clinicians predict in advance whether or not a given patient is likely to respond to clozapine, this could substantially reduce the delay before clozapine initiation, and clozapine could be selectively employed in the subset of patients in whom it is likely to be effective. (frontiersin.org)
  • Response to C+ECT was not associated with gender, age, duration of illness, or duration of clozapine treatment.Seventy five percent of responders remained out of hospital over the course of one-year follow up, while 70% of those with no response to C+ECT were not admitted to hospital. (open.ac.uk)
  • 440 ms. There was an association between the duration of clozapine treatment and QT-interval (with Bazett's correction. (scielo.org.za)
  • The benefits of clozapine may result from its affinity for the D 4 receptor. (medscape.com)