An imidazole derivative with a broad spectrum of antimycotic activity. It inhibits biosynthesis of the sterol ergostol, an important component of fungal CELL MEMBRANES. Its action leads to increased membrane permeability and apparent disruption of enzyme systems bound to the membrane.
An imidazole antifungal agent that is used topically and by intravenous infusion.
An imidazole derivative that is commonly used as a topical antifungal agent.
Infection of the VULVA and VAGINA with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
An antifungal agent used in the treatment of TINEA infections.
Broad spectrum antifungal agent used for long periods at high doses, especially in immunosuppressed patients.
A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that were originally discovered in ERYTHROCYTES. They are found primarily in non-excitable CELLS and set up electrical gradients for PASSIVE ION TRANSPORT.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
A mitosporic fungal genus and an anamorphic form of Arthroderma. Various species attack the skin, nails, and hair.
Inflammation of the head of the PENIS, glans penis.
'Benzene derivatives' are organic compounds that contain a benzene ring as the core structure, with various functional groups attached to it, and can have diverse chemical properties and uses, including as solvents, intermediates in chemical synthesis, and pharmaceuticals.
Dermatological pruritic lesion in the feet, caused by Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, or Epidermophyton floccosum.
A flat, flexible strip of material used to cover or fasten together damaged tissue.
A water-soluble medicinal preparation applied to the skin.
A fungal genus which grows in the epidermis and is the cause of TINEA.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
An inhibitor of drug metabolism and CYTOCHROME P-450 ENZYME SYSTEM activity.
Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.
Fungal infection of keratinized tissues such as hair, skin and nails. The main causative fungi include MICROSPORUM; TRICHOPHYTON; and EPIDERMOPHYTON.
Devices worn in the vagina to provide support to displaced uterus or rectum. Pessaries are used in conditions such as UTERINE PROLAPSE; CYSTOCELE; or RECTOCELE.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Inflammation of the VULVA and the VAGINA, characterized by discharge, burning, and PRURITUS.
Medicated dosage forms that are designed to be inserted into the rectal, vaginal, or urethral orifice of the body for absorption. Generally, the active ingredients are packaged in dosage forms containing fatty bases such as cocoa butter, hydrogenated oil, or glycerogelatin that are solid at room temperature but melt or dissolve at body temperature.
Infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth by a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons; vehicles for medicinal substances intended for external application; there are four classes: hydrocarbon base, absorption base, water-removable base and water-soluble base; several are also emollients.
Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Differences in the actions of some blockers of the calcium-activated potassium permeability in mammalian red cells. (1/278)

1. The actions of some inhibitors of the Ca2+-activated K+ permeability in mammalian red cells have been compared. 2. Block of the permeability was assessed from the reduction in the net loss of K+ that followed the application of the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 (2 microM) to rabbit red cells suspended at a haematocrit of 1% in a low potassium solution ([K]0 0.12-0.17 mM) at 37 degrees C. Net movement of K+ was measured using a K+-sensitive electrode placed in the suspension. 3. The concentrations (microM +/- s.d.) of the compounds tested causing 50% inhibition of K+ loss were: quinine, 37 +/- 3; cetiedil, 26 +/- 1; the cetiedil congeners UCL 1269, UCL 1274 and UCL 1495, approximately 150, 8.2 +/- 0.1, 0.92 +/- 0.03 respectively; clotrimazole, 1.2 +/- 0.1; nitrendipine, 3.6 +/- 0.5 and charybdotoxin, 0.015 +/- 0.002. 4. The characteristics of the block suggested that compounds could be placed in two groups. For one set (quinine, cetiedil, and the UCL congeners), the concentration-inhibition curves were steeper (Hill coefficient, nH, > or = 2.7) than for the other (clotrimazole, nitrendipine, charybdotoxin) for which nH approximately 1. 5. Compounds in the first set alone became less active on raising the concentration of K+ in the external solution to 5.4 mM. 6. The rate of K+ loss induced by A23187 slowed in the presence of high concentrations of cetiedil and its analogues, suggesting a use-dependent component to the inhibitory action. This was not seen with clotrimazole. 7. The blocking action of the cetiedil analogue UCL 1274 could not be overcome by an increase in external Ca2+ and its potency was unaltered when K+ loss was induced by the application of Pb2+ (10 microM) rather than by A23187. 8. These results, taken with the findings of others, suggest that agents that block the red cell Ca2+-activated K+ permeability can be placed in two groups with different mechanisms of action. The differences can be explained by supposing that clotrimazole and charybdotoxin act at the outer face of the channel whereas cetiedil and its congeners may block within it, either at or near the K+ binding site that determines the flow of K+.  (+info)

Effect of inhibitor depletion on inhibitory potency: tight binding inhibition of CYP3A by clotrimazole. (2/278)

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of mutual unbound inhibitor and unbound enzyme depletion on the potency of three antifungal cytochrome P-450 (CYP)3A inhibitors with over 1000-fold range in enzyme affinity. Incubations were performed with human liver microsomal protein concentrations that varied from 25 to 1000 microg/ml. The effect of each inhibitor was evaluated using midazolam as a CYP3A probe. Clotrimazole was found to be a tight binding inhibitor of CYP3A with a Ki of 250 pM. Analysis of percent inhibition data by stepwise linear regression for the matrix of inhibitor and enzyme concentrations used showed that protein concentrations predicted the percent inhibition by clotrimazole (r2 = 0.60, p <.001). When clotrimazole concentrations were added to the model, the r2 improved to 0.81, p =.003. Clotrimazole concentrations alone were not a significant predictor of percent inhibition (r2 = 0. 21, p =.08). For ketoconazole, protein concentrations provided a weak prediction of the percent inhibition (r2 = 0.39, p =.006). Conversely, ketoconazole concentrations alone were a good predictor of percent inhibition (r2 = 0.55, p <.001). In contrast to results with clotrimazole and ketoconazole, percent inhibition by fluconazole was not dependent on protein concentrations (r2 = 0.06, p =.39). We conclude that microsomal inhibitory potency can be affected by incubation conditions that deplete the unbound concentration of inhibitor available to the enzyme. This may introduce serious error into a quantitative prediction of an in vivo drug-drug interaction based on an in vitro derived Ki value.  (+info)

In vitro susceptibilities of clinical yeast isolates to the new antifungal eberconazole compared with their susceptibilities to clotrimazole and ketoconazole. (3/278)

The antifungal activity of eberconazole, a new imidazole derivative, against 124 clinical isolates of Candida comprising eight different species and to 34 isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans was compared to those of clotrimazole and ketoconazole. MICs of eberconazole, determined by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards standardized microbroth method, were equal to or lower than those of other azoles, especially for Candida krusei and Candida glabrata, which are usually resistant to triazoles.  (+info)

The antifungal antibiotic clotrimazole potently inhibits L-type calcium current in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes. (4/278)

The antimycotic agent clotrimazole (CLT) is a promising potential therapeutic agent for a variety of diseases including cancer. Although it is known that CLT alters calcium homeostasis in many cell types, its cardiac effects are virtually unknown. We investigated the effects of CLT on L-type calcium current (ICa,L) and action potentials in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes. CLT (5, 25 and 50 microM) inhibited basal ICa,L by 16, 59 and 93%, respectively. The inhibitory effect of CLT was rapid and the peak effect was attained within 3 min. At a concentration of 25 microM, the inhibitory effect of CLT was partially reversible whereas the response to 50 microM CLT persisted following drug withdrawal. CLT abbreviated action potential duration at 50 and 90% of repolarization and suppressed the plateau significantly. These results indicate that CLT may have important cardiac effects at concentrations used to induce the antiproliferative action of the drug.  (+info)

Comparison of the toxicity of fluconazole and other azole antifungal drugs to murine and human granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells in vitro. (5/278)

We studied the inhibitory effects on colony formation by granulocyte-macrophage colony forming units (cfu-gm) of eight azole antifungal agents in vitro. All agents, except fluconazole, inhibited colony formation dose-dependently with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) in the range of 0.78-49 micromol/L in cultures of murine and human bone marrow. For human cells, the IC50 values were 0.553 mg/L for itraconazole, 1.24 mg/L for saperconazole, 2.58 mg/L for clotrimazole, 5.33 mg/L for miconazole, 6.17 mg/L for econazole, 6.27 mg/L for ketoconazole and 8.38 mg/L for oxiconazole. The IC50 of itraconazole for human cfu-gm in vitro was similar to the plasma level of this drug recommended for systemic antifungal therapy (>0.5 mg/L) thus indicating the potential clinical relevance of our data. The IC50 of ketoconazole for human cfu-gm in vitro may be exceeded by plasma levels produced in vivo by high (> or =400 mg) doses, whereas fluconazole failed to reduce colony formation by 50% even at 100 mg/L, a concentration not reached in vivo even after extremely high doses (2000 mg/day). To most of the drugs studied, murine progenitor cells seemed to be less sensitive than the human ones. There was, however, a close correlation between the murine and human log IC50 values of the drugs (r2 = 0.964, P< 0.001), suggesting that cultures of murine bone marrow may be suitable to predict the in-vitro toxicity of azole antifungals to human cfu-gm.  (+info)

In-vitro resistance to azoles associated with mitochondrial DNA deficiency in Candida glabrata. (6/278)

A commercially available disk diffusion procedure was used in a large-scale study to evaluate the susceptibility of a wide range of Candida isolates to polyenes and azoles. With almost all isolates of C. glabrata resistant colonies were present within the inhibition zones for the azole compounds fluconazole, ketoconazole and miconazole, and less frequently for isoconazole, econazole and clotrimazole. Ten randomly selected isolates were cloned by limiting dilution and the susceptibility of the resulting strains to polyenes and azoles was determined. All strains presented a similar susceptibility pattern with sensitivity to polyenes and the presence of resistant colonies for all azole compounds except tioconazole. For each strain and each antifungal agent, one of these resistant colonies was subcultured and studied for antifungal susceptibility. All these colonies showed similar properties regardless of which antifungal agent allowed their selection, with increased sensitivity to polyenes and cross-resistance to the azole compounds except tioconazole. Similar results were obtained on Shadomy's modified medium and on synthetic medium. Likewise, determination of MICs by the Etest method confirmed the resistance to fluconazole. Comparative growth studies revealed a respiratory deficiency in the mutants caused by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions. In addition, 'petite' mutants were obtained from a wild-type strain by exposure to ethidium bromide, and these respiratory mutants were shown to be resistant to azoles. These results demonstrate the relationship between mtDNA deficiency and resistance to azoles, and provide an interesting model to study the mechanisms of action of these antifungal agents.  (+info)

Inhibition of T cell proliferation by selective block of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels. (7/278)

T lymphocytes express a plethora of distinct ion channels that participate in the control of calcium homeostasis and signal transduction. Potassium channels play a critical role in the modulation of T cell calcium signaling, and the significance of the voltage-dependent K channel, Kv1.3, is well established. The recent cloning of the Ca(2+)-activated, intermediate-conductance K(+) channel (IK channel) has enabled a detailed investigation of the role of this highly Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) channel in the calcium signaling and subsequent regulation of T cell proliferation. The role IK channels play in T cell activation and proliferation has been investigated by using various blockers of IK channels. The Ca(2+)-activated K(+) current in human T cells is shown by the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique to be highly sensitive to clotrimazole, charybdotoxin, and nitrendipine, but not to ketoconazole. Clotrimazole, nitrendipine, and charybdotoxin block T cell activation induced by signals that elicit a rise in intracellular Ca(2+)-e.g., phytohemagglutinin, Con A, and antigens such as Candida albicans and tetanus toxin in a dose-dependent manner. The release of IFN-gamma from activated T cells is also inhibited after block of IK channels by clotrimazole. Clotrimazole and cyclosporin A act synergistically to inhibit T cell proliferation, which confirms that block of IK channels affects the process downstream from T cell receptor activation. We suggest that IK channels constitute another target for immune suppression.  (+info)

Formation of dense erythrocytes in SAD mice exposed to chronic hypoxia: evaluation of different therapeutic regimens and of a combination of oral clotrimazole and magnesium therapies. (8/278)

We have examined the effect of hydroxyurea (HU), clotrimazole (CLT), magnesium oxide (Mg), and combined CLT+Mg therapies on the erythrocyte characteristics and their response to chronic hypoxia in a transgenic sickle mouse (SAD) model. SAD mice were treated for 21 days with 1 of the following regimens (administered by gavage): control (n = 6), HU (200 mg/d; n = 6), CLT (80 mg/kg/d, n = 5), Mg (1,000 mg/kg/d, n = 5), and CLT+Mg (80 and 1,000 mg/kg/d, respectively, n = 6). Nine normal mice were also treated as controls (n = 3), HU (n = 3), and CLT+Mg (n = 3). Treatment with HU induced a significant increase in mean corpuscular volume and cell K content and a decrease in density in SAD mice. Treatment with the CLT and Mg, either alone or in combination, also increased cell K and reduced density in SAD mice. After 21 days of treatment, the animals were exposed to hypoxia (48 hours at 8% O(2)) maintaining the same treatment. In the SAD mice, hypoxia induced significant cell dehydration. These hypoxia-induced changes were blunted in either HU- or Mg-treated SAD mice and were completely abolished by either CLT or CLT+Mg treatment, suggesting a major role for the Gardos channel in hypoxia-induced dehydration in vivo.  (+info)

Clotrimazole is an antifungal medication used to treat various fungal infections such as athlete's foot, jock itch, ringworm, candidiasis (yeast infection), and oral thrush. It works by inhibiting the growth of fungi that cause these infections. Clotrimazole is available in several forms, including creams, lotions, powders, tablets, and lozenges.

The medical definition of Clotrimazole is:

A synthetic antifungal agent belonging to the imidazole class, used topically to treat various fungal infections such as candidiasis, tinea pedis, tinea cruris, and tinea versicolor. It works by inhibiting the biosynthesis of ergosterol, a key component of fungal cell membranes, leading to increased permeability and death of fungal cells.

Miconazole is an antifungal medication used to treat various fungal infections, including those affecting the skin, mouth, and vagina. According to the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) database maintained by the National Library of Medicine, miconazole is classified as an imidazole antifungal agent that works by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a key component of fungal cell membranes. By disrupting the structure and function of the fungal cell membrane, miconazole can help to kill or suppress the growth of fungi, providing therapeutic benefits in patients with fungal infections.

Miconazole is available in various formulations, including creams, ointments, powders, tablets, and vaginal suppositories, and is typically applied or administered topically or vaginally, depending on the site of infection. In some cases, miconazole may also be given intravenously for the treatment of severe systemic fungal infections.

As with any medication, miconazole can have side effects and potential drug interactions, so it is important to use it under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Common side effects of miconazole include skin irritation, redness, and itching at the application site, while more serious side effects may include allergic reactions, liver damage, or changes in heart rhythm. Patients should be sure to inform their healthcare provider of any other medications they are taking, as well as any medical conditions they have, before using miconazole.

Econazole is an antifungal medication used to treat various fungal infections of the skin, nails, and mucous membranes. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a key component of fungal cell membranes, thereby weakening the cell membrane and increasing permeability, ultimately leading to fungal cell death.

Econazole is available in various formulations, including creams, lotions, powders, and tablets. It is commonly used to treat conditions such as athlete's foot, jock itch, ringworm, candidiasis (yeast infection), and other fungal skin infections.

It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when using econazole or any medication, and to report any side effects or concerns promptly.

Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a medical condition that refers to an infection in the vagina and vulva caused by Candida fungus, most commonly Candida albicans. This type of infection is also commonly known as a yeast infection. The symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis can include itching, redness, swelling, pain, and soreness in the affected area, as well as thick, white vaginal discharge that may resemble cottage cheese. In some cases, there may also be burning during urination or sexual intercourse. Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common condition that affects many women at some point in their lives, and it can be treated with antifungal medications.

Antifungal agents are a type of medication used to treat and prevent fungal infections. These agents work by targeting and disrupting the growth of fungi, which include yeasts, molds, and other types of fungi that can cause illness in humans.

There are several different classes of antifungal agents, including:

1. Azoles: These agents work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a key component of fungal cell membranes. Examples of azole antifungals include fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole.
2. Echinocandins: These agents target the fungal cell wall, disrupting its synthesis and leading to fungal cell death. Examples of echinocandins include caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin.
3. Polyenes: These agents bind to ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane, creating pores that lead to fungal cell death. Examples of polyene antifungals include amphotericin B and nystatin.
4. Allylamines: These agents inhibit squalene epoxidase, a key enzyme in ergosterol synthesis. Examples of allylamine antifungals include terbinafine and naftifine.
5. Griseofulvin: This agent disrupts fungal cell division by binding to tubulin, a protein involved in fungal cell mitosis.

Antifungal agents can be administered topically, orally, or intravenously, depending on the severity and location of the infection. It is important to use antifungal agents only as directed by a healthcare professional, as misuse or overuse can lead to resistance and make treatment more difficult.

Griseofulvin is an antifungal medication used to treat various fungal infections, including those affecting the skin, hair, and nails. It works by inhibiting the growth of fungi, particularly dermatophytes, which cause these infections. Griseofulvin can be obtained through a prescription and is available in oral (by mouth) and topical (on the skin) forms.

The primary mechanism of action for griseofulvin involves binding to tubulin, a protein necessary for fungal cell division. This interaction disrupts the formation of microtubules, which are crucial for the fungal cell's structural integrity and growth. As a result, the fungi cannot grow and multiply, allowing the infected tissue to heal and the infection to resolve.

Common side effects associated with griseofulvin use include gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), headache, dizziness, and skin rashes. It is essential to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking griseofulvin, as improper usage may lead to reduced effectiveness or increased risk of side effects.

It is important to note that griseofulvin has limited use in modern medicine due to the development of newer and more effective antifungal agents. However, it remains a valuable option for specific fungal infections, particularly those resistant to other treatments.

Ketoconazole is an antifungal medication that is primarily used to treat various fungal infections, including those caused by dermatophytes, Candida, and pityrosporum. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a crucial component of fungal cell membranes, which leads to increased permeability and ultimately results in fungal cell death.

Ketoconazole is available as an oral tablet for systemic use and as a topical cream or shampoo for localized applications. The oral formulation is used to treat severe or invasive fungal infections, while the topical preparations are primarily indicated for skin and scalp infections, such as athlete's foot, ringworm, jock itch, candidiasis, and seborrheic dermatitis.

Common side effects of oral ketoconazole include nausea, vomiting, headache, and altered liver function tests. Rare but serious adverse reactions may include hepatotoxicity, adrenal insufficiency, and interactions with other medications that can affect the metabolism and elimination of drugs. Topical ketoconazole is generally well-tolerated, with local irritation being the most common side effect.

It's important to note that due to its potential for serious liver toxicity and drug-drug interactions, oral ketoconazole has been largely replaced by other antifungal agents, such as fluconazole and itraconazole, which have more favorable safety profiles. Topical ketoconazole remains a valuable option for treating localized fungal infections due to its effectiveness and lower risk of systemic side effects.

Intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (IKCa) are a type of ion channel found in various cell types, including immune cells, endothelial cells, and neurons. These channels are activated by an increase in intracellular calcium ions (Ca2+) and allow the flow of potassium ions (K+) out of the cell.

IKCa channels have a single-channel conductance that is intermediate between small-conductance (SKCa) and large-conductance (BKCa) calcium-activated potassium channels, typically ranging from 20 to 100 picosiemens (pS). They are encoded by the KCNN4 gene in humans.

The activation of IKCa channels plays a crucial role in regulating various cellular processes, such as membrane potential, calcium signaling, and immune response. For example, in activated immune cells, the opening of IKCa channels helps to repolarize the membrane potential and limit further Ca2+ entry into the cell, thereby modulating cytokine production and inflammatory responses. In endothelial cells, IKCa channel activation can regulate vascular tone and blood flow by controlling the diameter of blood vessels.

Imidazoles are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds that contain a double-bonded nitrogen atom and two additional nitrogen atoms in the ring. They have the chemical formula C3H4N2. In a medical context, imidazoles are commonly used as antifungal agents. Some examples of imidazole-derived antifungals include clotrimazole, miconazole, and ketoconazole. These medications work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a key component of fungal cell membranes, leading to increased permeability and death of the fungal cells. Imidazoles may also have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and anticancer properties.

Trichophyton is a genus of fungi that are primarily responsible for causing various superficial and cutaneous infections in humans and animals. These infections, known as dermatophytoses or ringworm, typically involve the skin, hair, and nails. Some common examples of diseases caused by Trichophyton species include athlete's foot (T. rubrum), jock itch (T. mentagrophytes), and scalp ringworm (T. tonsurans).

The fungi in the Trichophyton genus are called keratinophilic, meaning they have a preference for keratin, a protein found in high concentrations in skin, hair, and nails. This characteristic allows them to thrive in these environments and cause infection. The specific species of Trichophyton involved in an infection will determine the clinical presentation and severity of the disease.

In summary, Trichophyton is a medical term referring to a group of fungi that can cause various skin, hair, and nail infections in humans and animals.

Balanitis is an inflammation of the glans penis, which is the rounded tip of the penis. It's a common condition in uncircumcised males and can affect men of all ages. The symptoms of balanitis include redness, swelling, pain, itching, and soreness on the glans penis. In some cases, there may be a discharge with an unpleasant odor.

Balanitis can have various causes, including poor hygiene, irritants (such as soaps or spermicides), infections (bacterial, fungal, or viral), and skin conditions (like psoriasis or eczema). In rare cases, balanitis can be a sign of an underlying medical condition, such as diabetes.

Treatment for balanitis depends on the cause. For mild cases, good hygiene and avoiding irritants may be enough. More severe cases might require medication, such as antibiotics, antifungals, or corticosteroids. If an underlying condition is causing the balanitis, that will need to be treated as well.

Benzene derivatives are chemical compounds that are derived from benzene, which is a simple aromatic hydrocarbon with the molecular formula C6H6. Benzene has a planar, hexagonal ring structure, and its derivatives are formed by replacing one or more of the hydrogen atoms in the benzene molecule with other functional groups.

Benzene derivatives have a wide range of applications in various industries, including pharmaceuticals, dyes, plastics, and explosives. Some common examples of benzene derivatives include toluene, xylene, phenol, aniline, and nitrobenzene. These compounds can have different physical and chemical properties depending on the nature and position of the substituents attached to the benzene ring.

It is important to note that some benzene derivatives are known to be toxic or carcinogenic, and their production, use, and disposal must be carefully regulated to ensure safety and protect public health.

Tinea Pedis, also known as athlete's foot, is a fungal infection that affects the skin on the feet, particularly between the toes. The causative agents are dermatophytes, which thrive in warm and damp environments. Common symptoms include itching, burning, cracked, blistered, or scaly skin, and sometimes painful peeling or cracking of the skin. It is contagious and can spread to other parts of the body or to other people through direct contact or via contaminated surfaces. Proper hygiene, keeping the feet dry, and using antifungal medications are common methods of preventing and treating this condition.

Surgical tape, also known as surgical adhesive tape or hypoallergenic tape, is a type of adhesive tape that is specifically designed for use in surgical settings. It is typically made from a thin, porous material such as rayon, cotton, or polyester, which allows air to circulate and moisture to escape. The adhesive used in surgical tape is designed to be gentle on the skin and to minimize the risk of allergic reactions or irritation.

Surgical tape is used to hold dressings or bandages in place, to close wounds or incisions, or to secure IV lines or other medical devices to the skin. It is available in a variety of sizes, shapes, and colors, and can be cut or shaped to fit the specific needs of the patient.

When applied properly, surgical tape can provide a secure and comfortable hold, while also minimizing the risk of damage to the skin or infection. It is important to follow proper technique when applying and removing surgical tape, as improper use can lead to discomfort, irritation, or other complications.

A skin cream is not a medical term per se, but it generally refers to a topical emollient preparation intended for application to the skin. It contains a mixture of water, oil, and active ingredients, which are formulated to provide various benefits such as moisturizing, protecting, soothing, or treating specific skin conditions. The exact definition and composition may vary depending on the product's intended use and formulation.

Examples of active ingredients in skin creams include:

1. Moisturizers (e.g., glycerin, hyaluronic acid) - help to retain water in the skin, making it feel softer and smoother.
2. Emollients (e.g., shea butter, coconut oil, petrolatum) - provide a protective barrier that helps prevent moisture loss and soften the skin.
3. Humectants (e.g., urea, lactic acid, alpha-hydroxy acids) - attract water from the environment or deeper layers of the skin to hydrate the surface.
4. Anti-inflammatory agents (e.g., hydrocortisone, aloe vera) - help reduce redness, swelling, and itching associated with various skin conditions.
5. Antioxidants (e.g., vitamin C, vitamin E, green tea extract) - protect the skin from free radical damage and environmental stressors that can lead to premature aging.
6. Sunscreen agents (e.g., zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, chemical filters) - provide broad-spectrum protection against UVA and UVB rays.
7. Skin lighteners (e.g., hydroquinone, kojic acid, arbutin) - help reduce the appearance of hyperpigmentation and even out skin tone.
8. Acne treatments (e.g., benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid, retinoids) - target acne-causing bacteria, unclog pores, and regulate cell turnover to prevent breakouts.

It is essential to choose a skin cream based on your specific skin type and concerns, as well as any medical conditions or allergies you may have. Always consult with a dermatologist or healthcare provider before starting a new skincare regimen.

'Epidermophyton' is a genus of fungi that can cause skin and nail infections in humans. These types of infections are known as dermatophytoses or ringworm infections. The most common species that infect humans is Epidermophyton floccosum, which tends to cause infections of the feet (athlete's foot), nails, and groin (jock itch).

Epidermophyton fungi thrive on keratin, a protein found in skin, hair, and nails. They invade the dead outer layers of the skin or nails, causing inflammation, itching, scaling, and other symptoms. The infections can be spread through direct contact with an infected person or contaminated objects like towels, shoes, or floors.

To diagnose an Epidermophyton infection, a healthcare professional may collect a sample from the affected area and examine it under a microscope for the presence of fungal elements. The diagnosis can also be confirmed through culture methods, where the sample is grown on specialized media to identify the specific fungal species.

Treatment for Epidermophyton infections typically involves topical or oral antifungal medications, depending on the severity and location of the infection. Preventive measures such as keeping the skin clean and dry, avoiding sharing personal items, and wearing breathable footwear can help reduce the risk of contracting and spreading these types of infections.

'Candida albicans' is a species of yeast that is commonly found in the human body, particularly in warm and moist areas such as the mouth, gut, and genital region. It is a part of the normal microbiota and usually does not cause any harm. However, under certain conditions like a weakened immune system, prolonged use of antibiotics or steroids, poor oral hygiene, or diabetes, it can overgrow and cause infections known as candidiasis. These infections can affect various parts of the body including the skin, nails, mouth (thrush), and genital area (yeast infection).

The medical definition of 'Candida albicans' is:

A species of yeast belonging to the genus Candida, which is commonly found as a commensal organism in humans. It can cause opportunistic infections when there is a disruption in the normal microbiota or when the immune system is compromised. The overgrowth of C. albicans can lead to various forms of candidiasis, such as oral thrush, vaginal yeast infection, and invasive candidiasis.

Proadifen is not typically referred to as a medical term or definition in modern medicine. However, it is an old antihistamine drug that was used in the past for its properties as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). MAOIs were used primarily in the treatment of depression but have largely been replaced by newer classes of drugs due to their potential for serious side effects.

Here is a brief medical definition of Proadifen as an MAOI:

Proadifen (SKF-525A): An older, nonselective and irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) that was used in the past for its antidepressant effects. Its use has been largely discontinued due to the risk of serious adverse reactions, such as hypertensive crises, when combined with certain foods or medications containing tyramine.

"Azoles" is a class of antifungal medications that have a similar chemical structure, specifically a five-membered ring containing nitrogen and two carbon atoms (a "azole ring"). The most common azoles used in medicine include:

1. Imidazoles: These include drugs such as clotrimazole, miconazole, and ketoconazole. They are used to treat a variety of fungal infections, including vaginal yeast infections, thrush, and skin infections.
2. Triazoles: These include drugs such as fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole. They are also used to treat fungal infections, but have a broader spectrum of activity than imidazoles and are often used for more serious or systemic infections.

Azoles work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, an essential component of fungal cell membranes. This leads to increased permeability of the cell membrane, which ultimately results in fungal cell death.

While azoles are generally well-tolerated, they can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. In addition, some azoles can interact with other medications and affect liver function, so it's important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting an azole regimen.

Tinea is a common fungal infection of the skin, also known as ringworm. It's called ringworm because of its characteristic red, circular, and often scaly rash with raised edges that can resemble a worm's shape. However, it has nothing to do with any kind of actual worm.

The fungi responsible for tinea infections belong to the genus Trichophyton, Microsporum, or Epidermophyton. These fungi thrive in warm, damp environments and can be contracted from infected people, animals, or contaminated soil. Common types of tinea infections include athlete's foot (tinea pedis), jock itch (tinea cruris), and ringworm of the scalp (tinea capitis).

Treatment for tinea typically involves antifungal medications, either topical or oral, depending on the location and severity of the infection. Proper hygiene and avoiding sharing personal items can help prevent the spread of this contagious condition.

A pessary is a medical device that is inserted into the vagina to provide support for the uterus, vaginal vault, or bladder. It is often used in the management of pelvic organ prolapse, urinary incontinence, and other gynecological conditions. Pessaries come in various shapes and sizes, and they are typically made of silicone, rubber, or plastic. They can be worn for extended periods of time and are usually removable and cleanable. The selection and fitting of a pessary should be performed by a healthcare professional, such as a gynecologist or nurse midwife.

The Cytochrome P-450 (CYP450) enzyme system is a group of enzymes found primarily in the liver, but also in other organs such as the intestines, lungs, and skin. These enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism and biotransformation of various substances, including drugs, environmental toxins, and endogenous compounds like hormones and fatty acids.

The name "Cytochrome P-450" refers to the unique property of these enzymes to bind to carbon monoxide (CO) and form a complex that absorbs light at a wavelength of 450 nm, which can be detected spectrophotometrically.

The CYP450 enzyme system is involved in Phase I metabolism of xenobiotics, where it catalyzes oxidation reactions such as hydroxylation, dealkylation, and epoxidation. These reactions introduce functional groups into the substrate molecule, which can then undergo further modifications by other enzymes during Phase II metabolism.

There are several families and subfamilies of CYP450 enzymes, each with distinct substrate specificities and functions. Some of the most important CYP450 enzymes include:

1. CYP3A4: This is the most abundant CYP450 enzyme in the human liver and is involved in the metabolism of approximately 50% of all drugs. It also metabolizes various endogenous compounds like steroids, bile acids, and vitamin D.
2. CYP2D6: This enzyme is responsible for the metabolism of many psychotropic drugs, including antidepressants, antipsychotics, and beta-blockers. It also metabolizes some endogenous compounds like dopamine and serotonin.
3. CYP2C9: This enzyme plays a significant role in the metabolism of warfarin, phenytoin, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
4. CYP2C19: This enzyme is involved in the metabolism of proton pump inhibitors, antidepressants, and clopidogrel.
5. CYP2E1: This enzyme metabolizes various xenobiotics like alcohol, acetaminophen, and carbon tetrachloride, as well as some endogenous compounds like fatty acids and prostaglandins.

Genetic polymorphisms in CYP450 enzymes can significantly affect drug metabolism and response, leading to interindividual variability in drug efficacy and toxicity. Understanding the role of CYP450 enzymes in drug metabolism is crucial for optimizing pharmacotherapy and minimizing adverse effects.

Vulvovaginitis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the vulva and vagina. It is often characterized by symptoms such as itching, burning, redness, swelling, discomfort, pain, and abnormal vaginal discharge. The condition can be caused by various factors, including infections (such as bacterial vaginosis, yeast infections, or sexually transmitted infections), irritants (like chemicals found in soaps, douches, or sanitary products), allergies, or hormonal changes.

The symptoms of vulvovaginitis can vary depending on the cause and severity of the inflammation. In some cases, it may resolve on its own or with simple home remedies, while in other cases, medical treatment may be necessary to clear up any underlying infection or address any specific causes of the inflammation.

If you are experiencing symptoms of vulvovaginitis, it is important to speak with a healthcare provider for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment plan.

A suppository is a solid medicinal formulation, often medicated, that is intended to be introduced into the rectum (rectal suppository), vagina (vaginal suppository), or urethra (urethral suppository) for absorption or for localized effect. Suppositories are designed to melt or dissolve at body temperature and release the active ingredients. They come in various shapes, such as cones, cylinders, or torpedo-shaped, and are typically made from a base of cocoa butter, polyethylene glycol, or other biocompatible materials that allow for controlled drug release. Common uses for suppositories include the treatment of constipation, hemorrhoids, local infections, menstrual cramps, and as an alternative method of administering medication for individuals who have difficulty swallowing pills or prefer not to use oral medications.

Oral candidiasis is a medical condition characterized by an infection of the oral mucous membranes caused by the Candida fungus species, most commonly Candida albicans. It is also known as thrush or oral thrush. The infection typically appears as white, creamy, or yellowish patches or plaques on the tongue, inner cheeks, roof of the mouth, gums, and sometimes on the tonsils or back of the throat. These lesions can be painful, causing soreness, burning sensations, and difficulty swallowing. Oral candidiasis can affect people of all ages; however, it is more commonly seen in infants, elderly individuals, and those with weakened immune systems due to illness or medication use. Various factors such as poor oral hygiene, dentures, smoking, dry mouth, and certain medical conditions like diabetes or HIV/AIDS can increase the risk of developing oral candidiasis. Treatment usually involves antifungal medications in the form of topical creams, lozenges, or oral solutions, depending on the severity and underlying cause of the infection.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Ointment bases refer to the vehicle or foundation in which active pharmaceutical ingredients are dispersed to form a semi-solid medication. These bases provide the necessary consistency for ointments, allowing easy application to the skin or other body surfaces. They can be composed of various materials such as fats, waxes, oils, and emulsifying agents.

The choice of an ointment base depends on several factors, including:

1. The desired physical properties (e.g., spreadability, absorption rate)
2. The route of administration (e.g., dermal, mucosal)
3. The compatibility with the active ingredient(s)
4. The intended therapeutic effect (e.g., occlusive, non-occlusive)

Some common types of ointment bases include:

1. Hydrocarbon bases: Consist of hydrophobic materials like petrolatum, white soft paraffin, and microcrystalline wax. They are generally inert, odorless, and resistant to oxidation.
2. Absorption bases: Contain a mixture of hydrocarbons and higher molecular weight esters or fatty alcohols. These bases have better penetrating properties than hydrocarbon bases and are suitable for drugs with low oil solubility.
3. Emulsifying bases: Comprise of water-in-oil (W/O) or oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, which allow the dispersion of both hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs. Common examples include cetomacrogol and anhydrous lanette.
4. Water-soluble bases: Primarily consist of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) or other water-soluble materials. They are useful for drugs with high water solubility and provide a cooling sensation upon application.

It is essential to select an appropriate ointment base to ensure the optimal delivery, stability, and efficacy of the active ingredient(s).

Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by Candida species, most commonly Candida albicans. It can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, mucous membranes (such as the mouth and vagina), and internal organs (like the esophagus, lungs, or blood).

The symptoms of candidiasis depend on the location of the infection:

1. Oral thrush: White patches on the tongue, inner cheeks, gums, or roof of the mouth. These patches may be painful and can bleed slightly when scraped.
2. Vaginal yeast infection: Itching, burning, redness, and swelling of the vagina and vulva; thick, white, odorless discharge from the vagina.
3. Esophageal candidiasis: Difficulty swallowing, pain when swallowing, or feeling like food is "stuck" in the throat.
4. Invasive candidiasis: Fever, chills, and other signs of infection; multiple organ involvement may lead to various symptoms depending on the affected organs.

Risk factors for developing candidiasis include diabetes, HIV/AIDS, use of antibiotics or corticosteroids, pregnancy, poor oral hygiene, and wearing tight-fitting clothing that traps moisture. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications, such as fluconazole, nystatin, or clotrimazole, depending on the severity and location of the infection.

... may slow fungal growth or result in fungal cell death. Clotrimazole is available as a generic medication, and in ... Topical and oral clotrimazole can be used in both adults and children.[citation needed] Additionally, clotrimazole may be used ... For vulvovaginal candidiasis, clotrimazole tablets and creams are inserted into the vagina. Topical clotrimazole is usually not ... Topical clotrimazole is categorized as pregnancy category B. Small amounts of clotrimazole may be absorbed systemically ...
"Clotrimazole". Clotrimazole (Canesten). Bayer Philippines. Portal: Medicine (CS1 errors: periodical ignored, Articles with ... An example of a condition they are sometimes used for is candida vulvovaginitis which is treated with intravaginal Clotrimazole ... Bifonazole Butoconazole Clotrimazole Econazole Fenticonazole Isoconazole Ketoconazole Luliconazole Miconazole Omoconazole ...
Redirects to clotrimazole. Hexal Clotreme (Hexal Australia) [Au]. Redirects to clotrimazole. Hexal Comfarol Plus (Hexal ...
Berg D, Regel E, Harenberg HE, Plempel M (1984). "Bifonazole and clotrimazole. Their mode of action and the possible reason for ...
"Clotrimazole Vaginal: MedlinePlus Drug Information". Retrieved 2020-08-05. "Butoconazole Vaginal Cream: ... Example of these medications include clindamycin, terconazole, miconazole, clotrimazole, when used as a vaginal cream or ...
"Lotrisone- clotrimazole and betamethasone dipropionate cream". DailyMed. 14 June 2019. Retrieved 13 April 2020. "TACLONEX ... Merck: Lotrisone (containing betamethasone dipropionate, clotrimazole) contains both a corticosteroid (betamethasone) and anti- ... fungal agent (clotrimazole) and is used to treat fungal infections that are also inflamed Leo Pharma: Taclonex (containing ...
Clotrimazole is also used in treating seborrhoea. Other drugs like sulfur and resorcinol have also been found useful in ...
Other options include clotrimazole, fluconazole and ketoconazole. Tinea manuum is most common in young adult males. ...
Treatment include : Grisofluvine, itraconazole and clotrimazole cream . Tinea capitis (also known as "Herpes tonsurans", " ...
Its antifungal activity has been demonstrated in in vivo and in vitro studies to be comparable to that of clotrimazole and ... Clotrimazole The Merck Index, 12th Edition. 4247 Alomar A, Videla S, Delgadillo J, Gich I, Izquierdo I, Forn J (1995). " ...
Topical medications like clotrimazole, butenafine, miconazole, and terbinafine. Systemic medications (oral) like fluconazole, ... clotrimazole, or tolnaftate. Antibiotics may be necessary to treat secondary bacterial infections that occur in addition to the ...
It is sensitive to clotrimazole and miconazole in vitro. Cases have also been treated with oral itraconazole. An in vitro study ...
They are treated with topical butoconazole, clotrimazole, or miconazole. Streptococcus infections are characterized by a dark ...
They are treated with topical butoconazole, clotrimazole, or miconazole. Streptococcus infections are characterized by a dark ...
Other topical antifungal agents such as clotrimazole, miconazole, terbinafine, or zinc pyrithione can lessen symptoms in some ... Clotrimazole is also used combined with selenium sulfide.[citation needed] Oral medications are viewed as a second-line of ...
A number of topical antifungal medications may be used for vaginal infections, including clotrimazole. In those with widespread ... For infections of the mouth, treatment with topical clotrimazole or nystatin is usually effective. Oral or intravenous ... Candidiasis is treated with antifungal medications; these include clotrimazole, nystatin, fluconazole, voriconazole, ...
They usually contain a single use antifungal agent such as clotrimazole. Oral antifungal agents are also available. Pessaries ...
Clotrimazole is an antifungal drug and reduces the currents through TRPM5. Nicotine inhibits the TRPM5 channel. Through the ...
ISBN 0-911910-12-3. Oyeka CA, Gugnani HC (1992). "Isoconazole nitrate versus clotrimazole in foot and nail infections due to ... For foot and vaginal infections, isoconazole has a similar effectiveness to clotrimazole. Isoconazole nitrate may be used in ... Cohen L (February 1984). "Single dose treatment of vaginal candidosis: comparison of clotrimazole and isoconazole". The British ...
Treatment is typically with antifungal creams such as clotrimazole or miconazole. If the scalp is involved, antifungals by ... Antifungal treatments include topical agents such as miconazole, terbinafine, clotrimazole, ketoconazole, or tolnaftate applied ...
Clotrimazole Clotrimazole is widely used to treat fungal infections on different parts of the body, including infections in the ... Common side effects of clotrimazole are skin irritations, itchiness or redness in areas where the drug is applied. Econazole ... Common examples of azole antifungals include clotrimazole, econazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, and tioconazole. The only ... Common examples of imidazoles include clotrimazole, econazole, miconazole, ketoconazole, while fluconazole, itraconazole, ...
Yvonne M. Clayton; Bruce L. Connor (1973), "Comparison of clotrimazole cream, Whitfield's ointment and Nystatin ointment for ... 1994). "Treatment of superficial mycoses in the tropics: Whitfield's ointment versus clotrimazole". International Journal of ...
Other antifungal agents clotrimazole and ketoconazole have been investigated for anti-trypanosome therapy. Successful ...
Amphotericin B, clotrimazole and S-fluorocytosine have become more susceptible to G. candidum. Antimycotic resistance can ... Azole drugs including isoconazole and clotrimazole are used for geotrichosis treatment. Associated treatment for pulmonary ...
When isolated most isolates susceptible to terbinafine, clotrimazole, amphotericin B, voriconazole and posaconazole. Although M ...
Other MDR3-inhibiting drugs are chlorpromazine, imipramine, haloperidol, ketoconazole, saquinavir, clotrimazole, ritonavir, and ...
A number of substituted imidazoles, including clotrimazole, are selective inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase, which makes them ... It is instead a precursor to a variety of agrichemicals, including enilconazole, climbazole, clotrimazole, prochloraz, and ... Imidazoles belong to the class of azole antifungals, which includes ketoconazole, miconazole, and clotrimazole. For comparison ... "Inhibition of tumor growth and prolonged survival of rats with intracranial gliomas following administration of clotrimazole". ...
In cases of otomycosis it is less effective than clotrimazole but remains an effective treatment. Most versions of Burow's ...
This may be either as a cream such as clotrimazole or with oral medications such as fluconazole. Despite the lack of evidence, ... Candidal vulvovaginitis in pregnancy should be treated with intravaginal clotrimazole or nystatin for at least 7 days. All are ... The following treatments are typically recommended: Intravaginal (vaginal suppository): butoconazole, clotrimazole, miconazole ...
These combinations include betamethasone dipropionate and clotrimazole (trade name Lotrisone) and triamcinolone acetonide and ... clotrimazole. In areas of open skin, these combinations are acceptable in treating fungal infection of the skin. In areas where ...
Clotrimazole may slow fungal growth or result in fungal cell death. Clotrimazole is available as a generic medication, and in ... Topical and oral clotrimazole can be used in both adults and children.[citation needed] Additionally, clotrimazole may be used ... For vulvovaginal candidiasis, clotrimazole tablets and creams are inserted into the vagina. Topical clotrimazole is usually not ... Topical clotrimazole is categorized as pregnancy category B. Small amounts of clotrimazole may be absorbed systemically ...
... (UNII: G07GZ97H65) (CLOTRIMAZOLE - UNII:G07GZ97H65) CLOTRIMAZOLE. 10 mg in 1 g. ... Clotrimazole USP, 1% (50 mg in each applicatorful). Vaginal antifungal. Clotrimazole USP, 1% (external cream). Vaginal ...
Clotrimazole Topical: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Do not let clotrimazole get into your eyes and do not swallow the medication. Clotrimazole does not work on the scalp or nails. ... Clotrimazole may cause side effects. If you experience any of these symptoms, stop using clotrimazole and call your doctor: * ... Before using topical clotrimazole,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to clotrimazole, any other medications ...
Physician reviewed clotrimazole topical patient information - includes clotrimazole topical description, dosage and directions. ... Clotrimazole topical. Generic name: clotrimazole topical [ kloe-TRIM-a-zole ]. Brand names: Anti-Fungal Liquid, FungiCURE Pump ... Clotrimazole topical may cause serious side effects. Stop using clotrimazole topical and call your doctor at once if you have: ... Clotrimazole Vaginal Cream. Other brands. Lotrimin AF Athletes Foot Cream, Clotrimazole-3, Mycelex, Gyne-Lotrimin, ... +4 more ...
mycelex- clotrimazole troche. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your RSS Reader application ... Clotrimazole has been shown to be embryotoxic in rats and mice when given in doses 100 times the adult human dose (in mg/kg), ... The action of clotrimazole is fungistatic at concentrations of drug up to 20 mcg/mL and may be fungicidal in vitro against ... Clotrimazole given orally to mice from nine weeks before mating through weaning at a dose 120 times the human dose was ...
CLOTRIMAZOLE 3, 2%, VAG. CREAM. Common uses. This medication contains a topical antifungal drug. Typically, it is used for ...
Compare Clotrimazole Cream vs. Mometamax Otic Suspension with a detailed product breakdown. Visit PetMeds to save on Antifungal ...
Cayman Chemical Company supplies scientists worldwide with the resources necessary for advancing human and animal health. We manufacture high quality biochemicals, assay kits, antibodies, and recombinant proteins and offer contract services for custom chemical synthesis/analysis, assay development/screening, and drug discovery.
Clotrimazole , C22H17ClN2 , CID 2812 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, ...
Clotrimazole) drug information. Find its price or cost, dose, when to use, how to use, side effects, adverse effects, ... Clotrimazole (Selsyd CRM) is an antifungal, prescribed for local fungal infections. Clotrimazole (Selsyd CRM) prevents fungal ... Clotrimazole: Drug Treats Jock Itch, Athletes Foot, Oral Thrush, and Other Fungal Infections. ...
Toxicity. Clotrimazole has high chronic toxicity.. Risk. The use of clotrimazole (sales data Sweden 2011) has been considered ... Persistence. Clotrimazole is potentially persistent.. Bioaccumulation. Clotrimazole has high potential for bioaccumulation.. ... clotrimazole is not PBT/vPvB.. Risk. PEC/PNEC is based on sales data in Sweden in year 2011. PEC/PNEC = 0.013 which gives the ... Clotrimazole is monitored within the framework of EU water legislation. Substances for which doubt exists about their toxicity ...
The active ingredient in Clotrimazole is an antifungal compound called Adrenalin Clotrimazole, which works against various ... Studies have shown that Adrenalin Clotrimazole is effective in treating a wide range of fungal infections, and is typically ... In some cases, highly concentrate solutions of Adrenalin Clotrimazole have been used to treat severe infections. That being ... Clotrimazole is gaining popularity in the medical world. ... Clotrimazole is an antifungal drug used in a variety of ...
Generic Clotrimazole and Canada prescription drugs from our generic pharmacy Blue Sky. Buy Canesten Cream 1% online or toll- ... Canesten Cream 1% (Clotrimazole) Product. Manufacturer. Country. Dosage. Qty. Price(USD). Canesten Cream 1% Topical Anti-Fungal ... Canesten Cream 1% (clotrimazole) is commonly prescribed today to treat certain fungal infections of the skin, on the human body ...
On this page about Clotrimazole 3 Day (Blooms The Chemist) you will find information relating to side effects, age restrictions ... Brand name: Clotrimazole 3 Day (Blooms The Chemist) TM. Active ingredients: clotrimazole ... Other medicines containing the same active ingredients: clotrimazole *Can I take Clotrimazole 3 Day (Blooms The Chemist) in ... For the active ingredient clotrimazole. This medicine is generally considered safe during pregnancy if taken as directed. ...
This cream contains 1% of the active ingredient Clotrimazole, a powerful antifungal agent that works by eradicating the Candida ... Taro Clotrimazole 7-Day Vaginal Cream 1% with Reusable Applicator 45 gram is a highly effective treatment for women suffering ... Users of the Clotrimazole 7-Day Vaginal Cream 1% have praised its effectiveness and quick results, making it a top choice among ... Taro Clotrimazole 7-Day Vaginal Cream 1% with Reusable Applicator 45 gram is a highly effective treatment for women suffering ...
A (PHARMEUROPA): (2-CHLOROPHENYL)DIPHENYLMETHANOL Density MSDS Formula Use,If You also need to CLOTRIMAZOLE IMP. A (PHARMEUROPA ... A (PHARMEUROPA): (2-CHLOROPHENYL)DIPHENYLMETHANOL Boiling point Melting point,CLOTRIMAZOLE IMP. ... ChemicalBook provide Chemical industry users with CLOTRIMAZOLE IMP. ... ClotriMazole Related CoMpound A;Benzenemethanol, 2-chloro-α,α-diphenyl-;ClotriMazole IMpurity A;NSC 170882;TRAM 3;CLOTRIMAZOLE ...
Single blind comparison of ketoconazole 200 mg oral tablets and clotrimazole 100 mg vaginal tablets and 1% cream in treating ... Single blind comparison of ketoconazole 200 mg oral tablets and clotrimazole 100 mg vaginal tablets and 1% cream in treating ... Single blind comparison of ketoconazole 200 mg oral tablets and clotrimazole 100 mg vaginal tablets and 1% cream in treating ...
... Perrigo UPC:. 345802434111. ... Generic Lotrimin Clotrimazole Anti Fungal Athlete Foot Cream Usp 1% - 1 Oz Was: ... Perrigo Clotrimazole Anti-Fungal Cream USP, 1%, 1 Oz. Rating Required Select Rating. 1 star (worst). 2 stars. 3 stars (average) ... Perrigo Clotrimazole Anti-Fungal Cream USP, 1% *Temporarily relieves itching of Athletes Foot, Jock Itch and Ringworm. ...
View CLOTRIMAZOLEs uses, side-effects, drug interactions and user FAQs only on Apollo Pharmacy. ... CLOTRIMAZOLE is used in the case of Fungal infections . ... Do not use CLOTRIMAZOLE if you are allergic to clotrimazole or ... CLOTRIMAZOLE comprises clotrimazole, which works by destroying the fungus that causes the infection. CLOTRIMAZOLE damages the ... How does CLOTRIMAZOLE work?. CLOTRIMAZOLE damages the fungal cell membrane and causes the components to leak out, thus killing ...
... clotrimazole) 100mg online without prescription in USA, Canada, Australia, UK and Europe. Fast order delivery. Worldwide ... Imazol (clotrimazole) 100mg Online Pharmacy. What imazol is and what it is used for?. Can i buy imazol in new zealand, ... You can buy Imazol (clotrimazole) 100mg in one of the following cities:. Canada: Toronto, Ontario, Montreal, Quebec, Vancouver ... clotrimazole) 100mg price, imazol tablet buy online, imazol without a doctor prescription, imazol next day delivery, buy ...
Clotrimazole , Antifungal agent , BAY b 5097 , BAYb 5097 , BAY-b 5097 , CAS [23593-75-1] , Axon 3163 , Axon Ligand™ with >98% ... Clotrimazole is an orally applicable antifungal substance with broad-spectrum activity. Clotrimazole inhibits the microsomal ... Also, Clotrimazole is a potent inhibitor of epoxide hydrolase activity in vitro with an IC50 value of 0.1 mM. ... Clotrimazole, an Inhibitor of Epidermal Benzo(a)pyrene Metabolism and DNA Binding and Carcinogenicity of the Hydrocarbon. ...
See what others have said about Betamethasone And Clotrimazole Topical (Lotrisone), including the effectiveness, ease of use ... Betamethasone And Clotrimazole Topical (Lotrisone) received an overall rating of 5 out of 10 stars from 3 reviews. ... Betamethasone And Clotrimazole Topical (Lotrisone) Reviews. 3 people have reviewed this drug. 2.5* ... Reason for taking Betamethasone And Clotrimazole Topical (Lotrisone). Tinea Corporis. Tinea Cruris. Tinea Pedis. Candida Sp.. ...
QCPP Accredited. Owner Adele Tahan: Adore Compounding Pharmacy 671 Darling St Rozelle. T: 02 9810 7349 F: 02 9810 6025 [email protected]. ...
KØB CLOTRIMAZOLE. Clotrimazole 5 mg Clotrimazole salg Clotrimazole medicin køb Clotrimazole Clotrimazole salg Clotrimazole ... Clotrimazole online Clotrimazole 30 mg Clotrimazole Danmark Clotrimazole 5 mg Clotrimazole 40 mg Clotrimazole salg Clotrimazole ... Clotrimazole 1 mg Clotrimazole 1 mg Clotrimazole medicin Clotrimazole 2 mg Clotrimazole 30 mg Clotrimazole recept Clotrimazole ... Clotrimazole salg Clotrimazole recept Clotrimazole pris Clotrimazole 10 mg Clotrimazole 10 mg Clotrimazole 1 mg Clotrimazole 5 ...
Clotrimazole (1%w/v) Lotion Manufacturer, Franchise Suppliers & exporters in India. ... All listing within 100 km around Bengaluru in Beclometasone Clotrimazole Lotion in Pharmaceutical Medicines Manufacturing ...
7. Clotrimazole topical solution, clotrimazole topical solution[package insert[. Bramalea, ON: Taro Pharmaceuticals Inc; 1996. ... 5. Clotrimazole troche oral lozenges, clotrimazole troche oral lozenges[package insert]. Minneapolis, MN: Paddock Laboratories ... 6. Clotrimazole topical cream, clotrimazole topical cream[package insert]. Ontario, Canada: Taro Pharmaceuticals Inc; 1996. ... Clotrimazole Lozenge: Place the lozenge into your mouth and allow it to slowly dissolve for 15-30 minutes. You should not eat ...
Visit Pharmahopers to find Best Clotrimazole Third Party Pharma Manufacturing Companies with price list now. ... Clotrimazole Manufacturers In India , Clotrimazole Cream , Clotrimazole Dusting Powder , Clotrimazole Lotion. Clotrimazole ... Clotrimazole for vaginal use. *Clotrimazole for vaginal use is a cream that is put into the vagina. It can also be used on the ... What is Clotrimazole and how does it work?. *Clotrimazole is a topical antifungal drug with a broad spectrum of activity. This ...
  • Gogynax Vaginal Tablets -… Buy Gogynax Vaginal Tablets - Clotrimazole Inserts 100mg(6 inserts with applicator). (
  • Patient information for CLOTRIMAZOLE VAGINAL TABLETS 100MG Including dosage instructions and possible side effects. (
  • This cream contains 1% of the active ingredient Clotrimazole, a powerful antifungal agent that works by eradicating the Candida fungus responsible for the infection. (
  • Terrasil is a local brand name for anti-fungal cream that has clotrimazole as an active ingredient with some helping ingredients like organic beeswax, peppermint oil, cotton seed oil, tea tree oil, and jojoba seed oil and it is grey has some patented activated ingredients like silver oxide, zinc oxide, magnesium oxide, and bentonite. (
  • Topical clotrimazole is usually not effective in treatment of fungal infections of the scalp or nails. (
  • Topical clotrimazole cream, when combined with mechanical reduction of the nail, has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of onychomycosis - fungal infection of the fingernails and toenails. (
  • Topical clotrimazole is categorized as pregnancy category B. Small amounts of clotrimazole may be absorbed systemically following topical and vaginal administration. (
  • However, topical clotrimazole is still considered safe to use to treat yeast infections in pregnant women and is a safer alternative to other antifungals. (
  • There are no known significant drug interactions with topical clotrimazole. (
  • Topical clotrimazole comes as a cream and liquid to apply to the skin. (
  • Topical clotrimazole is only for use on the skin. (
  • To use topical clotrimazole, wash the affected area and dry thoroughly. (
  • Topical clotrimazole may be used to treat tinea versicolor (fungal infection of the skin that causes brown or light colored spots on the chest, back, arms, legs, or neck) or yeast infections of the skin. (
  • She had been treated initially with fluconazole, then sequentially with topical clotrimazole, ticoconazole ointment, and intravaginal boric acid gel. (
  • For vulvovaginal candidiasis, clotrimazole tablets and creams are inserted into the vagina. (
  • Single blind comparison of ketoconazole 200 mg oral tablets and clotrimazole 100 mg vaginal tablets and 1% cream in treating acute vaginal candidosis. (
  • Chemist… Buy Canesten Clotrimazole Vaginal Tablets available online at Chemist Direct which is a single dose pessary, used to relieve and treat vaginal candidiasis Clotrimazole 500mg Vaginal Tablet Internal… Clotrimazole 500mg pessary. (
  • Clotrimazole Vaginal Tablets Are Used To Treat Vulvovaginal Candidiasis. (
  • citation needed] When using over-the-counter drug clotrimazole products, use should be discontinued if condition does not improve after treatment for 2 weeks for jock itch or after 4 weeks for athlete's foot or ringworm. (
  • Clotrimazole may be compounded with a glucocorticoid, such as betamethasone, in a topical cream for the treatment of tinea corporis (ringworm), tinea cruris (jock itch) and tinea pedis (athlete's foot). (
  • Clotrimazole topical (for the skin) is used to treat skin infections such as athlete's foot , jock itch , ringworm , and yeast infections. (
  • CLOTRIMAZOLE belongs to the class of anti-fungal medications known as imidazoles, primarily used to treat fungal skin infections such as athlete's foot, ringworm, fungal nappy rash, fungal sweat rash and thrush. (
  • CLOTRIMAZOLE contains clotrimazole, an antifungal medication used to treat various fungal skin infections such as athlete's foot, ringworm, fungal nappy rash, and fungal sweat rash. (
  • Clotrimazole is a topical antibiotic that is mainly used to treat fungal skin diseases such jock itch, athlete's foot, and ringworm (candidiasis). (
  • Clotrimazole is an active antifungal drug of class imidazoles that is used in the treatment of jock itch, balanitis, toenail fungus, scalp ringworm, yeast infection of the vagina, and mouth, piedra, kerion, and ringworm. (
  • Clotrimazole topical is used for the treatment of fungal infections of the vagina, mouth, ear and skin, such as athlete's foot, jock itch, ringworm, thrush, or otitis externa (inflammation of outer ear). (
  • If you are treating athlete's foot, pay special attention to the spaces between the toes when applying clotrimazole. (
  • Turmeric cream still remains to be inferior to clotrimazole when used to treat Tinea pedis (commonly known as athlete's foot), reported RITM Dermatology Deputy Chief Resident Dr. Riza I. Sarne during the RITM Research Forum held last April 22, 2019. (
  • Taro Clotrimazole 7-Day Vaginal Cream 1% with Reusable Applicator 45 gram is a highly effective treatment for women suffering from vaginal yeast infections. (
  • eBay Clotrimazole Vaginal Tablet Pessary 3 x 200 mg with Applicator Canesten. (
  • 1. Clotrimazole vaginal tablet is placed in the provided holder of the applicator. (
  • However, government regulations related to the safety and efficacy of the compound clotrimazole ointment hinder the market growth. (
  • Ongoing R&D activities related to compound clotrimazole ointment are anticipated to present new opportunities for the market. (
  • The study provides an in-depth analysis of the global compound clotrimazole ointment market with current trends and future estimations to elucidate the investment pockets. (
  • Terrasil is a clotrimazole ointment for the treatment of fungal infections but is different from regular clotrimazole ointment. (
  • Cottonseed oil in terrasil anti-fungal cream helps clotrimazole to kill fungal infections and moisturizes infected areas and antioxidants property prevent further infection. (
  • Clotrimazole topical is an antifungal medication that fights infections caused by fungus. (
  • CLOTRIMAZOLE damages the fungal cell membrane and causes the components to leak out, thus killing the fungus and curing the infection. (
  • Each Mycelex ® Troche contains 10 mg clotrimazole [1-(o-chloro-α,α-diphenylbenzyl) imidazole], a synthetic antifungal agent, for topical use in the mouth. (
  • Clotrimazole belongs to the imidazole class of azole antifungals and has wide antimycotic activity. (
  • Clotrimazole vaginal tablet is antifungal medicine, also called imidazole, that works by restricting the growth of fungi that causes various fungal infections. (
  • Clotrimazole is an imidazole antifungal medication and not a st***id. (
  • Taro Clotrimazole Cream 1% is an antifungal medication used to treat various fungal and certain yeast infections. (
  • For this reason, liver function tests should be monitored periodically when taking the oral clotrimazole (troche). (
  • However, with oral (troche) clotrimazole, there are multiple interactions as the medication is a CYP450 enzyme inhibitor, primarily CYP3A4. (
  • The troche dosage form is a large, slowly dissolving tablet (lozenge) containing 10 mg of clotrimazole dispersed in dextrose, microcrystalline cellulose, povidone, and magnesium stearate. (
  • After oral administration of a 10 mg clotrimazole troche to healthy volunteers, concentrations sufficient to inhibit most species of Candida persist in saliva for up to three hours following the approximately 30 minutes needed for a troche to dissolve. (
  • In another study, the mean serum concentrations were 4.98 ± 3.7 and 3.23 ± 1.4 nanograms/mL of clotrimazole at 30 and 60 minutes, respectively, after administration as a troche. (
  • If you are using clotrimazole to treat jock itch, your symptoms should improve over 2 weeks of treatment. (
  • Canesten Vaginal Pessary Clotrimazole 200mg provides effective treatment for thrush right at the site of the infection. (
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to clotrimazole, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in clotrimazole cream or liquid. (
  • Do not use CLOTRIMAZOLE if you are allergic to clotrimazole or any of the other ingredients. (
  • Terrasil is more effective than regular clotrimazole cream due to the presence of other helping ingredients and its mineral discharge action. (
  • Regular clotrimazole is prescribed by your dermatologist and does not contain any other helping ingredients as terrasil does. (
  • You should not use clotrimazole topical if you are allergic to it. (
  • Canesten-6 (Clotrimazole) should not be used by patients who are allergic to clotrimazole or who have had a bad reaction to similar treatments in the past. (
  • Some side effects that are seen during the use of clotrimazole include redness, itching, burning, and throbbing rush to Doctor if you see any serious allergic reactions like severe dizziness and difficulty in breathing. (
  • Clotrimazolum Order Clotrimazole Gel, Cream, Lozenges and…Generic clotrimazole 1%, 2% gels,1% cream, 10mg Lozenges, 500mg Vaginal tabs are used for treating vaginal fungal infections. (
  • The generic Clotrimazole is manufactured by 82 companies. (
  • Do not let clotrimazole get into your eyes and do not swallow the medication. (
  • Clotrimazole topical may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. (
  • Trupharma Clotrimazole Topical Solution 1% 30mL Bottle is a medication for the management of various fungal or yeast infections. (
  • Canesten-6 (Clotrimazole) is a vaginal medication used to treat women suffering from vaginal thrush. (
  • The medication of clotrimazole comes in the form of creams and lozenges. (
  • Clotrimazole vaginal tablet is the medication used to treat yeast infections in the vagina of women and children above the age of 12. (
  • Clotrimazole is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent that inhibits the growth of pathogenic yeasts by altering the permeability of cell membranes. (
  • Compound clotrimazole is a broad spectrum anti-fungal agent, which is used for the treatment of dermal infections. (
  • Clotrimazole is an orally applicable antifungal substance with broad-spectrum activity. (
  • The rising prevalence of skin infections and the rising demand for clotrimazole due to its broad spectrum of action are the main drivers driving this market's expansion. (
  • Clotrimazole is a topical antifungal drug with a broad spectrum of activity. (
  • Materials and Methods: Eighty Candida isolates were identified by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the antifungal susceptibility to amphotericin B (AMB), fluconazole (FLU), itraconazole (ITZ), voriconazole (VOR), clotrimazole (CTZ), and farnesol was tested by the standard microdilution method. (
  • Topically, clotrimazole is used for vulvovaginal candidiasis (yeast infection) or yeast infections of the skin. (
  • Clotrimazole 3-Day Vaginal Antifungal Cream 2% is a highly effective treatment for yeast infections. (
  • Clotrimazole vaginal tablet500mg dosage for adults is one tablet at bedtime while comfortably lying in bed. (
  • Clotrimazole vaginal tablet is mainly used to reduce the vaginal itching and burning caused due to vaginal infections like vaginal candidiasis. (
  • Clotrimazole 1% cream is a second-line agent in the treatment of cutaneous candidiasis. (
  • Although FDA approved, clotrimazole-betamethasone combination cream is not the preferred treatment for dermatophyte infections due to increased side effects from the topical glucocorticoid. (
  • What other drugs will affect clotrimazole topical? (
  • It is not likely that other drugs you take orally or inject will have an effect on topically applied clotrimazole. (
  • Suffering from a terrible fungal infection and trying to find the best antifungal creams or drugs and you got confused between terrasil vs. clotrimazole . (
  • Clotrimazole creams and suppositories contain oil which may weaken latex condoms and diaphragms. (
  • CLOTRIMAZOLE comprises clotrimazole, which works by destroying the fungus that causes the infection. (
  • Clotrimazole treats fungal infections by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, which builds the cell walls of the fungus. (
  • Terrasil is used in getting rid of fungus due to its mineralized and clotrimazole actions. (
  • however, the relationship between in vitro susceptibility of pathogenic fungi to clotrimazole and prophylaxis or cure of infections in humans has not been established. (
  • Clotrimazole is usually used five times daily for 14 days for oral thrush, twice daily for 2 to 8 weeks for skin infections, and once daily for 3 or 7 days for vaginal infections. (
  • Clotrimazole Vaginal Numark Clotrimazole Vaginal Tablet With…This Numark pessary contains clotrimazole which is an anti-fungal. (
  • The use of clotrimazole vaginal tablet is prominently done to prevent further yeast or fungal infections in the vagina. (
  • Clotrimazole vaginal tablet should not be used in pregnancy to avoid damage to the cervix at the time of application. (
  • The price of clotrimazole vaginal tablet 500mg may range from ₹100- ₹150/strip. (
  • Shop Candid V3 Clotrimazole Pessaries Online from Health Online, Connecting You to Pharmacies in Ghana - Shop them at the best price. (
  • Clotrimazole Manufacturers In India - During the projected period from 2021 to 2028, the clotrimazole market is predicted to increase at a CAGR of 7%, up from USD 1.65 billion in 2021. (
  • Clotrimazole may cause side effects. (
  • The majority of these side effects of CLOTRIMAZOLE eventually fade away over time without the need for medical intervention. (
  • What are the side effects of Canesten-6 (Clotrimazole)? (
  • 95% Package:500mg Remarks:BOC Sciences also provides custom synthesis services for Clotrimazole Impurity A. (
  • Clotrimazole inhibits the microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP450)-dependent event 14-α- lanosterol demethylation, which is a vital step in ergosterol biosynthesis by fungi. (
  • Clotrimazole is in a class of antifungal medications called imidazoles. (
  • Avoid using other skin medications on the areas you treat with clotrimazole topical unless your doctor tells you to. (
  • Do not use any other topical medications simultaneously along with CLOTRIMAZOLE without a doctor's recommendation. (
  • Before using CLOTRIMAZOLE, inform your doctor about your medical history and other medications you are currently taking in order to rule out any potential negative effects. (
  • Clotrimazole belongs to a class of medications called as antifungals . (
  • Avoid using any other topical products/medicines with CLOTRIMAZOLE. (
  • For Our Clients We Are Providing Good Quality Products And Niksan Healthcare Is One Of The Eminent Manufacturer, Exporter, Suppliers, Distributor, Trader And Dealer Of High Quality Clotrimazole Ip 1% Soap. (
  • Clotrimazole (Selsyd CRM) prevents fungal growth on the skin. (
  • Clotrimazole topical (for the skin) is u. (
  • Canesten Cream 1% (clotrimazole) is commonly prescribed today to treat certain fungal infections of the skin, on the human body. (
  • Moreover, Clotrimazole is a strong inhibitor of epidermal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) carcinogen metabolism, of the enzyme-mediated binding of PAH to DNA, and of PAH-induced skin cancer. (
  • citation needed] Additionally, clotrimazole may be used to treat the sickling of cells (related to sickle cell anemia). (
  • Wash your hands before and after using clotrimazole topical, unless you are using it to treat a hand infection . (
  • Clotrimazole is a fungicide that is used to treat fungal diseases. (
  • What should I avoid while using clotrimazole topical? (
  • Buy thrush treatment online today in 3 simple steps and have your medicine delivered to Canesten Thrush Cream ( Clotrimazole ), 20g tube 2% cream, £8.99.Walgreens Clotrimazole 3 Vaginal Cream 3-Day Antifungal…Walgreens Clotrimazole 3 Vaginal Cream 3-Day Antifungal Treatment at Walgreens. (
  • If you become pregnant while using clotrimazole, call your doctor. (
  • If you are pregnant or nursing, consult your doctor before starting CLOTRIMAZOLE. (