Clostridium thermocellum: A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Cellulase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Cellulosomes: Extracellular structures found in a variety of microorganisms. They contain CELLULASES and play an important role in the digestion of CELLULOSE.Cellobiose: A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.Cellulose 1,4-beta-Cellobiosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE and cellotetraose. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing ends of beta-D-glucosides with release of CELLOBIOSE.Clostridium difficile: A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.Xylosidases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha- or beta-xylosidic linkages. EC 3.2.1.8 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.32 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.37 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans; and EC 3.2.1.72 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans. Other xylosidases have been identified that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-xylosidic bonds.Clostridium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.Xylan Endo-1,3-beta-Xylosidase: A xylosidase that catalyses the random hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-xylans.Xylans: Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.Clostridium botulinum: A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.DextrinsEndo-1,4-beta Xylanases: Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.TetrosesGlycoside HydrolasesMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.beta-Mannosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-mannose residues in beta-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the lysosomal degradation of the N-glycosylprotein glycans. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme in humans result in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease BETA-MANNOSIDOSIS.Polynucleotide 5'-Hydroxyl-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to the 5'-terminal hydroxyl groups of DNA and RNA. EC 2.7.1.78.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Cellulases: A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous: An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.Glucan 1,3-beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for 1,3-beta-D-glucasidic linkages. It catalyzes hydrolysis of beta-D-glucose units from the non-reducing ends of 1,3-beta-D-glucans, releasing GLUCOSE.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Acetylesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetate esters and water to alcohols and acetate. EC 3.1.1.6.Clostridium acetobutylicum: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, used for the industrial production of SOLVENTS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Clostridium tetani: The cause of TETANUS in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Clostridium cellulolyticum: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is a cellulolytic, mesophilic species isolated from decayed GRASS.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)PolysaccharidesChromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Botulinum Toxins: Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Clostridium sordellii: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, found in INTESTINES and SOIL.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Structural insights into the mechanism of formation of cellulosomes probed by small angle X-ray scattering. (1/130)

Exploring the mechanism by which the multiprotein complexes of cellulolytic organisms, the cellulosomes, attain their exceptional synergy is a challenge for biologists. We have studied the solution structures of the Clostridium cellulolyticum cellulosomal enzyme Cel48F in the free and complexed states with cohesins from Clostridium thermocellum and Clostridium cellulolyticum by small angle x-ray scattering in order to investigate the conformational events likely to occur upon complexation. The solution structure of the free cellulase indicates that the dockerin module is folded, whereas the linker connecting the catalytic module to the dockerin is extended and flexible. Remarkably, the docking of the different cohesins onto Cel48F leads to a pleating of the linker. The global structure determined here allowed modeling of the atomic structure of the C. cellulolyticum dockerin-cohesin interface, highlighting the local differences between both organisms responsible for the species specificity.  (+info)

Design and production in Aspergillus niger of a chimeric protein associating a fungal feruloyl esterase and a clostridial dockerin domain. (2/130)

A chimeric enzyme associating feruloyl esterase A (FAEA) from Aspergillus niger and dockerin from Clostridium thermocellum was produced in A. niger. A completely truncated form was produced when the dockerin domain was located downstream of the FAEA (FAEA-Doc), whereas no chimeric protein was produced when the bacterial dockerin domain was located upstream of the FAEA (Doc-FAEA). Northern blot analysis showed similar transcript levels for the two constructs, indicating a posttranscriptional bottleneck for Doc-FAEA production. The sequence encoding the first 514 amino acids from A. niger glucoamylase and a dibasic proteolytic processing site (kex-2) were fused upstream of the Doc-FAEA sequence. By using this fusion strategy, the esterase activity found in the extracellular medium was 20-fold-higher than that of the wild-type reference strain, and the production yield was estimated to be about 100 mg of chimeric protein/liter. Intracellular and extracellular production was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, dockerin-cohesin interaction assays, and Western blotting. Labeled cohesins detected an intact extracellular Doc-FAEA of about 43 kDa and a cleaved-off dockerin domain of about 8 kDa. In addition, an intracellular 120-kDa protein was recognized by using labeled cohesins and antibodies raised against FAEA. This protein corresponded to the unprocessed Doc-FAEA form fused to glucoamylase. In conclusion, these results indicated that translational fusion to glucoamylase improved the secretion efficiency of a chimeric Doc-FAEA protein and allowed production of the first functional fungal enzyme joined to a bacterial dockerin.  (+info)

Interactions between immunoglobulin-like and catalytic modules in Clostridium thermocellum cellulosomal cellobiohydrolase CbhA. (3/130)

Cellobiohydrolase CbhA from Clostridium thermocellum cellulosome is a multi-modular protein composed starting from the N-terminus of a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) of family 4, an immunoglobulin(Ig)-like module, a catalytic module of family 9 glycoside hydrolases (GH9), X1(1) and X1(2) modules, a CBM of family 3 and a dockerin module. Deletion of the Ig-like module from the Ig-GH9 construct results in complete inactivation of the GH9 module. The crystal structure of the Ig-GH9 module pair reveals the existence of an extensive module interface composed of over 40 amino acid residues of both modules and maintained through a large number of hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions. To investigate the importance of these interactions between the two modules, we compared the secondary and tertiary structures and thermostabilities of the individual Ig-like and GH9 modules and the Ig-GH9 module pair using both circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Thr230, Asp262 and Asp264 of the Ig-like module are located in the module interface of the Ig-GH9 module pair and are suggested to be important in 'communication' between the modules. These residues were mutated to alanyl residues. The structure, stability and catalytic properties of the native Ig-GH9 and its D264A and T230A/D262A mutants were compared. The results indicate that despite being able to fold relatively independently, the Ig-like and GH9 modules interact and these interactions affect the final fold and stability of each module. Mutations of one or two amino acid residues lead to destabilization and change of the mechanism of thermal unfolding of the polypeptides. The enzymatic properties of native Ig-GH9, D264A and T230A/D262A mutants are similar. The results indicate that inactivation of the GH9 module occurs as a result of multiple structural disturbances finally affecting the topology of the catalytic center.  (+info)

Regulation of cellulase synthesis in batch and continuous cultures of Clostridium thermocellum. (4/130)

Regulation of cell-specific cellulase synthesis (expressed in milligrams of cellulase per gram [dry weight] of cells) by Clostridium thermocellum was investigated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay protocol based on antibody raised against a peptide sequence from the scaffoldin protein of the cellulosome (Zhang and Lynd, Anal. Chem. 75:219-227, 2003). The cellulase synthesis in Avicel-grown batch cultures was ninefold greater than that in cellobiose-grown batch cultures. In substrate-limited continuous cultures, however, the cellulase synthesis with Avicel-grown cultures was 1.3- to 2.4-fold greater than that in cellobiose-grown cultures, depending on the dilution rate. The differences between the cellulase yields observed during carbon-limited growth on cellulose and the cellulase yields observed during carbon-limited growth on cellobiose at the same dilution rate suggest that hydrolysis products other than cellobiose affect cellulase synthesis during growth on cellulose and/or that the presence of insoluble cellulose triggers an increase in cellulase synthesis. Continuous cellobiose-grown cultures maintained either at high dilution rates or with a high feed substrate concentration exhibited decreased cellulase synthesis; there was a large (sevenfold) decrease between 0 and 0.2 g of cellobiose per liter, and there was a much more gradual further decrease for cellobiose concentrations >0.2 g/liter. Several factors suggest that cellulase synthesis in C. thermocellum is regulated by catabolite repression. These factors include: (i) substantially higher cellulase yields observed during batch growth on Avicel than during batch growth on cellobiose, (ii) a strong negative correlation between the cellobiose concentration and the cellulase yield in continuous cultures with varied dilution rates at a constant feed substrate concentration and also with varied feed substrate concentrations at a constant dilution rate, and (iii) the presence of sequences corresponding to key elements of catabolite repression systems in the C. thermocellum genome.  (+info)

Functions of family-22 carbohydrate-binding module in Clostridium thermocellum Xyn10C. (5/130)

Clostridium thermocellum xylanase Xyn10C (formerly XynC) is a modular enzyme, comprising a family-22 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM), a family-10 catalytic module of the glycoside hydrolases, and a dockerin module responsible for cellulosome assembly consecutively from the N-terminus. To study the functions of the CBM, truncated derivatives of Xyn10C were constructed: a recombinant catalytic module polypeptide (rCM), a family-22 CBM polypeptide (rCBM), and a polypeptide composed of the family-22 CBM and CM (rCBM-CM). The recombinant proteins were characterized by enzyme and binding assays. Although the catalytic activity of rCBM-CM toward insoluble xylan was four times higher than that of rCM toward the same substrate, removal of the CBM did not severely affect catalytic activity toward soluble xylan or beta-1,3-1,4-glucan. rCBM showed an affinity for amorphous celluloses and insoluble and soluble xylan in qualitative binding assays. The optimum temperature of rCBM-CM was 80 degrees C and that of rCM was 60 degrees C. These results indicate that the family-22 CBM of C. thermocellum Xyn10C not only was responsible for the binding of the enzyme to the substrates, but also contributes to the stability of the CM in the presence of the substrate at high temperatures.  (+info)

Action of designer cellulosomes on homogeneous versus complex substrates: controlled incorporation of three distinct enzymes into a defined trifunctional scaffoldin. (6/130)

In recent work, we reported the self-assembly of a comprehensive set of defined "bifunctional" chimeric cellulosomes. Each complex contained the following: (i) a chimeric scaffoldin possessing a cellulose-binding module and two cohesins of divergent specificity and (ii) two cellulases, each bearing a dockerin complementary to one of the divergent cohesins. This approach allowed the controlled integration of desired enzymes into a multiprotein complex of predetermined stoichiometry and topology. The observed enhanced synergy on recalcitrant substrates by the bifunctional designer cellulosomes was ascribed to two major factors: substrate targeting and proximity of the two catalytic components. In the present work, the capacity of the previously described chimeric cellulosomes was amplified by developing a third divergent cohesin-dockerin device. The resultant trifunctional designer cellulosomes were assayed on homogeneous and complex substrates (microcrystalline cellulose and straw, respectively) and found to be considerably more active than the corresponding free enzyme or bifunctional systems. The results indicate that the synergy between two prominent cellulosomal enzymes (from the family-48 and -9 glycoside hydrolases) plays a crucial role during the degradation of cellulose by cellulosomes and that one dominant family-48 processive endoglucanase per complex is sufficient to achieve optimal levels of synergistic activity. Furthermore cooperation within a cellulosome chimera between cellulases and a hemicellulase from different microorganisms was achieved, leading to a trifunctional complex with enhanced activity on a complex substrate.  (+info)

Cellulase, clostridia, and ethanol. (7/130)

Biomass conversion to ethanol as a liquid fuel by the thermophilic and anaerobic clostridia offers a potential partial solution to the problem of the world's dependence on petroleum for energy. Coculture of a cellulolytic strain and a saccharolytic strain of Clostridium on agricultural resources, as well as on urban and industrial cellulosic wastes, is a promising approach to an alternate energy source from an economic viewpoint. This review discusses the need for such a process, the cellulases of clostridia, their presence in extracellular complexes or organelles (the cellulosomes), the binding of the cellulosomes to cellulose and to the cell surface, cellulase genetics, regulation of their synthesis, cocultures, ethanol tolerance, and metabolic pathway engineering for maximizing ethanol yield.  (+info)

Regulation of major cellulosomal endoglucanases of Clostridium thermocellum differs from that of a prominent cellulosomal xylanase. (8/130)

The expression of scaffoldin-anchoring genes and one of the major processive endoglucanases (CelS) from the cellulosome of Clostridium thermocellum has been shown to be dependent on the growth rate. For the present work, we studied the gene regulation of selected cellulosomal endoglucanases and a major xylanase in order to examine the previously observed substrate-linked alterations in cellulosome composition. For this purpose, the transcript levels of genes encoding endoglucanases CelB, CelG, and CelD and the family 10 xylanase XynC were determined in batch cultures, grown on either cellobiose or cellulose, and in carbon-limited continuous cultures at different dilution rates. Under all conditions tested, the transcript levels of celB and celG were at least 10-fold higher than that of celD. Like the major processive endoglucanase CelS, the transcript levels of these endoglucanase genes were also dependent on the growth rate. Thus, at a rate of 0.04 h(-1), the levels of celB, celG, and celD were threefold higher than those obtained in cultures grown at maximal rates (0.35 h(-1)) on cellobiose. In contrast, no clear correlation was observed between the transcript level of xynC and the growth rate-the levels remained relatively high, fluctuating between 30 and 50 transcripts per cell. The results suggest that the regulation of C. thermocellum endoglucanases is similar to that of the processive endoglucanase celS but differs from that of a major cellulosomal xylanase in that expression of the latter enzyme is independent of the growth rate.  (+info)

*Cellulosome

Clostridium cellulovorans Clostridium clariflavum Clostridium josui Clostridium papyrosolvens Clostridium thermocellum (treated ... The scaffoldin of some cellulosomes, an example being that of Clostridium thermocellum, contains a carbohydrate-binding module ... "Adherence of Clostridium thermocellum to cellulose". J. Bacteriol. 2: 818-827. Bayer EA, Belaich JP, Shoham Y, and Lamed R. The ... has been derived from the study of Clostridium thermocellum. Applications: Intelligent application of cellulosome hybrids and ...

*Cellobiose phosphorylase

Alexander JK (1968). "Purification and specificity of cellobiose phosphorylase from Clostridium thermocellum". J. Biol. Chem. ...

*Cellulose 1,4-beta-cellobiosidase

"Multidomain structure and cellulosomal localization of the Clostridium thermocellum cellobiohydrolase CbhA". J. Bacteriol. 180 ...

*Cellodextrin phosphorylase

... orthophosphate glucosyltransferase from Clostridium thermocellum". J. Biol. Chem. 244 (2): 457-64. PMID 5773308. Molecular and ...

*Edward A. Bayer

156, 828-36 (1983). Bayer, E. A., Kenig, R. & Lamed, R. Adherence of Clostridium thermocellum to cellulose. J. Bacteriol. 156, ... cellulase-containing complex in Clostridium thermocellum. J. Bacteriol. ... Biotechnology for biofuels production of a functional cell wall anchored minicellulosome by recombinant Clostridium ...

*Glycoside hydrolase family 44

2007). "Crystal structure of Cel44A, a glycoside hydrolase family 44 endoglucanase from Clostridium thermocellum". J Biol Chem ...

*Cohesin domain

The scaffoldin component of the cellulolytic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum is a non-hydrolytic protein which organises the ... "A cohesin domain from Clostridium thermocellum: the crystal structure provides new insights into cellulosome assembly". ...

*Carbohydrate-binding module

One example is the CBM11 of Clostridium thermocellum Cel26A-Cel5E, this domain has been shown to bind both β-1,4-glucan and β-1 ... In anaerobic bacteria that degrade plant cell walls, exemplified by Clostridium thermocellum, the dockerin domains of the ... "The Family 11 Carbohydrate-binding Module of Clostridium thermocellum Lic26A-Cel5E Accommodates -1,4- and -1,3-1,4-Mixed Linked ... "Identification of the cellulose-binding domain of the cellulosome subunit S1 from Clostridium thermocellum YS". FEMS Microbiol ...

*Glycosidic bond

ISBN 978-0-470-74859-6. Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of b-d-Glucosides using Cellobiose Phosphorylase from Clostridium thermocellum ...

*EF hand

Clostridium thermocellum, 1daq​). Among all the structures reported to date, the majority of EF-hand motifs are paired either ...

*Serpin

The precise role of most bacterial serpins remains obscure, although Clostridium thermocellum serpin localises to the ...

*Cellulosic ethanol

One example is Clostridium thermocellum, which uses a complex cellulosome to break down cellulose and synthesize ethanol. ... However, C. thermocellum also produces other products during cellulose metabolism, including acetate and lactate, in addition ... Demain A, Newcomb M, Wu D (March 2005). "Cellulase, Clostridia, and Ethanol. Microbiology". Molecular Biology Reviews. 69 (1): ... Instead of sugar fermentation with yeast, this process uses Clostridium ljungdahlii bacteria. This microorganism will ingest ...

*Caldicellulosiruptor bescii

Bi-functional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase genes from Clostridium thermocellum allow for the conversion of sugars to ...

*Cellulose 1,4-beta-cellobiosidase (reducing end)

The CelS enzyme from Clostridium thermocellum is the most abundant subunit of the cellulosome formed by the organism. Barr, B.K ...

*Caldibacillus

Cellulose-Degrading Coculture with Clostridium thermocellum". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 81 (16): 5567-5573. doi: ...

*Cellulase

Zverlov VV, Schantz N, Schwarz WH (2005). "A major new component in the cellulosome of Clostridium thermocellum is a processive ...

*Dockerin

"Cohesin-dockerin interactions within and between Clostridium josui and Clostridium thermocellum: binding selectivity between ... "Structural characterization of type II dockerin module from the cellulosome of Clostridium thermocellum: calcium-induced ... "Structural characterization of type II dockerin module from the cellulosome of Clostridium thermocellum: calcium-induced ...

*Glycoside hydrolase family 48

The C-terminal domain belongs to this family shows similarity to a cellulase from Clostridium thermocellum (CelS), which acts ...

*Arnold Demain

... "that the extracellular cellulase of Clostridium thermocellum ATTC 27405 could attack crystalline cellulose," which was "the ... In his last MIT projects he studied Clostridium tetani and C. difficile with the aim of facilitating the production of improved ... cellulases and ethanologenic clostridia; vitamin B12; amino acids, organic acids and polymers; the immunosuppressant, rapamycin ...

*Clostridium thermocellum

JGI: Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 Cellulase, Clostridia, and Ethanol Ibid. Characterization of Clostridium thermocellum ... Clostridium thermocellum is an anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium. C. thermocellum has garnered research interest due to its ... Cellulosic Ethanol Type strain of Clostridium thermocellum at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Biology portal. ...

*List of MeSH codes (B03)

Clostridium tetanomorphum MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.770 --- Clostridium thermocellum MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.800 --- ... Clostridium tetanomorphum MeSH B03.510.415.400.200.770 --- Clostridium thermocellum MeSH B03.510.415.400.200.800 --- ... Clostridium symbiosum MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.722 --- Clostridium tertium MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.725 --- Clostridium tetani ... Clostridium symbiosum MeSH B03.510.415.400.200.722 --- Clostridium tertium MeSH B03.510.415.400.200.725 --- Clostridium tetani ...
Clostridium thermocellum CelJ protein: isolated from Clostridium thermocellum; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank D83704
Current and future demands for renewable energy sources have spurred research in developing biofuels. One promising route for biofuel production is to use an organism-based bioprocess where cellulose could be converted to biofuel. One of the main challenges to this approach is that there are relatively few cellulolytic organisms capable of biofuel production, and none of these are especially well-characterized at present. Here we have implemented a computational modeling approach to study C. thermocellum, an anaerobic thermophile with high biofuel production potential. In this study, the development of a genome-scale metabolic model of C. thermocellum was used to provide a framework for analyzing the basic metabolic functions of C. thermocellum and improving its ethanol production capabilities. Overall, we report the construction of a genome-scale metabolic model of C. thermocellum, i SR432, and the accuracy of this model to predict cellular phenotypes (growth and fermentation product secretion) ...
Creative Biolabs offers the best Recombinant Clostridium Thermocellum ispE Protein (aa 1-283), which is useful for vaccine development.
Blending of ethanol with fossil fuel is recommended to address the problem of increasing demand for transportation fuel without environmental pollution. This implementation was planned because ethanol is derived from renewable biological sources, and has promising properties such as anti-knock potential [1, 2] and cleaner combustion [3, 4]. Several countries around the world are adopting this strategy, and are planning to increase the percentage of ethanol blending in a phased manner [5]. In this context, allocation of natural resources for ethanol production in place of food production, and completing interests in ethanol for industrial and potable purposes are the major concerns to be addressed. For example, sugarcane molasses serves as the sole feedstock for bioethanol production in India where the annual production is approximately 2.7 billion litres of which only 30 % is offered for fuel purposes [6, 7]. When considering the supply of feedstock, increasing the production of ethanol from ...
1GKL: The Structure of the Feruloyl Esterase Module of Xylanase 10B from Clostridium Thermocellum Provides Insights Into Substrate Recognition
technology for cellulosic biomass conversion, recently put out a press release announcing the grant of U.S. Patent No. 8,540,847 (847 Patent).. Entitled "Methods and apparatus for processing cellulosic biomass," the 847 Patent is directed to methods and apparatus for making ethanol or other biofuels using what Aphios calls its Aosic process.. The apparatus (11) described and claimed in the patent comprises a first vessel (13) for receiving cellulosic biomass and conveying means (15) in fluid communication with the first vessel (13). The apparatus (11) also comprises supercritical, critical, or near critical fluid means (17), which includes a source of gas, such as gas tank (41), holding carbon dioxide pressurized to form supercritical, critical, or near critical fluid.. The fluid means (17) is in fluid communication with conveying means (15) via conduit (31). A pump (47) is connected to a heat exchanger (55), which controls the temperature of the supercritical, critical, or near critical ...
Background: Clostridium thermocellum is a gram-positive thermophile that can directly convert lignocellulosic material into biofuels. The metabolism of C. thermocellum contains many branches and redundancies which limit biofuel production, and typical genetic techniques are time-consuming. Further, the genome sequence of a genetically tractable strain C. thermocellum DSM 1313 has been recently sequenced and annotated. Therefore, developing a comprehensive, predictive, genome-scale metabolic model of DSM 1313 is desired for elucidating its complex phenotypes and facilitating model-guided metabolic engineering. Results: We constructed a genome-scale metabolic model iAT601 for DSM 1313 using the KEGG database as a scaffold and an extensive literature review and bioinformatic analysis for model refinement. Next, we used several sets of experimental data to train the model, e.g., estimation of the ATP requirement for growth-associated maintenance (13.5 mmol ATP/g DCW/h) and cellulosome synthesis (57 mmol ATP
The Ruminiclostridium thermocellum DSM 2360 whole genome shotgun (WGS) project has the project accession ACVX00000000. This version of the project (01) has the accession number ACVX01000000, and consists of sequences ACVX01000001-ACVX01000110.. URL -- http://www.jgi.doe.gov JGI Project ID: 4085028 Source DNA and Bacteria available from Christopher L. Hemme ([email protected]) Contacts: Christopher L. Hemme ([email protected]) David Bruce ([email protected]) Whole genome sequencing and draft assembly at JGI-PGF Annotation by JGI-ORNL The JGI and collaborators endorse the principles for the distribution and use of large scale sequencing data adopted by the larger genome sequencing community and urge users of this data to follow them. It is our intention to publish the work of this project in a timely fashion and we welcome collaborative interaction on the project and analysis. (http://www.genome.gov/page.cfm?pageID=10506376).. ...
1JT2: Structural basis for the substrate specificity of the feruloyl esterase domain of the cellulosomal xylanase Z from Clostridium thermocellum.
Some exocellulases, most of which belong to the glycoside hydrolase family 48 (GH48, formerly known as cellulase family L), act at the reducing ends of cellulose and similar substrates. The CelS enzyme from Clostridium thermocellum is the most abundant subunit of the cellulosome formed by the organism. It liberates cellobiose units from the reducing end by hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond, employing an inverting reaction mechanism [2]. Different from EC 3.2.1.91, which attacks cellulose from the non-reducing end ...
Created after Ndeh et al., Nature (2017) 544:65-70 (PMID=28329766) who have shown the a-L-fucosidase activity of the B. thetaiotaomicron enzyme. The xylanase activity of the (Rumini)clostridium thermocellum enzyme was shown by Heinze et al. (PMID=28894250 ...
A major challenge to converting lignocellulose into fuels and chemicals is the lack of microbial access to the complex polysaccharides that comprise the plant cell wall. C. bescii is unique in its ability to degrade and coutilize sugars from both hemicellulose (C5) and cellulose (C6). Thus, for this extremely thermophilic bacterium, lignin is the major barrier to complete plant biomass conversion.. The transgenic switchgrass lines MYB Trans and COMT3(+), their respective parental lines (cv. Alamo), and a naturally occurring, low-recalcitrance switchgrass (cv. CR) were all solubilized by C. bescii but to different extents. Significant variations in solubilization were seen between the different parental lines (WT); this validates the observations previously reported (50) using CBP with Clostridium thermocellum. While the C. bescii growth rate and carbohydrate solubilization were higher on the transgenic lines than on their parental line, both MYB lines were especially resistant to microbial ...
Clostridium thermocellum is a thermophilic, cellulolytic anaerobe that is a candidate microorganism for industrial biofuels production. Strains with mutations in genes associated with production of l-
One of the barriers to the production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass is the toughness of the cellulosic structure, and its resistance to chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis and insolubility in
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Deletion of Cel48S from C. thermocellum led to a decrease in the enzymatic hydrolysis rate, a decrease in microbial hydrolysis rate, and a decrease in biomass formation during growth on Avicel.. The similarity of enzyme saturation curves for the WT and parent strains suggests that the ΔpyrF mutation in the parent strain has no effect on cellulosome function, as expected. The S mutant strain, however, exhibited a reduction in both specific activity and saturation rate. A reduction in specific activity is indicative of impaired function and consistent with decreased synergy among components of the cellulosome in the absence of Cel48S (3).. The role of GH families in cellulose solubilization is a topic of much debate. Family 48 cellulases are a prominent component of many bacterial cellulase systems and, due to their ubiquity, are thought to play an important role in cellulose solubilization (21). On one hand, disruption of the single family 9 GH in C. phytofermentans eliminated its ability to ...
Non-cellulosomal processive endoglucanase 9I (Cel9I) from Clostridium thermocellum is a modular protein, consisting of a family-9 glycoside hydrolase (GH9) catalytic module and two family-3 carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM3c and CBM3b), separated by linker regions. GH9 does not show cellulase activity when expressed without CBM3c and CBM3b and the presence of the CBM3c was previously shown to be essential for endoglucanase activity. Physical reassociation of independently expressed GH9 and CBM3c modules (containing linker sequences) restored 60-70% of the intact Cel9I endocellulase activity. However, the mechanism responsible for recovery of activity remained unclear. In this work we independently expressed recombinant GH9 and CBM3c with and without their interconnecting linker in Escherichia coli. We crystallized and determined the molecular structure of the GH9/linker-CBM3c heterodimer at a resolution of 1.68 Å to understand the functional and structural importance of the mutual spatial orientation
Clostridium thermocellum has the ability to catabolize cellulosic biomass into ethanol, but acetic acid, lactic acid, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen gas (H2) are also produced. The effect of hydrogenase
Researchers at the Department of Energys (DOE) BioEnergy Science Center (BESC) have made a discovery that could increase the production of ethanol and lower its costs.. They say they have pinpointed the gene that controls ethanol production capacity in a microorganism, which could be the missing link in developing more efficient and cheaper biomass crops.. Current methods to make ethanol from a type of biomass found in switchgrass and agricultural waste require the addition of expensive enzymes to break down the plants barriers that guard energy-rich sugars. The gene discovered controls ethanol production in a microorganism known as "Clostridium thermocellum". With it scientists will be able to experiment with genetically altering biomass plants to produce more ethanol.. "The Department of Energy relies on the scientific discoveries of its labs and research centers to improve the production of clean energy sources," said Energy Secretary Steven Chu. "This discovery is an important step in ...
...WASHINGTON DC -- A team of researchers at the Department of Energys ... The Department of Energy relies on the scientific discoveries of its ...The discovery of the gene controlling ethanol production in a microorg...Although scientists have studied Clostridium thermocellum for decades...,Single,,key,gene,discovery,could,streamline,production,of,biofuels,,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
21. Kelly, S., Ivens, A., Mott,G. A., ONeill, E. C., Emms, D., Macleod, O., Voorheis, P., Tyler, K., Clark, M., Matthews, J., Matthews, K., Carrington, M. C. An Alternative Strategy for Trypanosome Survival in the Mammalian Bloodstream Revealed through Genome and Transcriptome Analysis of the Ubiquitous Bovine Parasite Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) theileri. Genome Biology and Evolution (2017) 9, 2093-2109 DOI: 10.1093/gbe/evx152. 20. ONeill, E. C., Pergolizzi, G., Stevenson, C. E. M., Lawson, D. M., Nepogodiev, S. A., and Field, R. A. Cellodextrin phosphorylase from Clostridium thermocellum: X-ray crystal structure and substrate specificity analysis. Carbohydrate Research (2017) DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2017.07.005. 19. ONeill, E. C. and Kelly, S. Engineering biosynthesis of high-value compounds in photosynthetic organisms. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology (2017) 37, 779-802 DOI: 10.1080/07388551.2016.1237467. 18. ONeill, E. C. Biomolecular engineering of micro-organisms for natural products ...
Nanocellulose (NC) from cellulosic biomass has recently gained attention owing to their biodegradable nature, low density, high mechanical properties, economic value and renewability. They still suffer, however, some drawbacks. The challenges are the exploration of raw materials, scaling, recovery of chemicals utilized for the production or functionalization and most important is toxic behavior that hinders them from implementing in medical/pharmaceutical field. This review emphasizes the structural behavior of cellulosic biomass and biological barriers for enzyme interactions, which are pertinent to understand the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose for the production of NCs. Additionally, the enzymatic catalysis for the modification of solid and NC is discussed. The utility of various classes of enzymes for introducing desired functional groups on the surface of NC has been further examined. Thereafter, a green mechanistic approach is applied for understanding at molecular level. ...
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General Information: Country: Japan; Isolation: Methanogenic sludge; Temp: Thermophile; Temp: 55C. Clostridium clariflavum is a thermophilic cellulose degrader closely related to C. thermocellum, with equivalent cellulolytic activity. ...
1] P.R.V. Hamann, D.L. Serpa, A.S. Barreto da Cunha, B.R. de Camargo, K.O. Osiro, M. Valle de Sousa, C.R. Felix, R.N.G. Miller, E.F. Noronha, Evaluation of plant cell wall degrading enzyme production by Clostridium thermocellum B8 in the presence of raw agricultural wastes, Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad., 105 (2015) 97-105. [2] J.M. Xiaorong Wu, Ron Madl, Donghai Wang, Biofuels from Lignocellulosic Biomass, Sustain. Biotechnol. , (2010) 19-41. [3] R.H. Doi, A. Kosugi, Cellulosomes: Plant-cell-wall-degrading enzyme complexes, Nat. Rev. Microbiol., 2 (2004) 541-551. [4] L.R. Lynd, W.H. van Zyl, J.E. McBride, M. Laser, Consolidated bioprocessing of cellulosic biomass: an update, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol., 16 (2005) 577-583. [5] J. Zaldivar, J. Nielsen, L. Olsson, Fuel ethanol production from lignocellulose: a challenge for metabolic engineering and process integration, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 56 (2001) 17-34. [6] B.S. Dien, M.A. Cotta, T.W. Jeffries, Bacteria engineered for fuel ethanol ...
The inherent recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass is one of the major economic hurdles for the production of fuels and chemicals from biomass. Additionally, lignin is recognized as having a negative impact on enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass, and as a result much interest has been placed on modifying the lignin pathway to improve bioconversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks. Down-regulation of the caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene in the lignin pathway yielded switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) that was more susceptible to bioconversion after dilute acid pretreatment. Here we examined the response of these plant lines to milder pretreatment conditions with yeast-based simultaneous saccharification and fermentation and a consolidated bioprocessing approach using Clostridium thermocellum, Caldicellulosiruptor bescii and Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis. Unlike the S. cerevisiae SSF conversions, fermentations of pretreated transgenic switchgrass with C. thermocellum showed an apparent inhibition
Cloning of Clostridium thermocellum acetate kinase (ack) and/or phosphotransacetylase (pta) genes in Escherichia coli by functional complementation of ack and/or pta mutants was complicated by an alternative acetate assimilation pathway involving acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS). In addition to the problems encountered with the complementation approach, cloning of these genes was not readily achieved using heterologous probing with corresponding genes from Escherichia coli and Methanosarcina thermophila due to the lack of sufficient homology. The use of a PCR-based approach, on the other hand, yielded a specific C. Thermocellum gene fragment which showed significant sequence identity to the ack gene for which primers were designed. The subcloned ack fragment was then successfully used as a probe for the isolation of the corresponding gene and restriction analysis of that region.
When compared with the termite hindgut metagenome study (41), the termite hindgut microbiome contains more representatives of protein modules that are involved in degradation of the main chain of cellulose (CBM6 and GH5, 9, 44, and 74) and xylan (GH10 and 11), and GH94 (cellobiose phosphorylase) compared with the bovine microbiomes. This could be because of the diet differences (wood versus forages and legumes), or it could be that the short reads from pyrosequencing do not detect CBMs or dockerins. To address this question we performed a 454 pyrosequencing short read simulation for the detection of these protein motifs in the Clostridium thermocellum genome, a model cellulolytic microbe (Table 2 and Fig. S9). From this analysis, dockerins appear more difficult to detect in the simulated 454 short read query than are CBMs and GHs. We found 5 CBM "454 fragments" per CBM in the genome, ≈15.7 GH "454 fragments" per GH in the genome, and only ≈1.7 dockerin "454 fragments" per dockerin in the ...
Cellulosic ethanol is a 50-state solution. It can be produced in every single state in the nation. We have enough cellulosic biomass in this country that, with grain ethanol, we can produce enough clean, renewable ethanol to displace every gallon of foreign oil we currently import. The Project Liberty announcement by POET is the single-most important step forward for proving to all the naysayers that we are at the tip of having commercially viable cellulosic ethanol," said Tom Buis, CEO of Growth Energy ...
Cellulosomes known as the proficient nanomachine in nature are cell bound multi-enzyme complexes that break down cellulose and hemicelluloses. They are very important in the process of carbon turnover. The cellulosome complexes require highly ordered proteins (the interactions between cohesions and dockerins) to assembly cellulases and hemicellulases into a scaffold structure. The protein interactions between cohesion and dockerin play an important role in cellulosome assembly and the attachment of cellulosome to the surface of cells while remaining flexible to provide a stable catalytic synergy.. One function of cellulosomes is breaking down plants structural polysaccharides. It is hypothesize that the constraints of the cellulosomes system created by bacteria and fungi caused the deconstruction of plant cell wall to become more and more efficient. The splicing of the plant-cell wall involves the addition of enzymes on to a macromolecule complex will increase the effectiveness of the ...
Mascoma is developing a Consolidated Bioprocessing process that results in a simpler, lower-cost pathway for cellulosic ethanol. Click to enlarge. Source: DOE BESC General Motors Corp. and Mascoma Corp. have entered a strategic relationship to develop cellulosic ethanol based on Mascomas Consolidated Bioprocessing single-step biochemical conversion of non-grain biomass into...
References Mansfield SG, Chao H, Walsh CE. RNA repair using spliceosome-mediated RNA trans-splicing. Trends Mol Med. 2004 Jun;10(6):263-8. (...)
Structural and biochemical analysis of the phosphate donor specificity of the polynucleotide kinase component of the bacterial pnkphen1 RNA repair system ...
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These enzymes utilise b-D-arabinofuranosyl monophosphoryldecaprenol as the donor; created after reading Alderwick et al. (2006) J. Biol. Chem., 281 (2006) 15653-15661 (PMID - 16595677 ...
Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) is a well-known pathway for ethanol production, but has not been demonstrated for high titer ethanol production at temperatures above 50 °C. Here we examined the thermostability of eight PDCs. The purified bacterial enzymes retained 20% of activity after incubation for 30 min at 55 °C. Expression of these PDC genes, except the one from Zymomonas mobilis, improved ethanol production by Clostridium thermocellum. Ethanol production was further improved by expression of the heterologous alcohol dehydrogenase gene adhA from Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum. The best PDC enzyme was from Acetobactor pasteurianus. A strain of C. thermocellum expressing the pdc gene from A. pasteurianus and the adhA gene from T. saccharolyticum was able to produce 21.3 g/L ethanol from 60 g/L cellulose, which is 70% of the theoretical maximum yield.
Treated wastewater effluent could be a viable alternative to potable freshwater for cellulosic ethanol production, according to a study by the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. The study, "Use of Treated Effluent Water in Cellulosic Ethanol Production," was funded in part by the Illinois Sustainable Technology Center.. The use of non-food cellulosic feedstock for ethanol fuel production has a number of advantages, including lowering greenhouse gas emissions and reducing cost pressure on food and feed markets, the study says. Drought-resistant cellulosic feedstock also can be grown on land unsuitable for row crops.. However, cellulosic ethanol plants consume large amounts of water. Dry grind ethanol plants currently use around three to four gallons of water per gallon of ethanol produced, whereas cellulosic ethanol plants are estimated to consume around six to 10 gallons of water per gallon of ethanol produced, the study says.. The study evaluated the effects of two different types of ...
Two intracellular enzymes, cellobiose phosphorylase (CBP) and cellodextrin phosphorylase (CDP) are involved in the phosphorolytic pathway in cellulose degradation. Those enzymes are considered to be useful in syntheses of oligosaccharides because the reactions are reversible. CBP from Cellvibrio gilvus and Clostridium thermocellum YM4, and CDP from C. thermocellum YM4 were cloned and over-expressed in Escherichia coli. All the three enzymes showed ordered bi bi mechanism. However the orders of the substrate binding of the CBPs were different. It was found that CBP from C. gilvus strictly recognized the hydroxyl groups at positions β-1, 3, and 4 of the acceptor molecule in the reverse reaction. On the other hand, the recognition of the hydroxyl groups at positions 2 and 6 was not so strict. Three branched β-1, 4-glucosyl trisaccharides were synthesized by using the reverse reaction of C. gilvus CBP. A new substrate inhibition pattern, competitive substrate inhibition, was also found in the ...
Downloadable! The U.S. biofuel industry is striving to produce ethanol from cellulosic feedstock sources in an effort to augment its existing corn grain-based ethanol production infrastructure. Technology to commercially produce cellulosic ethanol is rapidly advancing due in large part to the availability of substancial federal research and development funding. At the moment, several firms have pilot scale cellulosic ethanol production facilities under construction and testing. The transition from pilot scale to full commercialization of cellulosic ethanol will be difficult, due in large part financial constraints being imposed both internally and externally on the biofuels industry. This paper provides an overview of the biofuel industrys current financial setting and describes future challenges it faces in attempting to expand. These challenges are rooted in lack of industry capital, limited availability of performance benchmarks, concerns regarding future prospects of the industry, and general
Numerous investors are thinking about some of the SWOT issues noted above as well as others. The three plants will have to run for a while and then try to market their investments in new technology to others, hoping to capitalize on the prize of cellulosic ethanol. The progress toward cellulosic ethanol has seemed torturous to many up to this time; however, the pace is about to quicken. There are likely to be substantial rewards for reliable technologies involving equipment, enzymes and fermenting organisms by those firms that can demonstrate or offer substantial performance guarantees for ethanol production methods that do not require starch molecules. There will be lots of excitement ahead in efforts to develop viable cellulosic ethanol businesses based on corn stover. Considerable study has occurred revealing the magnitude of corn stover supplies around the country and the potential to utilize this biofuels feedstock. How it all plays out for stover producers and investors in cellulosic ...
At the 4th Annual World Congress on Industrial Biotechnology and Bioprocessing in Orlando, Fla., Novozymes today introduced a five-step strategy to achieve economically viable cellulosic ethanol.
Cellulosic ethanol is fast becoming the preferred type of ethanol production. Vecoplan provides systems for the biorefining industry.
The AFEX process. Click to enlarge. A patented pre-treatment process developed by Michigan State University professor Bruce Dale can reduce the cost of fermenting cellulosic biomass to ethanol by reducing pre-treatment processing steps and eliminating the need to add additional nutrients to support fermentation. A paper on the work is...
Bioprocessing is a technology used in a variety of industries. This course will provide an overview of various industrial uses of microbial bioprocessing. The course will present bioprocessing in industries ranging from the food and pharmaceutical industries to the chemical and green-tech industries. The course is designed to teach students the basic fundamentals of a bioprocess and what they need to know about the similarities and the unique aspects of bioprocessing in each industry covered.. Prerequisites. None. Learning Objectives. ...
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Fujifilm Diosynth announces the inception of its FDB center of excellence in bioprocessing 2.0 to extend its bioprocessing innovations with a network of researchers.
Edeniq Inc., a cellulosic technology company, and Siouxland Energy Cooperative recently announced that the U.S. EPA approved Siouxland Energys registration of its 60 MMgy corn ethanol plant for generation of D3 RINs from cellulosic ethanol.
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Swarm-Bot: A New Distributed Robotic Concept Francesco Mondada, Giovanni C. Pettinaro, Andre Guignard, Ivo W. Kwee, Dario Floreano, Jean-Louis Deneubourg, Stefano Nolfi, Luca Maria Gambardella and Marco Dorigo AUTONOMOUS ROBOTS Volume 17, Numbers 2-3, 193-221, doi: 10.1023/B:AURO.0000033972.50769.1cThe swarm intelligence paradigm has proven to have very interesting properties such as robustness, flexibility and ability to solve…
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The Chinese Shengquan Group will start commercial production of cellulosic ethanol for solvents and biochemicals in June 2012 utilizing enabling technology from Novozymes.
A suspension comprising a dispersing medium containing at least 2% by weight of a fine particles of cellulosic material having a 50% cumulative volume diameter of from 0.3 to 6 μm, wherein a cumulative volume ratio of those particles having a diameter of not more than 3 μm is at least 25% is disclosed. The suspension is obtained by a process comprising subjecting a cellulosic material to a depolymerization pretreatment, followed by wet grinding in a container containing a grinding medium and equipped with a rotary blade for forced stirring of the medium. The suspension is excellent in viscosity, water retention properties, stability, and palatability.
Latest ethanol news for energy industry professionals & analysts. Breaking E85, cellulosic ethanol, bioethanol, production & company news.
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The PAT initiative encourages the development of improved process monitoring technology in the manufacturing environment, says Payal Roychoudhury...
KBR says it has been awarded a contract by DuPont for engineering and procurement services for DuPonts previously announced cellulosic ethanol plant at Nevada, IA. KBR will provide front-end...
Shengquan is investing $100 million to produce cellulosic ethanol. Novozymes will supply the enabling enzyme technology. The two companies will sign the final agreement Friday during Hu Jintaos visit to Denmark.
WASHINGTON, D.C., Sept. 13, 2017 -- Converting fibrous plant waste, like corn stalks and wood shavings, into fermentable simple sugars for the production of biofuel is no simple process. Bacteria must break down tough leaves, stems and other cellulosic matter resistant to degradation to turn them into usable energy.. Helping bacteria become more efficient in this process could result in more affordable biofuels for our gas tanks and sustainable products such as bioplastics. One way to achieve this goal is to re-engineer the bacterial enzyme complexes, called cellulosomes, which serve as catalysts in the degradation process. In an effort to produce these so-called designer cellulosomes, the international research consortium CellulosomePlus is developing methods to enhance the efficiency of this complex engineering process to make it economically feasible and effective. Consortium researchers from Spain, Poland and Ireland reported their findings for one method recently in The Journal of Chemical ...
University of Rochester Professor David Wu has received a $1.75 million grant to investigate a way to turn waste biomass, such as grass clippings, cornstalks, and wood chips, into usable hydrogen or ethanol.. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the grant to Wu, a professor of chemical engineering, because he is one of the foremost scientists working to derive ethanol from biological waste products. Generating hydrogen gas, Wu explains, is very similar to generating ethanol, and he is employing state-of-the-art genomic approaches to study and enhance the abilities of a microorganism that has the capability to produce both fuels from farm and forest residues.. Our goal is to understand how the bacterium controls the production of these two energy sources so we can engineer genetic modifications to enhance and control what it produces, says Wu. Its an exciting possibility that we may be able to convert biomass we would have otherwise discarded, directly into usable liquid or gas fuel at ...
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Acidothermus cellulolyticus ATCC ® 43068D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Acidothermus cellulolyticus strain 11B TypeStrain=True Application:
The idea of producing plentiful amounts of ethanol from materials such as switchgrass and wood scraps has successfully emerged from the laboratory, but challenges lie ahead.
An improved method is described for the fusing, joining or seaming of cellulosic materials. The method utilizes a solution of selected organometallic compounds or metal oxides to rapidly crosslink opposing, overlapping cellulosic surfaces to provide secure seams. Enhanced seam strength is achieved by a subsequent moisture treatment. The tubular cellulosic casings are well-suited for the manufacture of sausages and sausage-like products. The seams according to this invention have exceptionally high shear strength and wet strength.
DISS. ETH NO Multi-enzyme in vitro systems for biocatalysis: Concepts, optimization and application A dissertation submitted to ETH ZURICH for the degree of Doctor of Sciences presented by Matthias
TY - CONF. T1 - A Multi-Enzyme System for the In vitro Reduction of Carboxylic Acids to Aldehydes. AU - Strohmeier, Gernot. AU - Schwarz, Anna. AU - Eiteljörg, Inge. AU - Kohrt, Jeffrey. AU - Howard, Roger. AU - Winkler, Margit. PY - 2019/7. Y1 - 2019/7. M3 - Poster. ER - ...
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Conference in "Cellulosic material Properties and industrial potential" - Final meeting in COST FP1205. This was hosted by Royal Institute of Technology KTH. The aim of the conference was to provide support on new product area development around the theme Cellulosic materials - processing, properties and promising applications related to COST FP1205 and to spread the knowledge to the wider scientific community on the current and upcoming commercial processes. Over 80 participants took part of the presentations, posters, and discussions. This last day of the meeting a round tour of the KTH campus was given in parallel with the final Management Committee meeting.. ...
While there is funding available for U.S. cellulosic ethanol companies in the form of grants or loan guarantees from the departments of…
A Texas A&M University biologist has received a federal grant to study the fecal samples of hundreds of people to better understand the gut bacteria Clostridium difficile-the cause of some 14,000 deaths a year in America-and ...
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On July 31, 2013, INEOS Bio, a bioenergy company, announced that its Florida facility became the world pioneer in producing commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol. Ethanol, or ethyl alcohol, is a renewable fuel resulting from fermenting plant-based materials. INEOS Bio produces cellulosic ethanol using vegetative and yard waste. Despite the flurry that accompanied last Julys event, Brazil is still regarded as the country that implemented the most successful ethanol industry in the world -the sugarcane ethanol industry. In the United States, the ethanol industry touches on two critical areas. First, ethanol can be used as motor fuel, and it is no secret that the United States relies on motor fuel. Second, the nations reliance on motor fuel, especially gasoline, raises significant environmental concerns, notably, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Thus, given the recent advancements in ethanol production, and the critical areas that ethanol touches on, an issue emerges as to whether Brazils ethanol ...
In Oregon, ZeaChem obtained a guaranteed maximum price, under the Engineering, Procurement and Construction agreements with engineering firm Burns & McDonnell, for construction of its demonstration cellulosic ethyl acetate and ethanol plant in Boardman.. The company also announced that it has secured full construction funding for the core facility. The $25 million grant from the U.S. DOE will be used to fund the independent front and back-end cellulosic process components, enabling ZeaChem to produce fuel grade ethanol as well as intermediate chemicals from non-food related biomass.. The core unit of the biorefinery is currently under construction at the site location in Boardman and foundations are being poured, and the company will begin producing 250,000 gallons (annually) of cellulosic ethanol in 2011. ...
This off-take agreement is a significant step forward for BlueFire. It provides immediate revenue once our plant is on-line. Also, it will move BlueFire closer to a debt financing agreement with the Department of Energy and U.S. Department of Agriculture," stated Arnold Klann, CEO of BlueFire Renewables, Inc. "This is one of the first cellulosic ethanol contracts of its kind in the United States establishing BlueFire as a clear leader in the industry ...
Corn cobs could soon contribute to the nations fuel supply. Poet is currently expanding its corn ethanol facility in Emmetsburg, Iowa, into one of the worlds first cellulosic ethanol plants. Once complete in 2011, Project Liberty, will produce 125 million gallons of ethanol per year, with 25 million gallons coming from corn cobs. ...
Alliance BioEnergys CTS Fuel is Proving to Cost Remarkably Less to Build and Operate Compared to Other Cellulosic Ethanol Technologies and Traditional Corn Ethanol Plants
​Imagine powering a plane or car with fuels made from grasses, wood, or other plant residues. This type of fuel, called cellulosic ethanol, has the potential to be a major source of renewable fuel for Americas transportation fleets.
Biofuels provide a potential route to avoiding the global political instability and environmental issues that arise from reliance on petroleum. Currently, most biofuel is in the form of ethanol generated from starch or sugar, but this can meet only a limited fraction of global fuel requirements. Conversion of cellulosic biomass (maize and other grasses), which is both abundant and renewable, is a promising alternative. However, several problems face the potential commercial production of cellulosic ethanol. First, the high costs of production of cellulases in microbial bioreactors. Second, and most important, are the costs of pretreating lignocellulosic matter to break it down into intermediates and remove the lignin to allow the access of cellulases to biomass cellulose. Plant genetic engineering and molecular breeding technologies offer great potential to reduce the costs of producing cellulosic ethanol. Recent achievements in plant cell-wall deconstruction and lignin biosynthesis enzymes ...
Editors Note: EarthTechling, always looking to forward the cleantech discussion, is proud to bring you this column via a cross post from American Enterprise Institutes Kenneth Green, writing for the site EnvironmentalTrends.. The story of ethanols use as fuel could practically serve as a poster-child for the law of unintended consequences. Originally used to control air pollution by adding oxygen content to gasoline, the corn lobby, with the assistance of environmental groups pushed ever more corn-based ethanol into the fuel supply with fairly disastrous consequences, both environmental and economic. I discuss some of them here, and in greater depth here.. Ethanol boosters have dismissed criticisms of corn-based ethanol, claiming that theyre only a temporary problem, since the real future of ethanol is in producing it from woody materials (cellulosic materials) rather than from corn. The problem is, producing ethanol from cellulose is very difficult, very expensive, and comes with the same ...
The path toward second-generation ethanol -- made from cellulosic sources such as crop residues, wood chips, and municipal waste -- has not been smooth, but it is still on track, say experts in the topic.
Today the EPA announced its proposed 2012 Renewable Fuel Standard requirements: The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) established the annual
Area farmers readily participated in the study and are interested in supplying feedstock to the plant but they expressed "little to no interest" in purchasing the equipment necessary to harvest and transport the feedstock. A short harvest window means a large fleet of equipment, including power units, balers, stackers and trucks, will be required, as well as increased labor hours. "The magnitude of the effort to bale, transport and store approximately one million bales of feedstock within a 30- to 45-day window is a major factor," the study noted. ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Sodium atom in PDB 1uy1: Binding Sub-Site Dissection of A Family 6 Carbohydrate-Binding Module By X-Ray Crystallography and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry
1. Brachypodium genome sequenced. A simple model for studying grass cell walls is needed to allow more rapid progress in understanding the potential to alter the properties of cellulosic biomass. ARS scientists in Albany, CA are collaborated with Department of Energy (DOE) and other researchers to complete the analysis and annotation of the entire genome. A paper describing the results was published in the journal Nature and the sequence and annotation is now freely available through several databases. In addition, a project to resequence additional accessions was initiated. To date, four lines have been resequenced and the analysis of the sequences has been initiated. Knowledge of the genome sequence of Brachypodium and the linear order of genes in the genome relative to other grasses will help to make this species useful to researchers studying important agricultural traits in energy crops and grain species. 2. Characterization of diversity in polyploid switchgrass. The genetic make-up of the ...
Human ARAF full-length ORF ( AAH07514, 1 a.a. - 609 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-tag at N-terminal. (H00000369-P02) - Products - Abnova
Three new U.S. DOE-funded research centers will house multidisciplinary teams of scientists from across the country with the aim of coordinating the basic research needed to accelerate the promise of cellulosic ethanol as a renewable, sustainable, secure and cost-competitive biofuel.
Inspired by hundred-year-old accounts of how bacterial infections coincided with cancer remissions, scientists have shown that injections of a weakened bacterium - Clostridium ...
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BlueFire Renewables, focused on changing the worlds transportation fuel paradigm through the production of renewable fuels from non-food cellulosic wastes, has announced an off-take agreement with Tenaska BioFuels for the purchase and sale of all ethanol produced at BlueFires planned cellulosic ethanol facility in Fulton, Mississippi.. "This off-take agreement is a significant step forward for BlueFire. It provides immediate revenue once our plant is on-line. Also, it will move BlueFire closer to a debt financing agreement with the Department of Energy and U.S. Department of Agriculture," stated Arnold Klann, CEO of BlueFire Renewables, Inc. "This is one of the first cellulosic ethanol contracts of its kind in the United States establishing BlueFire as a clear leader in the industry.". Pricing of the 15-year contract follows a market-based formula structured to capture the premium allowed for cellulosic ethanol compared to corn-based ethanol giving BlueFire a credit worthy contract to support ...
|em|Cytophaga hutchinsonii|/em| and |em|Sporocytophaga myxococcoides|/em| are both Gram-negative, aerobic, mesophilic, cellulose degrading bacterium belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes. Despite both of these organisms being isolated for almost a century, they remain poorly studied with the proteins responsible for cellulose degradation remaining unknown. Both organisms utilize cell associated machinery in order to degrade crystalline cellulose but do not contain any expected scaffoldin or dockerin proteins of the well-known complexed cellulosome system. Therefore, we have employed proteomic analysis in order to identify the abundant proteins present during growth on crystalline cellulose and assess their putative roles in cellulose hydrolysis. Further, we have been able to infer the localization of these proteins based on their abundance in specific cellular fractions. Taken together, the abundance and localization of proteins putatively involved in cellulose degradation led into important
Thomas Murray - Managing Director and Co-Head, Loan & Debt Capital Markets, WestLB Securities, Inc. Cellulosic ethanol is ethanol derived from essentially inexhaustible resources by utilizing the cellulose that is found in all plant matter, in contrast to starch-based ethanol produced mainly from corn. Cellulose is a carbohydrate polymer that makes up the walls of all plant cells and is also found in green algae and some bacteria. Many people know that corn stover and switchgrass can be converted to ethanol, but technologies have been developed to process a number of other cellulosic feedstocks, including dedicated energy crops like hybrid poplars, willow, miscanthus, sorghum as well as "waste" biomass like sugarcane bagasse, rice hulls, orchard prunings, wheat straw, and forest thinnings. Municipal wastes, waste paper, yard and construction wastes, and industrial wastes such as pulp/paper and sludge also are target feedstocks. Cellulose is the most abundant naturally-occurring organic compound ...
Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable resource that can be utilized for the production of biofuels, chemicals, and bio-based materials. Biochemical conversion of lignocellulose to advanced biofuels, such as cellulosic ethanol, is generally performed through microbial fermentation of sugars generated by thermochemical pretreatment of the biomass followed by an enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose. The aims of the research presented in this thesis were to address problems associated with pretreatment by-products that inhibit microbial and enzymatic biocatalysts, and to investigate the potential of utilizing residual streams from pulp mills and biorefineries to produce hydrolytic enzymes.. A novel method to detoxify lignocellulosic hydrolysates to improve the fermentability was investigated in experiments with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The method is based on treatment of lignocellulosic slurries and hydrolysates with reducing agents, such as sodium dithionite and sodium sulfite. The ...
The feedstocks used for the production of bio-based chemicals have recently expanded from edible sugars to inedible and more recalcitrant forms of lignocellulosic biomass. To produce bio-based chemicals from renewable polysaccharides, several bioprocessing approaches have been developed and include separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), and consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). In the last decade, SHF, SSF, and CBP have been used to generate macromolecules and aliphatic and aromatic compounds that are capable of serving as sustainable, drop-in substitutes for petroleum-based chemicals. The present review focuses on recent progress in the bioprocessing of microbially produced chemicals from renewable feedstocks, including starch and lignocellulosic biomass. In particular, the technological feasibility of bio-based chemical production is discussed in terms of the feedstocks and different bioprocessing approaches, including the consolidation of enzyme

Clostridium thermocellum CelJ protein
     Summary Report | CureHunterClostridium thermocellum CelJ protein Summary Report | CureHunter

... isolated from Clostridium thermocellum; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank D83704 ... Clostridium thermocellum CelJ protein. Subscribe to New Research on Clostridium thermocellum CelJ protein ... isolated from Clostridium thermocellum; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank D83704 ... CelJ protein, Clostridium thermocellum; endoglucanase J, Clostridium thermocellum. Networked: 0 relevant articles (0 outcomes, ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryC101903-Clostridium-thermocellum-CelJ-protein.do

Deletion of the Cel48S cellulase from Clostridium thermocellum | PNASDeletion of the Cel48S cellulase from Clostridium thermocellum | PNAS

Clostridium cellulovorans, Clostridium josui, Clostridium phytofermentans, and C. thermocellum (8-11). Cellulases from family ... Deletion of the Cel48S cellulase from Clostridium thermocellum. Daniel G. Olson, Shital A. Tripathi, Richard J. Giannone, ... Deletion of the Cel48S cellulase from Clostridium thermocellum. Daniel G. Olson, Shital A. Tripathi, Richard J. Giannone, ... 2007) Induction of the celC operon of Clostridium thermocellum by laminaribiose. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:3747-3752. ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/107/41/17727

Deletion of the Cel48S cellulase from Clostridium thermocellum | PNASDeletion of the Cel48S cellulase from Clostridium thermocellum | PNAS

Clostridium cellulovorans, Clostridium josui, Clostridium phytofermentans, and C. thermocellum (8-11). Cellulases from family ... Deletion of the Cel48S cellulase from Clostridium thermocellum. Daniel G. Olson, Shital A. Tripathi, Richard J. Giannone, ... Deletion of the Cel48S cellulase from Clostridium thermocellum. Daniel G. Olson, Shital A. Tripathi, Richard J. Giannone, ... 2007) Induction of the celC operon of Clostridium thermocellum by laminaribiose. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:3747-3752. ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/107/41/17727?ijkey=fc2d41b731e81805e4616de3833aff59989a40b5&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Clostridium thermocellum - WikipediaClostridium thermocellum - Wikipedia

JGI: Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 Cellulase, Clostridia, and Ethanol Ibid. Characterization of Clostridium thermocellum ... Clostridium thermocellum is an anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium. C. thermocellum has garnered research interest due to its ... Cellulosic Ethanol Type strain of Clostridium thermocellum at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Biology portal. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clostridium_thermocellum

Glycolysis without pyruvate kinase in Clostridium thermocellum (Journal Article) | DOE PAGESGlycolysis without pyruvate kinase in Clostridium thermocellum (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES

Application of long sequence reads to improve genomes for Clostridium thermocellum AD2, Clostridium thermocellum LQRI, and ... Application of Long Sequence Reads To Improve Genomes for Clostridium thermocellum AD2, Clostridium thermocellum LQRI, and ... Glycolysis without pyruvate kinase in Clostridium thermocellum. Title: Glycolysis without pyruvate kinase in Clostridium ... we generated PacBio DNA sequence data to improve the assemblies of draft genomes for Clostridium thermocellum AD2, Clostridium ...
more infohttps://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1333931-glycolysis-without-pyruvate-kinase-clostridium-thermocellum

LacI Transcriptional Regulatory Networks in Clostridium thermocellum DSM1313 (Journal Article) | DOE PAGESLacI Transcriptional Regulatory Networks in Clostridium thermocellum DSM1313 (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES

Accepted Manuscript: LacI Transcriptional Regulatory Networks in Clostridium thermocellum DSM1313. Title: LacI Transcriptional ... thermocellum.« less Authors:. Wilson, Charlotte M. [1] ; Klingeman, Dawn M. [1] ; Schlachter, Caleb [1] ; Syed, Mustafa H. [1] ... Organisms regulate gene expression in response to the environment to coordinate metabolic reactions.Clostridium ...
more infohttps://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1344258-laci-transcriptional-regulatory-networks-clostridium-thermocellum-dsm1313

NREL researchers discover how a bacterium, Clostridium thermocellum, utilizes both CO2 and cellulose | EurekAlert! Science NewsNREL researchers discover how a bacterium, Clostridium thermocellum, utilizes both CO2 and cellulose | EurekAlert! Science News

Clostridium thermocellum is among the most efficient bacteria in directly converting cellulosic materials into hydrogen and ... NREL researchers discover how a bacterium, Clostridium thermocellum, utilizes both CO2 and cellulose. DOE/National Renewable ... NREL researchers discover how a bacterium, Clostridium thermocellum, utilizes both CO2 and cellulose ... "CO2-fixing one-carbon metabolism in a cellulose-degrading bacterium Clostridium thermocellum." The research is in the new issue ...
more infohttps://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2016-11/drel-nrd110116.php

Remediated Sequence 









- 4JT4: Structure of Clostridium thermocellum polynucleotide kinase bound to dATP Sequence Report...Remediated Sequence - 4JT4: Structure of Clostridium thermocellum polynucleotide kinase bound to dATP Sequence Report...

4JT4: Structural and biochemical analysis of the phosphate donor specificity of the polynucleotide kinase component of the bacterial pnkphen1 RNA repair system.
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/remediatedSequence.do?params.chainEntityStrategyStr=all&structureId=4JT4

Structure Cluster 









- 1GKK: Feruloyl esterase domain of XynY from clostridium thermocellum 3D Similarity Report PageStructure Cluster - 1GKK: Feruloyl esterase domain of XynY from clostridium thermocellum 3D Similarity Report Page

The Structure of the Feruloyl Esterase Module of Xylanase 10B from Clostridium Thermocellum Provides Insights Into Substrate ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/structureCluster.do?structureId=1GKK

Complete Genome Sequence of the Cellulolytic Thermophile Clostridium thermocellum DSM1313 | Journal of BacteriologyComplete Genome Sequence of the Cellulolytic Thermophile Clostridium thermocellum DSM1313 | Journal of Bacteriology

Complete Genome Sequence of the Cellulolytic Thermophile Clostridium thermocellum DSM1313. Lawrence Feinberg, Justine Foden, ... Complete Genome Sequence of the Cellulolytic Thermophile Clostridium thermocellum DSM1313. Lawrence Feinberg, Justine Foden, ... Clostridium thermocellum DSM1313 is a thermophilic, anaerobic bacterium with some of the highest rates of cellulose hydrolysis ... Complete Genome Sequence of the Cellulolytic Thermophile Clostridium thermocellum DSM1313. Lawrence Feinberg, Justine Foden, ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/content/193/11/2906?ijkey=7a786f30213e1582f4ada4df3939727f30c6d77a&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Global View of the Clostridium thermocellum Cellulosome Revealed by Quantitative Proteomic Analysis | Journal of BacteriologyGlobal View of the Clostridium thermocellum Cellulosome Revealed by Quantitative Proteomic Analysis | Journal of Bacteriology

Transcription of Clostridium thermocellum endoglucanase genes celF and celD. J. Bacteriol. 173:80-85. ... Sequence of xynC and properties of XynC, a major component of the Clostridium thermocellum cellulosome. J. Bacteriol. 179:4246- ... Global View of the Clostridium thermocellum Cellulosome Revealed by Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Nicholas D. Gold, Vincent J ... Regulation of the cellulosomal celS (cel48A) gene of Clostridium thermocellum is growth rate dependent. J. Bacteriol. 185:3042- ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/content/189/19/6787?ijkey=56d5ee1ceb21a3c8fa9814f6af38b2a9bbf562ab&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Sequencing of a Clostridium thermocellum gene (cipA) encoding the cellulosomal SL-protein reveals an unusual degree of internal...Sequencing of a Clostridium thermocellum gene (cipA) encoding the cellulosomal SL-protein reveals an unusual degree of internal...

Sequencing of a Clostridium thermocellum gene (cipA) encoding the cellulosomal SL-protein reveals an unusual degree of internal ... It is known that two proteins of the cellulosomal complex of Clostridium thermocellum (SL and SS) together degrade crystalline ... thermocellum DNA and ruled out the possibility of rearrangements during the cloning and sequencing process. The sequenced gene ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8316083?dopt=Abstract

Expression, purification and subunit-binding properties of cohesins 2 and 3 of the Clostridium thermocellum cellulosome.  -...Expression, purification and subunit-binding properties of cohesins 2 and 3 of the Clostridium thermocellum cellulosome. -...

The enzymatic subunits of the cellulosome of Clostridium thermocellum are integrated into the complex by a major non-catalytic ... Expression, purification and subunit-binding properties of cohesins 2 and 3 of the Clostridium thermocellum cellulosome.. Yaron ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7875315?dopt=Abstract

Recombinant Clostridium Thermocellum ispE Protein (aa 1-283) - Creative BiolabsRecombinant Clostridium Thermocellum ispE Protein (aa 1-283) - Creative Biolabs

Creative Biolabs offers the best Recombinant Clostridium Thermocellum ispE Protein (aa 1-283), which is useful for vaccine ... Recombinant Clostridium Thermocellum ispE Protein (aa 1-283) (VAng-Lsx01975). CAT. Size. Price. Quantity. ... Clostridium Thermocellum 4-diphosphocytidyl-2-C-methyl-D-erythritol kinase, recombinant protein. ... Clostridium is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria, which contains around 100 species including common free-living bacteria, as ...
more infohttps://www.creative-biolabs.com/vaccine/recombinant-clostridium-thermocellum-ispe-protein-aa-1-283-21506.htm

Lignocellulose fermentation and residual solids characterization for senescent switchgrass fermentation by Clostridium...Lignocellulose fermentation and residual solids characterization for senescent switchgrass fermentation by Clostridium...

We investigate the impact of milling on soluble substrate fermentation by Clostridium therm ... We investigate the impact of milling on soluble substrate fermentation by Clostridium thermocellum with comparison to yeast, ... Soluble substrate fermentation by C. thermocellum proceeded readily in the presence of continuous ball milling but was ... fermentation and residual solids characterization for senescent switchgrass fermentation by Clostridium thermocellum in the ...
more infohttps://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2017/EE/C6EE03748H

Effects of Stirring and Hydrogen on Fermentation Products of Clostridium thermocellum | Applied and Environmental MicrobiologyEffects of Stirring and Hydrogen on Fermentation Products of Clostridium thermocellum | Applied and Environmental Microbiology

Effects of Stirring and Hydrogen on Fermentation Products of Clostridium thermocellum. R. J. Lamed, J. H. Lobos, T. M. Su ... Clostridium thermocellum produces ethanol, acetate, H2, and CO2 as major fermentation products from cellulose and cellobiose. ... Effects of Stirring and Hydrogen on Fermentation Products of Clostridium thermocellum Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded ... thermocellum possesses hydrogenase(s) that catalyzes the reverse reaction. The rate of 3H2O formation was about three times ...
more infohttps://aem.asm.org/content/54/5/1216?ijkey=0ab81862e136a30377473871a88aca1b995d563a&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Cthe 2147 - Glycoside hydrolase family 5 precursor - Clostridium thermocellum (strain ATCC 27405 / DSM 1237 / NBRC 103400 /...Cthe 2147 - Glycoside hydrolase family 5 precursor - Clostridium thermocellum (strain ATCC 27405 / DSM 1237 / NBRC 103400 /...

Clostridium thermocellum (strain ATCC 27405 / DSM 1237 / NBRC 103400 / NCIMB 10682 / NRRL B-4536 / VPI 7372) (Ruminiclostridium ... Clostridium thermocellum (strain ATCC 27405 / DSM 1237 / NBRC 103400 / NCIMB 10682 / NRRL B-4536 / VPI 7372) (Ruminiclostridium ... tr,A3DHC1,A3DHC1_CLOTH Glycoside hydrolase family 5 OS=Clostridium thermocellum (strain ATCC 27405 / DSM 1237 / NBRC 103400 / ... cellular organisms › Bacteria › Terrabacteria group › Firmicutes › Clostridia › Clostridiales › Hungateiclostridiaceae › ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/A3DHC1

Fermentation of cellulose and cellobiose by Clostridium thermocellum in the absence of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. |...Fermentation of cellulose and cellobiose by Clostridium thermocellum in the absence of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. |...

The fermentation of cellulose and cellobiose by Clostridium thermocellum monocultures and C. thermocellum/Methanobacterium ... Fermentation of cellulose and cellobiose by Clostridium thermocellum in the absence of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum.. P ... Fermentation of cellulose and cellobiose by Clostridium thermocellum in the absence of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. ... Fermentation of cellulose and cellobiose by Clostridium thermocellum in the absence of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. ...
more infohttps://aem.asm.org/content/33/2/289?ijkey=0800bd6306add01da3b9c994a9a4c1db2d87715b&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Modification of paper properties using carbohydrate-binding module 3 from the Clostridium thermocellum CipA scaffolding protein...Modification of paper properties using carbohydrate-binding module 3 from the Clostridium thermocellum CipA scaffolding protein...

Modification of paper properties using carbohydrate-binding module 3 from the Clostridium thermocellum CipA scaffolding protein ... recombinant versions of CBM3 from Clostridium thermocellum CipA-both produced in Pichia pastoris-were studied. Binding assays ... Studies on the interaction of the carbohydrate binding module 3 from the Clostridium thermocellum CipA scaffolding protein with ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10570-015-0655-6

Simultaneous achievement of high ethanol yield and titer in Clostridium thermocellum | Biotechnology for Biofuels | Full TextSimultaneous achievement of high ethanol yield and titer in Clostridium thermocellum | Biotechnology for Biofuels | Full Text

Clostridium thermocellum can rapidly solubilize and ferment cellulosic biomass, making it a promising candidate microorganism ... This evolved strain has the highest ethanol yield and titer reported to date for C. thermocellum, and is an important step in ... Here, we started with an engineered C. thermocellum strain where the central metabolic pathways to products other than ethanol ... Clostridium thermocellum is noted for its ability to rapidly consume cellulose [15], and we wanted to confirm that we had not ...
more infohttps://biotechnologyforbiofuels.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13068-016-0528-8

Genetic engineering of Clostridium thermocellum DSM1313 for enhanced ethanol production | BMC Biotechnology | Full TextGenetic engineering of Clostridium thermocellum DSM1313 for enhanced ethanol production | BMC Biotechnology | Full Text

Clostridium thermocellum homoethanol pathway Zymomonas mobilis pdc adh Background. Blending of ethanol with fossil fuel is ... Transformation of Clostridium thermocellum by electroporation. Methods Enzymol. 2012;510:317-30.View ArticleGoogle Scholar. ... Electrotransformation of Clostridium thermocellum. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70(2):883-90.View ArticleGoogle Scholar. ... The pdc and adh genes from Z. mobilis were cloned in pNW33N, and transformed to Clostridium thermocellum DSM 1313 by ...
more infohttps://bmcbiotechnol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12896-016-0260-2

Technology -Genetic Engineered Clostridium Thermocellum for Ethanol Production from CelluloseTechnology -Genetic Engineered Clostridium Thermocellum for Ethanol Production from Cellulose

Clostridium thermocellum is a thermophile with cellulase genes. It is an ideal candidate for these genetic manipulations. ... The anaerobic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum is an excellent candidate for conversion of renewable cellulose biomass to ... The inducible system can be applied to not only Clostridium thermocellum but other bacteria with cellulase and hemi-cellulase ... Promoters and Proteins from Clostridium Thermocellum and Uses Thereof. United States. 8,309,324. 11/13/2012. ...
more infohttp://rochester.technologypublisher.com/technology/2966

Domain assignment for gi|125973296|ref|YP 001037206.1| from Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405Domain assignment for gi|125973296|ref|YP 001037206.1| from Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405

... from Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405. Plus protein sequence and external database links. ... Domain assignment for gi,125973296,ref,YP_001037206.1, from Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405. Domain architecture ... hypothetical protein Cthe_0778 [Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405]. Sequence. ...
more infohttp://supfam.mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk/SUPERFAMILY/cgi-bin/gene.cgi?genome=4x&seqid=gi%7C125973296%7Cref%7CYP_001037206.1%7C

Integrated omics analyses reveal the details of metabolic adaptation of Clostridium thermocellum to lignocellulose-derived...Integrated omics analyses reveal the details of metabolic adaptation of Clostridium thermocellum to lignocellulose-derived...

To this end, we have examined a time course progression of C. thermocellum grown on switchgrass to assess the metabolic and ... Integrated omic platforms provided complementary systems biological information that highlight C. thermocellums specific ... thermocellums cellular membrane as the culture progresses. This is undoubtedly a response to the gradual accumulation of ... thermocellum shifts glycolytic intermediates to alternate pathways to modulate overall carbon flux in response to C5 sugar ...
more infohttps://biotechnologyforbiofuels.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13068-016-0697-5
  • However, the ethanol production pathway of C. thermocellum is not efficient because pyruvate ferrodoxin oxidoreductase, the key enzyme of this pathway [ 13 ], has lower affinity than lactate dehydrogenase and phosphotransacetylase towards the common substrate, pyruvate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using cellulosic biomass as a feedstock for fuel production is an attractive prospect, however, growth arrest can negatively impact ethanol production by fermentative microorganisms such as C. thermocellum . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Understanding conditions that lead to non-growth states in C. thermocellum can positively influence process design and culturing conditions in order to optimize ethanol production in an industrial setting. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The purified bacterial enzymes retained 20% of activity after incubation for 30 min at 55 °C. Expression of these PDC genes, except the one from Zymomonas mobilis , improved ethanol production by Clostridium thermocellum . (biomedcentral.com)
  • however, CBP for ethanol production from cellulose using C. thermocellum is still not an economical process according to the target performance metrics for cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulose of 90% of theoretical yield and 40 g/L titer [ 15 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One of the limiting steps for the ethanol production in C. thermocellum is the pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR, Fig. 1 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • C. thermocellum produces NAD + from NADH by H 2 , lactate, and ethanol production. (springer.com)
  • The discovery of the gene controlling ethanol production in a microorganism known as "Clostridium thermocellum" will mean that scientists can now experiment with genetically altering biomass plants to produce more ethanol. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Biofuels - [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biofuel] - Metabolic engineering has been used to improve yields in cellulosic ethanol production and for algal biofuels. (openwetware.org)
  • It took us by surprise that this microbe can recapture some of the CO 2 released during growth while they consume sugars derived from cellulosic biomass," said Katherine J. Chou, a staff scientist with NREL's Photobiology group and co-author of the new paper "CO 2 -fixing one-carbon metabolism in a cellulose-degrading bacterium Clostridium thermocellum . (eurekalert.org)
  • Organisms regulate gene expression in response to the environment to coordinate metabolic reactions.Clostridium thermocellumexpresses enzymes for both lignocellulose solubilization and its fermentation to produce ethanol. (osti.gov)
  • The observation of high solubilization with little apparent modification of the residue is consistent with cotreatment enhancing solubilization primarily by increasing the access of saccharolytic enzymes to the feedstock, and C. thermocellum being able to attack all the major linkages in cellulosic biomass provided that these linkages are accessible. (rsc.org)
  • C. thermocellum uses a large number of enzymes to break down a range of biomass types, and a mechanism to selectively modulate the biosynethesis of these enzymes for a particular biomass material. (technologypublisher.com)
  • Additionally, the metabolic accumulation of hemicellulose-derived sugars and sugar alcohols concomitant with increased abundance of enzymes involved in C5 sugar metabolism/pentose phosphate pathway indicates that C. thermocellum shifts glycolytic intermediates to alternate pathways to modulate overall carbon flux in response to C5 sugar metabolites that increase during lignocellulose deconstruction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clostridium thermocellum , a thermophilic, strictly anaerobic gram-positive bacterium, has the highest rate of cellulose utilization of any bacterium, and for this reason it is deemed of great significance to the pursuit of biofuel production from the cellulosic materials in plant biomass ( 3 , 6 , 20 , 32 ). (asm.org)
  • Clostridium thermocellum can rapidly solubilize and ferment cellulosic biomass, making it a promising candidate microorganism for consolidated bioprocessing for biofuel production, but increases in product yield and titer are still needed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The goal is to re-engineer C. thermocellum to express an abundance of particular genes so that it can efficiently produce ethanol from a particular biomass. (technologypublisher.com)
  • Clostridium thermocellum is capable of solubilizing and converting lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clostridium thermocellum is an industrially relevant, cellulolytic microbe that efficiently deconstructs lignocellulosic biomass into sugars, which are fermented into ethanol and other products. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Paired with the organism's innate ability to ferment sugar to ethanol, the presence of cellulosomes makes C. thermocellum , an ideal candidate for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP), a "one-pot" industrial process whereby lignocellulosic biomass is converted directly into biofuel [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clostridium thermocellum has the ability to catabolize cellulosic biomass into ethanol, but acetic acid, lactic acid, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen gas (H 2 ) are also produced. (springer.com)
  • The genome of Clostridium thermocellum was sequenced at the Joint Genome Institute (JGI) using a combination of Illumina ( 1 ) and 454 ( 9 ) technologies. (asm.org)
  • Here we present a genome-scale model of C. thermocellum metabolism, i SR432, for the purpose of establishing a computational tool to study the metabolic network of C. thermocellum and facilitate efforts to engineer C. thermocellum for biofuel production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, we are able to draw some important conclusions regarding the underlying metabolic mechanisms for observed behaviors of C. thermocellum and highlight remaining gaps in the existing genome annotations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The scaffoldin of some cellulosomes, an example being that of Clostridium thermocellum, contains a carbohydrate-binding module that adheres cellulose to the cellulosomal complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previous studies have shown that cellulolytic activity in C. thermocellum is regulated by either carbon source or growth rate (or both) and that changes with respect to one or the other are reflected in overall cellulase production ( 47 ) and in the cellulosomal subunit profile ( 4 , 11 , 28 , 35 ). (asm.org)
  • It is known that two proteins of the cellulosomal complex of Clostridium thermocellum (SL and SS) together degrade crystalline cellulose. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we started with an engineered C. thermocellum strain where the central metabolic pathways to products other than ethanol had been deleted. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bothun GD, Knutson BL, Berberich JA, Strobel HJ, Nokes SE (2004) Metabolic selectivity and growth of Clostridium thermocellum in continuous culture under elevated hydrostatic pressure. (springer.com)
  • Petrochemical Replacements - [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1,4-Butanediol Butanediol] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bioseparation_of_1,3-propanediol Propanediol] - These are chemicals typically made by crude oil processing and now have been shown to be made through metabolic engineering. (openwetware.org)
  • use exotic metabolic pathways not seen in typical mesophiles, such as using sulfur instead of oxygen in cellular respiration[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermophile]. (openwetware.org)
  • In the present study, we demonstrate by progressive truncation and alanine scanning of a representative type-I dockerin module from Clostridium thermocellum , that only one of the repeated motifs is critical for high-affinity cohesin binding. (biochemj.org)
  • The researchers targeted the c7A cohesin of C. thermocellum because it appears to be subjected to more intense mechanical stress than other cohesins and is exceptionally mechanically stable. (sciencecodex.com)
  • By incorporating genomic sequence data, network topology, and experimental measurements of enzyme activities and metabolite fluxes, we have generated a model that is reasonably accurate at predicting the cellular phenotype of C. thermocellum and establish a strong foundation for rational strain design. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Both spores and L-forms cease to produce ethanol, but provide other advantages for C. thermocellum including enhanced survival for spores and faster recovery for L-forms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Finally, the identification of LacI repressor activity for hemicellulase gene expression is a key result of this work and will add to the small body of existing literature on the area of gene regulation inC. thermocellum. (osti.gov)