A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
Extracellular structures found in a variety of microorganisms. They contain CELLULASES and play an important role in the digestion of CELLULOSE.
A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.
An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE and cellotetraose. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing ends of beta-D-glucosides with release of CELLOBIOSE.
A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha- or beta-xylosidic linkages. EC 3.2.1.8 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.32 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.37 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans; and EC 3.2.1.72 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans. Other xylosidases have been identified that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-xylosidic bonds.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.
A xylosidase that catalyses the random hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-xylans.
Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.
An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.
A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-mannose residues in beta-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the lysosomal degradation of the N-glycosylprotein glycans. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme in humans result in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease BETA-MANNOSIDOSIS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to the 5'-terminal hydroxyl groups of DNA and RNA. EC 2.7.1.78.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.
An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.
An exocellulase with specificity for 1,3-beta-D-glucasidic linkages. It catalyzes hydrolysis of beta-D-glucose units from the non-reducing ends of 1,3-beta-D-glucans, releasing GLUCOSE.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetate esters and water to alcohols and acetate. EC 3.1.1.6.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, used for the industrial production of SOLVENTS.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The cause of TETANUS in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is a cellulolytic, mesophilic species isolated from decayed GRASS.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, found in INTESTINES and SOIL.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Structural insights into the mechanism of formation of cellulosomes probed by small angle X-ray scattering. (1/130)

Exploring the mechanism by which the multiprotein complexes of cellulolytic organisms, the cellulosomes, attain their exceptional synergy is a challenge for biologists. We have studied the solution structures of the Clostridium cellulolyticum cellulosomal enzyme Cel48F in the free and complexed states with cohesins from Clostridium thermocellum and Clostridium cellulolyticum by small angle x-ray scattering in order to investigate the conformational events likely to occur upon complexation. The solution structure of the free cellulase indicates that the dockerin module is folded, whereas the linker connecting the catalytic module to the dockerin is extended and flexible. Remarkably, the docking of the different cohesins onto Cel48F leads to a pleating of the linker. The global structure determined here allowed modeling of the atomic structure of the C. cellulolyticum dockerin-cohesin interface, highlighting the local differences between both organisms responsible for the species specificity.  (+info)

Design and production in Aspergillus niger of a chimeric protein associating a fungal feruloyl esterase and a clostridial dockerin domain. (2/130)

A chimeric enzyme associating feruloyl esterase A (FAEA) from Aspergillus niger and dockerin from Clostridium thermocellum was produced in A. niger. A completely truncated form was produced when the dockerin domain was located downstream of the FAEA (FAEA-Doc), whereas no chimeric protein was produced when the bacterial dockerin domain was located upstream of the FAEA (Doc-FAEA). Northern blot analysis showed similar transcript levels for the two constructs, indicating a posttranscriptional bottleneck for Doc-FAEA production. The sequence encoding the first 514 amino acids from A. niger glucoamylase and a dibasic proteolytic processing site (kex-2) were fused upstream of the Doc-FAEA sequence. By using this fusion strategy, the esterase activity found in the extracellular medium was 20-fold-higher than that of the wild-type reference strain, and the production yield was estimated to be about 100 mg of chimeric protein/liter. Intracellular and extracellular production was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, dockerin-cohesin interaction assays, and Western blotting. Labeled cohesins detected an intact extracellular Doc-FAEA of about 43 kDa and a cleaved-off dockerin domain of about 8 kDa. In addition, an intracellular 120-kDa protein was recognized by using labeled cohesins and antibodies raised against FAEA. This protein corresponded to the unprocessed Doc-FAEA form fused to glucoamylase. In conclusion, these results indicated that translational fusion to glucoamylase improved the secretion efficiency of a chimeric Doc-FAEA protein and allowed production of the first functional fungal enzyme joined to a bacterial dockerin.  (+info)

Interactions between immunoglobulin-like and catalytic modules in Clostridium thermocellum cellulosomal cellobiohydrolase CbhA. (3/130)

Cellobiohydrolase CbhA from Clostridium thermocellum cellulosome is a multi-modular protein composed starting from the N-terminus of a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) of family 4, an immunoglobulin(Ig)-like module, a catalytic module of family 9 glycoside hydrolases (GH9), X1(1) and X1(2) modules, a CBM of family 3 and a dockerin module. Deletion of the Ig-like module from the Ig-GH9 construct results in complete inactivation of the GH9 module. The crystal structure of the Ig-GH9 module pair reveals the existence of an extensive module interface composed of over 40 amino acid residues of both modules and maintained through a large number of hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions. To investigate the importance of these interactions between the two modules, we compared the secondary and tertiary structures and thermostabilities of the individual Ig-like and GH9 modules and the Ig-GH9 module pair using both circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Thr230, Asp262 and Asp264 of the Ig-like module are located in the module interface of the Ig-GH9 module pair and are suggested to be important in 'communication' between the modules. These residues were mutated to alanyl residues. The structure, stability and catalytic properties of the native Ig-GH9 and its D264A and T230A/D262A mutants were compared. The results indicate that despite being able to fold relatively independently, the Ig-like and GH9 modules interact and these interactions affect the final fold and stability of each module. Mutations of one or two amino acid residues lead to destabilization and change of the mechanism of thermal unfolding of the polypeptides. The enzymatic properties of native Ig-GH9, D264A and T230A/D262A mutants are similar. The results indicate that inactivation of the GH9 module occurs as a result of multiple structural disturbances finally affecting the topology of the catalytic center.  (+info)

Regulation of cellulase synthesis in batch and continuous cultures of Clostridium thermocellum. (4/130)

Regulation of cell-specific cellulase synthesis (expressed in milligrams of cellulase per gram [dry weight] of cells) by Clostridium thermocellum was investigated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay protocol based on antibody raised against a peptide sequence from the scaffoldin protein of the cellulosome (Zhang and Lynd, Anal. Chem. 75:219-227, 2003). The cellulase synthesis in Avicel-grown batch cultures was ninefold greater than that in cellobiose-grown batch cultures. In substrate-limited continuous cultures, however, the cellulase synthesis with Avicel-grown cultures was 1.3- to 2.4-fold greater than that in cellobiose-grown cultures, depending on the dilution rate. The differences between the cellulase yields observed during carbon-limited growth on cellulose and the cellulase yields observed during carbon-limited growth on cellobiose at the same dilution rate suggest that hydrolysis products other than cellobiose affect cellulase synthesis during growth on cellulose and/or that the presence of insoluble cellulose triggers an increase in cellulase synthesis. Continuous cellobiose-grown cultures maintained either at high dilution rates or with a high feed substrate concentration exhibited decreased cellulase synthesis; there was a large (sevenfold) decrease between 0 and 0.2 g of cellobiose per liter, and there was a much more gradual further decrease for cellobiose concentrations >0.2 g/liter. Several factors suggest that cellulase synthesis in C. thermocellum is regulated by catabolite repression. These factors include: (i) substantially higher cellulase yields observed during batch growth on Avicel than during batch growth on cellobiose, (ii) a strong negative correlation between the cellobiose concentration and the cellulase yield in continuous cultures with varied dilution rates at a constant feed substrate concentration and also with varied feed substrate concentrations at a constant dilution rate, and (iii) the presence of sequences corresponding to key elements of catabolite repression systems in the C. thermocellum genome.  (+info)

Functions of family-22 carbohydrate-binding module in Clostridium thermocellum Xyn10C. (5/130)

Clostridium thermocellum xylanase Xyn10C (formerly XynC) is a modular enzyme, comprising a family-22 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM), a family-10 catalytic module of the glycoside hydrolases, and a dockerin module responsible for cellulosome assembly consecutively from the N-terminus. To study the functions of the CBM, truncated derivatives of Xyn10C were constructed: a recombinant catalytic module polypeptide (rCM), a family-22 CBM polypeptide (rCBM), and a polypeptide composed of the family-22 CBM and CM (rCBM-CM). The recombinant proteins were characterized by enzyme and binding assays. Although the catalytic activity of rCBM-CM toward insoluble xylan was four times higher than that of rCM toward the same substrate, removal of the CBM did not severely affect catalytic activity toward soluble xylan or beta-1,3-1,4-glucan. rCBM showed an affinity for amorphous celluloses and insoluble and soluble xylan in qualitative binding assays. The optimum temperature of rCBM-CM was 80 degrees C and that of rCM was 60 degrees C. These results indicate that the family-22 CBM of C. thermocellum Xyn10C not only was responsible for the binding of the enzyme to the substrates, but also contributes to the stability of the CM in the presence of the substrate at high temperatures.  (+info)

Action of designer cellulosomes on homogeneous versus complex substrates: controlled incorporation of three distinct enzymes into a defined trifunctional scaffoldin. (6/130)

In recent work, we reported the self-assembly of a comprehensive set of defined "bifunctional" chimeric cellulosomes. Each complex contained the following: (i) a chimeric scaffoldin possessing a cellulose-binding module and two cohesins of divergent specificity and (ii) two cellulases, each bearing a dockerin complementary to one of the divergent cohesins. This approach allowed the controlled integration of desired enzymes into a multiprotein complex of predetermined stoichiometry and topology. The observed enhanced synergy on recalcitrant substrates by the bifunctional designer cellulosomes was ascribed to two major factors: substrate targeting and proximity of the two catalytic components. In the present work, the capacity of the previously described chimeric cellulosomes was amplified by developing a third divergent cohesin-dockerin device. The resultant trifunctional designer cellulosomes were assayed on homogeneous and complex substrates (microcrystalline cellulose and straw, respectively) and found to be considerably more active than the corresponding free enzyme or bifunctional systems. The results indicate that the synergy between two prominent cellulosomal enzymes (from the family-48 and -9 glycoside hydrolases) plays a crucial role during the degradation of cellulose by cellulosomes and that one dominant family-48 processive endoglucanase per complex is sufficient to achieve optimal levels of synergistic activity. Furthermore cooperation within a cellulosome chimera between cellulases and a hemicellulase from different microorganisms was achieved, leading to a trifunctional complex with enhanced activity on a complex substrate.  (+info)

Cellulase, clostridia, and ethanol. (7/130)

Biomass conversion to ethanol as a liquid fuel by the thermophilic and anaerobic clostridia offers a potential partial solution to the problem of the world's dependence on petroleum for energy. Coculture of a cellulolytic strain and a saccharolytic strain of Clostridium on agricultural resources, as well as on urban and industrial cellulosic wastes, is a promising approach to an alternate energy source from an economic viewpoint. This review discusses the need for such a process, the cellulases of clostridia, their presence in extracellular complexes or organelles (the cellulosomes), the binding of the cellulosomes to cellulose and to the cell surface, cellulase genetics, regulation of their synthesis, cocultures, ethanol tolerance, and metabolic pathway engineering for maximizing ethanol yield.  (+info)

Regulation of major cellulosomal endoglucanases of Clostridium thermocellum differs from that of a prominent cellulosomal xylanase. (8/130)

The expression of scaffoldin-anchoring genes and one of the major processive endoglucanases (CelS) from the cellulosome of Clostridium thermocellum has been shown to be dependent on the growth rate. For the present work, we studied the gene regulation of selected cellulosomal endoglucanases and a major xylanase in order to examine the previously observed substrate-linked alterations in cellulosome composition. For this purpose, the transcript levels of genes encoding endoglucanases CelB, CelG, and CelD and the family 10 xylanase XynC were determined in batch cultures, grown on either cellobiose or cellulose, and in carbon-limited continuous cultures at different dilution rates. Under all conditions tested, the transcript levels of celB and celG were at least 10-fold higher than that of celD. Like the major processive endoglucanase CelS, the transcript levels of these endoglucanase genes were also dependent on the growth rate. Thus, at a rate of 0.04 h(-1), the levels of celB, celG, and celD were threefold higher than those obtained in cultures grown at maximal rates (0.35 h(-1)) on cellobiose. In contrast, no clear correlation was observed between the transcript level of xynC and the growth rate-the levels remained relatively high, fluctuating between 30 and 50 transcripts per cell. The results suggest that the regulation of C. thermocellum endoglucanases is similar to that of the processive endoglucanase celS but differs from that of a major cellulosomal xylanase in that expression of the latter enzyme is independent of the growth rate.  (+info)

Clostridium thermocellum CelJ protein: isolated from Clostridium thermocellum; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank D83704
Current and future demands for renewable energy sources have spurred research in developing biofuels. One promising route for biofuel production is to use an organism-based bioprocess where cellulose could be converted to biofuel. One of the main challenges to this approach is that there are relatively few cellulolytic organisms capable of biofuel production, and none of these are especially well-characterized at present. Here we have implemented a computational modeling approach to study C. thermocellum, an anaerobic thermophile with high biofuel production potential. In this study, the development of a genome-scale metabolic model of C. thermocellum was used to provide a framework for analyzing the basic metabolic functions of C. thermocellum and improving its ethanol production capabilities. Overall, we report the construction of a genome-scale metabolic model of C. thermocellum, i SR432, and the accuracy of this model to predict cellular phenotypes (growth and fermentation product secretion) ...
Creative Biolabs offers the best Recombinant Clostridium Thermocellum ispE Protein (aa 1-283), which is useful for vaccine development.
NAD or NADP differ with respect to presence or absence of a phosphate group esterified at the 2′ position of the adenosine ribose and are similar at the level of structure. Rosell et al. (21) have shown complete reversal of ADH cofactor specificity in crystallography studies. However, NAD is typically used in oxidative, ATP-generating degradation reactions, and NADP usually acts as a reductant in reductive biosynthetic reactions. An ethanol cycle with two ADH isozymes catalyzing opposite reactions (i.e., ethanol oxidation or ethanol synthesis) has been proposed for Thermoanaerobacter pseudoethanolicus (formerly Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum) (22) and similarly for the naturally more ethanol-tolerant Zymomonas mobilis (23). We did not test the ethanol cycling hypothesis in this study, but net ethanol oxidation did not appear to be a major detoxification mechanism (SI Appendix, Fig. S6).. The reduction in specific activity with respect to NADH was far greater (∼25-fold less activity) than ...
Blending of ethanol with fossil fuel is recommended to address the problem of increasing demand for transportation fuel without environmental pollution. This implementation was planned because ethanol is derived from renewable biological sources, and has promising properties such as anti-knock potential [1, 2] and cleaner combustion [3, 4]. Several countries around the world are adopting this strategy, and are planning to increase the percentage of ethanol blending in a phased manner [5]. In this context, allocation of natural resources for ethanol production in place of food production, and completing interests in ethanol for industrial and potable purposes are the major concerns to be addressed. For example, sugarcane molasses serves as the sole feedstock for bioethanol production in India where the annual production is approximately 2.7 billion litres of which only 30 % is offered for fuel purposes [6, 7]. When considering the supply of feedstock, increasing the production of ethanol from ...
1GKL: The Structure of the Feruloyl Esterase Module of Xylanase 10B from Clostridium Thermocellum Provides Insights Into Substrate Recognition
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Signal transduction proteins, Histidine Kinase, Response regulator, Phophotransfer protein, HPT, Phosphorelay, complete metagenomes browser, TCS, Prokaryotic Two-Component Systems database, P2CS, annotation browser, MIST, SENTRA
technology for cellulosic biomass conversion, recently put out a press release announcing the grant of U.S. Patent No. 8,540,847 (847 Patent).. Entitled Methods and apparatus for processing cellulosic biomass, the 847 Patent is directed to methods and apparatus for making ethanol or other biofuels using what Aphios calls its Aosic process.. The apparatus (11) described and claimed in the patent comprises a first vessel (13) for receiving cellulosic biomass and conveying means (15) in fluid communication with the first vessel (13). The apparatus (11) also comprises supercritical, critical, or near critical fluid means (17), which includes a source of gas, such as gas tank (41), holding carbon dioxide pressurized to form supercritical, critical, or near critical fluid.. The fluid means (17) is in fluid communication with conveying means (15) via conduit (31). A pump (47) is connected to a heat exchanger (55), which controls the temperature of the supercritical, critical, or near critical ...
Background: Clostridium thermocellum is a gram-positive thermophile that can directly convert lignocellulosic material into biofuels. The metabolism of C. thermocellum contains many branches and redundancies which limit biofuel production, and typical genetic techniques are time-consuming. Further, the genome sequence of a genetically tractable strain C. thermocellum DSM 1313 has been recently sequenced and annotated. Therefore, developing a comprehensive, predictive, genome-scale metabolic model of DSM 1313 is desired for elucidating its complex phenotypes and facilitating model-guided metabolic engineering. Results: We constructed a genome-scale metabolic model iAT601 for DSM 1313 using the KEGG database as a scaffold and an extensive literature review and bioinformatic analysis for model refinement. Next, we used several sets of experimental data to train the model, e.g., estimation of the ATP requirement for growth-associated maintenance (13.5 mmol ATP/g DCW/h) and cellulosome synthesis (57 mmol ATP
The Ruminiclostridium thermocellum DSM 2360 whole genome shotgun (WGS) project has the project accession ACVX00000000. This version of the project (01) has the accession number ACVX01000000, and consists of sequences ACVX01000001-ACVX01000110.. URL -- http://www.jgi.doe.gov JGI Project ID: 4085028 Source DNA and Bacteria available from Christopher L. Hemme ([email protected]) Contacts: Christopher L. Hemme ([email protected]) David Bruce ([email protected]) Whole genome sequencing and draft assembly at JGI-PGF Annotation by JGI-ORNL The JGI and collaborators endorse the principles for the distribution and use of large scale sequencing data adopted by the larger genome sequencing community and urge users of this data to follow them. It is our intention to publish the work of this project in a timely fashion and we welcome collaborative interaction on the project and analysis. (http://www.genome.gov/page.cfm?pageID=10506376).. ...
Some exocellulases, most of which belong to the glycoside hydrolase family 48 (GH48, formerly known as cellulase family L), act at the reducing ends of cellulose and similar substrates. The CelS enzyme from Clostridium thermocellum is the most abundant subunit of the cellulosome formed by the organism. It liberates cellobiose units from the reducing end by hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond, employing an inverting reaction mechanism [2]. Different from EC 3.2.1.91, which attacks cellulose from the non-reducing end ...
thermocellum and C. josui scaffolding proteins in this study. The C. thermocellum strain F1 was used for the isolation of genomic DNA (Sakka et al., 1989). Escherichia coli strains XL1-Blue and BL21(DE3) RIL (Novagen) were used for the cloning and expression of parts of the C. thermocellum http://www.selleckchem.com/products/NVP-AUY922.html xyn10C and xyn11A genes (DDBJ accession nos. D84188 and AB010958, respectively). Recombinant E. coli strains were cultured in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth supplemented with ampicillin (50 μg mL−1) or kanamycin (50 μg mL−1) and chloramphenicol. (25 μg mL−1) at 37 °C. The DNA region encoding the native Xyn11A dockerin was amplified by PCR from the plasmid pKS101-1 (Hayashi et al., 1999) using the primers XynADF and XynADR (Table 1), digested with EcoRI and SalI and inserted into the EcoRI and SalI sites of pBluescipt II KS(+). After checking its nucleotide sequence, the inserted DNA fragment was cleaved from the recombinant plasmid using EcoRI and SalI, ...
Created after Ndeh et al., Nature (2017) 544:65-70 (PMID=28329766) who have shown the a-L-fucosidase activity of the B. thetaiotaomicron enzyme. The xylanase activity of the (Rumini)clostridium thermocellum enzyme was shown by Heinze et al. (PMID=28894250 ...
A major challenge to converting lignocellulose into fuels and chemicals is the lack of microbial access to the complex polysaccharides that comprise the plant cell wall. C. bescii is unique in its ability to degrade and coutilize sugars from both hemicellulose (C5) and cellulose (C6). Thus, for this extremely thermophilic bacterium, lignin is the major barrier to complete plant biomass conversion.. The transgenic switchgrass lines MYB Trans and COMT3(+), their respective parental lines (cv. Alamo), and a naturally occurring, low-recalcitrance switchgrass (cv. CR) were all solubilized by C. bescii but to different extents. Significant variations in solubilization were seen between the different parental lines (WT); this validates the observations previously reported (50) using CBP with Clostridium thermocellum. While the C. bescii growth rate and carbohydrate solubilization were higher on the transgenic lines than on their parental line, both MYB lines were especially resistant to microbial ...
Clostridium thermocellum is a thermophilic, cellulolytic anaerobe that is a candidate microorganism for industrial biofuels production. Strains with mutations in genes associated with production of l-
One of the barriers to the production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass is the toughness of the cellulosic structure, and its resistance to chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis and insolubility in
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
The difference between CIP & CIPA is that in CIP the person only cant feel pain but in case of CIPA the person cannot sweat and probably has malformations in his/ her body. ...
The native ability of Clostridium thermocellum to rapidly consume cellulose and produce ethanol makes it a leading candidate for a consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) biofuel production strategy. C. thermocellum also synthesizes lactate, formate, acetate, H2, and amino acids that compete with ethanol production for carbon and electrons. Elimination of H2 production could redirect carbon flux towards ethanol production by making more electrons available for acetyl coenzyme A reduction to ethanol. H2 production in C. thermocellum is encoded by four hydrogenases. Rather than delete each individually, we targeted hydrogenase maturase gene hydG, involved in converting the three [FeFe] hydrogenase apoenzymes into holoenzymes. Further deletion of the [NiFe] hydrogenase (ech) resulted in a mutant that functionally lacks all four hydrogenases. H2 production in ∆hydG∆ech was undetectable, and the ethanol yield nearly doubled to 64% of the maximum theoretical yield. Genomic analysis of ∆hydG revealed a mutation
Deletion of Cel48S from C. thermocellum led to a decrease in the enzymatic hydrolysis rate, a decrease in microbial hydrolysis rate, and a decrease in biomass formation during growth on Avicel.. The similarity of enzyme saturation curves for the WT and parent strains suggests that the ΔpyrF mutation in the parent strain has no effect on cellulosome function, as expected. The S mutant strain, however, exhibited a reduction in both specific activity and saturation rate. A reduction in specific activity is indicative of impaired function and consistent with decreased synergy among components of the cellulosome in the absence of Cel48S (3).. The role of GH families in cellulose solubilization is a topic of much debate. Family 48 cellulases are a prominent component of many bacterial cellulase systems and, due to their ubiquity, are thought to play an important role in cellulose solubilization (21). On one hand, disruption of the single family 9 GH in C. phytofermentans eliminated its ability to ...
Mannan endo-1,4-beta-mannosidase is an enzyme with system name 4-beta-D-mannan mannanohydrolase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction: Random hydrolysis
The PNKP gene provides instructions for making the polynucleotide kinase-phosphatase (PNKP) enzyme. Learn about this gene and related health conditions.
Non-cellulosomal processive endoglucanase 9I (Cel9I) from Clostridium thermocellum is a modular protein, consisting of a family-9 glycoside hydrolase (GH9) catalytic module and two family-3 carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM3c and CBM3b), separated by linker regions. GH9 does not show cellulase activity when expressed without CBM3c and CBM3b and the presence of the CBM3c was previously shown to be essential for endoglucanase activity. Physical reassociation of independently expressed GH9 and CBM3c modules (containing linker sequences) restored 60-70% of the intact Cel9I endocellulase activity. However, the mechanism responsible for recovery of activity remained unclear. In this work we independently expressed recombinant GH9 and CBM3c with and without their interconnecting linker in Escherichia coli. We crystallized and determined the molecular structure of the GH9/linker-CBM3c heterodimer at a resolution of 1.68 Å to understand the functional and structural importance of the mutual spatial orientation
Clostridium thermocellum has the ability to catabolize cellulosic biomass into ethanol, but acetic acid, lactic acid, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen gas (H2) are also produced. The effect of hydrogenase
Researchers at the Department of Energys (DOE) BioEnergy Science Center (BESC) have made a discovery that could increase the production of ethanol and lower its costs.. They say they have pinpointed the gene that controls ethanol production capacity in a microorganism, which could be the missing link in developing more efficient and cheaper biomass crops.. Current methods to make ethanol from a type of biomass found in switchgrass and agricultural waste require the addition of expensive enzymes to break down the plants barriers that guard energy-rich sugars. The gene discovered controls ethanol production in a microorganism known as Clostridium thermocellum. With it scientists will be able to experiment with genetically altering biomass plants to produce more ethanol.. The Department of Energy relies on the scientific discoveries of its labs and research centers to improve the production of clean energy sources, said Energy Secretary Steven Chu. This discovery is an important step in ...
Clostridium clariflavum is a Cluster III Clostridium within the family Clostridiaceae isolated from thermophilic anaerobic sludge (Shiratori et al, 2009). This species is of interest because of its similarity to the model cellulolytic organism Clostridium thermocellum and for the ability of environmental isolates to break down cellulose and hemicellulose. Here we describe features of the 4,897,678 bp long genome and its annotation, consisting of 4,131 protein-coding and 98 RNA genes, for the type strain DSM 19732.
...WASHINGTON DC -- A team of researchers at the Department of Energys ... The Department of Energy relies on the scientific discoveries of its ...The discovery of the gene controlling ethanol production in a microorg...Although scientists have studied Clostridium thermocellum for decades...,Single,,key,gene,discovery,could,streamline,production,of,biofuels,,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
21. Kelly, S., Ivens, A., Mott,G. A., ONeill, E. C., Emms, D., Macleod, O., Voorheis, P., Tyler, K., Clark, M., Matthews, J., Matthews, K., Carrington, M. C. An Alternative Strategy for Trypanosome Survival in the Mammalian Bloodstream Revealed through Genome and Transcriptome Analysis of the Ubiquitous Bovine Parasite Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) theileri. Genome Biology and Evolution (2017) 9, 2093-2109 DOI: 10.1093/gbe/evx152. 20. ONeill, E. C., Pergolizzi, G., Stevenson, C. E. M., Lawson, D. M., Nepogodiev, S. A., and Field, R. A. Cellodextrin phosphorylase from Clostridium thermocellum: X-ray crystal structure and substrate specificity analysis. Carbohydrate Research (2017) DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2017.07.005. 19. ONeill, E. C. and Kelly, S. Engineering biosynthesis of high-value compounds in photosynthetic organisms. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology (2017) 37, 779-802 DOI: 10.1080/07388551.2016.1237467. 18. ONeill, E. C. Biomolecular engineering of micro-organisms for natural products ...
Les kinases et les phosphatases (KP) représentent la plus grande famille des enzymes dans la cellule. Elles régulent les unes les autres ainsi que 60 % du protéome, formant des réseaux complexes kinase-phosphatase (KP-Net) jouant un rôle essentiel dans ...
A novel approach to cellulose hydrolysis using a consortium of motile bacteria moving on solid surfaces and carrying microbial luggage, another bacteria that can efficiently hydrolyze cellulose, was demonstrated by the group of researchers.
Nanocellulose (NC) from cellulosic biomass has recently gained attention owing to their biodegradable nature, low density, high mechanical properties, economic value and renewability. They still suffer, however, some drawbacks. The challenges are the exploration of raw materials, scaling, recovery of chemicals utilized for the production or functionalization and most important is toxic behavior that hinders them from implementing in medical/pharmaceutical field. This review emphasizes the structural behavior of cellulosic biomass and biological barriers for enzyme interactions, which are pertinent to understand the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose for the production of NCs. Additionally, the enzymatic catalysis for the modification of solid and NC is discussed. The utility of various classes of enzymes for introducing desired functional groups on the surface of NC has been further examined. Thereafter, a green mechanistic approach is applied for understanding at molecular level. ...
T02360 (aalt,achr,acta,actc,amyb,amyc,asw,cmos,cthd,cyl,dfn,ehl,fek,fva,hta,kak,kmx,kpnk,lei,lfb,lsh,lys,mcol,msub,mtab,noe,oor,paru,phs,pje,png,ptd,rpln,sclo,scou,seny,sera,sfz,slb,slw,snl,sphc,sphy,srub,taj : calculation not yet completed ...
General Information: Country: Japan; Isolation: Methanogenic sludge; Temp: Thermophile; Temp: 55C. Clostridium clariflavum is a thermophilic cellulose degrader closely related to C. thermocellum, with equivalent cellulolytic activity. ...
Created after Ndeh et al., Nature (2017) 544(7648):65-70 (PMID=28329766); mechanism and structure after Labourel et al., JBC (2019) (PMID=30877196 ...
Author(s): Wyman, Charles E.; Yang, Bin | Abstract: Cellulosic biomass, which includes agricultural and forestry residues and woody and herbaceous plants, is the only low-cost resource that can support the sustainable production of liquid fuels on a large enough scale to significantly address our transportation energy needs. The biological conversion of cellulosic biomass to ethanol could offer high yields at low costs, but only if we can improve the technology for releasing simple sugars from recalcitrant biomass. We review key aspects of cellulosic ethanol production, including pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis technologies that present the greatest opportunities to lower processing costs. Although several companies seek to introduce cellulosic ethanol commercially, innovative measures are needed to help overcome the perceived risks of first applications.
1] P.R.V. Hamann, D.L. Serpa, A.S. Barreto da Cunha, B.R. de Camargo, K.O. Osiro, M. Valle de Sousa, C.R. Felix, R.N.G. Miller, E.F. Noronha, Evaluation of plant cell wall degrading enzyme production by Clostridium thermocellum B8 in the presence of raw agricultural wastes, Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad., 105 (2015) 97-105. [2] J.M. Xiaorong Wu, Ron Madl, Donghai Wang, Biofuels from Lignocellulosic Biomass, Sustain. Biotechnol. , (2010) 19-41. [3] R.H. Doi, A. Kosugi, Cellulosomes: Plant-cell-wall-degrading enzyme complexes, Nat. Rev. Microbiol., 2 (2004) 541-551. [4] L.R. Lynd, W.H. van Zyl, J.E. McBride, M. Laser, Consolidated bioprocessing of cellulosic biomass: an update, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol., 16 (2005) 577-583. [5] J. Zaldivar, J. Nielsen, L. Olsson, Fuel ethanol production from lignocellulose: a challenge for metabolic engineering and process integration, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 56 (2001) 17-34. [6] B.S. Dien, M.A. Cotta, T.W. Jeffries, Bacteria engineered for fuel ethanol ...
The inherent recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass is one of the major economic hurdles for the production of fuels and chemicals from biomass. Additionally, lignin is recognized as having a negative impact on enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass, and as a result much interest has been placed on modifying the lignin pathway to improve bioconversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks. Down-regulation of the caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene in the lignin pathway yielded switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) that was more susceptible to bioconversion after dilute acid pretreatment. Here we examined the response of these plant lines to milder pretreatment conditions with yeast-based simultaneous saccharification and fermentation and a consolidated bioprocessing approach using Clostridium thermocellum, Caldicellulosiruptor bescii and Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis. Unlike the S. cerevisiae SSF conversions, fermentations of pretreated transgenic switchgrass with C. thermocellum showed an apparent inhibition
Cloning of Clostridium thermocellum acetate kinase (ack) and/or phosphotransacetylase (pta) genes in Escherichia coli by functional complementation of ack and/or pta mutants was complicated by an alternative acetate assimilation pathway involving acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS). In addition to the problems encountered with the complementation approach, cloning of these genes was not readily achieved using heterologous probing with corresponding genes from Escherichia coli and Methanosarcina thermophila due to the lack of sufficient homology. The use of a PCR-based approach, on the other hand, yielded a specific C. Thermocellum gene fragment which showed significant sequence identity to the ack gene for which primers were designed. The subcloned ack fragment was then successfully used as a probe for the isolation of the corresponding gene and restriction analysis of that region.
Adapted from Celunol launches commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol plant in Japan by C. Scott Miller, BIOconversion Blog, Jan. 21, 2007 BioEthanol Japan, on January 16, became the worlds first company to produce cellulosic ethanol from wood construction waste on a commercial basis. The plant in Osaka Prefecture has an annual capacity of 1.4 million liters (about 370,000 US gallons). In 2008, it plans to boost production to 4 million liters (1 million US gallons). BioEthanol Japan was established in 2004 by five companies, including construction firm Taisei Corp., trading house Marubeni Corp., Daiei Inter Nature System, and beermaker Sapporo Breweries Ltd. Marubeni is supplying the process technology, which it has licensed from US-based Celunol, to BioEthanol Japan Celunols technology is based on the metabolic engineering of microorganisms, a set of genetically engineered strains of Escherichia coli bacteria that can ferment both C6 (hexose) and C5 (pentose) sugars present in cellulosic biomass into
Cellulosic ethanol is a 50-state solution. It can be produced in every single state in the nation. We have enough cellulosic biomass in this country that, with grain ethanol, we can produce enough clean, renewable ethanol to displace every gallon of foreign oil we currently import. The Project Liberty announcement by POET is the single-most important step forward for proving to all the naysayers that we are at the tip of having commercially viable cellulosic ethanol, said Tom Buis, CEO of Growth Energy ...
The structures of the Glu140--|Gln mutant of the Clostridium thermocellum endoglucanase CelC in unliganded form (CelC(E140Q)) and in complex with
Cellulosomes known as the proficient nanomachine in nature are cell bound multi-enzyme complexes that break down cellulose and hemicelluloses. They are very important in the process of carbon turnover. The cellulosome complexes require highly ordered proteins (the interactions between cohesions and dockerins) to assembly cellulases and hemicellulases into a scaffold structure. The protein interactions between cohesion and dockerin play an important role in cellulosome assembly and the attachment of cellulosome to the surface of cells while remaining flexible to provide a stable catalytic synergy.. One function of cellulosomes is breaking down plants structural polysaccharides. It is hypothesize that the constraints of the cellulosomes system created by bacteria and fungi caused the deconstruction of plant cell wall to become more and more efficient. The splicing of the plant-cell wall involves the addition of enzymes on to a macromolecule complex will increase the effectiveness of the ...
Mascoma is developing a Consolidated Bioprocessing process that results in a simpler, lower-cost pathway for cellulosic ethanol. Click to enlarge. Source: DOE BESC General Motors Corp. and Mascoma Corp. have entered a strategic relationship to develop cellulosic ethanol based on Mascomas Consolidated Bioprocessing single-step biochemical conversion of non-grain biomass into...
Mascoma is developing a Consolidated Bioprocessing process that results in a simpler, lower-cost pathway for cellulosic ethanol. Click to enlarge. Source: DOE BESC General Motors Corp. and Mascoma Corp. have entered a strategic relationship to develop cellulosic ethanol based on Mascomas Consolidated Bioprocessing single-step biochemical conversion of non-grain biomass into...
References Mansfield SG, Chao H, Walsh CE. RNA repair using spliceosome-mediated RNA trans-splicing. Trends Mol Med. 2004 Jun;10(6):263-8. (...)
Structural and biochemical analysis of the phosphate donor specificity of the polynucleotide kinase component of the bacterial pnkphen1 RNA repair system ...
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Aurora B kinase, a key regulator of cell division, localizes to specific cellular locations, but the regulatory mechanisms responsible for phosphorylation of substrates located remotely from kinase enrichment sites are unclear. Here, we provide evidence that this activity at a distance depends on bo …
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Make Your Selection Below for Quantity and Type of Hole if you wish to have the cels punched. Your choices are; Acme PUNCHED, Round PUNCHED or UnPUNCHED. Select Carefully Before You Place Your Order. ...
Clostridium cellulovorans Clostridium clariflavum Clostridium josui Clostridium papyrosolvens Clostridium thermocellum (treated ... The scaffoldin of some cellulosomes, an example being that of Clostridium thermocellum, contains a carbohydrate-binding module ... Dockerin Organelle Bayer, EA; Kenig, R; Lamed, R (1983). "Adherence of Clostridium thermocellum to cellulose". J. Bacteriol. ... has been derived from the study of Clostridium thermocellum. In the early 1980s, Raphael Lamed and Ed Bayer met at Tel Aviv ...
Alexander JK (June 1968). "Purification and specificity of cellobiose phosphorylase from Clostridium thermocellum". The Journal ...
"Multidomain structure and cellulosomal localization of the Clostridium thermocellum cellobiohydrolase CbhA". Journal of ...
"Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of β-D Glucosides using Cellobiose Phosphorylase from Clostridium thermocellum". Advanced Synthesis & ...
It would ultimately be ideal to exploit the carbon dioxide metabolizing bacterium Clostridium thermocellum in such theoretical ... "CO2-fixing one-carbon metabolism in a cellulose-degrading bacterium Clostridium thermocellum". Proceedings of the National ...
... a glycoside hydrolase family 44 endoglucanase from Clostridium thermocellum". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (49): ...
... orthophosphate glucosyltransferase from Clostridium thermocellum". J. Biol. Chem. 244 (2): 457-64. PMID 5773308. Biology portal ...
156, 828-36 (1983). Bayer, E. A., Kenig, R. & Lamed, R. Adherence of Clostridium thermocellum to cellulose. J. Bacteriol. 156, ... cellulase-containing complex in Clostridium thermocellum. J. Bacteriol. ... Biotechnology for biofuels production of a functional cell wall anchored minicellulosome by recombinant Clostridium ...
The scaffoldin component of the cellulolytic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum is a non-hydrolytic protein which organises the ... "A cohesin domain from Clostridium thermocellum: the crystal structure provides new insights into cellulosome assembly". ...
One example is the CBM11 of Clostridium thermocellum Cel26A-Cel5E, this domain has been shown to bind both β-1,4-glucan and β-1 ... In anaerobic bacteria that degrade plant cell walls, exemplified by Clostridium thermocellum, the dockerin domains of the ... "The Family 11 Carbohydrate-binding Module of Clostridium thermocellum Lic26A-Cel5E Accommodates -1,4- and -1,3-1,4-Mixed Linked ... "Identification of the cellulose-binding domain of the cellulosome subunit S1 from Clostridium thermocellum YS". FEMS Microbiol ...
Clostridium thermocellum, 1daq​). Among all the structures reported to date, the majority of EF-hand motifs are paired either ...
The precise role of most bacterial serpins remains obscure, although Clostridium thermocellum serpin localises to the ...
One example is Clostridium thermocellum, which uses a complex cellulosome to break down cellulose and synthesize ethanol. ... However, C. thermocellum also produces other products during cellulose metabolism, including acetate and lactate, in addition ... Demain AL, Newcomb M, Wu JH (March 2005). "Cellulase, clostridia, and ethanol". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 69 ... Instead of sugar fermentation with yeast, this process uses Clostridium ljungdahlii bacteria. This microorganism will ingest ...
Bi-functional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase genes from Clostridium thermocellum allow for the conversion of sugars to ...
The CelS enzyme from Clostridium thermocellum is the most abundant subunit of the cellulosome formed by the organism. Barr BK, ...
Cellulose-Degrading Coculture with Clostridium thermocellum". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 81 (16): 5567-5573. doi: ...
"Cohesin-dockerin interactions within and between Clostridium josui and Clostridium thermocellum: binding selectivity between ... "Structural characterization of type II dockerin module from the cellulosome of Clostridium thermocellum: calcium-induced ... "Structural characterization of type II dockerin module from the cellulosome of Clostridium thermocellum: calcium-induced ...
The C-terminal domain belongs to this family shows similarity to a cellulase from Clostridium thermocellum (CelS), which acts ...
... thermautotrophicum Clostridium thermoalcaliphilum Clostridium thermobutyricum Clostridium thermocellum Clostridium ... Clostridium aceticum Clostridium acetireducens Clostridium acetobutylicum Clostridium acidisoli Clostridium aciditolerans ... Clostridium acidurici Clostridium aerotolerans Clostridium aestuarii Clostridium akagii Clostridium aldenense Clostridium ... difficile Clostridium diolis Clostridium disporicum Clostridium drakei Clostridium durum Clostridium estertheticum Clostridium ...
... is an anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium. C. thermocellum has garnered research interest due to its ... JGI: Archived 2007-12-21 at the Wayback Machine Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 Cellulase, Clostridia, and Ethanol Ibid. ... Characterization of Clostridium thermocellum JW20 U.S. Department of Energy: Archived 2007-04-27 at the Wayback Machine ... Cellulosic Ethanol Type strain of Clostridium thermocellum at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Biology portal v t ...
"A major new component in the cellulosome of Clostridium thermocellum is a processive endo-beta-1,4-glucanase producing ... For example, Clostridium cellulolyticum produces 13 GH9 modular cellulases containing a different number and arrangement of ... "Characterization of all family-9 glycoside hydrolases synthesized by the cellulosome-producing bacterium Clostridium ...
... kluyveri Clostridium novyi Clostridium perfringens Clostridium phytofermentans Clostridium tetani Clostridium thermocellum ... Pathema-Clostridium Clostridium acetobutylicum Clostridium botulinum Clostridium butyricum Clostridium difficile Clostridium ... Clostridium botulinum, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Clostridium perfringens, and Entamoeba histolytica) ...
Clostridium tetanomorphum MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.770 - Clostridium thermocellum MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.800 - Clostridium ... Clostridium tetanomorphum MeSH B03.510.415.400.200.770 - Clostridium thermocellum MeSH B03.510.415.400.200.800 - Clostridium ... Clostridium botulinum type G MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.180 - Clostridium butyricum MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.200 - Clostridium ... Clostridium botulinum type G MeSH B03.510.415.400.200.180 - Clostridium butyricum MeSH B03.510.415.400.200.200 - Clostridium ...
nov.; Reclassification of Thermoanaerobium brockii, Clostridium thermosulfurogenes, and Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum E100- ... 2018, Hungateiclostridium thermocellum (Viljoen et al. 1926) Zhang et al. 2018, Hungateiclostridium cellulolyticum (Patel et al ... Originally described as Clostridium glycyrrhizinilyticum (31 letters), it jumped into this list upon being reclassified in ... It was originally named Clostridium thermosulfurigenes (29 letters), but later became one of the longest scientific names upon ...
Clostridium thermocellum is an anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium. C. thermocellum has garnered research interest due to its ... JGI: Archived 2007-12-21 at the Wayback Machine Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 Cellulase, Clostridia, and Ethanol Ibid. ... Characterization of Clostridium thermocellum JW20 U.S. Department of Energy: Archived 2007-04-27 at the Wayback Machine ... Cellulosic Ethanol Type strain of Clostridium thermocellum at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Biology portal v t ...
Clostridium cellulovorans, Clostridium josui, Clostridium phytofermentans, and C. thermocellum (8-11). Cellulases from family ... Deletion of the Cel48S cellulase from Clostridium thermocellum. Daniel G. Olson, Shital A. Tripathi, Richard J. Giannone, ... Deletion of the Cel48S cellulase from Clostridium thermocellum. Daniel G. Olson, Shital A. Tripathi, Richard J. Giannone, ... 2007) Induction of the celC operon of Clostridium thermocellum by laminaribiose. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:3747-3752. ...
The Structure of the Feruloyl Esterase Module of Xylanase 10B from Clostridium Thermocellum Provides Insights Into Substrate ... Feruloyl esterase domain of XynY from clostridium thermocellum. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1GKK/pdb ... Hungateiclostridium thermocellum. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: xynY. EC: 3.2.1.8. Find proteins for P51584 (Hungateiclostridium ...
Application of long sequence reads to improve genomes for Clostridium thermocellum AD2, Clostridium thermocellum LQRI, and ... Application of Long Sequence Reads To Improve Genomes for Clostridium thermocellum AD2, Clostridium thermocellum LQRI, and ... Glycolysis without pyruvate kinase in Clostridium thermocellum. Title: Glycolysis without pyruvate kinase in Clostridium ... we generated PacBio DNA sequence data to improve the assemblies of draft genomes for Clostridium thermocellum AD2, Clostridium ...
Accepted Manuscript: LacI Transcriptional Regulatory Networks in Clostridium thermocellum DSM1313. Title: LacI Transcriptional ... thermocellum.« less Authors:. Wilson, Charlotte M. [1] ; Klingeman, Dawn M. [1] ; Schlachter, Caleb [1] ; Syed, Mustafa H. [1] ... Organisms regulate gene expression in response to the environment to coordinate metabolic reactions.Clostridium ...
Hungateiclostridium thermocellum. Mutation(s): 0 Find proteins for A3DGR1 (Hungateiclostridium thermocellum (strain ATCC 27405 ... Structure of a transcriptional regulator from Clostridium thermocellum Cth-833. Yang, H., Chen, L., Lee, D., Habel, J., Nguyen ... Structure of a transcriptional regulator from Clostridium thermocellum Cth-833. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1XMA/pdb ...
Clostridium thermocellum is among the most efficient bacteria in directly converting cellulosic materials into hydrogen and ... NREL researchers discover how a bacterium, Clostridium thermocellum, utilizes both CO2 and cellulose. DOE/National Renewable ... NREL researchers discover how a bacterium, Clostridium thermocellum, utilizes both CO2 and cellulose ... "CO2-fixing one-carbon metabolism in a cellulose-degrading bacterium Clostridium thermocellum." The research is in the new issue ...
Complete Genome Sequence of the Cellulolytic Thermophile Clostridium thermocellum DSM1313. Lawrence Feinberg, Justine Foden, ... Complete Genome Sequence of the Cellulolytic Thermophile Clostridium thermocellum DSM1313. Lawrence Feinberg, Justine Foden, ... Clostridium thermocellum DSM1313 is a thermophilic, anaerobic bacterium with some of the highest rates of cellulose hydrolysis ... Complete Genome Sequence of the Cellulolytic Thermophile Clostridium thermocellum DSM1313. Lawrence Feinberg, Justine Foden, ...
News » 2016 » NREL Researchers Discover How a Bacterium, Clostridium thermocellum, Utilizes both CO&sub2; and Cellulose to Make ... Clostridium thermocellum is among the most efficient bacteria in directly converting cellulosic materials into hydrogen and ... News Release: NREL Researchers Discover How a Bacterium, Clostridium thermocellum, Utilizes both CO2 and Cellulose to Make ... "CO2-fixing one-carbon metabolism in a cellulose-degrading bacterium Clostridium thermocellum." The research is in the new issue ...
... isolated from Clostridium thermocellum; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank D83704 ... Clostridium thermocellum CelJ protein. Subscribe to New Research on Clostridium thermocellum CelJ protein ... isolated from Clostridium thermocellum; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank D83704 ... CelJ protein, Clostridium thermocellum; endoglucanase J, Clostridium thermocellum. Networked: 0 relevant articles (0 outcomes, ...
Transcription of Clostridium thermocellum endoglucanase genes celF and celD. J. Bacteriol. 173:80-85. ... Sequence of xynC and properties of XynC, a major component of the Clostridium thermocellum cellulosome. J. Bacteriol. 179:4246- ... Global View of the Clostridium thermocellum Cellulosome Revealed by Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Nicholas D. Gold, Vincent J ... Regulation of the cellulosomal celS (cel48A) gene of Clostridium thermocellum is growth rate dependent. J. Bacteriol. 185:3042- ...
Sequencing of a Clostridium thermocellum gene (cipA) encoding the cellulosomal SL-protein reveals an unusual degree of internal ... It is known that two proteins of the cellulosomal complex of Clostridium thermocellum (SL and SS) together degrade crystalline ... thermocellum DNA and ruled out the possibility of rearrangements during the cloning and sequencing process. The sequenced gene ...
The enzymatic subunits of the cellulosome of Clostridium thermocellum are integrated into the complex by a major non-catalytic ... Expression, purification and subunit-binding properties of cohesins 2 and 3 of the Clostridium thermocellum cellulosome.. Yaron ...
Creative Biolabs offers the best Recombinant Clostridium Thermocellum ispE Protein (aa 1-283), which is useful for vaccine ... Recombinant Clostridium Thermocellum ispE Protein (aa 1-283) (VAng-Lsx01975). CAT. Size. Price. Quantity. ... Clostridium Thermocellum 4-diphosphocytidyl-2-C-methyl-D-erythritol kinase, recombinant protein. ... Clostridium is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria, which contains around 100 species including common free-living bacteria, as ...
We investigate the impact of milling on soluble substrate fermentation by Clostridium therm ... We investigate the impact of milling on soluble substrate fermentation by Clostridium thermocellum with comparison to yeast, ... Soluble substrate fermentation by C. thermocellum proceeded readily in the presence of continuous ball milling but was ... fermentation and residual solids characterization for senescent switchgrass fermentation by Clostridium thermocellum in the ...
... ... stage of cellulosome structural studies of the cellulosome from Clostridium thermocellum. We first describe the crystal ...
Effects of Stirring and Hydrogen on Fermentation Products of Clostridium thermocellum. R. J. Lamed, J. H. Lobos, T. M. Su ... Clostridium thermocellum produces ethanol, acetate, H2, and CO2 as major fermentation products from cellulose and cellobiose. ... Effects of Stirring and Hydrogen on Fermentation Products of Clostridium thermocellum Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded ... thermocellum possesses hydrogenase(s) that catalyzes the reverse reaction. The rate of 3H2O formation was about three times ...
Clostridium thermocellum (strain ATCC 27405 / DSM 1237 / NBRC 103400 / NCIMB 10682 / NRRL B-4536 / VPI 7372) (Ruminiclostridium ... Clostridium thermocellum (strain ATCC 27405 / DSM 1237 / NBRC 103400 / NCIMB 10682 / NRRL B-4536 / VPI 7372) (Ruminiclostridium ... tr,A3DHC1,A3DHC1_CLOTH Glycoside hydrolase family 5 OS=Clostridium thermocellum (strain ATCC 27405 / DSM 1237 / NBRC 103400 / ... cellular organisms › Bacteria › Terrabacteria group › Firmicutes › Clostridia › Clostridiales › Hungateiclostridiaceae › ...
The fermentation of cellulose and cellobiose by Clostridium thermocellum monocultures and C. thermocellum/Methanobacterium ... Fermentation of cellulose and cellobiose by Clostridium thermocellum in the absence of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum.. P ... Fermentation of cellulose and cellobiose by Clostridium thermocellum in the absence of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. ... Fermentation of cellulose and cellobiose by Clostridium thermocellum in the absence of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. ...
Modification of paper properties using carbohydrate-binding module 3 from the Clostridium thermocellum CipA scaffolding protein ... recombinant versions of CBM3 from Clostridium thermocellum CipA-both produced in Pichia pastoris-were studied. Binding assays ... Studies on the interaction of the carbohydrate binding module 3 from the Clostridium thermocellum CipA scaffolding protein with ...
β-Mannanase 5B from Clostridium thermocellum, Recombinant. β-Mannanase 5B from Clostridium thermocellum, Recombinant. ...
Clostridium thermocellum can rapidly solubilize and ferment cellulosic biomass, making it a promising candidate microorganism ... This evolved strain has the highest ethanol yield and titer reported to date for C. thermocellum, and is an important step in ... Here, we started with an engineered C. thermocellum strain where the central metabolic pathways to products other than ethanol ... Clostridium thermocellum is noted for its ability to rapidly consume cellulose [15], and we wanted to confirm that we had not ...
Clostridium thermocellum homoethanol pathway Zymomonas mobilis pdc adh Background. Blending of ethanol with fossil fuel is ... Transformation of Clostridium thermocellum by electroporation. Methods Enzymol. 2012;510:317-30.View ArticleGoogle Scholar. ... Electrotransformation of Clostridium thermocellum. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70(2):883-90.View ArticleGoogle Scholar. ... The pdc and adh genes from Z. mobilis were cloned in pNW33N, and transformed to Clostridium thermocellum DSM 1313 by ...
Although a genetic system for Clostridium thermocellum DSM1313 has recently been developed, available methods achieve ... We report an increase in transformation efficiency of C. thermocellum for a variety of plasmids by using DNA that has been ... When isolated from a dam+dcm+E. coli strain, pAMG206 transforms C. thermocellum 100-fold better than the similar plasmid ... E. coli Dcm methylation decreases transformation efficiency in C. thermocellum DSM1313. The use of properly methylated plasmid ...
Clostridium thermocellum is a thermophile with cellulase genes. It is an ideal candidate for these genetic manipulations. ... The anaerobic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum is an excellent candidate for conversion of renewable cellulose biomass to ... The inducible system can be applied to not only Clostridium thermocellum but other bacteria with cellulase and hemi-cellulase ... Promoters and Proteins from Clostridium Thermocellum and Uses Thereof. United States. 8,309,324. 11/13/2012. ...
Cellulase 8A from Clostridium thermocellum, Recombinant. Cellulase 8A from Clostridium thermocellum, Recombinant. ...
In Clostridium thermocellum (Ct), cellulosome assembly occurs through the binding of type-I Cohs within the primary scaffoldin ... These are reminiscent of the highly symmetrical Coh-binding sites in type-I Docs from C. thermocellum and other clostridia. It ... Clostridium thermocellum complexes. The crystal structure of the CtCohScaC2-XDocCipB complex was solved by molecular ... Clostridium thermocellum complexes. Protein complexes were crystallized at 293 K using the sitting-drop vapour-phase diffusion ...
... from Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405. Plus protein sequence and external database links. ... Domain assignment for gi,125973296,ref,YP_001037206.1, from Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405. Domain architecture ... hypothetical protein Cthe_0778 [Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405]. Sequence. ...
Clostridium beijerinckii, Clostridium cellulolyticum, Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum, Clostridium thermocellum, butanol ... Butanol Production from Crystalline Cellulose by Cocultured Clostridium thermocellum and Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum ... We investigated butanol production from crystalline cellulose by cocultured cellulolytic Clostridium thermocellum and the ... Less butanol was produced by cocultured Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium beijerinckii than by strain N1-4, indicating ...
... Alignments can be refined by adding alignments from ... Cysteine-rich domain alignments in Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405. These alignments are sequences aligned to the 0037470 ...
  • JGI: Archived 2007-12-21 at the Wayback Machine Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 Cellulase, Clostridia, and Ethanol Ibid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequencing and annotation of the C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 genome led to the discovery of more than 60 open reading frames coding for products with putative Doc1 domains ( 50 ), that is, proteins that can potentially bind to CipA and contribute to cellulosomal activities. (asm.org)
  • However, C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 has an Mbo I-type restriction system that is blocked by E. coli Dam methylation [ 11 ], suggesting that at least some E. coli DNA methylation may be required for transformation in C. thermocellum . (biomedcentral.com)
  • We report here that Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 enters non-growth states in response to specific growth conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study focuses on the physiological fundamentals of C . thermocellum ATCC 27405 . (dartmouth.edu)
  • To gain insights into the C. thermocellum genes, using an updated version of the C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 genome annotation, that are required for specific growth on the cellulosic feedstocks of either pretreated switchgrass or Populus, duplicate fermentations were conducted with a 5 g/L solid substrate loading. (omicsdi.org)
  • Clostridium thermocellum (ATCC 27405) is a thermophilic anaerobe that is both cellulolytic and ethanologenic, meaning that it can directly use the plant sugar, cellulose, and biochemically convert it to ethanol. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405, complete genome. (atcc.org)
  • A large cellulosomal gene cluster was identified in the recently sequenced genome of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The issue of secretion in heterologous expression of Clostridium cellulolyticum cellulase-encoding genes in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. (semanticscholar.org)
  • RT "Complete sequence of Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405. (genome.jp)
  • For the C. thermocellum strain examined in this study (ATCC 27405) using cellobiose as carbon source in liquid fermentations, greater than 68% of the cellulosome in the crude cell broth existed unattached to the cell across multiple growthstages. (usda.gov)
  • Clostridium thermocellum is among the most efficient bacteria in directly converting cellulosic materials into hydrogen and hydrocarbons biofuels. (eurekalert.org)
  • Clostridium thermocellum is an anaerobic, thermophilic, cellulolytic, and ethanogenic bacterium capable of directly converting cellulosic substrate into ethanol. (llnl.gov)
  • Clostridium thermocellum is a thermophilic anaerobic bacterium that rapidly solubilizes cellulose with the aid of a multienzyme cellulosome complex. (pnas.org)
  • The cellulosome of C. thermocellum is the best-characterized cellulase complex and serves as a paradigm for cellulolytic microorganisms ( 6 , 7 ). (asm.org)
  • Recent advances in the development of genetic tools for C. thermocellum DSM1313 have enabled scientists to modify the cellulosome and primary metabolism of the bacterium ( 10 , 11 ). (asm.org)
  • Expression, purification and subunit-binding properties of cohesins 2 and 3 of the Clostridium thermocellum cellulosome. (nih.gov)
  • The enzymatic subunits of the cellulosome of Clostridium thermocellum are integrated into the complex by a major non-catalytic polypeptide, called scaffoldin. (nih.gov)
  • The studies described in this thesis depart from the 'dissection' stage and enter the 'build' stage of cellulosome structural studies of the cellulosome from Clostridium thermocellum. (queensu.ca)
  • C. thermocellum serves as a model organism for the study of microbial cellulose hydrolysis because of its cellulosome, an extracellular enzyme complex that tethers the cell to crystalline cellulose and mediates its rapid solubilization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • C. thermocellum, C. cellulolyticum, and C. cellulovorans) have greatly complicated efforts to probe cellulosome structure and function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Notably, C. thermocellum has a large cellulosome that degrades cellulose through simultaneous action of many enzymes, mostly cellulases. (eurekalert.org)
  • In concrete terms, the researchers document the degradation of cellulose using a cellulosome from the bacterium Clostridium thermocellum. (analytica-world.com)
  • Characterization of the cellulolytic complex (cellulosome) of Clostridium acetobutylicum. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cloning and DNA sequencing of the genes encoding Clostridium josui scaffolding protein CipA and cellulase CelD and identification of their gene products as major components of the cellulosome. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Identification of the cellulose-binding domain of the cellulosome subunit S1 from Clostridium thermocellum YS. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The scaffoldin component of the cellulolytic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum is a non-hydrolytic protein which organises the hydrolytic enzymes in a large complex, called the cellulosome. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • A cohesin domain from Clostridium thermocellum: the crystal structure provides new insights into cellulosome assembly. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The ability of the cellulose binding module within the cellulosome to adhere C. thermocellum cells to the cellulosic substrate is considered to contribute to its high cellulose degradation activity. (usda.gov)
  • To clearly differentiate the activity of cell-free cellulosome and cell-bound cellulosome, the distribution of cell-free cellulosome and cell-bound cellulosome in crude cell broth at different growth stages of C. thermocellum was quantified. (usda.gov)
  • It took us by surprise that this microbe can recapture some of the CO 2 released during growth while they consume sugars derived from cellulosic biomass," said Katherine J. Chou, a staff scientist with NREL's Photobiology group and co-author of the new paper "CO 2 -fixing one-carbon metabolism in a cellulose-degrading bacterium Clostridium thermocellum . (eurekalert.org)
  • NREL scientists Pin-Ching Maness (left), Katherine J. Chou and Wei Xiong hold test tubes containing the bacterium Clostridium thermocellum. (nrel.gov)
  • A metabolic isotope-labeling strategy was used in conjunction with nano-liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry peptide sequencing to assess quantitative alterations in the expression patterns of subunits within cellulosomes of the cellulolytic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum , grown on either cellulose or cellobiose. (asm.org)
  • The anaerobic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum is an excellent candidate for conversion of renewable cellulose biomass to ethanol because it is a robust thermophile with stable enzymes. (technologypublisher.com)
  • To explore the use of this modeling paradigm as a tool for enabling metabolic engineering in a poorly understood microorganism, an in silico constraint-based metabolic reconstruction for the anaerobic, cellulolytic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum was constructed based on available genome annotations, published phenotypic information, and specific biochemical assays. (vcu.edu)
  • Fundamentals of microbial cellulose utilization by the thermophilic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum. (dartmouth.edu)
  • The thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum has attracted researchers attention because of its potential industrial application and high cellulose hydrolysis rates . (dartmouth.edu)
  • Wu's team and an MIT group headed by renowned industrial microbiologist Arnold Demain discovered that a protein called CipA in the bacterium Clostridium thermocellum organizes several cellulase enzymes into a cohesive unit which it leads to the cellulose material, like a platoon of soldiers following its commander. (rochester.edu)
  • Clostridium Thermocellum 4-diphosphocytidyl-2-C-methyl-D-erythritol kinase, recombinant protein. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • Thus, in this work the non-glycosylated (CBM3mt) and glycosylated (CBM3wt) recombinant versions of CBM3 from Clostridium thermocellum CipA-both produced in Pichia pastoris -were studied. (springer.com)
  • The pdc and adh genes from Z. mobilis were cloned in pNW33N, and transformed to Clostridium thermocellum DSM 1313 by electroporation to generate recombinant CTH- pdc, CTH- adh and CTH- pdc-adh strains that carried heterologous pdc , adh , and both genes, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Though both pdc and adh were functional in C. thermocellum , the presence of adh severely limited the growth of the recombinant strains, irrespective of the presence or absence of the pdc gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pyruvate decarboxylase gene of the homoethanol pathway from Z mobilis was functional in recombinant C. thermocellum strain and enhanced its ability to produced ethanol. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The hydrolytic performance of a novel Clostridium thermocellum cellulolytic recombinant cellulase expressed in Escherichia coli cells was compared with the naturally isolated cellulases in different modes of fermentation trials using steam explosion pretreated thatch grass and Zymomonas mobilis . (springeropen.com)
  • In contrast to two modes of fermentation, SSF processes utilizing recombinant C. thermocellum enzymes have the capability of yielding a value-added product, bioethanol with the curtailment of the production costs in industry. (springeropen.com)
  • However, the ethanol production pathway of C. thermocellum is not efficient because pyruvate ferrodoxin oxidoreductase, the key enzyme of this pathway [ 13 ], has lower affinity than lactate dehydrogenase and phosphotransacetylase towards the common substrate, pyruvate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using cellulosic biomass as a feedstock for fuel production is an attractive prospect, however, growth arrest can negatively impact ethanol production by fermentative microorganisms such as C. thermocellum . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Understanding conditions that lead to non-growth states in C. thermocellum can positively influence process design and culturing conditions in order to optimize ethanol production in an industrial setting. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Abstract Background The thermophilic anaerobe Clostridium thermocellum is a candidate consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) biocatalyst for cellulosic ethanol production. (uga.edu)
  • We first formulated a multi-omics integration protocol and used it to understand redox metabolism and potential bottlenecks in biofuel (e.g., ethanol) production in C. thermocellum. (meta.org)
  • Also, this investigation revealed a correlation between ethanol and metabolite profile changes and was able to explain a possible mechanism of growth inhibition of C. thermocellum which will certainly help genetic engineers to develop superior strains of C. thermocellum for commercial cellulosic ethanol production. (uky.edu)
  • The purified bacterial enzymes retained 20% of activity after incubation for 30 min at 55 °C. Expression of these PDC genes, except the one from Zymomonas mobilis , improved ethanol production by Clostridium thermocellum . (biomedcentral.com)
  • however, CBP for ethanol production from cellulose using C. thermocellum is still not an economical process according to the target performance metrics for cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulose of 90% of theoretical yield and 40 g/L titer [ 15 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One of the limiting steps for the ethanol production in C. thermocellum is the pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR, Fig. 1 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • C. thermocellum produces NAD + from NADH by H 2 , lactate, and ethanol production. (springer.com)
  • The discovery of the gene controlling ethanol production in a microorganism known as "Clostridium thermocellum" will mean that scientists can now experiment with genetically altering biomass plants to produce more ethanol. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Biofuels - [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biofuel] - Metabolic engineering has been used to improve yields in cellulosic ethanol production and for algal biofuels. (openwetware.org)
  • Clostridium thermocellum is a good candidate organism for CBP due to its ability to rapidly ferment cellulose and produce ethanol. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Understanding the conditions that give rise to these two different non-growth states, and the implications that each has for enabling or enhancing C. thermocellum survival may promote the efficient cultivation of this organism and aid in its development as an industrial microorganism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Like all clostridia, this organism forms terminal endospores, which confer a high degree of resistance to heat, desiccation and other environmental challenges. (biomedcentral.com)
  • High throughput "omics technologies" such as transcriptomics and proteomics provide insights into the metabolic potential of an organism and have been used to understand the genetic and the central carbon metabolism mechanisms for the production of desired end products in various cellulolytic clostridia cultured on different substrates In this study, C. termitidis was cultured on lignocellulose derived simple and complex sugars: cellobiose, xylose, xylan and α-cellulose as sole carbon sources. (omicsdi.org)
  • model organism of mesophilic cellulolytic clostridia. (springer.com)
  • Hungateiclostridium thermocellum Zhang et al. (atcc.org)
  • Clostridium thermocellum DSM1313 is a thermophilic, anaerobic bacterium with some of the highest rates of cellulose hydrolysis reported. (asm.org)
  • Clostridium thermocellum is a thermophilic, anaerobic bacterium of both fundamental and applied significance. (asm.org)
  • Disruption of CipA by random integration of insertion elements has been reported in C. thermocellum ( 16 ), and targeted gene inactivation mediated by group II introns has been used to evaluate family 9 cellulase function in the mesophile C. phytofermentans ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Sequencing of a Clostridium thermocellum gene (cipA) encoding the cellulosomal SL-protein reveals an unusual degree of internal homology. (nih.gov)
  • Family 48 glycoside hydrolase (GH48) enzymes are highly expressed in truly cellulolytic bacteria ( 7 ) including Clostridium cellulolyticum , Clostridium cellulovorans , Clostridium josui , Clostridium phytofermentans , and C. thermocellum ( 8 - 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Although most cellulolytic bacteria have one family 48 cellulase, C. thermocellum has two, Cel48S and Cel48Y. (pnas.org)
  • Clostridium is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria, which contains around 100 species including common free-living bacteria, as well as important pathogens. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • Clostridium thermocellum is a thermophilic, anaerobic member of the Firmicute phylum of bacteria that specializes in cellulose degradation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The inducible system can be applied to not only Clostridium thermocellum but other bacteria with cellulase and hemi-cellulase genes. (technologypublisher.com)
  • Bacterial spores are produced by Gram-positive bacteria including members of the Bacillus and Clostridium genera, and are widely understood to be dormant cell forms that remain viable for long periods of time until growth conditions become favorable. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bacteria, like Clostridium thermocellum, and their enzymes can be used to break down cellulose and other fibers in biomass. (usda.gov)
  • The researchers explored enzymes from the prodigiously plant-digesting fungus Trichoderma reesei and the cellulose-eating bacteria Clostridium thermocellum . (nsf.gov)
  • The genome of Clostridium thermocellum was sequenced at the Joint Genome Institute (JGI) using a combination of Illumina ( 1 ) and 454 ( 9 ) technologies. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we developed an updated genome-scale metabolic model of C. thermocellum that accounts for recent metabolic findings, has improved prediction accuracy, and is standard-conformant to ensure easy reproducibility. (meta.org)
  • Here we present a genome-scale model of C. thermocellum metabolism, i SR432, for the purpose of establishing a computational tool to study the metabolic network of C. thermocellum and facilitate efforts to engineer C. thermocellum for biofuel production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, we are able to draw some important conclusions regarding the underlying metabolic mechanisms for observed behaviors of C. thermocellum and highlight remaining gaps in the existing genome annotations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genome-scale metabolic model of Clostridium thermocellum DSM1313. (utk.edu)
  • Cellulases from family 48, along with family 9, are up-regulated during growth of C. thermocellum on crystalline cellulose as compared with cellobiose ( 12 , 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • Clostridium thermocellum produces ethanol, acetate, H 2 , and CO 2 as major fermentation products from cellulose and cellobiose. (asm.org)
  • Fermentation of cellulose and cellobiose by Clostridium thermocellum in the absence of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. (asm.org)
  • The fermentation of cellulose and cellobiose by Clostridium thermocellum monocultures and C. thermocellum/Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum cocultures was studied. (asm.org)
  • In cellobiose medium, the methanogen caused only slight changes in the fermentation balance of the Clostridium, and free H2 was produced. (asm.org)
  • Differences in the composition and expression of the C . thermocellum cellulase system were observed for cultures grown on Avicel as compared to cellobiose . (dartmouth.edu)
  • Earlier studies pointed to the ability of C. thermocellum to exquisitely control gene expression in response to growth rate and the presence of insoluble cellulose or soluble compounds such as cellobiose. (omicsdi.org)
  • An 11-chip study of 11 separate C. thermocellum chemostat cultures grown on cellulose or cellobiose at different dilution rates. (omicsdi.org)
  • Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of Clostridium termitidis CT1112 during growth on α-cellulose, xylan, cellobiose and xylose. (omicsdi.org)
  • The thermal stability and catalytic activity of endoglucanase (EngD) from mesophilic Clostridium cellulovorans were improved by evolutionary molecular engineering. (elsevier.com)
  • Primary sequence analysis of Clostridium cellulovorans cellulose binding protein A. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Characterization of the cellulose-binding domain of the Clostridium cellulovorans cellulose-binding protein A. (semanticscholar.org)
  • While this model is still controversial, the first C 1 component was cloned from Clostridium cellulovorans and Cellulomonas fimi ( 49 , 74 , 172 , 173 ). (asm.org)
  • An ELISA-based assay was developed using antibody raised against a 14-amino acid long synthetic peptide with sequence taken from the cohesin domain of the scaffoldin protein of C . thermocellum . (dartmouth.edu)
  • The celH gene from Clostridium thermocellum encodes a protein containing 900 residues and three components, including Cel5E, Lic26a, and carbohydrate-binding domains. (irost.org)
  • The BioEnergy Science Center (BESC) has focused on understanding lignocellulosic biomass formation and deconstruction en route to the production of biofuels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To unravel how intricate waste biomass converts to biofuels, a Cornell professor studied the bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum to decipher its metabolism. (phys.org)
  • Our results indicate that solubilization of crystalline cellulose by C. thermocellum can proceed to completion without expression of a family 48 cellulase. (pnas.org)
  • It is known that two proteins of the cellulosomal complex of Clostridium thermocellum (SL and SS) together degrade crystalline cellulose. (nih.gov)
  • Less butanol was produced by cocultured Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium beijerinckii than by strain N1-4, indicating that strain N1-4 was the optimal strain for producing butanol from crystalline cellulose in this coculture system. (usda.gov)
  • CelI, a noncellulosomal family 9 enzyme from Clostridium thermocellum, is a processive endoglucanase that degrades crystalline cellulose. (semanticscholar.org)
  • CenC, a multidomain thermostable GH9 processive endoglucanase from Clostridium thermocellum: cloning, characterization and saccharification studies. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Organisms regulate gene expression in response to the environment to coordinate metabolic reactions.Clostridium thermocellumexpresses enzymes for both lignocellulose solubilization and its fermentation to produce ethanol. (osti.gov)
  • The observation of high solubilization with little apparent modification of the residue is consistent with cotreatment enhancing solubilization primarily by increasing the access of saccharolytic enzymes to the feedstock, and C. thermocellum being able to attack all the major linkages in cellulosic biomass provided that these linkages are accessible. (rsc.org)
  • C. thermocellum uses a large number of enzymes to break down a range of biomass types, and a mechanism to selectively modulate the biosynethesis of these enzymes for a particular biomass material. (technologypublisher.com)
  • A very thin film of cellulose was placed in the QCM and C. thermocellum or its enzymes were flowed over the film. (usda.gov)
  • Clostridium thermocellum , a thermophilic, strictly anaerobic gram-positive bacterium, has the highest rate of cellulose utilization of any bacterium, and for this reason it is deemed of great significance to the pursuit of biofuel production from the cellulosic materials in plant biomass ( 3 , 6 , 20 , 32 ). (asm.org)
  • Clostridium thermocellum can rapidly solubilize and ferment cellulosic biomass, making it a promising candidate microorganism for consolidated bioprocessing for biofuel production, but increases in product yield and titer are still needed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The goal is to re-engineer C. thermocellum to express an abundance of particular genes so that it can efficiently produce ethanol from a particular biomass. (technologypublisher.com)
  • The anaerobic thermophile Clostridium thermocellum is a promising bacterium for bioconversion due to its capability to efficiently degrade untreated lignocellulosic biomass. (meta.org)
  • However, few transcriptomic studies have been reported so far for C. thermocellum using biomass as carbon source. (omicsdi.org)
  • This study will help the understanding of gene expression of C. thermocellum using cellulosic biomass as carbon source and the knowledge will facilitate future metabolic engineering effort for strain improvement. (omicsdi.org)
  • Clostridium thermocellum has the ability to catabolize cellulosic biomass into ethanol, but acetic acid, lactic acid, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen gas (H 2 ) are also produced. (springer.com)
  • Although a genetic system for Clostridium thermocellum DSM1313 has recently been developed, available methods achieve relatively low efficiency and similar plasmids can transform C. thermocellum at dramatically different efficiencies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • E. coli Dcm methylation decreases transformation efficiency in C. thermocellum DSM1313. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The metabolism of Clostridium thermocellum is notable in that it assimilates sugar via the EMP pathway but does not possess a pyruvate kinase enzyme. (osti.gov)
  • Clostridium thermocellum is an anaerobic thermophilic bacterium that exhibits high levels of cellulose solublization and produces ethanol as an end product of its metabolism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A previous C. thermocellum ethanol stress study showed that the largest transcriptomic response was in genes and proteins related to nitrogen uptake and metabolism. (uga.edu)
  • However, the complex metabolism of C. thermocellum is not fully understood, hindering metabolic engineering to achieve high titers, rates, and yields of targeted molecules. (meta.org)
  • Targeted gene deletion followed by biochemical and microbiological characterization is a well-established method for understanding complex biological systems but has not been reported for C. thermocellum until recently due to methodological limitations. (pnas.org)
  • We successfully cloned, expressed, and purified eleven Clostridium thermocellum (Cthe) cellulases and eight Acidothermus cellulolyticus (Acel) cellulases. (openaccesspub.org)
  • Clostridium thermocellum (Cthe) utilizes complex, high molecular weight (estimated at 2.1 million daltons) 8 structures termed cellulosomes that are anchored to the Cthe cell wall 9 , 10 , 11 . (openaccesspub.org)
  • Remarkably, the crystal structure of the C. thermocellum primary scaffoldin (ScaA) type-II Doc in complex with the Coh of the anchoring scaffoldin ScaF revealed striking differences with type-I Coh-Doc complexes 6 . (nature.com)
  • The scaffoldin of some cellulosomes, an example being that of Clostridium thermocellum, contains a carbohydrate-binding module that adheres cellulose to the cellulosomal complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • We report an increase in transformation efficiency of C. thermocellum for a variety of plasmids by using DNA that has been methylated by Escherichia coli Dam but not Dcm methylases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CBP from Cellvibrio gilvus and Clostridium thermocellum YM4, and CDP from C. thermocellum YM4 were cloned and over-expressed in Escherichia coli. (nii.ac.jp)
  • They simply sought a 'cellulose-binding factor' or 'CBF' on the cell surface of the anaerobic thermophilic bacterium, C. thermocellum, which they inferred would account for the observation that the bacterium attaches strongly to the insoluble cellulose substrate prior to its degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1980s, a new paradigm for cellulose degradation was discovered in Clostridium thermocellum 7 , 8 . (openaccesspub.org)
  • The researchers targeted the c7A cohesin of C. thermocellum because it appears to be subjected to more intense mechanical stress than other cohesins and is exceptionally mechanically stable. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the present study, we demonstrate by progressive truncation and alanine scanning of a representative type-I dockerin module from Clostridium thermocellum , that only one of the repeated motifs is critical for high-affinity cohesin binding. (biochemj.org)
  • Cellulose hydrolysis and fermentation by Clostridium thermocellum for the production of ethanol. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Phillip Brumm, Dan Xie, Larry Allen, David A. Mead (2018) Hydrolysis of Cellulose by Soluble Clostridium Thermocellum and Acidothermus Cellulolyticus Cellulases. (openaccesspub.org)
  • The focus of this study was to use cellulotyc C. thermocellum in a consortium with hemicellulotyc T. saccharolyticum to investigate the dynamics of their interaction with respect to cellulosic and lignocellulosic substrate attachment, respective numbers, and extent of solid substrate hydrolysis and desired end product formation. (ryerson.ca)
  • The cellobiohydrolase CelS from Clostridium thermocellum catalyzes the hydrolysis of cello-oligosaccharides via inversion of the anomeric carbon. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we present enzymatic cellulose synthesis catalyzed by the reverse reaction of Clostridium thermocellum cellodextrin phosphorylase in vitro. (vtt.fi)
  • Nucleotide sequence and deletion analysis of the xylanase gene (xynZ) of Clostridium thermocellum. (core.ac.uk)
  • The nucleotide sequence of the xynZ gene, encoding the extracellular xylanase Z of Clostridium thermocellum, was determined. (core.ac.uk)
  • In a recent report, the GH30-8 xylanase from Clostridium thermocellum (CtXyn30A) was shown to hydrolyze arabinoxylan which contains no GlcA. (usda.gov)
  • Clostridium species inhabit soils and the intestinal tract of animals, including humans. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • High quality RNA was extracted using a method we report for C. thermocellum grown on solid substrates. (omicsdi.org)
  • Saccharification of complex cellulosic substrates by the cellulase system from Clostridium thermocellum. (atcc.org)
  • Results In this study, C. thermocellum was grown to mid-exponential phase and treated with furfural or heat to a final concentration of 3 g.L-1 or 68°C respectively to investigate general and specific physiological and regulatory stress responses. (uga.edu)
  • Newly developed protocols were applied to metabolite analysis of wild type (WT) and ethanol adapted (EA) strains of C. thermocellum grown in batch cultures. (uky.edu)
  • The nascent state of genetic tools has hindered both fundamental and applied studies of C. thermocellum . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although genetic manipulation of C. thermocellum is now possible, we have observed that transformation efficiency can vary greatly between plasmids, even when they are very similar. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Due to the difficulties still involved in genetic modification of C. thermocellum , we aimed to understand the cause of this plasmid-to-plasmid variation in transformation efficiency. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The nexus between future systems biology studies and recently developed genetic tools for C. thermocellum offers the potential for more rapid strain development and for broader insights into this organism's physiology and regulation. (uga.edu)
  • Although scientists have studied Clostridium thermocellum for decades, the genetic basis for its ability to tolerate higher concentrations of ethanol had not been determined. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In fermenting cellulose, C. thermocellum produces ethanol and organic acids as primary products. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, C. thermocellum produces ethanol as one of its fermentation products and thus has potential for consolidated bioprocessing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clostridium thermocellum, a well-studied cellulolytic bacterium, produces highly active cellulases in the form of cellulosomes. (usda.gov)
  • Clostridium thermocellum Viljoen et al. (atcc.org)
  • Thermostable mutants were isolated after staggered extension process (StEP) with celE from thermophilic Clostridium thermocellum performed to conduct family shuffling and overlay screening of the resultant mutant library. (elsevier.com)
  • It is recognized for over a century that Clostridium acetobutylicum [a soil bacterium] is a viable biofuel producer. (phys.org)
  • The multi-length scale nature of its glycoside hydrolase system explains the remarkable ability demonstrated by Clostridium thermocellum . (sciencemag.org)
  • Here, we started with an engineered C. thermocellum strain where the central metabolic pathways to products other than ethanol had been deleted. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition to metabolic processes included in conventional bioenergetic models (catabolic ATP supply , growth and maintenance) , several additional processes appear to be significant for growth of C . thermocellum on cellulose . (dartmouth.edu)
  • Bothun GD, Knutson BL, Berberich JA, Strobel HJ, Nokes SE (2004) Metabolic selectivity and growth of Clostridium thermocellum in continuous culture under elevated hydrostatic pressure. (springer.com)
  • Petrochemical Replacements - [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1,4-Butanediol Butanediol] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bioseparation_of_1,3-propanediol Propanediol] - These are chemicals typically made by crude oil processing and now have been shown to be made through metabolic engineering. (openwetware.org)
  • use exotic metabolic pathways not seen in typical mesophiles, such as using sulfur instead of oxygen in cellular respiration[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermophile]. (openwetware.org)
  • Finally, the identification of LacI repressor activity for hemicellulase gene expression is a key result of this work and will add to the small body of existing literature on the area of gene regulation inC. thermocellum. (osti.gov)
  • This study suggests the involvement of C. thermocellum genes with functions in oxidative stress protection, electron transfer, detoxification, sulfur and nitrogen acquisition, and DNA repair mechanisms in its stress responses and the use of different regulatory networks to coordinate and control adaptation. (uga.edu)