Clostridium symbiosum: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. Its GLUTAMATE DEHYDROGENASE is commonly used in research.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Glutamate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC, Orthophosphate Dikinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reaction of ATP, pyruvate, and orthophosphate to form AMP plus phosphoenolpyruvate plus pyrophosphate. EC A kingdom in the domain ARCHAEA comprised of thermoacidophilic, sulfur-dependent organisms. The two orders are SULFOLOBALES and THERMOPROTEALES.Clostridium difficile: A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.Clostridium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.Clostridium botulinum: A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous: An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Clostridium acetobutylicum: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, used for the industrial production of SOLVENTS.Glutamate Dehydrogenase (NADP+)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Occult Blood: Chemical, spectroscopic, or microscopic detection of extremely small amounts of blood.Fusobacterium nucleatum: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the gingival margin and sulcus and from infections of the upper respiratory tract and pleural cavity.Colonoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.Fusobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Sigmoidoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the sigmoid flexure.Polyhydroxyalkanoates: Fatty acid biopolymers that are biosynthesized by microbial polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase enzymes. They are being investigated for use as biodegradable polyesters.Cupriavidus necator: A gram-negative, facultatively chemoautotrophic bacterium, formerly called Wautersia eutropha, found in water and soil.Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Pseudomonas oleovorans: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is isolated from oil-water emulsions used as lubricants and cooling agents in the cutting and grinding of materials.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Methionine SulfoximineAmmonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Glutamate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 2 molecules of glutamate from glutamine plus alpha-ketoglutarate in the presence of NADPH. EC Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Dehydration: The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.Uranium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain uranium as an integral part of the molecule.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Enterococcus faecium: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Unlike ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS, this species may produce an alpha-hemolytic reaction on blood agar and is unable to utilize pyruvic acid as an energy source.Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Vancomycin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.

Transfer of vancomycin resistance transposon Tn1549 from Clostridium symbiosum to Enterococcus spp. in the gut of gnotobiotic mice. (1/4)

The vancomycin resistance vanB2 gene cluster is disseminated worldwide and has been found in phylogenetically remote bacterial genera. The vanB2 operon is part of conjugative transposons Tn1549/Tn5382, but conjugative transposition of these elements has not been demonstrated. We have obtained transfer of a Tn1549-like element (referred to herein as "Tn1549-like") from Clostridium symbiosum MLG101 to Enterococcus faecium 64/3 and Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2 in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic mice and to E. faecium 64/3 in vitro. Retransfer of Tn1549-like from an E. faecium transconjugant also containing Tn916 to E. faecium BM77 was obtained in vitro, albeit at a very low frequency. Transfer efficiency was found to be both donor and recipient dependent. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of total SmaI-digested DNA of 48 transconjugants indicated in 27 instances the acquisition of ca. 34 kb of DNA. Two transconjugants harbored two copies of the transposon. Sequencing of the flanking regions of Tn1549-like in 48 transconjugants revealed 29 integration events in 26 loci in the E. faecium genome, and two hot spots for insertion were identified. Integration of the transposon was associated with the acquisition of 5 (n = 18) or 6 (n = 7) bp of donor DNA or with 5-bp duplications of target DNA in the remaining transconjugants. These data demonstrate functionality of the Tn1549-like element and attest that the transfer of the vanB operon between enterococci and human commensal anaerobes occurs in the intestinal environment.  (+info)

Homotropic allosteric control in clostridial glutamate dehydrogenase: different mechanisms for glutamate and NAD+? (2/4)


An asymmetric model for Na+-translocating glutaconyl-CoA decarboxylases. (3/4)


Analysis of the mobilization functions of the vancomycin resistance transposon Tn1549, a member of a new family of conjugative elements. (4/4)


  • To convert E scherichia coli into a glutaconate producer, we expressed six genes in this organism encoding 2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (HgdH) ( 14 ), glutaconate CoA-transferase (GctAB) ( 13 ), and the activator of the dehydratase (HgdC) from A. fermentans ( 10 ), as well as 2-hydroxyglutaryl-CoA dehydratase (HgdAB) from C. symbiosum ( 11 ). (
  • Model based on crystal structures of PPDK from Clostridium symbiosum in the 2 extreme conformational states shown to the left and of complexes bound to substrate analogs, phosphonopyruvate and 5'-adenylyl-β,γ-imidodiphosphate (AMPPNP). (
  • Furthermore, chronic gut infections with recognised, specific pathogens such as Clostridium difficile, Yersinia enterocolitica or Campylobacter jejuni/coli are generally not eradicated with antibiotics. (
  • Fungal agents such as Sacchromyces boulardii have been used to treat, albeit inefficiently, Clostridium difficile infection and Lactobacillus GG has also been used for this purpose (Floch M. Probiotics and Dietary Fibre. (
  • Various patents have claimed the use of probiotics for narrow disease conditions including treatment of Clostridium difficile with a combination of Vancomycin and butyric acid bacteria (U.S. Pat. (
  • In this thesis the pathway of the fermentation from tryptophan to indolepropionate in Clostridium sporogenes and the key enzyme indolelactyl-CoA dehydratase were investigated. (
  • and an almost complete absence of buk genes.Two patients were greatly enriched in buk genes similar to those of Clostridium butyricum and C. perfringens , whereas a fourthpatient displayed abundant communities containing both genes. (
  • Lactobacillus gasseri JV-V03, Lactobacillus gasser i SJ-9E-US, Lactobacillus gasseri 202-4, and Lactobacillus salivarius ACS-116-V-Col5a) and a decrease in Clostridium spp. (
  • The present invention relates to pharmaceutical compositions suitable for the treatment of chronic diseases associated with the presence of abnormal or an abnormal distribution of microflora in the gastrointestinal tract of a mammalian host, which compositions comprise viable non-pathogenic or attenuated pathogenic Clostridia. (
  • Comparison of the amino-terminal sequence with those of E. coli, S. typhimurium and Clostridium symbiosum revealed only 39% amino acid homologies. (
  • Current antimicrobial susceptibilities among the clostridia are also presented, as are the evaluation, interpretation, and reporting of clinical microbiology laboratory results. (