Clostridium sordellii: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, found in INTESTINES and SOIL.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Clostridium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.Clostridium difficile: A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Abortifacient Agents: Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.Endometritis: Inflammation of the ENDOMETRIUM, usually caused by intrauterine infections. Endometritis is the most common cause of postpartum fever.Antitoxins: Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.Spores: The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.Neuromuscular Junction Diseases: Conditions characterized by impaired transmission of impulses at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. This may result from disorders that affect receptor function, pre- or postsynaptic membrane function, or ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE activity. The majority of diseases in this category are associated with autoimmune, toxic, or inherited conditions.Uridine Diphosphate Glucose: A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.Classification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.Cytotoxins: Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.Clostridium botulinum: A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.rac GTP-Binding Proteins: A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC, Septic: Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Bacteria, AnaerobicGas Gangrene: A severe condition resulting from bacteria invading healthy muscle from adjacent traumatized muscle or soft tissue. The infection originates in a wound contaminated with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM. C. perfringens accounts for the majority of cases (over eighty percent), while C. noyvi, C. septicum, and C. histolyticum cause most of the other cases.Menstrual Hygiene Products: Personal care items used during MENSTRUATION.Tampons, Surgical: Plugs or cylinders made of cotton, sponge, or other absorbent material. They are used in surgery to absorb fluids such as blood or drainage.Menstruation: The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Clothing: Fabric or other material used to cover the body.Absorbent Pads: Pads made of various materials used for personal hygiene usually for absorbing URINE or FECES. They can be worn as underpants or pants liners by various age groups, from NEWBORNS to the ELDERLY. Absorbent pads can be made of fluff wood pulp and HYDROGEL absorbent covered with viscose rayon, polyester, polypropylene, or POLYETHYLENE coverstock.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Nostrums: Medicines whose effectiveness is unproven and whose ingredients are often secret.Quackery: The fraudulent misrepresentation of the diagnosis and treatment of disease.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Drug Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for drugs and BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS. These include those in ampule, capsule, tablet, solution or other forms. Packaging includes immediate-containers, secondary-containers, and cartons. In the United States, such packaging is controlled under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which also stipulates requirements for tamper-resistance and child-resistance. Similar laws govern use elsewhere. (From Code of Federal Regulations, 21 CFR 1 Section 210, 1993) DRUG LABELING is also available.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Drug Contamination: The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Lithocholic Acid: A bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as cholagogue and choleretic.Deoxycholic Acid: A bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Botulinum Toxins: Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Heroin: A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Parts 329.1, 1308.11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by Federal statute. (Merck Index, 11th ed)

A phosphatidylserine-binding site in the cytosolic fragment of Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin facilitates glucosylation of membrane-bound Rac and is required for cytotoxicity. (1/28)

Large clostridial toxins glucosylate some small G proteins on a threonine residue, thereby preventing their interactions with effector molecules and regulators. We show that the glucosyltransferase domain of lethal toxin from Clostridium sordellii (LT(cyt); amino acids 1-546), which is released into the cytosol during cell infection, binds preferentially to liposomes containing phosphatidylserine as compared with other anionic lipids. The binding of LT(cyt) to phosphatidylserine increases by two orders of magnitude the rate of glucosylation of liposome-bound geranyl-geranylated Rac-GDP. Limited proteolysis and deletion studies show that the binding site for phosphatidylserine lies within the first 18 N-terminal residues of LT(cyt). Deletion of these residues abolishes the effect of phosphatidylserine on the activity of LT(cyt) on liposome-bound geranyl-geranylated Rac-GDP and prevents the morphological effects induced by LT(cyt) microinjection into various cells, but it does not affect the intrinsic activity of LT(cyt) on non-geranyl-geranylated Rac-GDP in solution. We conclude that the avidity of LT(cyt) for phosphatidylserine facilitates its targeting to the cytosolic leaflet of cell membranes and, notably, the plasma membrane, where this anionic lipid is abundant and where several targets of lethal toxin reside.  (+info)

Clostridium sordellii toxic shock syndrome after medical abortion with mifepristone and intravaginal misoprostol--United States and Canada, 2001-2005. (2/28)

On July 19, 2005, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a public health advisory regarding the deaths of four women in the United States after medical abortions with Mifeprex (mifepristone, formerly RU-486; Danco Laboratories, New York, New York) and intravaginal misoprostol. Two of these deaths occurred in 2003, one in 2004, and one in 2005. Two of these U.S. cases had clinical illness consistent with toxic shock and had evidence of endometrial infection with Clostridium sordellii, a gram-positive, toxin-forming anaerobic bacteria. In addition, a fatal case of C. sordellii toxic shock syndrome after medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol was reported in 2001, in Canada. All three cases of C. sordellii infection were notable for lack of fever, and all had refractory hypotension, multiple effusions, hemoconcentration, and a profound leukocytosis. C. sordellii previously has been described as a cause of pregnancy-associated toxic shock syndrome.  (+info)

Fatal toxic shock syndrome associated with Clostridium sordellii after medical abortion. (3/28)

Endometritis and toxic shock syndrome associated with Clostridium sordellii have previously been reported after childbirth and, in one case, after medical abortion. We describe four deaths due to endometritis and toxic shock syndrome associated with C. sordellii that occurred within one week after medically induced abortions. Clinical findings included tachycardia, hypotension, edema, hemoconcentration, profound leukocytosis, and absence of fever. These cases indicate the need for physician awareness of this syndrome and for further study of its association with medical abortion.  (+info)

Sudden death associated with Clostridium sordellii in captive lions (Panthera leo). (4/28)

In the spring of 2003, a series of sudden deaths in a group of adult lions (Panthera leo) with a previous history of depression, inanition, and lethargy, was investigated. Five animals died within 24 to 36 hours after onset of signs of disease. Serologic screening for viral disease detection was negative, evidence of parasites was not detected, and results of a complete blood count and serum biochemical analysis were within reference intervals in all lions. The most relevant lesions observed were multiple areas of necrosis and hemorrhage in the intestinal outer muscular layer, and cellulitis with an intense bloody edema in the mesenteric and the pericardial fat tissue. On the basis of the fulminant course of the disease, the gross and histologic findings, and the isolation and identification of Clostridium sordellii, a diagnosis of infectious myositis and cellulitis associated with acute clostridiosis was made. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of sudden death associated with C. sordellii in felines.  (+info)

Clostridium sordellii infection: epidemiology, clinical findings, and current perspectives on diagnosis and treatment. (5/28)

Clostridium sordellii infections pose difficult clinical challenges and are usually fatal. Most commonly, these infections occur after trauma, childbirth, and routine gynecological procedures, but they have recently been associated with medically induced abortions and injection drug use. We report 2 fatal cases, one of which was associated with minor trauma, and the other of which was associated with normal childbirth, and we summarize the clinical features of 43 additional cases of reported C. sordellii infection. Of these 45 cases, 8 (18%) were associated with normal childbirth, 5 (11%) were associated with medically induced abortion, and 2 (0.4%) were associated with spontaneous abortion. The case-fatality rate was 100% in these groups. Ten (22%) of the C. sordellii infections occurred in injection drug users, and 50% of these patients died. Other cases of C. sordellii infection (in 19 patients [43%]) occurred after trauma or surgery, mostly in healthy persons, and 53% these patients died. Overall, the mortality rate was 69% (31 of 45 patients). Eighty-five percent of all patients with fatal cases died within 2-6 days of initial infection, and nearly 80% of fatal cases developed leukemoid reactions. Rapid diagnostic tests and improved treatments are needed to reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with this devastating infection.  (+info)

Infection of internal umbilical remnant in foals by Clostridium sordellii. (6/28)

Omphalitis and the resulting septicemia contribute to perinatal mortality in several animal species. In foals, the most important causes of omphalitis are Escherichia coli and Streptococcus zooepidemicus. However to date, no information has been published about the role of Clostridium sordellii in these infections. In this paper, we describe 8 cases of perinatal mortality in foals associated with internal umbilical remnant infection by C. sordellii. The foals studied were between 12 and 21 days old at the time of death, and various breeds were represented in the group. Five of the foals were male and 3 were female. The diagnosis was established on the basis of the detection of C. sordellii by 3 methods (culture, fluorescent antibody test, and immunohistochemistry) and on gross and histopathologic findings. All foals had acute peritonitis, and the internal umbilical remnant was thickened by edema, hemorrhage, and fibrosis. A moderate amount of serosanguinous fluid with fibrin strands was present in the pericardial sac and pleural cavity. Histopathologically, the urachus and umbilical arterial walls were thickened by edema and exhibited hemorrhage, fibrin, and leukocytic infiltration. Gram-positive bacterial rods were observed in subepithelial areas of the urachus, the adventicia of umbilical arteries, and interstitium of the internal umbilical remnant. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that C. sordellii should be considered in the differential diagnosis for infections of the internal umbilical remnant in foals.  (+info)

The leukemoid reaction in Clostridium sordellii infection: neuraminidase induction of promyelocytic cell proliferation. (7/28)

Life-threatening Clostridium sordellii infections have recently been reported in women undergoing therapeutic abortion, during natural childbirth, and in injection drug users. Shock, diffuse capillary leak, and a leukemoid reaction (LR) are cardinal features of these infections. The magnitude of the LR is highly correlated with mortality. We have isolated a 42-kDa extractable protein from C. sordellii culture supernatant that stimulates proliferation of promyelocytic HL-60 cells in vitro. Using mass spectrometry, we have identified this protein as the C. sordellii neuraminidase, NanS. Recombinant NanS (rNanS) dose dependently stimulated HL-60 cell proliferation. Increased proliferation was observed when HL-60 cells were cocultured with both rNanS and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. In addition, NanS also modified vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, which orchestrates the release of mature and immature granulocytes from bone marrow stromal cells. Thus, neuraminidase likely plays an important role in the characteristic LR in C. sordellii infection.  (+info)

The large clostridial toxins from Clostridium sordellii and C. difficile repress glucocorticoid receptor activity. (8/28)

We have previously shown that Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin represses glucocorticoid receptor (GR) transactivation. We now report that repression of GR activity also occurs with the large clostridial toxins produced by Clostridium sordellii and C. difficile. This was demonstrated using a transient transfection assay system for GR transactivation. We also report that C. sordellii lethal toxin inhibited GR function in an ex vivo assay, where toxin reduced the dexamethasone suppression of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Furthermore, the glucocorticoid antagonist RU-486 in combination with C. sordellii lethal toxin additively prevented glucocorticoid suppression of TNF-alpha. These findings corroborate the fact that GR is a target for the toxin and suggest a physiological role for toxin-associated GR repression in inflammation. Finally, we show that this repression is associated with toxins that inactivate p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK).  (+info)

  • We report 2 fatal cases, one of which was associated with minor trauma, and the other of which was associated with normal childbirth, and we summarize the clinical features of 43 additional cases of reported C. sordellii infection. (
  • Here, we have shown the ability of a plasmid carrying the tcsL gene to undergo conjugative transfer between distantly related strains of C. sordellii , which has far-reaching implications for the ability of C. sordellii to acquire the capacity to cause disease. (
  • CDC experts in microbiology, epidemiology, and perinatology (pregnancy-related complications) are working together with state and local health agencies and the FDA in the investigation of recent deaths associated with C. sordellii . (
  • 39:1483-8 Nakamura S, Yamakawa K, Nishida S. Antibacterial susceptibility of Clostridium sordellii strains. (
  • Clostridium sordelli is a virulent strain of Clostridium bifermentans that causes pneumonia, endocarditis, arthritis, peritonitits, myonecrosis, bacteremia and sepsis in humans in more serious strains of the disease . (
  • The 3 clade C-I strains were different, as confirmed by pairwise estimates of genomic MinHash (min-wise independent permutations locality sensitive hashing scheme) distances (0.022-0.049) calculated with MASH ( ) and average nucleotide identities (94.15%-97.45%) calculated with FastANI ( ). (
  • Current antimicrobial susceptibilities among the clostridia are also presented, as are the evaluation, interpretation, and reporting of clinical microbiology laboratory results. (
  • Using a derivative of the pCS1-1 plasmid from strain ATCC 9714 which had been marked with the ermB erythromycin resistance gene, conjugative transfer into a recipient C. sordellii isolate, R28058, was demonstrated. (
  • OS Paeniclostridium sordellii ATCC 9714. (
  • In terms of management, there is no hard and fast rule as with most bacterial pathogens but past data reveals C. sordellii susceptibility to beta-lactams, clindamycin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol but resistant to aminoglycosides and sulphonamides. (
  • Follow-up in vitro and in vivo work is under way to further characterize Mcs1 enzymatic kinetics and its role in C. sordellii pathogenesis. (
  • Researchers continue to study what percentage of women carries vaginal or rectal C. sordellii and C. perfringens before and after abortion, as well as during pregnancy. (
  • So far, all documented post-partum females who contracted C. sordellii septicaemia have died, and all but one woman who contracted the bacterium post-abortion have died[citation needed]. (
  • The pathogen that killed several abortion patients was Clostridium sordellii , a common bacterium that can prove deadly when it gets into the bloodstream. (
  • C. sordellii mainly affects women and is often linked to end of pregnancy, whether the pregnancy resulted in childbirth, abortion or spontaneous abortion. (
  • 2004) A Fatal Case of Clostridium sordellii Septic Shock Syndrome Associated With Medical Abortion. (
  • Clostridium sordellii is a rare germ that has killed four women who took the abortion pill RU-486 and has also been implicated in the deaths of at least 11 other women following childbirth or miscarriage. (