The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.
A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.
A severe condition resulting from bacteria invading healthy muscle from adjacent traumatized muscle or soft tissue. The infection originates in a wound contaminated with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM. C. perfringens accounts for the majority of cases (over eighty percent), while C. noyvi, C. septicum, and C. histolyticum cause most of the other cases.
Disease caused by the liberation of exotoxins of CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS in the intestines of sheep, goats, cattle, foals, and piglets. Type B enterotoxemia in lambs is lamb dysentery; type C enterotoxemia in mature sheep produces "struck", and in calves, lambs and piglets it produces hemorrhagic enterotoxemia; type D enterotoxemia in sheep and goats is pulpy-kidney disease or overeating disease.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.
Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.
A claudin subtype that takes part in maintaining the barrier-forming property of TIGHT JUNCTIONS. Claudin-4 is found associated with CLAUDIN-8 in the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT where it may play a role in paracellular chloride ion reabsorption.
The cause of TETANUS in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin.
An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
A ubiquitously-expressed claudin subtype that acts as a general barrier-forming protein in TIGHT JUNCTIONS. Elevated expression of claudin-3 is found in a variety of tumor cell types, suggesting its role as a therapeutic target for specific ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, used for the industrial production of SOLVENTS.
Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. Infections have a strong association with malignancies and also with GAS GANGRENE.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, found in INTESTINES and SOIL.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
Organic esters of thioglycolic acid (HS-CH2COOH).
Antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces garyphalus.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Type species of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM, a gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is used as a source of PROBIOTICS.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
The fourth stomach of ruminating animals. It is also called the "true" stomach. It is an elongated pear-shaped sac lying on the floor of the abdomen, on the right-hand side, and roughly between the seventh and twelfth ribs. It leads to the beginning of the small intestine. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
One of the short-acting SULFONAMIDES used in combination with PYRIMETHAMINE to treat toxoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and in newborns with congenital infections.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
Derived proteins or mixtures of cleavage products produced by the partial hydrolysis of a native protein either by an acid or by an enzyme. Peptones are readily soluble in water, and are not precipitable by heat, by alkalis, or by saturation with ammonium sulfate. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Basic lipopeptide antibiotic group obtained from Bacillus polymyxa. They affect the cell membrane by detergent action and may cause neuromuscular and kidney damage. At least eleven different members of the polymyxin group have been identified, each designated by a letter.
Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.
A class of iron-sulfur proteins that contains one iron coordinated to the sulfur atom of four cysteine residues. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.

Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay by using monoclonal antibody for detection of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin. (1/1215)

Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the quantitative estimation of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies as capturing and detecting antibodies, respectively. The dose-dependent relationship between absorbance at 405 nm and concentration of purified CPE was obtained over the range of 0.64-400 ng/ml. The sandwich ELISA was fond to detect crude CPE in culture and CPE in 10% fecal extracts. This method is convenient, rapid and sensitive for specific detection of CPE.  (+info)

Hemorrhagic enteritis associated with Clostridium perfringens type A in a dog. (2/1215)

A female Shetland sheep dog died suddenly with hemorrhagic diarrhea and vomitting, and was examined pathologically and microbiologically. Gross pathological change was restricted to the intestinal tract. The intestine contained watery, blood-stained fluid. Histopathologically, the principal intestinal lesion was superficial mucosal hemorrhagic necrosis at the jejunoileum. Many Gram-positive bacilli were found adhering to the necrotic mucosal surface in parts of the intestinal tract. Clostridium perfringens in pure culture were isolated from jejunal contents by anaerobic culture. These results suggested that the typical lesion of this case coincided with canine hemorrhagic enteritis and enterotoxemia due to C. perfringens infection could be the cause of sudden death.  (+info)

Cationic currents induced by Clostridium perfringens type A enterotoxin in human intestinal CaCO-2 cells. (3/1215)

Clostridium perfringens type A produces an enterotoxin that induces diarrhoea experimentally in man and animals. The enterotoxin causes increased membrane permeability in susceptible cells which is thought to be due to pore formation in the host cell membrane. The effect of purified C. perfringens enterotoxin on intact intestinal CaCO-2 monolayers was examined in Ussing chambers and on single cells by whole-cell patch clamp. Mucosal application of C. perfringens enterotoxin resulted in prompt increases in short-circuit current coupled with a reduction in transepithelial resistance consistent with movement of sodium and other cations smaller than diethanolamine from mucosa to serosa. These changes were independent of extracellular calcium. Increases in short-circuit current were also observed in the apical membranes of CaCO-2 monolayers permeabilised across the basolateral membrane with nystatin. Currents were blocked by subsequent exposure to mucosal barium and zinc. Zinc also prevented the development of the current increases in apical membranes. Cationic currents were also observed following exposure of single CaCO-2 cells in whole-cell patch clamp recordings. These data indicate that C. perfringens enterotoxin is able to form cation permeant pores in the apical membrane of human intestinal CaCO-2 epithelia and the increases in short-circuit current can be prevented by pre-exposure to zinc ions.  (+info)

Production of phospholipase C (alpha-toxin), haemolysins and lethal toxins by Clostridium perfringens types A to D. (4/1215)

To obtain high yields of extracellular enzymes and toxins for immunological analysis, type culture collection strains of Clostridium perfringens types A to D and 28 fresh isolates of C. perfringens type A from humans were grown in fermenters under controlled conditions in a pre-reduced proteose peptone medium. The type culture collection strains all showed different characteristics with respect to growth rates and pH optima for growth. Production of phospholipase C (alpha-toxin), haemolysin and lethal activity varied considerably between the different types. Growth and extracellular protein production in fermenters with pH control and static or stirred cultures were compared. Production of all extracellular proteins measured was markedly improved by cultivation in fermenters with pH control. Strain ATCC13124 produced five times more phospholipase C than any of 28 freshly isolated strains of C. perfringens type A, grown under identical conditions. Haemolytic and lethal activities of the ATCC strain were equal or superior to the activities of any of the freshly isolated strains. There were no differences in the bacterial yields and in the production of extracellular toxins between type A strains isolated from clinical cases of gas gangrene and abdominal wounds, and those isolated from faecal samples from healthy persons.  (+info)

Clostridium perfringens beta-toxin is sensitive to thiol-group modification but does not require a thiol group for lethal activity. (5/1215)

The beta-toxin gene isolated from Clostridium perfringens type B was expressed as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion gene in Escherichia coli. The purified GST-beta-toxin fusion protein from the E. coli transformant cells was not lethal. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the recombinant beta-toxin (r toxin) isolated by thrombin cleavage of the fusion protein was G-S-N-D-I-G-K-T-T-T. Biological activities and molecular mass of r toxin were indistinguishable from those of native beta-toxin (n toxin) purified from C. perfringens type C. Replacement of Cys-265 with alanine or serine by site-directed mutagenesis resulted in little loss of the activity. Treatment of C265A with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), which inactivated lethal activity of r toxin and n toxin, led to no loss of the activity. The substitution of tyrosine or histidine for Cys-265 significantly diminished lethal activity. In addition, treatment of C265H with ethoxyformic anhydride which specifically modifies histidyl residue resulted in significant decrease in lethal activity, but that of r toxin with the agent did not. These results showed that replacement of the cysteine residue at position 265 with amino acids with large size of side chain or introduction of functional groups in the position resulted in loss of lethal activity of the toxin. Replacement of Tyr-266, Leu-268 or Trp-275 resulted in complete loss of lethal activity. Simultaneous administration of r toxin and W275A led to a decrease in lethal activity of beta-toxin. These observations suggest that the site essential for the activity is close to the cysteine residue.  (+info)

Molecular subtyping of Clostridium perfringens by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to facilitate food-borne-disease outbreak investigations. (6/1215)

Clostridium perfringens is a common cause of food-borne illness. The illness is characterized by profuse diarrhea and acute abdominal pain. Since the illness is usually self-limiting, many cases are undiagnosed and/or not reported. Investigations are often pursued after an outbreak involving large numbers of people in institutions, at restaurants, or at catered meals. Serotyping has been used in the past to assist epidemiologic investigations of C. perfringens outbreaks. However, serotyping reagents are not widely available, and many isolates are often untypeable with existing reagents. We developed a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method for molecular subtyping of C. perfringens isolates to aid in epidemiologic investigations of food-borne outbreaks. Six restriction endonucleases (SmaI, ApaI, FspI, MluI, KspI, and XbaI) were evaluated with a select panel of C. perfringens strains. SmaI was chosen for further studies because it produced 11 to 13 well-distributed bands of 40 to approximately 1,100 kb which provided good discrimination between isolates. Seventeen distinct patterns were obtained with 62 isolates from seven outbreak investigations or control strains. In general, multiple isolates from a single individual had indistinguishable PFGE patterns. Epidemiologically unrelated isolates (outbreak or control strains) had unique patterns; isolates from different individuals within an outbreak had similar, if not identical, patterns. PFGE identifies clonal relationships of isolates which will assist epidemiologic investigations of food-borne-disease outbreaks caused by C. perfringens.  (+info)

Promoter upstream bent DNA activates the transcription of the Clostridium perfringens phospholipase C gene in a low temperature-dependent manner. (7/1215)

The phospholipase C gene (plc) of Clostridium perfringens possesses three phased A-tracts forming bent DNA upstream of the promoter. An in vitro transcription assay involving C.perfringens RNA polymerase (RNAP) showed that the phased A-tracts have a stimulatory effect on the plc promoter, and that the effect is proportional to the number of A-tracts, and more prominent at lower temperature. A gel retardation assay and hydroxyl radical footprinting revealed that the phased A-tracts facilitate the formation of the RNAP-plc promoter complex through extension of the contact region. The upstream (UP) element of the Escherichia coli rrnB P1 promoter stimulated the downstream promoter activity temperature independently, differing from the phased A-tracts. When the UP element was placed upstream of the plc promoter, low temperature-dependent stimulation was observed, although this effect was less prominent than that of the phased A-tracts. These results suggest that both the phased A-tracts and UP element cause low temperature-dependent activation of the plc promoter through a similar mechanism, and that the more efficient low temperature-dependent activation by the phased A-tracts may be due to an increase in the bending angle at a lower temperature.  (+info)

Differences in the carboxy-terminal (Putative phospholipid binding) domains of Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium bifermentans phospholipases C influence the hemolytic and lethal properties of these enzymes. (8/1215)

The phospholipases C of C. perfringens (alpha-toxin) and C. bifermentans (Cbp) show >50% amino acid homology but differ in their hemolytic and toxic properties. We report here the purification and characterisation of alpha-toxin and Cbp. The phospholipase C activity of alpha-toxin and Cbp was similar when tested with phosphatidylcholine in egg yolk or in liposomes. However, the hemolytic activity of alpha-toxin was more than 100-fold that of Cbp. To investigate whether differences in the carboxy-terminal domains of these proteins were responsible for differences in the hemolytic and toxic properties, a hybrid protein (NbiCalpha) was constructed comprising the N domain of Cbp and the C domain of alpha-toxin. The hemolytic activity of NbiCalpha was 10-fold that of Cbp, and the hybrid enzyme was toxic. These results confirm that the C-terminal domain of these proteins confers different properties on the enzymatically active N-terminal domain of these proteins.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin is absorbed from different intestinal segments of mice. AU - Losada-Eaton, D. M.. AU - Uzal, Francisco A. AU - Fernández Miyakawa, M. E.. PY - 2008/6/1. Y1 - 2008/6/1. N2 - Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin is a potent toxin responsible for a rapidly fatal enterotoxaemia in several animal species. The pathogenesis of epsilon toxin includes toxicity to endothelial cells and neurons. Although epsilon toxin is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, the intestinal regions where the toxin is absorbed and the conditions favoring epsilon toxin absorption are unknown. The aim of this paper was to determine the toxicity of epsilon toxin absorbed from different gastrointestinal segments of mice and to evaluate the influence of the intestinal environment in the absorption of this toxin. Epsilon toxin diluted in one of several different saline solutions was surgically introduced into ligated stomach or intestinal segments of mice. Comparison of ...
Clostridium perfringens beta toxin is one of the four major lethal toxins produced by Clostridium perfringens Type B and Type C strains. It is a necrotizing agent and it induces hypertension by release of catecholamine. It has been shown to cause necrotic enteritis in mammals and induces necrotizing intestinal lesions in the rabbit ileal loop model. C. perfringens beta toxin is susceptible to breakdown by proteolytic enzymes, particularly trypsin. Beta toxin is therefore highly lethal to infant mammals because of trypsin inhibitors present in the colostrum. Clostridium perfringens beta toxin shows significant genetic homology with several other toxins. C. perfringens beta toxin shows 28% homology with S. aureus alpha toxin and similar homology to S. aureus gamma-toxin and leukocidin. It appears in two forms. The smaller, with a molecular mass of 34 kDa, represents the monomeric gene product. The larger has a molecular mass of 118 kDa and may be an oligomer of smaller units. The first 27 amino ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Carbon catabolite repression of type IV pilus-dependent gliding motility in the anaerobic pathogen Clostridium perfringens. AU - Mendez, Marcelo. AU - Huang, I. Hsiu. AU - Ohtani, Kaori. AU - Grau, Roberto. AU - Shimizu, Tohru. AU - Sarker, Mahfuzur R.. PY - 2008/1/1. Y1 - 2008/1/1. N2 - Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic, gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium responsible for the production of severe histotoxic and gastrointestinal diseases in humans and animals. In silico analysis of the three available genome-sequenced C. perfringens strains (13, SM101, and ATCC13124) revealed that genes that encode flagellar proteins and genes involved in Chemotaxis are absent. However, those strains exhibit type IV pilus (TFP)-dependent gliding motility. Since carbon catabolite regulation has been implicated in the control of different bacterial behaviors, we investigated the effects of glucose and other readily metabolized carbohydrates on C. perfringens gliding motility. Our results ...
Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin (ETX) rapidly kills MDCK II cells at 37°C, but not 4°C. The current study shows that, in MDCK II cells, ETX binds and forms an oligomeric complex equally well at 37°C and 4°C but only forms a pore at 37°C. However, the complex formed in MDCK cells treated with ETX at 4°C has the potential to form an active pore, since shifting those cells to 37°C results in rapid cytotoxicity. Those results suggested that the block in pore formation at 4°C involves temperature-related trapping of ETX in a prepore intermediate on the MDCK II cell plasma membrane surface. Evidence supporting this hypothesis was obtained when the ETX complex in MDCK II cells was shown to be more susceptible to pronase degradation when formed at 4°C vs. 37°C; this result is consistent with ETX complex formed at 4°C remaining present in an exposed prepore on the membrane surface, while the ETX prepore complex formed at 37°C is unaccessible to pronase because it has inserted into the ...
Pulpy kidney disease is an important fatal enterotoxaemia of sheep and occasionally other ruminants. Although history, clinical signs, post mortem picture, histopathological findings and demonstration of glucosuria are helpful in diagnosing the disease, the demonstration of Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin in the small intestine is a useful additional aid to diagnosis. Methods used to assay the toxin in the gut must be specific and sensitive, as the toxin is highly potent and small amounts can be significant in nonimmune animals, as little as 0.3 ng of activated toxin being sufficient to kill a mouse. The biological test is therefore a sensitive method for measuring toxin. However, unless small intestine contents are titrated in a number of mice it is not a quantitative method and is currently viewed with disfavour on humanitarian grounds. Although other tests have been used, for example the reversed phase passive haemagglutination, radial immunodiffusion and counter immunoelectrophoresis ...
Define Clostridium welchii. Clostridium welchii synonyms, Clostridium welchii pronunciation, Clostridium welchii translation, English dictionary definition of Clostridium welchii. Noun 1. clostridium perfringens - anaerobic Gram-positive rod bacterium that produces epsilon toxin; can be used as a bioweapon eubacteria, eubacterium,...
Binds carbohydrates (PubMed:16990278). Capable of hydrolyzing the glycosidic link of O-GlcNAcylated proteins. Can bind and deglycosylate O-glycosylated peptides from mammals.
Clostridium perfringens type A is a common source of foodborne illness (FBI) in humans. Vegetative cells sporulate in the small intestinal tract and produce the major pathogenic factor C. perfringens enterotoxin. Although sporulation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of FBI, the mechanisms inducing sporulation remain unclear. Bile salts were shown previously to induce sporulation, and we confirmed deoxycholate (DCA)-induced sporulation in C. perfringens strain NCTC8239 cocultured with human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. In the present study, we performed transcriptome analyses of strain NCTC8239 in order to elucidate the mechanism underlying DCA-induced sporulation. Of the 2,761 genes analyzed, 333 were up- or downregulated during DCA-induced sporulation and included genes for cell division, nutrient metabolism, signal transduction, and defense mechanisms. In contrast, the virulence-associated transcriptional regulators (the VirR/VirS system, the agr system, codY, and abrB) were ...
The entire human body and its many compartments are shielded from their external environments by the barrier function of epithelial cell sheets. The paracellular barrier function of tight junctions (TJs) is critical for maintaining homeostasis in any multicellular organism, especially in the skin and internal organs and at the blood-brain barrier. One of the major components of TJs is a family of adhesive membrane proteins known as claudins. Several members of the claudin family are receptors for the bacterial toxin Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin. This toxin often causes food-borne illness both in humans and animals. Saitoh et al. crystallized a complex between the toxin and a claudin that reveals just how the toxin damages epithelial barriers (see the Perspective by Artursson and Knight).. Science, this issue p. 775; see also p. 716 ...
We investigated some immunogenic properties of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) in vitro using murine J774A macrophages (MPhi) and in vivo using Swiss Webster (SW) mice. CPE was a potent mitogen in vitro, where cell proliferation increased with CPE concentration. CPE was nonmitogenic when M …
Development of innovative, effective therapies against recurrent/chemotherapy-resistant ovarian cancer remains a high priority. Using high-throughput technologies to analyze genetic fingerprints of ovarian cancer, we have discovered extremely high expression of the genes encoding the proteins claudin-3 and claudin-4. Because claudin-3 and -4 are the epithelial receptors for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), and are sufficient to mediate CPE binding, in this study we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of the carboxy-terminal fragment of CPE (i.e., CPE290-319 binding peptide) as a carrier for tumor imaging agents and intracellular delivery of therapeutic drugs. Claudin-3 and -4 expression was examined with rt-PCR and flow cytometry in multiple primary ovarian carcinoma cell lines. Cell binding assays were used to assess the accuracy and specificity of the CPE peptide in vitro against primary chemotherapy-resistant ovarian carcinoma cell lines. Confocal microscopy and biodistribution
... Mucosal IgA Response against Clostridium perfringens α-toxin Copyright 2012 Chang-Hsin Chen ENHANCING CHICKEN MUCOSAL IGA RESPONSE AGAINST CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS α-TOXIN A Dissertation by CHANG-HSIN... Carey August 2012 Major Subject: Poultry Science iii
TY - JOUR. T1 - Survival of Clostridium perfringens sepsis in a liver transplant recipient. AU - Diaz, Geraldine C.. AU - Boyer, Thomas. AU - Renz, John F.. PY - 2009/11/1. Y1 - 2009/11/1. N2 - Clostridium perfringens sepsis following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is a rare but reported complication that historically results in mortality or emergent retransplantation (ReTx).1-7 Complications from C. perfringens emphysematous gastritis have contributed to the death of a healthy live liver donor as well.8 Herein, we describe the first documented survivor of C. perfringens sepsis following OLT managed without laparotomy or emergent ReTx.. AB - Clostridium perfringens sepsis following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is a rare but reported complication that historically results in mortality or emergent retransplantation (ReTx).1-7 Complications from C. perfringens emphysematous gastritis have contributed to the death of a healthy live liver donor as well.8 Herein, we describe the ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of |i |Clostridium perfringens|/i| Type C Enteritis in Pigs. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the Merck Vet Manual.
Learn about the veterinary topic of |i |Clostridium perfringens|/i| Type C Enteritis in Pigs. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the Merck Vet Manual.
The ability of Clostridium perfringens to form spores plays a key role during the transmission of this Gram-positive bacterium to cause disease. Of particular note, the spores produced by food poisoning strains are often exceptionally resistant to food environment stresses such as heat, cold, and preservatives, which likely facilitates their survival in temperature-abused foods. The exceptional resistance properties of spores made by most type A food poisoning strains and some type C foodborne disease strains involve their production of a variant small acid-soluble protein-4 that binds more tightly to spore DNA than to the small acid-soluble protein-4 made by most other C. perfringens strains. Sporulation and germination by C. perfringens and Bacillus spp. share both similarities and differences. Finally, sporulation is essential for production of C. perfringens enterotoxin, which is responsible for the symptoms of C. perfringens type A food poisoning, the second most common bacterial foodborne disease
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): C. perfringens epsilon-toxin (ETX) is a potential biological weapon included in the list of category B priority agents. The overall goal of this proposal is to identify and perform in vivo testing of new inhibitors of E TX using a novel approach for the inactivation of pore-forming toxins developed at Innovative Biologics, Inc. It is based on the blocking of the target pore with molecules having the same symmetry as the pore itself. Results from our SBIR Phase I project d emonstrated that beta-cyclodextrin derivatives designed to block the transmembrane channel formed by epsilon-toxin can inhibit its cytotoxicity at low micromolar concentrations. Based on the successful completion of this feasibility study, we propose to de sign, synthesize and screen a library of beta-cyclodextrin derivatives for inhibitors of epsilon-toxins activity and test selected lead compounds in mice. The specific aims of this Phase II study are: (1) Optimize the assay for testing ...
Clostridium perfringens is a spore-forming gram-positive bacterium that is found in many environmental sources as well as in the intestines of humans and animals. C. perfringens is commonly found on raw meat and poultry. C. perfringens produces a toxin that causes illness. The symptoms of C. perfringens food poisoning are watery diarrhea and abdominal cramps within 6 to 24 hours (typically 8-12). The illness usually begins suddenly and lasts for less than 24 hours. Persons infected with C. perfringens usually do not have fever or vomiting. The very young and elderly are most at risk of C. perfringens infection and can experience more severe symptoms that may last for 1-2 weeks. Complications include dehydration in severe cases.. ...
Clostridium perfringens adalah spesies bakteri gram-positif yang dapat membentuk spora dan menyebabkan keracunan makanan. Beberapa karakteristik dari bakteri ini adalah non-motil (tidak bergerak), sebagian besar memiliki kapsul polisakarida, dan dapat memproduksi asam dari laktosa. C. perfringens dapat ditemukan pada makanan mentah, terutama daging dan ayam karena kontaminasi tanah atau tinja. Bakteri ini dapat hidup pada suhu 15-55 °C, dengan suhu optimum antara 43-47 °C. Clostridium perfringens dapat tumbuh pada pH 5-8,3 dan memiliki pH optimum pada kisaran 6-7. Sebagian C. perfringens dapat menghasilkan enterotoksin pada saat terjadi sporulasi dalam usus manusia. Spesies bakteri ini dibagi menjadi 5 tipe berdasarkan eksotoksin yang dihasilkan, yaitu A, B, C, D, dan E. Sebagian besar kasus keracunan makanan karena C. perfringens disebabkan oleh galur tipe A, dan ada pula yang disebbkan oleh galur tipe C. ...
MORRIS, W. E. y FERNANDEZ-MIYAKAWA, M. E.. Toxins of Clostridium perfringens. Rev. argent. microbiol. [online]. 2009, vol.41, n.4, pp. 251-260. ISSN 1851-7617.. Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic gram-positive spore-forming bacillus. It is one of the pathogens with larger distribution in the environment; it can be isolated from soil and water samples, which also belongs to the intestinal flora of animals and humans. However, on some occasions it can act as an opportunistic pathogen, causing diseases such as gas gangrene, enterotoxemia in sheep and goats and lamb dysentery, among others. In human beings, it is associated to diseases such as food poisoning, necrotic enterocolitis of the infant and necrotic enteritis or pigbel in Papua-New Guinea tribes. The renewed interest existing nowadays in the study of C. perfringens as a veterinarian and human pathogen, together with the advance of molecular biology, had enabled science to have deeper knowledge of the biology and pathology of these ...
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A collection of disease information resources and questions answered by our Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Specialists for Clostridium perfringens infection
Clostridium perfringens, a Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium that produces at least 16 virulence factors including 12 toxins (α-ν), enterotoxin, hemolysin and neuraminidase, can create variable pathogenic condition, ranging from a food poisoning to life-threatening myonecrosis. Among C. perfringens strains, resistance to the drug choices such as penicillin as well as to alternatives of penicillin like metronidazole and clindamycin has also been observed.The aim of this study was to determine the resistance of isolated toxigenic and non-toxigenic C. perfringens strains against common antimicrobial agents.In this descriptive study, a total of 136 stool specimens were collected. At first, cooked meat medium enrichment method was performed on samples at 45°C. Thereafter, a loopful of the enriched culture was transferred to blood agar and incubated anaerobically at 37°C for 24-72 hours. Colonies with double zone of hemolysis were identified by different biochemical tests such as phospholipase C
Alpha toxin, a phospholipase C, is the most important toxin involved in gas gangrene resulting from C. perfringens invasion into traumatic wounds or deoxygenated tissues (1, 15). Since C. perfringens is now being used as an antigen delivery vehicle for an oral vaccine, it is necessary to inactivate the plc gene in this vector for safety reasons. In this report we modified Target-Tron technology for application in C. perfringens. This involved constructing a shuttle plasmid containing a modified L. lactis Ll.LtrB intron and then selecting insertional mutants after introducing the plasmid into C. perfringens.. The retrohoming reaction of the L. lactis Ll.LtrB intron is carried out by a ribonucleoprotein complex of an intron-encoded protein (IEP) and excised intron lariate RNA. The IEP first recognizes a small number of fixed positions in the flanking regions of the DNA target site and facilitates local DNA unwinding, enabling the intron RNA to base pair to a 14- to 16-nucleotide target region. ...
Clostridium Perfringens : Its Significance, Incidence, and Prevention Bobbi Johnson, PhD Walden University PUBH 8165-1 Instructor: Dr. Stephen Arnold Summer, 2011. Clostridium Perfringens History. Is also referred to as Clostridium Welchii Slideshow 4754453 by fern
Epsilon toxin (Etx) produced by Clostridium perfringens types B and D, a major causative agent of enterotoxaemia causes significant economic losses to animal industry. Conventional vaccines against these pathogens generally employ formalin-inactivated culture supernatants. However, immunization with the culture supernatant and full length toxin subjects the animal to antigenic load and often have adverse effect due to incomplete inactivation of the toxins. In the present study, an epitope-based vaccine against Clostridium perfringens Etx, comprising 40-62 amino acid residues of the toxin in translational fusion with heat labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) of E. coli, was evaluated for its protective potential. The ability of the fusion protein rLTB.Etx40-62 to form pentamers and biologically active holotoxin with LTA of E. coli indicated that the LTB present in the fusion protein retained its biological activity. Antigenicity of both the components in the fusion protein was retained as anti-fusion
Epsilon toxin (Etx) produced by Clostridium perfringens types B and D, a major causative agent of enterotoxaemia causes significant economic losses to animal industry. Conventional vaccines against these pathogens generally employ formalin-inactivated culture supernatants. However, immunization with the culture supernatant and full length toxin subjects the animal to antigenic load and often have adverse effect due to incomplete inactivation of the toxins. In the present study, an epitope-based vaccine against Clostridium perfringens Etx, comprising 40-62 amino acid residues of the toxin in translational fusion with heat labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) of E. coli, was evaluated for its protective potential. The ability of the fusion protein rLTB.Etx40-62 to form pentamers and biologically active holotoxin with LTA of E. coli indicated that the LTB present in the fusion protein retained its biological activity. Antigenicity of both the components in the fusion protein was retained as anti-fusion
The Gram-positive pathogen Clostridium perfringens possesses a family of large conjugative plasmids that is typified by the tetracycline resistance plasmid pCW3. Since these plasmids may carry antibiotic resistance genes or genes encoding extracellular or sporulation-associated toxins, the conjugative transfer of these plasmids appears to be important for the epidemiology of C. perfringens-mediated diseases. Sequence analysis of members of this plasmid family identified a highly conserved 35kb region that encodes proteins with various functions, including plasmid replication and partitioning. The tcp conjugation locus also was identified in this region, initially based on low-level amino acid sequence identity to conjugation proteins from the integrative conjugative element Tn916. Genetic studies confirmed that the tcp locus is required for conjugative transfer and combined with biochemical and structural analyses have led to the development of a functional model of the Tcp conjugation ...
As mentioned in our introduction, the availability of CPE-directed therapeutics could be helpful for ameliorating several CPE-associated medical conditions. A previous study had suggested that the drug mepacrine might be a candidate CPE therapeutic because the presence of this drug interferes with CPE-induced electrophysiologic activity in artificial lipid bilayers (24). However, that study did not distinguish whether mepacrine inactivates the CPE protein or instead interferes with some step in CPE action, i.e., whether this drug affects CPE binding, CPE pore formation, or CPE pore activity. Furthermore, it was specifically important to determine whether mepacrine is not only protective against CPE electrophysiologic activity in artificial membranes but also inhibits CPE-induced cytotoxicity in mammalian cells, where receptors are present and complex phenomena like membrane vesicle release occur (30).. Therefore, a first major contribution of the current study entailed demonstrating that ...
Clostridium perfringens, is an anaerobic, gram-positive, pathogenic and spore-forming bacillus and broadly gave out in our territory. This bacterium has spore formation capability and creating gangrene and gastrointestinal disease, for example food poisoning and necrotic enteritis in human, whilst in other animals, gastrointestinal and enterotoxemic diseases more happening. Prevalence of necrotic enteritis, created by C. perfringens, has been often stated in sheep, chickens and ostrich throughout the world. The most critical problem for epidemiological investigations and vaccines improvement is accurate recognition of C. perfringens variants. Moreover, Small ruminants, especially native breed types, play an important role to the livelihoods of a considerable part of human population in the tropics from socio-economic aspects. Therefore, integrated attempt in terms of management and genetic improvement to enhance production is of crucial importance. Poultry provide humans with companionship, food ...
Necrotic enteritis toxin B (NetB) is a β-pore-forming toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens and has been identified as a key virulence factor in the pathogenesis of avian necrotic enteritis, a disease causing significant economic damage to the poultry industry worldwide. In this study, site-directed mutagenesis was used to identify amino acids that play a role in NetB oligomerisation and pore-formation. NetB K41H showed significantly reduced toxicity towards LMH cells and human red blood cells relative to wild type toxin. NetB K41H was unable to oligomerise and form pores in liposomes. These findings suggest that NetB K41H could be developed as a genetic toxoid vaccine to protect against necrotic enteritis.
Necrotic enteritis toxin B (NetB) is a β-pore-forming toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens and has been identified as a key virulence factor in the pathogenesis of avian necrotic enteritis, a disease causing significant economic damage to the poultry industry worldwide. In this study, site-directed mutagenesis was used to identify amino acids that play a role in NetB oligomerisation and pore-formation. NetB K41H showed significantly reduced toxicity towards LMH cells and human red blood cells relative to wild type toxin. NetB K41H was unable to oligomerise and form pores in liposomes. These findings suggest that NetB K41H could be developed as a genetic toxoid vaccine to protect against necrotic enteritis.
Open peer review is a system where authors know who the reviewers are, and the reviewers know who the authors are. If the manuscript is accepted, the named reviewer reports are published alongside the article. Pre-publication versions of the article and author comments to reviewers are available by contacting [email protected] All previous versions of the manuscript and all author responses to the reviewers are also available.. You can find further information about the peer review system here.. ...
Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive bacterium responsible for bacteremia, gas gangrene, and occasionally food poisoning. Its genome encodes three sialidases, nanH, nanI, and nanJ, that are involved in the removal of sialic acids from a variety of glycoconjugates and that play a role in bacterial nutrition and pathogenesis. Recent studies on trypanosomal (trans-) sialidases have suggested that catalysis in all sialidases may proceed via a covalent intermediate similar to that of other retaining glycosidases. Here we provide further evidence to support this suggestion by reporting the 0.97A resolution atomic structure of the catalytic domain of the C. perfringens NanI sialidase, and complexes with its substrate sialic acid (N-acetylneuramic acid) also to 0.97A resolution, with a transition-state analogue (2-deoxy-2,3-dehydro-N-acetylneuraminic acid) to 1.5A resolution, and with a covalent intermediate formed using a fluorinated sialic acid analogue to 1.2A resolution. Together, these structures
Diseases often mean economic losses for broiler producers, especially when they go undetected for long periods of time. Necrotic Enteritis (NE) is among the most serious diseases affecting the broiler industry and a common driver of increased production costs. NE is a highly contagious infection of the gastrointestinal tract caused by the spore-forming pathogen Clostridium perfringens. This microorganism damages the intestinal epithelium, impairing villi functionality and architecture, which reduces their capacity to absorb nutrients. NE can be catastrophic for producers, especially in its sub-clinical form where the level of infection is mild and does not manifest obvious symptoms, thereby going undetected. Sub-clinical NE leads to a slow but steady growth rate reduction and food conversion ratio (FCR) increase, thereby causing a great economic loss for producers due to the lower body weight of broilers and an increase in feed and treatment costs. NE also poses a huge threat to public health as ...
Clostridium perfringens ATCC ® 13124™ Designation: NCTC 8237 TypeStrain=True Application: Media testing Produces hemolysins Produces lethal toxins Produces phospholipase C lecithinase C Quality control strain Reference material Control strain for anaerobe identification Quality control strain for API, BBL, and MicroScan [Reg TM] products Water testing
Clostridium perfringens ATCC ® 13124™ Designation: NCTC 8237 TypeStrain=True Application: Media testing Produces hemolysins Produces lethal toxins Produces phospholipase C lecithinase C Quality control strain Reference material Control strain for anaerobe identification Quality control strain for API, BBL, and MicroScan [Reg TM] products Water testing
N.C. Communicable Disease Branch page for Clostridium perfringens infection. Includes a definition of the illness, prevention information, and links to relevant CDC resources.
Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) is related to gram-positive and anaerobic bacteria. This rod-shaped bacterium produces spores and can cause a wide spectrum of diseases in humans and animals. Every of five different bacterium types can lead to different diseases. Most of distinct bacterial recognition methods are not completely effective and practical ...
This study identified a functional spo0A ORF in enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens type A. To evaluate the function of spo0A, an isogenic spo0A knock-out mutant was constructed. The spo0A mutant was unable to form endospores and produce enterotoxin, however, these defects could be restored by c …
pulpy kidney disease An enterotoxaemia of sheep caused by the bacterium clostridium perfringens type D and characterised by sudden death preceded in some cases by excitement, incoordination, and convulsions; also occurs in goats and rarely in cattle. ...
Clostridium perfringens geneotyping based on six toxins (multiplex PCR) , K256 PCR kit can be used to detect this pathogen in different samples like swab, blood, plasma, stool, cell culture, mosquito, insect in gel agarose
TY - JOUR. T1 - Virulence genes of Clostridium perfringens. AU - Rood, Julian I. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. M3 - Short Review. VL - 52. SP - 333. EP - 360. JO - Annual Review of Microbiology. JF - Annual Review of Microbiology. SN - 0066-4227. ER - ...
|em|Clostridium perfringens|/em| was highly concentrated in animal protein–rich poultry feed ingredients and demonstrated high sensitivity to several antibiotics.
Clostridium perfringens is found in soil and in the intestines of humans and animals. In contaminated food, it produces a toxin that causes a form of food poisoning.
The polymerase chain reaction(PCR) was used to amplify a 420 bp product of Clostridium perfringens employing a pair of primers… Expand ...
Identification of Clostridium Perfringens Epsilon Toxin as a Candidate Environmental Trigger for Nascent Lesion Formation in MS (Timothy Vartanian, MD, PhD ...
Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment of Anaerobic Bacteria from the Professional Version of the Merck Manuals.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antibody response in goats vaccinated with liposome-adjuvanted Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon toxoid. AU - Uzal, Francisco A. AU - Wong, J. P.. AU - Kelly, W. R.. AU - Priest, J.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - A trial was performed using 20 goats to evaluate the antibody responses to a liposome-adjuvanted Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxoid vaccine (LIPV). The antibody response was compared with those produced by epsilon toxoid vaccines prepared using aluminium hydroxide (ALV) and incomplete Freuds adjuvant (FAV). The animals were allocated to four groups at the beginning of the trial. The animals in group 1 were vaccinated with ALV, while the animals in group 2 received FAV and those in groups 3 and 4 were vaccinated with LIPV. The animals in groups 1 to 3 received three doses of the corresponding vaccine at intervals of three weeks, while those in group 4 received only 1 dose of vaccine at the beginning of the trial. A blood sample was obtained from all the goats at ...
Looking for online definition of Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin in the Medical Dictionary? Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin explanation free. What is Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin? Meaning of Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin medical term. What does Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin mean?
Clostridium perfringens (formerly known as C. welchii) is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium of the genus Clostridium. It is always present in nature and is a normal component of decaying vegetation, marine sediment, the intestinal tract of humans, other vertebrates, insects, and soil. It can be a human pathogen and also harmlessly ingested. Commonly it is encountered in infections as a component of the normal flora where it takes a minor role in the disease. Infections show some evidence of tissue necrosis, bacteremia, emphysematous cholecystitis, and gas gangrene, which is also known as clostridial myonecrosis. The toxin in gas gangrene is α-toxin which inserts into the plasma membrane of cells disrupting normal cellular function C. perfringens. Ingestion can lead to bacteria multiplying and leading to colic, diarrhea, and sometimes nausea. C. perfringens bacteria are the third-most-common cause of food-borne illness, with poorly prepared meat and poultry the ...
The project aimed to provide new insight into controlling necrotic enteritis in broilers, and was funded by USPOULTRY and the USPOULTRY Foundation.. Necrotic enteritis is a disease in broilers that is increasing in incidence as companies reduce the use of antibiotics in feed. It is a serious and often fatal disease of chickens and turkeys, with up to 50 percent mortality reported before effective control measures were introduced. A less severe, but economically important, form of this disease has also been identified and is frequently called subclinical necrotic enteritis.. Little is known about the causative organism, Clostridium perfringens, and new effective control measures are needed. C. perfringens, which proliferates in the small intestine and produces potent toxins that damage the gut lining, leading to necrosis (death of tissue), ulceration and inflammation.. In affected birds, the C. perfringens bacteria may also invade the liver to cause acute or chronic hepatitis, which results in ...
Albini, S., I. Brodard, A. Jaussi, N. Wollschlaeger, J. Frey, R. Miserez & C. Abril (2008) Real-time multiplex PCR assays for reliable detection of Clostridium perfringens toxin genes in animal isolates. Veterinary Microbiology, 127, 179-185.. Bentancor, A. B., P. Halperin, M. Flores & F. Iribarren (2009) Antibody response to the epsilon toxin of Clostridium perfringens following vaccination of Lama glama crias. Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 3, 624-627.. Conway, J. O., L. J. Sherwood, M. T. Collazo, J. A. Garza & A. Hayhurst (2010) Llama single domain antibodies specific for the 7 botulinum neurotoxin serotypes as heptaplex immunoreagents. PLoS ONE, e8818.. Ellis, R. P., A. Ramirez, R. J. Todd, L. Phillips, T. McConnell, M. Fowler, R. Walker & E. Hoffman. 1990. An overview of Clostridium perfringens type A enterotoxemia in alpacas and llamas. 2-3. Corvallis, Oregon: Oregon State University, College of Veterinary Medicine.. Ellis, R. P., R. J. Todd, L. A. Metelman-Alvis, A. L. ...
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Synonyms for enteritis necroticans in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for enteritis necroticans. 4 words related to enteritis: inflammation, redness, rubor, necrotizing enteritis. What are synonyms for enteritis necroticans?
A coprological survey with detailed clinical observation of naturally occurring haemorrhagic enteritis (HE) cases was conducted to understand the pathophysiology of HE by clarifying the infection status of Eimeria and enteropathogenic bacteria in cattle. Faecal samples from 55 cases of HE and 26 clinically normal animals were collected, and a quantitative examination of Eimeria and potential enteropathogenic bacteria was performed. The number of Eimeria species oocysts per gram of faeces (OPG) exceeded 10,000 in 69.1 per cent of HE cases with a maximum of 1,452,500 OPG and Eimeria zuernii was found to be overwhelmingly dominant. A significant increase in faecal coliform count was observed in HE cases compared with clinically normal animals. Among the animals shedding ,10,000 OPG, 42.9 per cent showed a remarkable increase in Clostridium perfringens abundance (,104 CFU/g) in the faeces. In the cases with C. perfringens detected, its abundance was positively correlated with Eimeria OPG and high C. ...
For use in healthy cattle and calves three months of age or older as an aid in preventing blackleg caused by Clostridium chauvoei, malignant edema caused by Cl. septicum, black disease caused by Cl. novyi, gas-gangrene caused by Cl. sordellii, enterotoxemia and enteritis caused by Cl. perfringens Types B, C and D, and disease caused by Histophilus somni (Haemophilus somnus). Although Cl. perfringens Type B is not a significant problem in North America, immunity is provided by the beta toxoid of Type C and the epsilon toxoid of Type D. Ultrabac 7/Somubac consists of killed, standardized cultures of Cl. chauvoei, Cl. septicum, Cl. novyi, Cl. sordellii, Cl. perfringens Types C and D, and H. somni, with an adjuvant. Available in a 10 dose or 50 dose.. ...
Two hundred and forty, one day old broiler chicken were randomly divided into eight equal groups. The 1st group was control. The 2nd group was given saltose from the 1st day of age till the end of experiment at a dose 1gm / kg of ration. The 3rd group was infected intra crop with inoculums containing 0.5x109 cfu ̸ ml Clostridium perfringens at 15 days of age .The 4th group infected intra crop with 75000 sporulated oocyte of Eimeria necatrix at 15 days of age .The 5th group was infected with inoculums containing 0.5x109 cfu ̸ ml Clostridium perfringens and 75000 sporulated oocyts of Eimeria necatrix intra crop at 15 days of age. The 6th group given saltose from the 1st day and infected with Clostridium perfringens as in group3. The 7th group was given saltose as in group 2 and infected with Eimeria necatrix as in the 4th group. The 8th group was given saltose as in group 2 and infected with Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria necatrix as in group 5. Three blood samples were collected from all ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of flavophospholipol (Flavomycin) and salinomycin sodium (Sacox) on the excretion of Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella enteritidis, and Campylobacter jejuni in broilers after experimental infection. AU - Bolder, N.M.. AU - Wagenaar, J.A.. AU - Putirulan, F.F.. AU - Veldman, K.T.. AU - Sommer, M.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. U2 - 10.1093/ps/78.12.1681. DO - 10.1093/ps/78.12.1681. M3 - Article. VL - 78. SP - 1681. EP - 1689. JO - Poultry Science. JF - Poultry Science. SN - 0032-5791. ER - ...
Spore-forming bacteria are the causative agents of some of the most dramatic life-threatening human and animal infections and toxemias, including diseases such as tetanus, botulism, gas gangrene, pseudomembranous colitis, and anthrax. This chapter reviews the current state of knowledge of virulence plasmids of the Clostridia and the bacilli. Although other pathogens are mentioned, the focus is on the major human pathogens, Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus anthracis, primarily because most is known about virulence plasmids in these species. The major toxins involved in C. perfringens type A-mediated gas gangrene, the α-toxin and perfringolysin O, together with other extracellular toxins such as collagenase and hyaluronidase, are chromosomally encoded. Along with tetanus, botulism, and gas gangrene, anthrax is one of the four classical diseases that are caused by spore-forming bacteria. Expression of the plasmid-determined toxin genes in Bacillus thuringiensis is coordinately regulated with the
Claudin-4 (Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin receptor) is a tight junction protein encoded by the gene CLDN4. Expression of Claudin-4 has been associated with either poor prognosis or a more favorable diagnosis, depending on the type of cancer. Claudin-4 has been shown to distinguish adenocarcinoma from malignant mesothelioma with 99% specificity in malignant effusions (1). Claudin-4 overexpression was able to independently predict survival in a breast cancer multivariate analysis as it was associated with poor prognosis, high tumor grade and Her2 expression and was inversely correlated with estrogen receptor staining (2). In luminal breast cancer, the increase of Claudin-4 protein was correlated with the increase of tumor grade and with Ki-67, and thus demonstrated an overall shorter life survival (3). Basal-like tumors also demonstrated overexpression of Claudin-4 (4). Counter to the above breast cancer subtypes, the presence of Claudin-4 in triple negative breast cancer was a biomarker that
Crohns disease; infective colitis is often a cause of one episode of colitis which is mislabelled as ulcerative colitis e.g. transverse colon the portion Causes and symptoms. Biocare Probiotics 30 Billion Which Uk Are Best benefits of Digestive Enzymes for Cats. John McDougall in his book The McDougall Plan summarizes the multiple benefits of fiber (some info Ive taken from other sources too): Fiber has no calories since Probiotic dosages are listed Introduction Giardia Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin and Cryptosporidium are important causes of diarrhea in dogs and cats. Find and study online flashcards from Pathophysiology 3400. Colorectal cancer commonly known as colon cancer or bowel cancer is a melanoma from uncontrolled cell growth in the Probiotics can also play Biocare Probiotics 30 Billion Which Uk Are Best a role in maintaining oral health (bad eath). I know there have been some posts dealing with probiotics and many have questions about wh Stage IIB: Cancer has C colon ...
Necrotic Enteritis is a bacterial disease that is caused by Clostridium perfringenes, the common clinical signs of necrotic enteritis are pale comb, orange color feces, etc.
Gas gangrene, or clostridial myonecrosis, is usually caused by Clostridium perfringens and may occur spontaneously in association with diabetes mellitus, peripheral vascular disease, or some malignancies but more often after contamination of a deep surgical or traumatic lesion. If not controlled, clostridial myonecrosis results in multiorgan failure, shock, and death... ...
Discussion.Anaerobic bacterial sepsis is often caused by organisms found in the gastrointestinal tract, skin, urogenital tract, or oral cavity. Bacteroides fragilis and Clostridium perfringens are the anaerobic agents isolated most frequently from infections (3, 7). Bifidobacterium spp. colonize the intestinal tract, the mouth, and, in some instances, the vagina in humans (1) and are rarely isolated from clinical specimens, with the exception of Bifidobacterium dentium as one of the causative agents of dental caries and related diseases (2, 6). It is known to be difficult to identifyBifidobacterium spp. due not only to variability in aerotolerance, colony morphology, and stainability on Gram staining but also to the difficulty in distinguishing the organisms from other gram-positive, non-spore-forming, anaerobic bacilli by conventional biochemical tests (1). Definitive identification of the genus Bifidobacterium requires analysis of metabolic products, volatile and nonvolatile fatty acids, in ...
Food Safety Consortium researchers at Kansas State University have found that a solution of sodium citrate can inhibit the growth of the bacterium Clostridium perfringens on restructured roast beef.
Alpha toxin or alpha-toxin refers to several different protein toxins produced by bacteria. Alpha toxin may be: Staphylococcus aureus alpha toxin, a membrane-disrupting toxin that creates pores causing hemolysis and tissue damage. Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin, a membrane-disrupting toxin with phospholipase C activity, which is directly responsible for gas gangrene and myonecrosis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa alpha toxin ...
BMD (Formerly Solu-Tracin 200). Aids in prevention and control of necrotic enteritis caused by CI. perfringens in broiler chickens and dysentary in swine...
This work was carried out in two phases. The first was to examine the effect that the cereals, wheat and corn and their major components have on the in vitro proliferation and alpha toxin production by Clostridium perfringens type A (CP). The second phase was to determine the prevalence of CP in broiler chickens in Saskatchewan and finally, what factors may be involved for the increased susceptibility of broilers on farms to CP, and what consequences to the production cycle affected flocks may have when infected with CP. In the first experiment, CP was grown in vitro in thioglycollate media (TG) alone, TG plus pancreatin and pepsin (TGE) or TG plus in vitro digested corn (C) or wheat (W) supernatant in a 2:1 ratio. Colony forming units (CFU) were counted and alpha toxin activity (U) was measured from each group using a commercially available kit. There was significantly more proliferation when CPA was grown in W compared to C, TG, or TGE. Alpha toxin production was significantly higher in C ...
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine publishes original research findings, clinical observations, and case reports in the field of veterinary medicine.
Figure 5: Light and electron micrographs of sections of the bladder wall of cysticerci incubated for 1 hour with PBS ((a) and (c)) and PLC ((b) and (d)) and probed with WGA-peroxidase ...
In April 2001, fifteen hours after eating a meal with warm beef from a Mexican restaurant in Atlanta, after an agonizing evening of vomiting and diarrhea, Bonds was taken by ambulance from their home to Grady Memorial Hospital. During an autopsy, the medical examiner found copious amounts of blood in the bowels, so he sent a stool sample to the Georgia Public Health Laboratory in Decatur. The lab discovered high levels of Clostridium perfringens Type A, a bacterium often seen in small quantities in beef and poultry. When it occurs in larger quantities - anything above 100,000 organisms per gram is considered unsafe - it can release toxins that cause diarrhea, vomiting and, rarely, hemorrhaging. The bacterium figures in 250,000 cases of food poisoning a year, the CDC estimates, only seven of which result in death ...
An improved method is described for preparing the enzyme which hydrolyzes the polysaccharide acid contained in vitreous humor, umbilical cord, synovial fluid, and the mucoid phase of group A hemolytic streptococci.. Preparations have been obtained from pneumococci, group A hemolytic streptococci, Clostridium welchii, and from splenic tissue, which display the same specific activity.. Evidence is presented to show that the hydrolytic enzyme is not the same as that responsible for the lysis of pneumococci.. In pneumococci and hemolytic streptococci the major portion of the enzyme is bound to the cell structure. The enzyme from Clostridium welchii is associated with other carbohydrate-splitting enzymes in the culture medium and not with the bacterial cells.. It is suggested that the disappearance of the mucoid capsule of group A hemolytic streptococci is due to enzymatic hydrolysis of the acid polysaccharide.. The relation between enzyme activity and the virulence and invasiveness of group A ...
Multi-faceted approach Thymol and carvacrol are highly effective against a wide range of potential pathogens. In a variety of studies, NE150 has demonstrated its potential to establish a healthy microbi- al composition by promoting higher lactic acid-producing bacteria and reduce pathogenic species. An example of the antimicrobial effects in broilers is shown in Figure 1. In one study, an Eimeria challenge model was used, which typically increases the levels of C. perfringens. It is well known that C. perfringens is the causative agent for necrotic enteritis but requires other predisposing factors to become clinical or subclinical. The invasion of intestinal cells by the Eimeria parasite is seen as the major predisposing factor because it creates tissue damage and leakage of plasma proteins used by C. perfringens. Broilers receiving the protected essential oils showed lower levels of C. perfringens as well as lower levels of Enterobacteriaceae, a large family of pathogens including E. Coli or ...
Definition of clostridial toxin in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is clostridial toxin? Meaning of clostridial toxin as a finance term. What does clostridial toxin mean in finance?
target_id = 000412 $split = ___ $target = array( Target => array( id => 475, target_id => 000412, local_target_id => 000412, locus_tag => CPF_2903, ncbi_gi => 110674906, ncbi_accession => ABG83893.1, ncbi_geneid => null, ncbi_taxon_id => 195103, gene_name => null, common_name => gamma-glutamyl phosphate reductase [Clostridium perfringens ATCC 13124], ncbi_coded_by_region => complement(CP000246.1:3175890..3177137), ncbi_note => identified by similarity to SP:P39821; match to protein family HMM PF00171; match to protein family HMM TIGR00407, tigr_main_role_id => null, tigr_sub_role_id => null, comment => null, justification => Identification of new drug targets with readily accessible lead compounds, sequence => ...
Haemorrhagic enterotoxaemia caused by Cl. perfringens type C is a common disease in raising lambs and the main cause of economic losses during the first few weeks of life. It has been shown that vaccination of newborn lambs is not very effective in conferring protection and seroconversion produced is minimal. However, the transfer of antibodies via colostrum seems to be protective and detectable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of passive immunization via colostrum from animals vaccinated with 2 commercial vaccines for preventing enterotoxaemia using a vaccination and revaccination schedule of ewes ante partum, compared with a control group.. ...
Conference Comment: The contributor provides a good summary of C. piliforme, an atypical member of the genus Clostridium. Other members of the clostridia are large, Gram positive spore forming bacteria with straight or slightly curved morphology, in contrast the filamentous, Gram negative spore forming C. piliforme.(2) Further differentiating C. piliforme from other clostridia is the fact that it does not possess characteristics that allow its inclusion into one of the three general categories of the other pathogenic members of the genus. These categories of clostridia are neurotoxic (C. tetani, C. botulinum types A-G), histotoxic (C. chauvoei, C. septicum, C. novyi types A and B, C. perfringens type A, C. sordellii, C. hemolyticum), and enteropathogenic/enterotoxemia-producing (C. perfringens types A-E, C. difficile, C. colinum, C. spiroforme).(2 ...
Horst Posthauss group in the Institute of Animal Pathology at the University of Bern is researching an intestinal infection in pigs which is caused by Clostridium perfringens. 10 years ago, they were already able to demonstrate that the toxin produced by the bacteria, the so-called beta toxin, kills vascular cells and thus causes bleeding in the piglets intestine. Until now, however, it was unclear why the toxin attacked specifically these cells and not others. Julia Bruggisser, biochemist and doctoral student at the Institute of Animal Pathology, has now succeeded in solving the puzzle of this mechanism in an interdisciplinary collaboration between three faculties. The findings from the study have been published in the specialist journal Cell Host & Microbe.. A key molecule. Around five years ago, lab technician Marianne Wyder from the Institute of Animal Pathology came across a molecule called Platelet-Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (PECAM-1 or even CD31 for short). It is located on ...
Heat stable enterotoxin causing food poisoning caused all following except a Clostridium perfringens produces 12 distinct toxins including several enterotoxins. Food poisoning is caused by an enterotoxin which is heat labile.The 4 major toxins produced by it are alpha, beta,
Get information about gangrene causes (Clostridium perfringens bacteria), diagnosis, symptoms, types (wet, dry), statistics, and treatment. Dead tissue results from blood flow loss or inadequacy.
INTRODUCTION: The resolution of pouchitis with metronidazole points to an anaerobic aetiology. Pouchitis is mainly seen in patients with ulcerative colitis pouches (UCP). We have recently found that sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB), a species of strict anaerobe, colonize UCP exclusively. Herein, we aimed to correlate levels of different bacterial species (including SRB) with mucosal inflammation and morphology. METHODS: Following ethical approval, fresh faecal samples and mucosal biopsies were taken from 9 patients with UCP and 5 patients with familial adenomatous polyposis pouches (FAPP). For the purposes of comparison, faecal samples and mucosal biopsies were also taken from the stomas of 7 of the 9 patients with UC (UCS). Colonization by four types of strict anaerobes (SRB, Clostridium perfringens, Bifidobacteria and Bacteroides) as well as by three types of facultative anaerobes (Enterococci, Coliforms and Lactobacilli) was evaluated. Inflammatory scores and mucosal morphology were assessed ...
The pork industry claims that this slurry is basically harmless, to which I say: Well, get your bathing suit, and go for a swim. Its highly toxic stuff. Sampling by the U.S. Geological Survey conducted after Hurricane Floyd in 1999 found dangerous levels of E. coli and Clostridium perfringens in water, even after floodwaters had receded. Hogs and humans are similar enough that their waste needs to be handled with equal care. The pathogens, viruses and bacteria that swine carry can include antibiotic-resistant strains that directly affect people. Researchers have found that North Carolina industrial livestock workers carry strains of Staphylococcus aureus associated with swine, including antibiotic-resistant strains.. When waste gets into the water, it brings a deluge of nitrogen, phosphorous, copper and other nutrients that throw the river out of balance. The damage can be immediate and dramatic. In the 1990s, the pathogen Pfiesteria filled the Neuse River with millions of dead fish, bleeding ...
Amoxizilinak eta, orokorrean, penizilina erdi-sintetikoek penizilina bera baino espektro zabalagoa dute: bakterio Gram positiboen aurka ez ezik, Gram negatibo askoren aurka eraginkorra da ere. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumonia), Listeria, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrea), Neisseria meningitidis (meningitis), Helicobacter pylori (ultzera gastrikoa), Treponema, Leptospira eta Campylobacter dira amoxizilinarekiko sentikorrak diren mikroorganismoetako batzuk. Ez da eraginkorra eraztun betalaktamiko apurtzen duten bakterioen aurka. Amoxizilina gehienetan aho bidetik hartzen da, eta batzuetan zain barneko bidetik ere. Penizilina guztien antzera amoxizilinak alergia eragin dezake. ...
Heck, people around here, New York, and above it go crazy for a specialty bread called Salt Rising Bread which doesnt use yeast for leavening. What most people dont know is what the bacteria is thats used to leaven the bread. Clostridium Perfringens, which in certain strains cause severe food poisoning to death. Heck, its even said that it was stock piled in Iraq for use in their dirty bombs. *shrug* We have to be careful whenever we make it to not cross contaminate unbaked with the baked stuff. The bacteria cooks off/evaporates after it reaches the correct temperature though which is what Im thinking about the Ezekiel w/dung ...
Clostridium perfringens responsible for the recent food contamination that killed three people and sent over two dozen other to hospitals.
Study Pediatric GI Disease Cases flashcards from Chris Allison's University of Pennsylvania class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
Study Small Mammal GI Disease flashcards from Matt Steele's class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
Necrotic enteritis and ulcerative enteritis (UE) are similar diseases, although they are caused by different organisms. UE usually...
GERO focuses on the development of new treatments to combat the aging process and extend healthy human lifespans, primarily around the topic of stability and stress resistance of gene regulatory networks.. ...
The Blitzkrieger G litter combines Gero v.d.Mooreiche and the most successful Weyermuhle combinations (The Weyermuhle G, I & K combinations - which produced Gero, Ilo and Kleo v.d. Weyermuhle)! The Sire: Dax is an very confident, substantial male with excellent nerve fiber and hardness. He is OFA good (prelim), full dentition and vWD clear. Dax has sired excellent working progeny both here (Blitzkrieger N litter & J Litter) and in Austalia. Dax sire, Gero v.d. Weyermuhle passed the koerung with highest rating for working drives & hardness. Gero passed SchH3 and FH (tracking) trials. Dax dam, Allee v. Blitzkrieger is a very hard bitch with high drives and extreme confidence. Allee passed SchH trial and civil protection work and proved her ability to be a very good therapy dog.. The Dam: Bo is a substantial bitch with excellent conformation, OFA good, full dentition and vWD affected.. She has balanced drives and excellent nerve fiber. Her sire, Ilo v.d. Weyermunle passed the koerung ...
Gogorrak al dira grabazioak? Adieraziko al zeniguke nolakoa den grabazio egun bat. Niri ez zaizkit gogorrak egiten, hori bai, oso erritmo bizia daramagu. Kontuan hartu batez beste egunero kapitulu bat grabatzen dugula. Nik uste dut Espainiako estatuan edo Frantzian martxa honetan ez duela inork lan egiten. Kapitulu bakoitzak hamazazpi sekuentzia baditu, guk hamazazpi sekuentziak egiten ditugu egunean. Lanera, zazpiak laurden gutxitan sartzen gara. Lehenengo, aldageletara joaten gara janztera. Ondoren, makillaje gelan sartzen gara eta bertan makilatu, ilea txukundu….. Nik, dena den, alderantzizkoa egiten dut: lehenengo makillaje gelara joaten naiz, eta gero jantzi. Honen ondoren, gelatxo batean sartzen gara eta ordu laurden hogei minutu erabiltzen ditugu entseatzen. Gero, gauza bera platoan platoan, kamerekin pare bat aldiz. Jarraian grabatzen hasten gara. Hori oso erritmo bizia da, baino behin erritmoa hartuta… Gaur, Germanen pertsonaia egiten duenak esan du hemengo erritmoa hartuta, prest ...
Having won more than $600 million for clients in, Bill Marler says that his experiences convinced him that these foods arent worth the risks.
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Holan ikusirik (Berria, Emakumeen Aurkako Indarkeria, 15 or, eguena 20 urria 2005) ondoko titularra Larria da biolentzia kasuak pasio krimentzat hartzea ohartzen naiz ni ezen ezin dudala ongi ulertu, non azkenean ulertu dut. Niri honakoak gertatzen zait sarri, lar sarri, baina ba liteke ez izatea arazo personala probableki. Normalago da (baina ez zatekeen, hortan ez dago dudarik) titularra honela Larria da pasio krimentzat hartzea biolentzia kasuak eta horrek ez dauka dudarik zeren phrasea da Larria da pasio krimentzat hartzea, eta gero dator -nahi bada- kompletivoa esanik zer da larria konsideratzen dena eze -gure oraiko kasuan- biolentzia kasuak (asteburu hontako assassinatzea hon Aintzane Garai ...
Maadhavi Latha: తెలుగమ్మాయి మాధవీ లత గురించి తెలియని వారెవరూ ఉండరు. అంతగా ఆమె సినిమాల పరంగా, ఆ తర్వాత సంచలన వ్యాఖ్యలు చేయడం ద్వారా బాగా పాపులర్ అయింది. రవిబాబు దర్శకత్వంలో రూపొందిన ...
2008 Mercedes-Benz CLK-class 6.3L AMG Black Series 2dr Cpe features and specs at Car and Driver. Learn more about Price, Engine Type, MPG, and complete safety and warranty information.
"Clostridium perfringens". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on 16 June 2016. ... by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Clostridium botulinum is a large anaerobic Gram-positive bacillus that forms ... Clostridium botulinum type C toxin has been incriminated as the cause of grass sickness, a condition in horses which occurs in ... Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic, Gram positive, spore-forming rod. Botulinum toxin is one of the most powerful known ...
"Clostridium perfringens". Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Thanabalu T, Porter AG (April 1996). "A Bacillus sphaericus ... Some β-PFTs such as clostridial ε-toxin and Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) bind to the cell membrane via specific ... Fujita K, Katahira J, Horiguchi Y, Sonoda N, Furuse M, Tsukita S (July 2000). "Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin binds to the ... A family of highly conserved cholesterol-dependent cytolysins, closely related to perfringolysin from Clostridium perfringens ...
Clostridium perfringens. 0.95. [7] Escherichia coli. 0.95. [7] Clostridium botulinum A, B. 0.94. [7] ...
The suspected cause was Clostridium perfringens. On May 9, 1987, the eighth probe was conducted by the Public Advocate's Office ...
Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium perfringens". In Fratamico, Pina M.; Bhunia, Arun K. & Smith, James L. (eds.). Foodborne ... Émile Pierre-Marie van Ermengem (1851-1932) was a Belgian bacteriologist who, in 1895, isolated Clostridium botulinum, the ...
Four species of Clostridium (Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium tetani, and Clostridium sordelli) are ... 2008), "Clostridium perfringens Poisoning", Poisoning and Toxicology Handbook (4th ed.), Informa, pp. 892-893, ISBN 978-1-4200- ... This deadly form of gangrene usually is caused by Clostridium perfringens bacteria. About 1,000 cases of gas gangrene are ... "Recent Insights into Clostridium perfringens Beta-Toxin". Toxins (Basel). 7 (2): 396-406. doi:10.3390/toxins7020396. PMC ...
"Vet's Corner//Clostridium perfringens in domestic farm animals". www.colorado-serum.com. Archived from the original on 2017-03- ... "Clostridium Perfringens Toxins Involved in Mammalian Veterinary Diseases". The Open Toxinology Journal. 2: 24-42. ISSN 1875- ... A form of enterotoxemia caused by type D C. perfringens that occurs in sheep and goats. When an animal is exposed to a rapid ... A form of enterotoxemia caused by type B or type C C. perfringens. Calves less than 1 month of old are affected. The symptoms ...
Clostridium perfringens, a bacterium that can cause gas gangrene; and ricin, a castor bean derivative which can kill by ...
Clostridium perfringens can be identified presumptively with this test. Listeria monocytogenes is also positive on sheep's ...
Clostridium perfringens, a bacterium that can cause gas gangrene; and ricin. She also admitted conducting research into cholera ...
... clostridium perfringens, a bacterium that can cause gas gangrene; and ricin, a castor bean derivative which can kill by ...
It can be caused by Clostridium, most commonly alpha toxin-producing C. perfringens, or various nonclostridial species. ... In wet gangrene, the tissue is infected by saprogenic microorganisms (Clostridium perfringens or Bacillus fusiformis, for ... Sakurai, J.; Nagahama, M.; Oda, M. (November 2004). "Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin: characterization and mode of action ... Chi CH, Chen KW, Huang JJ, Chuang YC, Wu MH (December 1995). "Gas composition in Clostridium septicum gas gangrene". Journal of ...
"Reverse CAMP test for the identification of Clostridium perfringens". Microbiology Notes. 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2017-04-03. " ... abilities of the CAMP factor produced by Streptococcus agalactiae with the α-toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens. ... "Use of Modified PCR Ribotyping for Direct Detection of Clostridium difficile Ribotypes in Stool Samples". Journal of Clinical ...
Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens (inhabitants of the lower bowel); and Clostridium tetani. Causes (listed in order ...
The genes encoding alpha-toxin (Clostridium perfringens), Bacillus cereus PLC (BC-PLC), and PLCs from Clostridium bifermentans ... Zinc-metallophospholipases C: Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin, Bacillus cereus PLC (BC-PLC) Sphingomyelinases: B. cereus, ... Fujii Y, Sakurai J (May 1989). "Contraction of the rat isolated aorta caused by Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin ( ... Sakurai J, Nagahama M, Oda M (November 2004). "Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin: characterization and mode of action". ...
"Sporulation of Clostridium botulinum Types A, B and E, Clostridium Perfringens, and putrefactive Anaerobe 3679 in dialysis sacs ... "Clostridium perfringens. I. Sporulation in a Biphasic Glucose-Ion Exchange Resin Medium", Applied Microbiology 22 (no. 5), 856- ... "Radiation Resistance of Some Clostridium perfringens Strains", Applied Microbiology 29 (no. 6, June), 861-863. Abe Anellis, ... and Method of Enumeration of Several Strains of Clostridium perfringens Spores", Applied Microbiology 27 (no. 4, April), 784- ...
"Investigating the Anti-Virulent Activity of Probiotic Bioactives on Clostridium Perfringens." M.Sc. Thesis. Universitat ... Clostridium perfringens, and Salmonella Typhimurium. "'Proteobiotics' May Keep Your Dog Healthy". The Huffington Post. ... Yun, B.; Oh, S.; Griffiths, M.W. (2014). "Lactobacillus acidophilus modulates the virulence of Clostridium difficile". Journal ... have been shown to impact virulence gene expression in Campylobacter jejuni, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Clostridium ...
2002). "Complete genome sequence of Clostridium perfringens, an anaerobic flesh-eater". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (2): ... 2003). "The genome sequence of Clostridium tetani, the causative agent of tetanus disease". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100 ( ... 2001). "Genome sequence and comparative analysis of the solvent-producing bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum". J Bacteriol. ...
... can be caused by several factors: Bacterial infections (e.g. Clostridium septicum, C. perfringens (type A), C. ... Schamber, G.J.; Berg, I.E.; Molesworth, J.R. (April 1986). "Braxy or Bradsot-like Abomastitis Caused by Clostridium septicum in ...
Clostridium species involved are Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium septicum, and Clostridium sordellii, which typically ... Clostridium perfringens produces two deadly toxins: alpha-toxin and theta-toxin. Alpha-toxin causes excessive platelet ... though it is unrelated to the Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin. Myonecrotic infections caused by these clostridial species ... The key Clostridium septicum virulence factor is a pore-forming toxin called alpha-toxin, ...
The top five offenders were norovirus, salmonella, Clostridium perfringens, Campylobacter spp., and Staphylococcus aureus. The ...
Sequence studies have shown the protein to be similar both to alpha toxin from Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium ... Titball RW, Rubidge T (1990). "The role of histidine residues in the alpha toxin of Clostridium perfringens". FEMS Microbiol. ... of Clostridium perfringens". Infect. Immun. 57 (2): 367-376. doi:10.1128/IAI.57.2.367-376.1989. PMC 313106. PMID 2536355. Kocks ... These residues are all conserved in the Clostridium alpha-toxin. Some examples of this enzyme contain a C-terminal sequence ...
Examples of Gram-positive bacteria include: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Clostridium perfringens. Gram- ...
Gibert M, Perelle S, Boquet P, Popoff MR (1993). "Characterization of Clostridium perfringens iota-toxin genes and expression ...
The most common organisms are Campylobacter, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, and Salmonella. A large number of ... Toxigenic Clostridium difficile is an important cause of diarrhea that occurs more often in the elderly. Infants can carry ... Moudgal, V; Sobel, JD (February 2012). "Clostridium difficile colitis: a review". Hospital Practice. 40 (1): 139-48. doi: ... including Clostridium difficile, Salmonella, and Campylobacter species. The risk is greater in those taking proton pump ...
Fatal necrotic enteritis associated with Clostridium perfringens in wild crows (Corvus macrorhynchos). Avian Pathology 33(1):19 ... Large scale deaths have also been noted to be caused by Clostridium infection and enteritis. BirdLife International (2012). " ...
1997). "Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin utilizes two structurally related membrane proteins as functional receptors in vivo ... 1997). "Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the receptor for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin". J. Cell ...
Clostridium perfringens, and Peptostreptococcus micros. Tigecycline may be used for treatment of community-acquired bacterial ... and Infection recommends tigecycline as a potential salvage therapy for severe and/or complicated or refractory Clostridium ...
A strain of bacterium Clostridium perfringens has been found in Pattern III lesions. Tests in mice found that a toxin made by a ... "Isolation of Clostridium perfringens Type B in an Individual at First Clinical Presentation of Multiple Sclerosis Provides ... rare strain of C. perfringens caused MS-like damage in the brain, and earlier work had identified this strain of C. perfringens ...
"Cloning and characterization of a conjugated bile acid hydrolase gene from Clostridium perfringens". Appl Environ Microbiol. 61 ...
Clostridium botulinum *Botulism. *Clostridium tetani *Tetanus. nonmotile:. *Clostridium perfringens *Gas gangrene. *Clostridial ...
Clostridium botulinum *Botulism. *Clostridium tetani *Tetanus. nonmotile:. *Clostridium perfringens *Gas gangrene. *Clostridial ...
Clostridium perfringens alfa toksin) • Fosfodiesteraza cikličnih nukleotida ...
... is caused by exotoxin-producing Clostridium species (most often C. perfringens, and C. novyi,[5] but less commonly ... 2008), "Clostridium perfringens Poisoning", Poisoning and Toxicology Handbook (4th ed.), Informa, pp. 892-893, ISBN 978-1-4200- ... This deadly form of gangrene usually is caused by Clostridium perfringens bacteria. It is a medical emergency. About 1000 cases ... One such exotoxin is alpha toxin, which is produced by C. perfringens and is the key virulence factor in its pathogenesis.[10] ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumonia), Listeria, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrea ...
Clostridium botulinum *Botulism. *Clostridium tetani *Tetanus. nonmotile:. *Clostridium perfringens *Gas gangrene. *Clostridial ...
Clostridium perfringens. *Escherichia coli O104:H4. *Escherichia coli O157:H7. *Hepatitis A ...
Some bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes,[16] and Clostridium perfringens,[17] produce ... "Acceleration of hyaluronidase production in the course of batch cultivation of Clostridium perfringens can be achieved with ...
Clostridium perfringens alfa toksin) · Fosfodiesteraza cikličnih nukleotida ...
Clostridium acetobutylicum. *Clostridium botulinum. *Clostridium difficile. *Clostridium perfringens. *Corynebacterium ...
B96.7) Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) as the cause of diseases classified to other chapters ...
Clostridium perfringens. *Escherichia coli O104:H4. *Escherichia coli O157:H7. *Hepatitis A ...
Clostridium perfringens. *Escherichia coli O104:H4. *Escherichia coli O157:H7. *Hepatitis A ...
Clostridium perfringens. *Escherichia coli O104:H4. *Escherichia coli O157:H7. *Hepatitis A ...
Clostridium: tetani (Tetanospasmin) · perfringens (Alpha toxin, Enterotoxin) · difficile (A, B) · botulinum (Botox). khác: ...
Clostridium perfringens. *Escherichia coli O104:H4. *Escherichia coli O157:H7. *Hepatitis A ...
Clostridium perfringens. *Escherichia coli O104:H4. *Escherichia coli O157:H7. *Hepatitis A ...
Clostridium perfringens. *Escherichia coli O104:H4. *Escherichia coli O157:H7. *Hepatitis A ...
Ang pinaka-karaniwang mga organismo ay ang: Campylobacter, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, at Salmonella.[70] ... Ang nakakalason na Clostridium difficile ay isang mahalagang sanhi ng pagtatae na mas nangyayari sa mga matatanda.[12] Maaaring ... Moudgal, V; Sobel, JD (2012 Feb). "Clostridium difficile colitis: a review". Hospital practice (1995). 40 (1): 139-48. doi: ... kabilang ang mga Clostridium difficile, Salmonella, at Campylobacter na uri.[22] Mas mataas ang panganib para sa mga umiinom ng ...
Clostridium perfringens. *Corynebacterium pyogenes. *Streptococci. *Staphylococci. *Gram negativne bakterije *Escherichia coli ...
Clostridium acetobutylicum. *Clostridium butyricum. *Clostridium difficile. *Clostridium perfringens. *Corynebacterium ...
Lecithinase (Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin). *Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. 3.1.6: Sulfatase. *arylsulfatase * ...
Other less common pathogens include Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium difficile and Staphylococcus aureus.[ ... Enteritis necroticans is an often fatal illness, caused by β-toxin of Clostridium perfringens.[11] This causes inflammation and ...
Clostridium perfringens alfa toksin) • Fosfodiesteraza cikličnih nukleotida ...
Clostridium perfringens alfa toksin) • Fosfodiesteraza cikličnih nukleotida ...
... is caused by the tetanus bacterium Clostridium tetani.[1] Tetanus is an international health problem, as C. tetani ... Tetanus is caused by an infection with the bacterium Clostridium tetani,[1] which is commonly found in soil, saliva, dust, and ... Clostridium tetani is strongly durable due to its endospores. Pictured is the bacterium alone, with a spore being produced, and ... Arnon, Stephen S. (2016). "Chapter 211: Tetanus (Clostridium tetani)". Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. Elsevier. p. 1432. ISBN ...
Clostridium: tetani (Tetanospasmin) · perfringens (Toksin alpha, Enterotoxin) · difficile (A, B) · botulinum (Botox). lain: ...
Lecithinase (Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin). *Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. 3.1.6: Sulfatase. *arylsulfatase * ...
Botulism toxins are produced by bacteria of the genus Clostridium, namely Clostridium botulinum, C. butyricum, C. baratii and C ... Botulinum toxin (Botox) is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species.[1] It ... Clostridium botulinum - Public Health Agency of Canada. Phac-aspc.gc.ca (19 April 2011). Retrieved on 6 May 2012. ... Botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum is the cause of botulism.[17] Humans most commonly ingest the toxin from ...
Clostridium perfringens. *Escherichia coli O104:H4. *Escherichia coli O157:H7. *Hepatitis A ...
Clostridium perfringens (formerly known as C. welchii) is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium of ... C. perfringens bacteria are the third-most-common cause of food-borne illness, with poorly prepared meat and poultry the main ... Most of the population has antibodies to the toxin and thus many people have experienced food poisoning due to C. perfringens. ... perfringens. Ingestion can lead to bacteria multiplying and leading to colic, diarrhea, and sometimes nausea. ...
Clostridium perfringens beta toxin is one of the four major lethal toxins produced by Clostridium perfringens Type B and Type C ... Clostridium perfringens beta toxin shows significant genetic homology with several other toxins. C. perfringens beta toxin ... Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin Hunter SE, Brown JE, Oyston PC, Sakurai J, Titball RW (September 1993). "Molecular genetic ... Clostridium perfringens in animal disease: a review of current knowledge. The Canadian Veterinary Journal. 21(5): 141-148] " ...
Food poisoning caused by Clostridium perfringens may occur when foods such as meat or poultry are cooked and held without ... perfringens, the number of C. perfringens cells/g food is 85 × (8/10) × 10,000 = 680,000. NOTE: The dilution factor with plates ... perfringens cells in sample on the basis of percent of colonies tested that are confirmed as C. perfringens. Example: If ... Some species of Clostridium occasionally isolated from foods have characteristics which differentiate them from C. perfringens. ...
... a Bioinformatics Resource Center funded by NIAID Pathema-Clostridium Resource Type strain of Clostridium perfringens at BacDive ... Clostridium perfringens (formerly known as C. welchii, or Bacillus welchii) is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore- ... Food poisoning in humans is caused by type A strains able to produce the CPE (for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin). The CPE ... "Fatal Foodborne Clostridium perfringens Illness at a State Psychiatric Hospital - Louisiana, 2010". Centers for Disease Control ...
... , Gas Gangrene, Anaerobic Cellulitis, Clostridial Myonecrosis. ... clostridium perfringens, clostridium welchii, c. perfringens, perfringens clostridium, CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS, Clostridium ... Clostridium perfringens (organismo), Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium welchii. French. Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium ... CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS, BACILLUS PERFRINGENS, BACTERIUM WELCHII. Dutch. Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium welchii, ...
Common food poisoning illness Clostridium perfringens is usually caused by beef, poultry, gravies, and dried or pre-cooked ... What is C. perfringens?. Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) is a spore-forming gram-positive bacterium that is found in ... Clostridium perfringens is one of the most common types of foodborne illness in the United States. CDC estimates it causes ... Who is at risk of C. perfringens food poisoning?. Everyone is susceptible to food poisoning from C. perfringens. The very young ...
Clostridia. › Clostridiales. › Clostridiaceae. › Clostridium. › Clostridium perfringens. › Clostridium perfringens E. See also ...
One outbreak of Clostridium perfringens affected 268 people. Cheese sauce linked to Clostridium perfringens outbreak. By Joe ... One outbreak of Clostridium perfringens affected 268 people. Outbreaks down but illnesses up for Denmark. By News Desk on ... Widow describes husbands fight with Clostridium perfringens infection. By Jonan Pilet on February 10, 2020. ... Researchers have detailed the first reported Clostridium perfringens outbreak in England associated with leeks in leftover and ...
Unknown parameter RefSeq Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin is a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium perfringens (C. ... Clostridium perfringens beta toxin Awad, M.M.; Bryant, A.E.; Stevens, D.L. & Rood, J.I. (1995). "Virulence studies on ... Sakurai J, Nagahama M, Oda M (2004). "Clostridium perfringens Alpha-Toxin: Characterization and Mode of Action". J Biochem. 136 ... Williamson ED, Titball RW (1993). "A genetically engineered vaccine against the alpha-toxin of Clostridium perfringens also ...
LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: Rarely reported; 6 cases for Clostridium spp. SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Clinical specimens - wound ... EPIDEMIOLOGY: Widespread and relatively frequent in countries with cooking practices that favour multiplication of Clostridia ...
FDAs Bacteriological Analytical Manual (the BAM) is the agencys preferred laboratory procedures for the detection in food and cosmetic products of pathogens (bacterial, viral, parasitic, plus yeast and mold) and of microbial toxins.
... Clostridium perfringens, the ... Date and time of symptom onset during an outbreak of Clostridium perfringens food poisoning at a state psychiatric hospital - ... perfringens in stomach or colon. Immunohistochemical testing for C. perfringens using rabbit anti-Clostridium spp. antibody was ... encoding Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin eliminates the ability of two cpe-positive C. perfringens type A human ...
Identification of Clostridium Species and DNA Fingerprinting of Clostridium perfringens by Amplified Fragment Length ... and Molecular Epidemiology of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea Due to Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, and ... Molecular Subtyping of Poultry-Associated Type A Clostridium perfringens Isolates by Repetitive-Element PCR G. R. Siragusa, M. ... Enumeration and Isolation of cpe-Positive Clostridium perfringens Spores from Feces Annamari Heikinheimo, Miia Lindström, Hannu ...
... perfringens type A strain TypeStrain=False Application: Used for cellular cytotoxicity assays Enteric Research ... Clostridium perfringens Toxin ATCC ® BTX-120™ Designation: Enterotoxin (CPE), native from C. ... Clostridium perfringens Toxin (ATCC® BTX-120™) Strain Designations: Enterotoxin (CPE), native from C. perfringens type A strain ... Residue on Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin (CPE) vial. Date Updated: 3/27/2014 ...
... Designation: Perfringolysin O (PFO), recombinant from E. coli strain BL21 DE3 ... Clostridium perfringens Toxin (ATCC® BTX-100™) Strain Designations: Perfringolysin O (PFO), recombinant from E. coli strain ...
... Roustit Cécilia,1 Vallé Baptiste,1 Clouzeau ... Clostridium perfringens (CP) gives several clinical settings, from an asymptomatic to a massive intravascular hemolysis. We ...
A Microbial Biorealm page on the genus Clostridium perfringens Photomicrograph of Gram stained Clostridium perfringens. From ... Clostridium perfringens Description and significance. Clostridium perfringens is a rod-shaped Gram-positive bacterium, which is ... Clostridium perfringens has a single circular chromosome made up of approximately 3.6 million base pairs, with a GC content ... "Toxinotypes of Clostridium perfringens isolated from sick and healthy avian species" J Vet Diagn Invest. 2007 May; 19(3): 329- ...
Clostridium perfringens iota-toxin is composed of the enzyme component (Ia) and the binding component (Ib). Ib binds to ... Clostridium perfringens Iota-Toxin: Structure and Function. Jun Sakurai 1,* , Masahiro Nagahama 1, Masataka Oda 1, Hideaki ... Clostridium perfringens iota-toxin is composed of the enzyme component (Ia) and the binding component (Ib). Ib binds to ... Keywords: Clostridium perfringens; iota-toxin; ADP-ribosylating toxin; NAD+-glycohydrolase; ADP-ribosyltransferase; crystal ...
Previous studies have documented usefulness of PCR in genotyping C perfringens. The multiplex assay is as effective, but ... Multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for genotyping Clostridium perfringens Am J Vet Res. 1997 Jul;58(7):702-5. ... assay to detect the genes for the major toxins of Clostridium perfringens (cpa [alpha toxin], cpb [beta toxin], etx [epsilon ... Conclusion and clinical relevance: Previous studies have documented usefulness of PCR in genotyping C perfringens. The ...
Clostridium perfringens ATCC ® 13124™ Designation: NCTC 8237 TypeStrain=True Application: Media testing Produces hemolysins ... Nucleotide (GenBank) : M59103 Clostridium perfringens 16S ribosomal RNA. Nucleotide (GenBank) : J02880 C.perfringens pyruvoyl- ... Method 17.2: Spores of sulfite-reducing anaerobes (clostridia) including Clostridium perfringens -- Estimation of most probable ... Method 17.1: Spores of sulfite-reducing anaerobes (clostridia) including Clostridium perfringens --Membrane filtration method. ...
Clostridium perfringens ATCC ® 12916™ Designation: NCTC 8238 TypeStrain=False Application: Media testing Enteric Research ... Clostridium perfringens (Veillon and Zuber) Hauduroy et al. (ATCC® 12916™) Strain Designations: NCTC 8238 [281/50] / Type ... Clostridium welchii food poisoning. J. Hyg. (Lond). 51(1): 75-101, 1953. PubMed: 13044934 ...
Expression and purification of a recombinant "small" sialidase from Clostridium perfringens A99.. Kruse S1, Kleineidam RG, ... A 1.4-kb gene encoding the "small" sialidase isoenzyme of Clostridium perfringens A99, including its own promoter, was ...
References for Abcams Anti-Clostridium perfringens Type A15 antibody (ab79569). Please let us know if you have used this ...
Five cases of diarrhoea caused by C. perfringens serotype 41 occurred during a 9-week period, an … ... Enterotoxigenic strains of Clostridium perfringens have recently been implicated in some cases of antibiotic-associated ... Epidemiology of Diarrhoea Caused by Enterotoxigenic Clostridium Perfringens J Med Microbiol. 1985 Dec;20(3):363-72. doi: ... Enterotoxigenic strains of Clostridium perfringens have recently been implicated in some cases of antibiotic-associated ...
M00130 Inositol phosphate metabolism, PI=> PIP2 => Ins(1,4,5)P3 => Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 ...
Alpha toxin from Clostridium perfringens induces proinflammatory changes in endothelial cells.. Bunting M1, Lorant DE, Bryant ... Alpha toxin from Clostridium perfringens type A, a phospholipase C, has been implicated in many of the localized and systemic ... perfringens alpha toxin, may contribute to localized and systemic manifestations of gas gangrene including enhanced vascular ...
The Role of Penicillin G Potassium in Managing Clostridium perfringens... Characterization of Clostridium perfringens Strains ... DIARRHEA ASSOCIATED WITH ENTEROTOXIGENIC CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS IN A RED FOOTED... CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS ENTEROTOXICOSIS IN ... Georgios N. Nikolaou, Marja J. L. Kik, Alphons J. A. M. van Asten, and Andrea Gröne "β2-Toxin of Clostridium perfringens in a ... Georgios N. Nikolaou, Marja J. L. Kik, Alphons J. A. M. van Asten, Andrea Gröne "β2-Toxin of Clostridium perfringens in a ...
... which is largely mediated by the Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE). The toxin consists of two functional domains. The N ... Clostridium perfringens causes one of the most common foodborne illnesses, ... Keywords: Claudins; Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin; drug delivery; tight junction Claudins; Clostridium perfringens ... Clostridium perfringens causes one of the most common foodborne illnesses, which is largely mediated by the Clostridium ...
Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic spore-forming bacterium, and a major cause of food poisoning. Food poisoning is mainly ... Identification of genetic differences between phylogenetically distant Clostridium perfringens strains. Status: Completed Start ... Identification of genetic differences between phylogenetically distant Clostridium perfringens strains. Note !This project will ... caused by the Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), which targets gut epithelial cells and is found in ~1-5% Type A C. ...
Clostridium Perfringens - How doctors traced it back to the meat sub. Belva and Munro pose with family and Santa, December 2014 ... Widow describes husbands fight with Clostridium perfringens infection. By Jonan Pilet on February 10, 2020. ... The causes of death were noted to be the liver abscess caused by Clostridium perfringens infection, complicated by patchy ... She couldnt understand how he had gotten infected by Clostridium perfringens. Doctors explained that because of his diabetes ...
  • Clostridium perfringens beta toxin is one of the four major lethal toxins produced by Clostridium perfringens Type B and Type C strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clostridium perfringens beta toxin shows significant genetic homology with several other toxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic testing of C. perfringens toxins isolated from chicken and stool specimens was carried out to determine which of the two strains responsible for C. perfringens foodborne illness was present. (cdc.gov)
  • This bacterium is important, because it was the primary pathogenic agent that caused many injured soldiers to die from gas gangrene during World War I. When the soldiers were injured, their first line of defense-skin-could no longer prevent the vegetative spores of C. perfringens from entering into the body through an injury and destroying the host tissues with the toxins that they made [4]. (kenyon.edu)
  • C. perfringens is categorized into five serotypes-A, B, C, D, and E-depending on the types of extracellular toxins (alpha-, beta, epsilon-, and iota-toxins) they make and their forms of tropisms [8]. (kenyon.edu)
  • In this review, we discuss and update the principal aspects of C. perfringens intestinal pathology, in terms of the toxins with major medical relevance at present. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Clostridium perfringens is one of the brothers of the evil Clostridium family but is further classified into five types depending on what combination of four toxins it produces. (marvistavet.com)
  • The toxins of significance that Clostridium perfringens can produce are called enterotoxins. (marvistavet.com)
  • Clostridium perfringens is further classified into 5 types (A-E), based on the expression of 4 toxins. (visualdx.com)
  • C. perfringens produces toxins that kills cells and releases gas, leaving parts of the body black, purple, and covered with blisters. (kenyon.edu)
  • The A strain of the C. perfringens bacterium produces two important toxins that enable the spread of the bacterium and tissue death: the alpha toxin and perfringolysin O [5] . (kenyon.edu)
  • Clostridium perfringens utilizes and gains many different crucial materials needed to perform their function from the host cells by producing many degradative toxins and enzymes. (kenyon.edu)
  • C. perfringens isolates are classified into five types (A to E) according to the production of four major toxins (alpha, beta, epsilon, and iota) ( 11 , 13 ). (asm.org)
  • 8 ) found that the SWCP alpha-toxin had only 80% amino acid sequence identity to the other C. perfringens alpha-toxins and questioned if this difference in sequence was typical of all avian isolates. (asm.org)
  • In this study, approximately 2% of C. perfringens strains, representing the principal biotypes, were found to harbor the urease structural genes, ureABC, and these were localized on large plasmids that often encode, in addition, the lethal epsilon or iota toxins or the enterotoxin. (epfl.ch)
  • C. perfringens synthesizes a number of major and minor toxins involved in the pathogenicity process. (asm.org)
  • Determination of the Toxins and Biotypes of Clostridium perfringens in Diarrhoeic Calves in the Kars District of Turkey. (ebscohost.com)
  • This study was designed to determine the types of Clostridium perfringens and their toxins in diarrhoeic calves in Kars. (ebscohost.com)
  • Clostridium perfringens is a pathogenic anaerobic bacterium able to produce more than 17 toxins, allowing C. perfringins to cause a wide variety of diseases in humans and animals. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Beside toxins production, C. perfringens able to form a highly resistance spores can survive in the environments for years. (oregonstate.edu)
  • In this study, C. perfringens toxins, either as native toxins or after formaldehyde inactivation, were evaluated as possible vaccine antigens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We determined whether antisera raised in calves against these toxins were able to protect against C. perfringens challenge in an intestinal loop model for bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the antibodies raised against the native toxins were more inhibitory to the C. perfringens- induced cytotoxicity (as tested on bovine endothelial cells) and only these antibodies protected against C. perfringens challenge in the intestinal loop model. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although immunization of calves with both native and formaldehyde inactivated toxins resulted in high antibody titers against alpha toxin and perfringolysin O, only antibodies raised against native toxins protect against C. perfringens challenge in an intestinal loop model for bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether antibodies against C. perfringens toxins could protect against the development of necrotic lesions in the intestine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, calves were immunized with native C. perfringens toxins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This chapter discusses the etiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, and prevention and treatment of infections by C. perfringens type B. C. perfringens type B isolates carry the genes encoding beta (CPB) and epsilon (ETX) toxins, but different strains can also encode several other non-typing toxins. (elsevier.com)
  • In some cases, tight junction proteins represent receptors for cell surface proteins or toxins of the pathogen, such as Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE). (springer.com)
  • Briggs DC, Naylor CE, Smedley JG III, Lukoyanova N, Robertson S, Moss DS, McClane BA, Basak AK (2011) Structure of the food-poisoning Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin reveals similarity to the aerolysin-like pore-forming toxins. (springer.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to isolate C. perfringens from feces and carcasses from swine slaughterhouses, characterize the strains in relation to the presence of enterotoxin, alpha, beta, epsilon, iota and beta-2 toxins genes. (fapesp.br)
  • Beta toxin is the principal disease causing toxin in C. perfringens type B infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The infection originates in a wound contaminated with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM. (fpnotebook.com)
  • C. perfringens infection often occurs when foods are prepared in large quantities and kept warm for a long time before serving. (cdc.gov)
  • The very young and elderly are most at risk of C. perfringens infection and can experience more severe symptoms that may last for 1 to 2 weeks. (cdc.gov)
  • A count of at least 10 6 C. perfringens spores per gram of stool within 48 hours of when illness began is required to diagnose infection. (cdc.gov)
  • When doctors told his wife Belva that Munro had died because of massive intravascular hemolysis and a liver abscess caused by a Clostridium perfringens infection, she couldn't understand how it had happened. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • These protein-containing foods, when kept at improper storage temperatures, between 54ºF (12ºC) and 140ºF (60ºC), provide the greatest risk of infection and disease from C. perfringens . (ufl.edu)
  • Reported is the first case of late implant infection, after extensive dental treatment, caused by Clostridium perfringens, an anaerobic pathogen commonly present in the human gastrointestinal tract. (nih.gov)
  • How would Clostridium perfringens infection happen? (marvistavet.com)
  • C. perfringens food poisoning is usually a mild clostridial infection . (merckmanuals.com)
  • Infection of the small intestine by type C strains of C perfringens causes a highly fatal, necrohemorrhagic enteritis. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Nitrergic response to Clostridium perfringens infection in the rat brain regions: effect of red light irradiation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • CNS manifestations of C. perfringens infection: CNS diseases due to C. perfringens infection are rare Footnote 3 . (canada.ca)
  • The main manifestations of C. perfringens infection in CNS are meningitis and encephalitis. (canada.ca)
  • The key symptoms of C. perfringens soft tissue infection include severe pain (that might be out of proportion to your physical exam) at a site of recent trauma or surgery. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • C. perfringens or C. sordellii endometritis usually follows within 1 week or so of childbirth or abortion, although simple obstetric or gynecological procedures, such as amniocentesis or cervical excisions, may precede infection. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • ClinicalTrials.gov lists trials that are studying or have studied Clostridium perfringens infection. (nih.gov)
  • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Clostridium perfringens infection. (nih.gov)
  • Clostridium difficile infection in an Iranian hospital. (ebscohost.com)
  • The article presents information on a study which focuses on the epidemiology and microbiology of clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in diverse regions. (ebscohost.com)
  • Spore germination is an early and essential stage in the progression of C. perfringens infection in human and animal. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Bos J, Smithee L, McClane B, Distefano RF, Uzal F, Songer JG, Mallonee S, Crutcher JM (2005) Fatal necrotizing colitis following a foodborne outbreak of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens type A infection. (springer.com)
  • Interestingly, animal protein ingredients in poultry feed increase the risk of C. perfringens infection, namely necrotic enteritis. (americanveterinarian.com)
  • The genomes of myonecrotic Clostridium perfringens isolates contain genes encoding a large and fascinating array of highly modular glycoside hydrolase enzymes. (rcsb.org)
  • In this study, we examined the alpha-toxin sequences encoded by a range of isolates of C. perfringens derived from chickens to determine if the divergent SWCP alpha-toxin sequence is common in avian isolates. (asm.org)
  • Isolates of C perfringens may be genotyped for the presence of genes that code for β toxin. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Less than 5% of global C. perfringens isolates are estimated to carry cpe ( 1 ), and the prevalence of different cpe genotypes in specific ecologic niches is not known. (cdc.gov)
  • We isolated, whole-genome sequenced and bioinformatically characterised three C. perfringens isolates-type D (IQ1), type E (IQ2) and BEC/CPILE-positive (IQ3), recovered from the stools of three healthy two-year-olds, which were further compared to 128 C. perfringens genomes available from NCBI. (mdpi.com)
  • Furthermore, a close phylogenetic relatedness was inferred between the French C. perfringens type E isolates cp515.17 and newly sequenced IQ2, suggesting geographical links. (mdpi.com)
  • This study describes novel C. perfringens isolates from healthy individuals which encode important toxin genes, indicating the potential spread of these veterinary and clinically important strains and mobile genetic elements, and highlights areas for future research. (mdpi.com)
  • The epidemiology of Clostridium perfringens type A on Ontario swine farms, with special reference to cpb2-positive isolates. (ebscohost.com)
  • In our survey, cpe -positive C. perfringens isolates were detected in ∼1.4% of ∼900 surveyed non-outbreak American retail foods. (asm.org)
  • Interestingly, those enterotoxigenic isolates in non-outbreak foods appear indistinguishable from C. perfringens isolates known to cause food poisoning outbreaks: i.e., the enterotoxigenic retail food isolates all carry a chromosomal cpe gene, are classified as type A, and exhibit exceptional heat resistance. (asm.org)
  • Collectively, these findings indicate that some American foods are contaminated, at the time of retail purchase, with C. perfringens isolates having full potential to cause food poisoning. (asm.org)
  • This toxin is both necessary and sufficient for the enteric virulence of C. perfringens type A food poisoning isolates. (asm.org)
  • Only a small fraction (∼1 to 5%) of all C. perfringens isolates, mainly belonging to type A, carry the cpe gene ( 6 , 10 ). (asm.org)
  • A recent study ( 17 ) suggests that the strong association between type A isolates carrying a chromosomal cpe gene and C. perfringens type A food poisoning is attributable (at least in part) to the exceptional heat resistance of those isolates, which should favor their survival in incompletely cooked or improperly held foods. (asm.org)
  • To reduce the occurrence of C. perfringens type A food poisoning outbreaks, it is necessary to determine how and when C. perfringens isolates with food poisoning potential enter the American food supply. (asm.org)
  • Surveys conducted more than 10 years ago clearly demonstrated that C. perfringens isolates are often present in foods, particularly raw meats and poultry, sold in the United States (see reference 11 for review). (asm.org)
  • However, those findings have limited significance since whether C. perfringens food isolates include the 1 to 5% of type A isolates carrying the cpe gene that is essential for causing food poisoning was not evaluated. (asm.org)
  • However, not a single 1 of 39 C. perfringens isolates obtained from those non-outbreak foods was found to be cpe positive. (asm.org)
  • However, recent findings have identified the germinants of spores of C. perfringens food poisoning (FP) and non-food borne (NFB) isolates. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The second focus of this study was to investigate the germination requirements of spores of C. perfringens animal isolates (AI). (oregonstate.edu)
  • Multilocus sequence typing subtypes of poultry Clostridium perfringens isolates demonstrate disease niche partitioning. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In this study, multilocus sequence typing was used to investigate genotypic relationships among 139 C. perfringens isolates from 74 flocks. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Identification of accessory genome regions in poultry Clostridium perfringens isolates carrying the netB plasmid. (semanticscholar.org)
  • abstract = "Clostridium perfringens type D causes disease in sheep, goats, and other ruminants. (elsevier.com)
  • C. perfringens bacteria are the third-most-common cause of food-borne illness, with poorly prepared meat and poultry the main culprits in harboring the bacterium. (redorbit.com)
  • Laboratories diagnose C. perfringens food poisoning by detecting a type of bacterial toxin in feces or by tests to determine the number of bacteria in the feces. (cdc.gov)
  • Although C. perfringens may live normally in the human intestine, illness is caused by eating food contaminated with large numbers of C. perfringens bacteria that produce enough toxin in the intestines to cause illness. (cdc.gov)
  • C. perfringens has a relative low GC content comparing to that of the majority of Gram-positive bacteria. (kenyon.edu)
  • Like many Mycoplasma bacteria and Bacillus subtilis , C. perfringens arrange their genes in a way such that their transcriptional process orients in the same direction as their replication direction[4]. (kenyon.edu)
  • Clostridium perfringens are non-motile rod-shaped Gram-positive bacteria. (kenyon.edu)
  • Photomicrographic view of a Gram-stained culture speciminen, revealing the presence of numerous Clostridium perfringens Gram-positive bacteria. (ufl.edu)
  • The renewed interest existing nowadays in the study of C. perfringens as a veterinarian and human pathogen, together with the advance of molecular biology, had enabled science to have deeper knowledge of the biology and pathology of these bacteria. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Considering taking medication to treat pus+in+lungs+caused+by+bacteria+clostridium+perfringens? (webmd.com)
  • Below is a list of common medications used to treat or reduce the symptoms of pus+in+lungs+caused+by+bacteria+clostridium+perfringens. (webmd.com)
  • Coloured Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM) of Clostridium perfringens bacteria, cause of gas gangrene and food poisoning in humans. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Clostridium perfringens is a spore forming, anaerobic bacteria widely distributed in the soil and the digestive tract of many domestic animals. (thermofisher.com)
  • Although many bacteria are ureolytic, and in some cases urease acts as a virulence factor, the urease phenotype has not been analyzed in the anaerobic pathogen Clostridium perfringens. (epfl.ch)
  • The C. perfringens enzyme was highly similar to the ureases of other bacteria and cross-reacted with antibodies raised against the urease purified from Helicobacter pylori. (epfl.ch)
  • Nonetheless, the ability of C. perfringens to survive when it is faced with a wide variety of natural and accidental oxidative stresses suggests that many genes are involved in this adaptive response, as is the case with other aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria (for reviews see references 9 and 35 ). (asm.org)
  • Clostridium perfringens , of the Clostridiaceae family, is non-motile, anaerobic, (few strains are aerotolerant), spore forming bacteria (subterminal spores) that are encapsulated in tissue smears Footnote 2 , Footnote 5 . (canada.ca)
  • B. cereus and C. perfringens are both bacteria that grow rapidly at room temperature. (marlerblog.com)
  • The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service compliance guideline known as Appendix B specifies chilling time and temperature limits for cured and uncured meat products to inhibit growth of spore-forming bacteria, particularly Clostridium perfringens. (ebscohost.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize bacteriocin-producing bacteria against Clostridium perfringens from domestic animals to determine their usefulness as probiotics. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Skewed genomic variability in strains of the toxigenic bacterial pathogen, Clostridium perfringens. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In this study, we evaluated the significance of RelA and DTD proteins in spore formation and toxin production by an important gastrointestinal pathogen Clostridium perfringens . (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • CDC's Enteric Diseases Laboratory Branch detected C. perfringens enterotoxin by RPLA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for species-specific C. perfringens and CPE genes in 15 of 20 stool specimens available for testing. (cdc.gov)
  • Using current Clostridium genetic techniques and bioinformatic analyses, we aim to generate mutants in target genes and characterise resulting phenotypes. (wur.nl)
  • Large amounts of toxin genes are associated with disease so that in this way we can tell if one of the Clostridium perfringens enterotoxins is likely to be contributing to the patient's diarrhea. (marvistavet.com)
  • There are at least 20 genes that encode virulence factors for the bacterium and 5 hyaluronidase genes, which encode enzymes that degrade hyaluronic acid, that also add to C. perfringens virulence [4] . (kenyon.edu)
  • Clostridium perfringens urease genes are plasmid borne. (epfl.ch)
  • To identify the genes involved in this oxidative stress response, C. perfringens strain 13 mutants were generated by Tn 916 insertional mutagenesis and screened for resistance or sensitivity to various oxidative stresses. (asm.org)
  • Complementation experiments and knockout experiments demonstrated that these genes are both required for efficient resistance to oxidative stress in C. perfringens and are probably responsible for the production of NADPH, which is required for maintenance of the intracellular redox balance in growth-arrested cells. (asm.org)
  • Transcriptional analysis of the Rbr and superoxide dismutase genes of C. perfringens during the log and stationary phases, in both anaerobic and partially aerobic conditions, did not reveal the precise roles of the two proteins in the defense against oxygen ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • In an attempt to identify some of these genes, we used Tn 916 insertional mutagenesis to generate C. perfringens strain 13 mutants ( 6 ), which were then screened for increased resistance or sensitivity to various experimental oxidative stresses ( 39 ). (asm.org)
  • In this paper we describe identification of some of the genes implicated in the C. perfringens oxidative stress response and discuss their potential physiological roles. (asm.org)
  • The introduction of plasmid DNA molecules via this technique should allow for cloning and transposon mutagenesis studies of those C. perfringens genes involved in antibiotic resistance, and bacteriocin and toxin production. (illinois.edu)
  • Multilocus sequence typing analyses of Clostridium perfringens type A strains harboring tpeL and netB genes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Analysis of core housekeeping and virulence genes reveals cryptic lineages of Clostridium perfringens that are associated with distinct disease presentations. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Rood, JI 1998, ' Virulence genes of Clostridium perfringens ', Annual Review of Microbiology , vol. 52, pp. 333 - 360. (monash.edu)
  • Any bacterial organism that can be assigned to the species Clostridium perfringens. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Systems for genetic manipulation of C. perfringens have been developed and the species became a model organism in clostridial genetic studies. (jcvi.org)
  • We found a prevalence of 18% for enterotoxin gene-carrying ( cpe +) Clostridium perfringens in the feces of healthy food handlers by PCR and isolated the organism from 11 of 23 PCR-positive persons by using hydrophobic grid membrane filter-colony hybridization. (cdc.gov)
  • Our findings suggest that healthy humans serve as a rich reservoir for cpe + C. perfringens type A and may play a role in the etiology of gastrointestinal diseases caused by this organism. (cdc.gov)
  • The toxin in gas gangrene is α-toxin which inserts into the plasma membrane of cells disrupting normal cellular function C. perfringens. (redorbit.com)
  • C. perfringens is a food borne pathogen, being the causative agent of pig-bel syndrome and gas gangrene. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Unknown parameter RefSeq Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin is a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) and is responsible for gas gangrene and myonecrosis in infected tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further, vaccination against the alpha toxin toxoid protects mice against C. perfringens gas gangrene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although C. perfringens is an inhabitant of human normal intestinal flora, it is a pathogen responsible for many gastrointestinal illnesses with severity ranging from mild enterotoxaemia to fatal gas gangrene [3]. (kenyon.edu)
  • Several common diseases associated with C. perfringens are food-poisoning, gas gangrene, and many veterinary diseases. (kenyon.edu)
  • Infections due to C. perfringens show evidence of tissue necrosis, bacteremia, emphysematous cholecystitis, and gas gangrene, which is also known as clostridial myonecrosis. (abcam.com)
  • It is a Clostridium that causes tetanus , a Clostridium that causes botulism, and Clostridia are responsible for gangrene, "black leg," lamb dysentery and other famous maladies. (marvistavet.com)
  • Gas gangrene is caused by a rod shaped, gram positive, spore forming bacterium called Clostridium perfringens . (kenyon.edu)
  • The Clostridium perfringens A strain is of the most importance because it causes gas gangrene, or myonecrosis, in humans. (kenyon.edu)
  • C . perfringens is the most common cause of trauma associated gas gangrene with very high mortality rates Footnote 11 . (canada.ca)
  • Necrotizing soft tissue infections caused by C. perfringens are also referred to as "gas gangrene" or clostridial myonecrosis when muscle is involved. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Key physical exam findings of C. perfringens gangrene or necrosis include tachycardia, hypotension, and minimal or no fever. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Clostridium perfringens is a ubiquitous and versatile pathogenic bacterium and is implicated in the etiology of the poultry diseases necrotic enteritis (NE) and poultry gangrene (PG). (semanticscholar.org)
  • BTX-120 is the native form of enterotoxin (CPE) purified from the culture supernatant of C. Perfringens type A strain 3653/50. (atcc.org)
  • In our study we investigated whether the bilirubin-reducing strain of Clostridium perfringens can reduce bilirubin ditaurate (BDT), a bile pigment of some lower vertebrates, without hydrolysis of the taurine moiety. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The alpha-toxin structural gene ( plc or cpa ) has been isolated from several strains of C. perfringens and characterized ( 4 ), and the encoded proteins were found to be highly conserved in all but one recently identified strain ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • In contrast, components of the alternative oxidative stress protection system recently described in the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris ( 17 ) have been identified in one strain of C. perfringens ( 15 ). (asm.org)
  • Bile salts were shown previously to induce sporulation, and we confirmed deoxycholate (DCA)-induced sporulation in C. perfringens strain NCTC8239 cocultured with human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The greatest transformation efficiency obtained using pAK201 was 9.8 $\times$ 10$\sp6$ transformants/$\mu$g DNA for C. perfringens strain 13. (illinois.edu)
  • Examination of nuclease activity suggested that DNase does not appear to be a factor in the C. perfringens strain-specific electrotransformation protocol. (illinois.edu)
  • This report describes the discovery, purification, characterization and recombinant expression of a novel bacteriocin, referred to as perfrin, produced by a necrotic enteritis-associated netB-positive C. perfringens strain. (ugent.be)
  • Our β-glucuronidase assay showed that in C. perfringens strain SM101, relA forms a bicistronic operon with its downstream dtd gene, and the relA promoter is expressed during both vegetative and sporulation conditions. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Collectively, our results demonstrate that RelA modulates cellular physiology such as growth, spore formation and toxin production by C. perfringens type A strain SM101, although DTD also plays a role in these pleiotropic functions in coordination with RelA during sporulation. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Sporulation kinetics and spore heat resistance data were compared for a lysogenic strain of Clostridium perfringens , s 9, before and after curing with ultraviolet irradiation. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • We evaluated the contribution of ETX to C. perfringens type D pathogenicity in an intraduodenal challenge model in sheep, goats, and mice using a virulent C. perfringens type D wild-type strain (WT), an isogenic ETX null mutant (etx mutant), and a strain where the etx mutation has been reversed (etx complemented). (elsevier.com)
  • Enterotoxigenic strains of Clostridium perfringens have recently been implicated in some cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. (nih.gov)
  • Can we test for toxin-producing strains of Clostridium perfringens ? (marvistavet.com)
  • Genomic diversity of necrotic enteritis-associated strains of Clostridium perfringens: a review. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Foodborne disease outbreaks caused by Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, and Staphylococcus aureus -United States, 1998-2008. (cdc.gov)
  • Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic gram-positive spore-forming bacillus. (scielo.org.ar)
  • cpe-positive Clostridium perfringens (3.8 x 10 8 CFU), but not Bacillus cereus, was isolated from beef stew eaten by cases. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • This is a type of bacterial food poisoning that results from ingestion of the spore-forming anaerobic gram positive bacillus Clostridium perfringens . (visualdx.com)
  • Other bacterial pathogens including Salmonella , Shigella , Campylobacter , Escherichia coli , Bacillus cereus , Staphylococcus aureus , and Clostridium difficile - Culture or antigen testing can be performed. (visualdx.com)
  • Some Bacillus cereus or Clostridium perfringens with your Rancho Bravo Taco? (marlerblog.com)
  • Symptoms and timing of illness onset are suggestive of a bacterial toxin from Bacillus cereus or Clostridium perfringens. (marlerblog.com)
  • C. perfringens beta toxin shows 28% homology with S. aureus alpha toxin and similar homology to S. aureus gamma-toxin and leukocidin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because C. perfringens beta toxin shares homology with S. aureus pore-forming alpha toxin, it was hypothesized that beta toxin acts in a similar way. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clostridium perfringens causes necrotic enteritis in chickens, and alpha-toxin has been suggested to be a key virulence determinant. (asm.org)
  • Analysis of the alpha-toxin of 25 chicken-derived C. perfringens strains demonstrated high homology to mammal-derived strains rather than to the only avian-derived C. perfringens alpha-toxin sequence reported previously. (asm.org)
  • Prevalence of Clostridium perfringens Alpha toxin in processed and unprocessed fish. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Metabolism of isolated fat cells: The similar effects of phospholipase C ( Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin ) and of insulin on glucose and amino acid metabolism. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A field study of naturally occurring specific antibodies against Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin in Norwegian broiler flocks. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • When mice was intoxicated with botulinus toxin or C. perfringens alpha-toxin, such an effect of nephrectomy was not observed. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Clostridium perfringens ATCC 13124, complete genome. (atcc.org)
  • In this study, a cocktail of spores of three C. perfringens strains (ATCC 13124, ATCC 12915, and ATCC 12916) were inoculated into 100-g samples of ground skinless, boneless turkey breast formulated to represent deli-style turkey breast. (ebscohost.com)
  • Epidemiology of foodborne disease outbreaks caused by Clostridium perfringens , United States, 1998-2010. (cdc.gov)
  • While outbreaks of C. perfringens are common, they do not become major headlines because the typical symptoms of the illness are mild, and deaths are extremely rare. (ufl.edu)
  • Table 1 outlines several confirmed outbreaks of C. perfringens that were identified by the CDC in 2015 (the most recent data available). (ufl.edu)
  • One enterotoxin that has been frequently implicated in food poisoning outbreaks is the C . perfringens enterotoxin. (visualdx.com)
  • Clostridium perfringens is both an ubiquitous environmental bacterium and the fourth most common causative agent of foodborne outbreaks (FBOs) in France and Europe. (frontiersin.org)
  • These outbreaks are known to be caused by C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) encoded by the cpe gene. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, while C. perfringens was the sole pathogen isolated from the incriminated food, the cpe gene was not detected in strains related to 13 outbreaks. (frontiersin.org)
  • It is known that C. perfringens strains isolated from outbreaks of necrotic enteritis are more capable of secreting factors inhibiting growth of other C. perfringens strains than strains isolated from the gut of healthy chickens. (ugent.be)
  • Necrotic enteritis toxin B (NetB) is a β-pore-forming toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens and has been identified as a key virulence factor in the pathogenesis of avian necrotic enteritis, a disease causing significant economic damage to the poultry industry worldwide. (mdpi.com)
  • Epsilon toxin (Etx), a potent pore forming toxin (PFT) produced by Clostridium perfringens, is responsible for the pathogenesis of enterotoxaemia of ruminants and has been suggested to play a role in multiple sclerosis in humans. (pasteur.fr)
  • ε-Toxin is a pore forming toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens types B and D. It is synthesized as a less active prototoxin form that becomes fully active upon proteolytic activation. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • P. Fach and M. R. Popoff, "Detection of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens in food and fecal samples with a duplex PCR and the slide latex agglutination test," Applied and Environmental Microbiology , vol. 63, no. 11, pp. 4232-4236, 1997. (hindawi.com)
  • The Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) mediating the disease is often heat-resistant and can be detected in contaminated food and feces. (abcam.com)
  • . Clostridium perfringens can be cultured from the feces of 80% of dogs whether they have diarrhea or not. (marvistavet.com)
  • In total, 900 bacterial stains were isolated from domestic animal feces, and 19 strains were finally selected after determining the inhibitory activity against the pathogenic indicator C. perfringens KCTC 3269. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Clostridium perfringens (formerly known as C. welchii) is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium of the genus Clostridium. (redorbit.com)
  • Clostridium welchii, Clostridium plagarum, C. perfringens, Clostridium perfringens (Veillon and Zuber 1898) Hauduroy et al. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Clostridium welchii food poisoning. (atcc.org)
  • False-colour transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of Clostridium perfringens (formerly C. welchii). (sciencephoto.com)
  • C. perfringens beta toxin is susceptible to breakdown by proteolytic enzymes, particularly trypsin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first 27 amino acids may encode a signal that allows beta toxin to cross the cell membrane, further evidenced by the presence of beta toxin in extracellular fluid of C. perfringens cultures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon investigation, it was found that C. perfringens beta toxin forms cation-selective pores in cell membranes of 1.6-1.8 nm and results in swelling and lysis in HL60 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the disease process, C. perfringens penetrates the upper jejunum between absorptive cells and releases beta toxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The specimens tested negative for the beta-toxin gene, excluding C. perfringens type C as the etiologic agent and implicating C. perfringens type A. This outbreak underscores the need for strict food preparation guidelines at psychiatric inpatient facilities and the potential risk for adverse outcomes among any patients with impaired intestinal motility caused by medications, disease, and extremes of age when exposed to C. perfringens enterotoxin. (cdc.gov)
  • Autheman D, Wyder M, Popoff M, D'Herde K, Christen S, Posthaus H (2013) Clostridium perfringens beta-toxin induces necrostatin-inhibitable, calpain-dependent necrosis in primary porcine endothelial cells. (springer.com)
  • A 1.4-kb gene encoding the "small" sialidase isoenzyme of Clostridium perfringens A99, including its own promoter, was previously cloned in and expressed by Escherichia coli JM 101. (nih.gov)
  • However, additional information on the toxin/virulence gene content of C. perfringens has become available in the last few years. (frontiersin.org)
  • Two or three different virulence gene profiles were detected in 10 FBOs, demonstrating that C. perfringens FBOs may be associated with heterogeneous strains. (frontiersin.org)
  • This result indicates either that the standard method was not able to isolate cpe+ strains or that the cpe gene may not be the only determinant of the enterotoxigenic potential of C. perfringens strains. (frontiersin.org)
  • 1642-1646, 2003) of non-outbreak American retail foods did not identify the presence of a single C. perfringens isolate carrying the enterotoxin gene ( cpe ) necessary for causing food poisoning. (asm.org)
  • Specific inactivation of the enterotoxin gene ( cpe ) by allelic exchange was shown to render a C. perfringens food poisoning isolate avirulent in rabbit ileal loops, and intestinal virulence could be restored by complementing that mutant with a cloned copy of the wild-type cpe gene ( 16 ). (asm.org)
  • PCR detection of the gene showed its presence in 10 netB-positive C. perfringens strains of broiler origin, and not in other C. perfringens strains tested (isolated from broilers, cattle, sheep, pigs, and humans). (ugent.be)
  • Despite the high prevalence of C. perfringens in swine carcasses from the slaughterhouses assessed, the risk of food poisoning to Brazilian pork consumers is low, since all strains were negative to cpe-gene, codifying enterotoxin. (fapesp.br)
  • Clostridium perfringens is found not only in soil and sediment, but is present as a part of the normal intestinal flora of animals and humans. (ufl.edu)
  • Reduction of bilirubin ditaurate by the intestinal bacterium Clostridium perfringens. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • C. perfringens is ubiquitous in nature and can be found as a normal component of decaying vegetation, marine sediment, the intestinal tract of humans and other vertebrates, insects, and soil. (abcam.com)
  • An explanation for the strong association between C. perfringens strains with plasmidially located cpe and cases of AAD and SD disease may be in vivo transfer of the cpe plasmid to C. perfringens strains of the normal intestinal microbiota ( 17 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Vegetative cells sporulate in the small intestinal tract and produce the major pathogenic factor C. perfringens enterotoxin. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The sporulation of C. perfringens in the small intestinal tract is a key event for its pathogenesis, but the factors and underlying mechanisms by which C. perfringens sporulates in vivo currently remain unclear. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Besides from being a process indicator, C.perfringens spores could be an index parameter for the occurrence of persistent intestinal pathogens like viruses and (oo)cysts of protozoa. (openrepository.com)
  • Final diagnosis relies on detection of both CPB and ETX in the intestinal content of affected animals, together with isolation of C. perfringens type B from the same specimen. (elsevier.com)
  • CPE causes diarrhea and cramps-the symptoms of a common foodborne illness, caused by C. perfringens type A. It uses a subgroup of the claudin family of tight junction proteins as receptors and forms pores in the membrane of intestinal epithelial cells. (springer.com)
  • Beef, poultry, gravies, and dried or pre-cooked foods are common sources of C. perfringens infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Immunohistochemical evidence of Clostridium sp , Staphylococcus aureus , and group A Streptococcus in severe soft tissue infections related to injection drug use," Human Pathology , vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 1482-1488, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • C. perfringens is commonly encountered in infections as a benign component of the normal flora. (abcam.com)
  • Furthermore from April-August 2000, several drug users in Scotland developed clostridial infections (3 of which were due to C. perfringens ) with a high mortality rate Footnote 13 . (canada.ca)
  • Clostridium perfringens type F strains, which produce C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), are a major cause of gastrointestinal infections, including the second most prevalent bacterial foodborne illness and 5 to 10% cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. (asm.org)
  • C. perfringens is most likely associated with three clinical syndromes: necrotizing or gangrenous soft tissue infections, endometritis following childbirth or abortion, and foodborne gastroenteritis. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • The clostridia implicated in these (presumably) hematogenous infections include C. septicum, C. tertium, C. perfringens, and C. novyi. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Disease caused by the infections by Clostridium perfringens type B have been most frequently been reported in lambs, occasionally in calves, and very rarely in foals. (elsevier.com)
  • Infections by Clostridium perfringens Type B . In Clostridial Diseases in Animals (pp. 139-142). (elsevier.com)
  • To gain further insight between structural and biological activity of Clostridium perfringens a gram positive, anaerobe, responsible for food poisoning, mynecrosis in wound infections and enterotoxemia in humans. (jbsdonline.com)
  • Although infections caused by C. perfringens type C and A in swine are well studied, just a few reports describe the genetic relationship among strains in the epidemiological chain of swine clostridioses, as well as the presence of the microorganism in the slaughterhouses. (fapesp.br)
  • Clostridium perfringens ( C. perfringens ) is a spore-forming gram-positive bacterium that is found in many environmental sources as well as in the intestines of humans and animals. (cdc.gov)
  • Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic spore-forming bacterium, and a major cause of food poisoning. (wur.nl)
  • In addition, assays will be carried out to assess the spore resistance properties (against chemicals, UV light, etc) of 24 fully sequenced Type A C. perfringens strains. (wur.nl)
  • By identifying what makes some spores more resistant than others, we may be able to improve the design of industrial and medical decontamination processes, in addition to gaining a greater understanding of spore resistance in C. perfringens. (wur.nl)
  • Inhibition of Clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth by lemon juice and vinegar product in reduced NaCl roast beef. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Clostridia are spore-forming anaerobes that are very environmentally hardy. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Capable of producing a harmful, disease-causing toxin, C. perfringens is a spore-forming gram-positive bacterium found in many environmental sources and in the intestines of humans and animals, and is commonly found on raw meat and poultry. (nc.gov)
  • However, C. perfringens is considered an aerotolerant anaerobe that is capable of surviving in soil or arterial blood. (asm.org)
  • C. perfringens is similar to another gastrointestinal-disease-causing pathogen, C. difficile . (kenyon.edu)
  • Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin and Clostridium difficile toxin A/B do not play a role in acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome in dogs. (ebscohost.com)
  • Clostridium (C.) perfringens type A (CpA) and C. difficile (Cd) have been highlighted as causes of NPD but their importance has also been questioned. (lantbruksforskning.se)
  • Clostridium (C.) perfringens typ A (CpA) och C. difficile (Cd) har pekats ut som orsaker till spädgrisdiarré men deras betydelse är omtvisad. (lantbruksforskning.se)
  • Little information is available on commercial probiotic strains regarding their growth characteristics and inhibition of equine enteric pathogens such as Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens. (dtu.dk)
  • To evaluate inhibition of C. difficile and C. perfringens sterile supernatant of the probiotic culture was added to BHI inoculated with a standard C. difficile or C. perfringens suspension. (dtu.dk)
  • Growth was measured spectrophotometrically at 0 and 24h and compared to the control (C. difficile or C. perfringens suspension in BHI). (dtu.dk)
  • Ninety-four percent of strains were inhibitory (0-20% growth compared to control) against C. difficile and 76% were inhibitory against C. perfringens. (dtu.dk)
  • Sixty percent of the tested strains showed favourable in-vitro characteristics for use as potential equine probiotics and could be further studied in placebo controlled clinical trials for prevention or treatment of C. difficile and C. perfringens associated disease. (dtu.dk)
  • Clostridial Food Poisoning: Food poisoning can be caused by C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) produced by C. perfringens spores in the small intestine Footnote 5 , which can germinate in foods such as meat and poultry Footnote 6 . (canada.ca)
  • Carrier rate in the slaughter house : For the examination of C.perfringens, the small intestine and the caecum of 81 birds from 7 farms were sampled in the slaughter house. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic, Gram-positive, bacterial pathogen that has the capability of forming endospores. (ufl.edu)
  • Clostridium perfringens is a ubiquitous gram-positive pathogen that is present in the air, soil, animals, and humans. (asm.org)
  • Although the ubiquitous distribution of C. perfringens in nature is well documented, the epidemiology of cpe+ strains has not yet been established. (cdc.gov)
  • C. perfringens is ubiquitous, naturally occurring in soil and rotting vegetation. (americanveterinarian.com)
  • Diagnosis of C. perfringens food poisoning is based on epidemiologic evidence and isolation of large numbers of organisms from contaminated food or from stools of affected people or on direct identification of enterotoxin in stool samples. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Pouch method for the isolation and enumeration of Clostridia. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Clostridium perfringens isolation frequencies in carcasses and finishing pig intestines were of 58.8% in both types of samples. (fapesp.br)
  • Thus, when clinical and epidemiological evidence suggests that C . perfringens is the cause of a food poisoning outbreak, the presence of hundreds of thousands or more of these organisms per gram of food substantiates the diagnosis. (fda.gov)
  • Such losses may make it difficult to establish C . perfringens as the specific cause of a food poisoning outbreak. (fda.gov)
  • Researchers have detailed the first reported Clostridium perfringens outbreak in England associated with leeks in leftover and reheated cheese sauce. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Clostridium perfringens thrives in high-protein foods of animal origin, such as meat and meat products, meat dishes, stews, soups, gravies, and milk (see outbreak data in Table 1). (ufl.edu)
  • According to estimates by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), as many as one million individuals are affected by C. perfringens each year (Grass et al. (ufl.edu)
  • The bacterium Clostridium perfringens causes one of the most common types of foodborne gastroenteritis in the United States, often referred to as perfringens food poisoning (FDA 2012). (ufl.edu)
  • The bacterium Clostridium perfringens' genome is a lone circular chromosome with additional plasmids that are extra-chromosomal, meaning that there is other DNA found outside of the nucleus [8] . (kenyon.edu)
  • The β-carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) from the pathogenic bacterium Clostridium perfringens (CpeCA) was recently characterised kinetically and for its anion inhibition profile. (elsevier.com)
  • C. perfringens was isolated from fecal specimens from human and animals. (kenyon.edu)
  • To study the prevalence of fecal C. perfringens and selected. (ebscohost.com)
  • Some sulphite reducing clostridia are able to grow in sediments in drinking water mains and not all members of this group are of fecal origin. (openrepository.com)
  • Clostridium perfringens, however, is exclusively of fecal origin and does not grow in water or sediments. (openrepository.com)
  • Timely and accurate methods for detecting Clostridium perfringens -associated diseases (CPAD) are crucial to improve patient care. (asm.org)
  • C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) is the main virulent factor that initiates many critical GI diseases. (kenyon.edu)
  • John D. Buck and L. Louise Shepard " Clostridium perfringens as the Cause of Death of a Captive Atlantic Bottlenosed Dolphin ( Tursiops truncatus )," Journal of Wildlife Diseases 23(3), 488-491, (1 July 1987). (bioone.org)
  • Why C. perfringens strains with cpe located on chromosomes or plasmids cause different diseases has not been satisfactorily explained. (cdc.gov)
  • This Standard describes a horizontal method for the enumeration of viable Clostridium perfringens. (saiglobal.com)
  • The reproducibility of the enumeration method for spores of sulphite reducing clostridia (SSRC) in Sulphite Cycloserine Agar (SCA) is poor. (openrepository.com)
  • People infected with C. perfringens develop diarrhea and abdominal cramps within 6 to 24 hours (typically 8 to 12 hours). (cdc.gov)
  • When pets get chronic diarrhea, one of the tests that sooner or later comes up is the test for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin. (marvistavet.com)
  • The important concept is that Clostridium perfringens toxin can be the cause of the chronic diarrhea or it can be a complicating factor in a diarrhea caused by something else. (marvistavet.com)
  • Let us begin with the obvious: a dog does not need to be treated for Clostridium perfringens unless it has diarrhea. (marvistavet.com)
  • In the United States consumption of large amounts of C. perfringens is considered an important cause of watery diarrhea Footnote 6 . (canada.ca)
  • Background: There is poor understanding of most aspects of Clostridium perfringens type A as a possible cause of neonatal diarrhea in piglets, and the prevalence and types of C. perfringens present on Ontario swine farms is unknown. (ebscohost.com)
  • In young lambs, C. perfringens type B causes acute abdominal pain, a distended abdomen, and hemorrhagic diarrhea. (elsevier.com)
  • 2016. Behavior and inactivation of enterotoxin-positive Clostridium perfringens in pork picadillo and tamales filled with pork picadillo under different cooking, storage and reheating conditions. (edu.mx)
  • Recent whole genome sequence analysis of 24 strains suggests that C-cpe containing C. perfringens strains belong to a distinct phylogenetic group compared to P-cpe and cpe-negative, and show specialisations for growth and survival in different environmental conditions. (wur.nl)
  • In this review, we summarize tight junction targeting and alteration by a multitude of different microorganisms such as C. perfringens , Escherichia coli , Helicobacter pylori , Salmonella typhimurium , Shigella flexneri , Vibrio cholerae , Yersinia enterocolitica , protozoan parasites, and their proteins. (springer.com)
  • Here, we show that unlike the bifunctional FolD of Escherichia coli ( Eco FolD), and contrary to its annotated bifunctional nature, C. perfringens FolD ( Cpe FolD) is a monofunctional 5,10-CH 2 -THF dehydrogenase. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • High purity recombinant exo -α-sialidase ( Clostridium perfringens ) for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitro diagnostic analysis. (megazyme.com)
  • Necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens is associated with netB positive Clostridium perfringens type A strains. (ugent.be)
  • Sporulation allows C. perfringens to survive the cooking process. (ufl.edu)
  • Thus, this study enhances our understanding of the mechanisms underlying sporulation, particularly that of bile salt-induced sporulation, in C. perfringens. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Survival and Germination of Clostridium perfringens Spores during Heating and Cooling of Ground Pork. (ebscohost.com)
  • The effect of heating rate on the heat resistance, germination, and outgrowth of Clostridium perfringens spores during cooking of cured ground pork was investigated. (ebscohost.com)
  • Broughton, E. Stewart (1966) A study of the conditions governing the formation and germination of spores of Clostridium perfringens type A. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow. (gla.ac.uk)
  • It is well known that humoral antibodies against secreted proteinaceous virulence factors of C. perfringens can be protective, as shown in different animal models. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Combined High Pressure and Thermal Processing on Inactivation of Type E and Nonproteolytic Type B and F Spores of Clostridium botulinum. (ebscohost.com)
  • Recombinant, Clostridium perfringens α2-3,6-Neuraminidase expressed in E. coli . (merckmillipore.com)
  • Enzymatic activation of Clostridium perfringens epsilon prototoxin and some biological properties of activated toxin. (nih.gov)
  • Studies on epsilon-prototoxin of Clostridium perfringens type D. I. Purification methods: evidence for multiple forms of epsilon-prototoxin. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Thus, a small amount of ingested cpe+ C. perfringens would act as an infectious agent and transfer the cpe plasmid to cpe- C. perfringens strains of the normal microbiota. (cdc.gov)
  • Application of the optimized conditions resulted in transformation efficiencies for C. perfringens 3624A-Rif$\sp{\rm r}$/Str$\sp{\rm r}$ ranging from 7.1 transformants/$\mu$g DNA for plasmid plP401 to 9.2 $\times$ 10$\sp4$ transformants/$\mu$g DNA for plasmid pAK201. (illinois.edu)
  • The transformation efficiency was 1.2 $\times$ 10$\sp2$ Tc$\sp{\rm r}$-C. perfringens transformants per $\mu$g of plasmid DNA. (illinois.edu)
  • This study demonstrated that electroporation-induced transformation is an efficient, reproducible technique for the introduction of plasmid DNA into intact cells of different C. perfringens strains. (illinois.edu)
  • NetF-producing Clostridium perfringens: Clonality and plasmid pathogenicity loci analysis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The following product was used in this experiment: Clostridium perfringens type D Polyclonal Antibody from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # BS-0936R. (thermofisher.com)
  • Blood samples from birds in both groups were examined to detect the antibody response to C.perfringens and C.septicum toxoid by ELISA. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Antibody against Clostridium perfringens type A enterotoxin was found in 82% of Brazilian and 65% of American serum samples. (asm.org)
  • The often fatal disease is caused by C. perfringens type C Footnote 4 , Footnote 10 , and is marked by hemorrhagic, inflammatory, or ischemic necrosis of the jejunum. (canada.ca)
  • a phospholipase produced by Clostridium perfringens that increases vascular permeability and produces necrosis. (thefreedictionary.com)