Type C Phospholipases
ADP Ribose Transferases
Molecular Sequence Data
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
Amino Acid Sequence
Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay by using monoclonal antibody for detection of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin. (1/1215)Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the quantitative estimation of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies as capturing and detecting antibodies, respectively. The dose-dependent relationship between absorbance at 405 nm and concentration of purified CPE was obtained over the range of 0.64-400 ng/ml. The sandwich ELISA was fond to detect crude CPE in culture and CPE in 10% fecal extracts. This method is convenient, rapid and sensitive for specific detection of CPE. (+info)
Hemorrhagic enteritis associated with Clostridium perfringens type A in a dog. (2/1215)A female Shetland sheep dog died suddenly with hemorrhagic diarrhea and vomitting, and was examined pathologically and microbiologically. Gross pathological change was restricted to the intestinal tract. The intestine contained watery, blood-stained fluid. Histopathologically, the principal intestinal lesion was superficial mucosal hemorrhagic necrosis at the jejunoileum. Many Gram-positive bacilli were found adhering to the necrotic mucosal surface in parts of the intestinal tract. Clostridium perfringens in pure culture were isolated from jejunal contents by anaerobic culture. These results suggested that the typical lesion of this case coincided with canine hemorrhagic enteritis and enterotoxemia due to C. perfringens infection could be the cause of sudden death. (+info)
Cationic currents induced by Clostridium perfringens type A enterotoxin in human intestinal CaCO-2 cells. (3/1215)Clostridium perfringens type A produces an enterotoxin that induces diarrhoea experimentally in man and animals. The enterotoxin causes increased membrane permeability in susceptible cells which is thought to be due to pore formation in the host cell membrane. The effect of purified C. perfringens enterotoxin on intact intestinal CaCO-2 monolayers was examined in Ussing chambers and on single cells by whole-cell patch clamp. Mucosal application of C. perfringens enterotoxin resulted in prompt increases in short-circuit current coupled with a reduction in transepithelial resistance consistent with movement of sodium and other cations smaller than diethanolamine from mucosa to serosa. These changes were independent of extracellular calcium. Increases in short-circuit current were also observed in the apical membranes of CaCO-2 monolayers permeabilised across the basolateral membrane with nystatin. Currents were blocked by subsequent exposure to mucosal barium and zinc. Zinc also prevented the development of the current increases in apical membranes. Cationic currents were also observed following exposure of single CaCO-2 cells in whole-cell patch clamp recordings. These data indicate that C. perfringens enterotoxin is able to form cation permeant pores in the apical membrane of human intestinal CaCO-2 epithelia and the increases in short-circuit current can be prevented by pre-exposure to zinc ions. (+info)
Production of phospholipase C (alpha-toxin), haemolysins and lethal toxins by Clostridium perfringens types A to D. (4/1215)To obtain high yields of extracellular enzymes and toxins for immunological analysis, type culture collection strains of Clostridium perfringens types A to D and 28 fresh isolates of C. perfringens type A from humans were grown in fermenters under controlled conditions in a pre-reduced proteose peptone medium. The type culture collection strains all showed different characteristics with respect to growth rates and pH optima for growth. Production of phospholipase C (alpha-toxin), haemolysin and lethal activity varied considerably between the different types. Growth and extracellular protein production in fermenters with pH control and static or stirred cultures were compared. Production of all extracellular proteins measured was markedly improved by cultivation in fermenters with pH control. Strain ATCC13124 produced five times more phospholipase C than any of 28 freshly isolated strains of C. perfringens type A, grown under identical conditions. Haemolytic and lethal activities of the ATCC strain were equal or superior to the activities of any of the freshly isolated strains. There were no differences in the bacterial yields and in the production of extracellular toxins between type A strains isolated from clinical cases of gas gangrene and abdominal wounds, and those isolated from faecal samples from healthy persons. (+info)
Clostridium perfringens beta-toxin is sensitive to thiol-group modification but does not require a thiol group for lethal activity. (5/1215)The beta-toxin gene isolated from Clostridium perfringens type B was expressed as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion gene in Escherichia coli. The purified GST-beta-toxin fusion protein from the E. coli transformant cells was not lethal. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the recombinant beta-toxin (r toxin) isolated by thrombin cleavage of the fusion protein was G-S-N-D-I-G-K-T-T-T. Biological activities and molecular mass of r toxin were indistinguishable from those of native beta-toxin (n toxin) purified from C. perfringens type C. Replacement of Cys-265 with alanine or serine by site-directed mutagenesis resulted in little loss of the activity. Treatment of C265A with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), which inactivated lethal activity of r toxin and n toxin, led to no loss of the activity. The substitution of tyrosine or histidine for Cys-265 significantly diminished lethal activity. In addition, treatment of C265H with ethoxyformic anhydride which specifically modifies histidyl residue resulted in significant decrease in lethal activity, but that of r toxin with the agent did not. These results showed that replacement of the cysteine residue at position 265 with amino acids with large size of side chain or introduction of functional groups in the position resulted in loss of lethal activity of the toxin. Replacement of Tyr-266, Leu-268 or Trp-275 resulted in complete loss of lethal activity. Simultaneous administration of r toxin and W275A led to a decrease in lethal activity of beta-toxin. These observations suggest that the site essential for the activity is close to the cysteine residue. (+info)
Molecular subtyping of Clostridium perfringens by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to facilitate food-borne-disease outbreak investigations. (6/1215)Clostridium perfringens is a common cause of food-borne illness. The illness is characterized by profuse diarrhea and acute abdominal pain. Since the illness is usually self-limiting, many cases are undiagnosed and/or not reported. Investigations are often pursued after an outbreak involving large numbers of people in institutions, at restaurants, or at catered meals. Serotyping has been used in the past to assist epidemiologic investigations of C. perfringens outbreaks. However, serotyping reagents are not widely available, and many isolates are often untypeable with existing reagents. We developed a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method for molecular subtyping of C. perfringens isolates to aid in epidemiologic investigations of food-borne outbreaks. Six restriction endonucleases (SmaI, ApaI, FspI, MluI, KspI, and XbaI) were evaluated with a select panel of C. perfringens strains. SmaI was chosen for further studies because it produced 11 to 13 well-distributed bands of 40 to approximately 1,100 kb which provided good discrimination between isolates. Seventeen distinct patterns were obtained with 62 isolates from seven outbreak investigations or control strains. In general, multiple isolates from a single individual had indistinguishable PFGE patterns. Epidemiologically unrelated isolates (outbreak or control strains) had unique patterns; isolates from different individuals within an outbreak had similar, if not identical, patterns. PFGE identifies clonal relationships of isolates which will assist epidemiologic investigations of food-borne-disease outbreaks caused by C. perfringens. (+info)
Promoter upstream bent DNA activates the transcription of the Clostridium perfringens phospholipase C gene in a low temperature-dependent manner. (7/1215)The phospholipase C gene (plc) of Clostridium perfringens possesses three phased A-tracts forming bent DNA upstream of the promoter. An in vitro transcription assay involving C.perfringens RNA polymerase (RNAP) showed that the phased A-tracts have a stimulatory effect on the plc promoter, and that the effect is proportional to the number of A-tracts, and more prominent at lower temperature. A gel retardation assay and hydroxyl radical footprinting revealed that the phased A-tracts facilitate the formation of the RNAP-plc promoter complex through extension of the contact region. The upstream (UP) element of the Escherichia coli rrnB P1 promoter stimulated the downstream promoter activity temperature independently, differing from the phased A-tracts. When the UP element was placed upstream of the plc promoter, low temperature-dependent stimulation was observed, although this effect was less prominent than that of the phased A-tracts. These results suggest that both the phased A-tracts and UP element cause low temperature-dependent activation of the plc promoter through a similar mechanism, and that the more efficient low temperature-dependent activation by the phased A-tracts may be due to an increase in the bending angle at a lower temperature. (+info)
Differences in the carboxy-terminal (Putative phospholipid binding) domains of Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium bifermentans phospholipases C influence the hemolytic and lethal properties of these enzymes. (8/1215)The phospholipases C of C. perfringens (alpha-toxin) and C. bifermentans (Cbp) show >50% amino acid homology but differ in their hemolytic and toxic properties. We report here the purification and characterisation of alpha-toxin and Cbp. The phospholipase C activity of alpha-toxin and Cbp was similar when tested with phosphatidylcholine in egg yolk or in liposomes. However, the hemolytic activity of alpha-toxin was more than 100-fold that of Cbp. To investigate whether differences in the carboxy-terminal domains of these proteins were responsible for differences in the hemolytic and toxic properties, a hybrid protein (NbiCalpha) was constructed comprising the N domain of Cbp and the C domain of alpha-toxin. The hemolytic activity of NbiCalpha was 10-fold that of Cbp, and the hybrid enzyme was toxic. These results confirm that the C-terminal domain of these proteins confers different properties on the enzymatically active N-terminal domain of these proteins. (+info)
Some common types of Clostridium infections include:
* Clostridium difficile (C. diff) infection: This is a common type of diarrheal disease that can occur after taking antibiotics, especially in people who are hospitalized or living in long-term care facilities.
* Gas gangrene: This is a severe and potentially life-threatening infection that occurs when Clostridium bacteria infect damaged tissue, causing gas to build up in the affected area.
* Tetanus: This is a serious neurological infection caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani, which can enter the body through open wounds or puncture wounds.
* Botulism: This is a potentially fatal illness caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, which can be contracted through contaminated food or wounds.
Clostridium infections can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, and swelling or redness in the affected area. Treatment depends on the type of infection and may include antibiotics, surgery, or supportive care to manage symptoms.
Prevention measures for Clostridium infections include proper hand hygiene, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and practicing safe food handling practices to prevent the spread of botulism and other clostridial infections. Vaccines are also available for some types of clostridial infections, such as tetanus and botulism.
In summary, Clostridium infections are a diverse group of bacterial infections that can cause a range of illnesses, from mild to severe and life-threatening. Proper prevention and treatment measures are essential to avoid the potential complications of these infections.
The symptoms of gas gangrene can include sudden onset of severe pain, swelling, redness, and warmth in the affected area. The skin may also be tender to the touch and feel firm or hard. In severe cases, the infection can spread quickly and lead to sepsis, shock, and even death.
Gas gangrene can occur as a result of trauma, such as a wound or injury, or it can be caused by a surgical incision that becomes infected. The infection can also spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream.
Treatment of gas gangrene typically involves antibiotics and surgical debridement (removal of dead tissue) to remove the infected tissue and promote healing. In severe cases, amputation of the affected limb may be necessary. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent serious complications and improve outcomes.
In summary, gas gangrene is a life-threatening bacterial infection that can occur in muscle tissue, causing sudden pain, swelling, and warmth in the affected area. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent serious complications and improve outcomes.
The symptoms of enterotoxemia may include:
* Abdominal cramping
* Blood in stools
If you suspect you or someone else has enterotoxemia, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and supportive care, such as fluids and electrolyte replacement. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
Prevention is key in avoiding enterotoxemia, which includes:
* Proper food handling and storage
* Good hygiene practices
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
If you have a weakened immune system or other underlying health conditions, it is especially important to take precautions to avoid getting enterotoxemia. By being aware of the risk factors and taking preventative measures, you can reduce your chances of developing this serious disease.
Foodborne diseases, also known as food-borne illnesses or gastrointestinal infections, are conditions caused by eating contaminated or spoiled food. These diseases can be caused by a variety of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites, which can be present in food products at any stage of the food supply chain.
Examples of common foodborne diseases include:
1. Salmonella: Caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica, this disease can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps.
2. E. coli: Caused by the bacterium Escherichia coli, this disease can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, urinary tract infections, and pneumonia.
3. Listeria: Caused by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, this disease can cause symptoms such as fever, headache, and stiffness in the neck.
4. Campylobacter: Caused by the bacterium Campylobacter jejuni, this disease can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps.
5. Norovirus: This highly contagious virus can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach cramps.
6. Botulism: Caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, this disease can cause symptoms such as muscle paralysis, respiratory failure, and difficulty swallowing.
Foodborne diseases can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including stool samples, blood tests, and biopsies. Treatment typically involves antibiotics or other supportive care to manage symptoms. Prevention is key to avoiding foodborne diseases, and this includes proper food handling and preparation practices, as well as ensuring that food products are stored and cooked at safe temperatures.
Symptoms of enteritis may include diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. In severe cases, the condition can lead to dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and even death if left untreated.
The diagnosis of enteritis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as endoscopy, imaging studies, and laboratory tests (e.g., blood tests, stool cultures). Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, and supportive care to manage symptoms.
PSE can be a serious condition, especially in older adults or those with weakened immune systems, as it can lead to life-threatening complications such as inflammation of the bowel wall, perforation of the bowel, and sepsis. PSE is often diagnosed through a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eradicate the infection, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms such as fluid replacement, pain management, and wound care. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged portions of the intestine.
Prevention measures for PSE include proper hand hygiene, isolation precautions, and environmental cleaning to reduce the transmission of C. diff spores. Probiotics, which are live microorganisms that are similar to the beneficial bacteria found in the gut, have also been shown to be effective in preventing PSE recurrence.
There are two main types of hemolysis:
1. Intravascular hemolysis: This type occurs within the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as mechanical injury, oxidative stress, and certain infections.
2. Extravascular hemolysis: This type occurs outside the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as bone marrow disorders, splenic rupture, and certain medications.
Hemolytic anemia is a condition that occurs when there is excessive hemolysis of RBCs, leading to a decrease in the number of healthy red blood cells in the body. This can cause symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, pale skin, and shortness of breath.
Some common causes of hemolysis include:
1. Genetic disorders such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia.
2. Autoimmune disorders such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA).
3. Infections such as malaria, babesiosis, and toxoplasmosis.
4. Medications such as antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and blood thinners.
5. Bone marrow disorders such as aplastic anemia and myelofibrosis.
6. Splenic rupture or surgical removal of the spleen.
7. Mechanical injury to the blood vessels.
Diagnosis of hemolysis is based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as complete blood count (CBC), blood smear examination, and direct Coombs test. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include supportive care, blood transfusions, and medications to suppress the immune system or prevent infection.
There are several types of diarrhea, including:
1. Acute diarrhea: This type of diarrhea is short-term and usually resolves on its own within a few days. It can be caused by a viral or bacterial infection, food poisoning, or medication side effects.
2. Chronic diarrhea: This type of diarrhea persists for more than 4 weeks and can be caused by a variety of conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), or celiac disease.
3. Diarrhea-predominant IBS: This type of diarrhea is characterized by frequent, loose stools and abdominal pain or discomfort. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including stress, hormonal changes, and certain foods.
4. Infectious diarrhea: This type of diarrhea is caused by a bacterial, viral, or parasitic infection and can be spread through contaminated food and water, close contact with an infected person, or by consuming contaminated food.
Symptoms of diarrhea may include:
* Frequent, loose, and watery stools
* Abdominal cramps and pain
* Bloating and gas
* Nausea and vomiting
* Fever and chills
* Fatigue and weakness
Diagnosis of diarrhea is typically made through a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests to rule out other potential causes of the symptoms. Treatment for diarrhea depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, anti-diarrheal medications, fluid replacement, and dietary changes. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat any complications.
Prevention of diarrhea includes:
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and thoroughly, especially after using the bathroom or before preparing food
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Properly storing and cooking food to prevent contamination
* Drinking safe water and avoiding contaminated water sources
* Avoiding raw or undercooked meat, poultry, and seafood
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause diarrhea
Complications of diarrhea can include:
* Dehydration: Diarrhea can lead to a loss of fluids and electrolytes, which can cause dehydration. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention.
* Electrolyte imbalance: Diarrhea can also cause an imbalance of electrolytes in the body, which can lead to serious complications.
* Inflammation of the intestines: Prolonged diarrhea can cause inflammation of the intestines, which can lead to abdominal pain and other complications.
* Infections: Diarrhea can be a symptom of an infection, such as a bacterial or viral infection. If left untreated, these infections can lead to serious complications.
* Malnutrition: Prolonged diarrhea can lead to malnutrition and weight loss, which can have long-term effects on health and development.
Treatment of diarrhea will depend on the underlying cause, but may include:
* Fluid replacement: Drinking plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration and replace lost electrolytes.
* Anti-diarrheal medications: Over-the-counter or prescription medications to slow down bowel movements and reduce diarrhea.
* Antibiotics: If the diarrhea is caused by a bacterial infection, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat the infection.
* Rest: Getting plenty of rest to allow the body to recover from the illness.
* Dietary changes: Avoiding certain foods or making dietary changes to help manage symptoms and prevent future episodes of diarrhea.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following:
* Severe diarrhea that lasts for more than 3 days
* Diarrhea that is accompanied by fever, blood in the stool, or abdominal pain
* Diarrhea that is severe enough to cause dehydration or electrolyte imbalances
* Diarrhea that is not responding to treatment
Prevention of diarrhea includes:
* Good hand hygiene: Washing your hands frequently, especially after using the bathroom or before preparing food.
* Safe food handling: Cooking and storing food properly to prevent contamination.
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause diarrhea, such as rotavirus.
Overall, while diarrhea can be uncomfortable and disruptive, it is usually a minor illness that can be treated at home with over-the-counter medications and plenty of fluids. However, if you experience severe or persistent diarrhea, it is important to seek medical attention to rule out any underlying conditions that may require more formal treatment.
Some common poultry diseases include:
1. Avian influenza (bird flu): A highly contagious viral disease that affects birds and can be transmitted to humans.
2. Newcastle disease: A viral disease that causes respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms in birds.
3. Infectious bronchitis: A viral disease that causes respiratory symptoms in birds.
4. Marek's disease: A viral disease that affects the nervous system of birds.
5. Coccidiosis: A parasitic disease caused by the Eimeria protozoa, which can cause diarrhea and weight loss in birds.
6. Chicken anemia virus: A viral disease that causes anemia and weakened immune systems in chickens.
7. Fowl pox: A viral disease that causes skin lesions and other symptoms in birds.
8. Avian encephalomyelitis (AE): A viral disease that affects the brain and spinal cord of birds, causing neurological symptoms such as paralysis and death.
9. Mycoplasmosis: A bacterial disease caused by the Mycoplasma bacteria, which can cause respiratory and other symptoms in birds.
10. Aspergillosis: A fungal disease that affects the respiratory system of birds, causing symptoms such as coughing and difficulty breathing.
Poultry diseases can have a significant impact on bird health and productivity, and can also be transmitted to humans in some cases. It is important for poultry farmers and owners to monitor their flocks closely and take steps to prevent the spread of disease, such as providing clean water and feed, maintaining good hygiene, and vaccinating birds against certain diseases.
Some common horse diseases include:
1. Equine Influenza (EI): A highly contagious respiratory disease caused by the equine influenza virus. It can cause fever, coughing, and nasal discharge.
2. Strangles: A bacterial infection of the lymph nodes, which can cause swelling of the neck and difficulty breathing.
3. West Nile Virus (WNV): A viral infection that can cause fever, weakness, and loss of coordination. It is transmitted by mosquitoes and can be fatal in some cases.
4. Tetanus: A bacterial infection caused by Clostridium tetani, which can cause muscle stiffness, spasms, and rigidity.
5. Rabies: A viral infection that affects the central nervous system and can be fatal if left untreated. It is transmitted through the saliva of infected animals, usually through a bite.
6. Cushing's Disease: A hormonal disorder caused by an overproduction of cortisol, which can cause weight gain, muscle wasting, and other health issues.
7. Laminitis: An inflammation of the laminae, the tissues that connect the hoof to the bone. It can be caused by obesity, overeating, or excessive exercise.
8. Navicular Syndrome: A condition that affects the navicular bone and surrounding tissue, causing pain and lameness in the foot.
9. Pneumonia: An inflammation of the lungs, which can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
10. Colic: A general term for abdominal pain, which can be caused by a variety of factors, including gas, impaction, or twisting of the intestines.
These are just a few examples of the many potential health issues that can affect horses. Regular veterinary care and proper management can help prevent many of these conditions, and early diagnosis and treatment can improve the chances of a successful outcome.
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- Stool specimens obtained from six symptomatic inmates on August 8 were submitted to the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene (WSLH) for testing for C. perfringens and Bacillus cereus enterotoxin. (cdc.gov)
- Vibrio cholerae , Clostridium perfringens toxin, Bacillus cereus toxin, norovirus ( 8 , 9 ), and rotavirus ( 10 , 11 ). (cdc.gov)
- Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) is a pore-forming toxin that causes the symptoms of common bacterial food poisoning and several non-foodborne human gastrointestinal diseases, including antibiotic-associated diarrhea and sporadic diarrhea. (nih.gov)
- The objectives of this study were to examine the potential roles of Clostridium difficile and enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens in diarrhea in dogs by comparison of isolation, determination of toxin status via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and application of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (nih.gov)
- A significant association was found between the presence of diarrhea and detection of C perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) or toxin A via ELISA for both C perfringens and C difficile, respectively. (nih.gov)
- Type D enterotoxemia , caused by Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin (ETX), is one of the most economically important clostridial diseases of sheep . (bvsalud.org)
- Four groups of 6 sheep each were intraduodenally inoculated with either a wild-type virulent C. perfringens type D strain , an etx knockout mutant unable to produce ETX, the etx mutant strain complemented with the wild-type etx gene that regains the ETX toxin production , or sterile culture medium ( control group ). (bvsalud.org)
- To address this knowledge gap, we used sensitive and quantitative PCR detection to show that people with MS were more likely to harbor and show a greater abundance of epsilon toxin (ETX)-producing strains of C. perfringens within their gut microbiomes compared to healthy controls (HC). (jci.org)
- No significant difference was found in the isolation of C perfringens or C difficile among the 3 groups. (nih.gov)
- Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including clindamycin hydrochloride and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. (nih.gov)
- Clostridium difficile -associated diarrhea (ranging from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis) has been reported. (nih.gov)
- Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin was detected in stool samples collected from six ill inmates, and 43,000 CFU/g of the organism were isolated from a remaining sample of casserole. (cdc.gov)
- A confirmed case was defined as a probable case with a stool sample positive for C. perfringens enterotoxin. (cdc.gov)
- Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) is an important virulence factor for food poisoning and non-food borne gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. (okstate.edu)
- Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Prevotella intermedia were isolated from the wounds. (elsevier.com)
- Characterization of mucus showed that C. perfringens treatment altered the relative abundance of five glycans. (biomedcentral.com)
- If C. perfringens gains access to necrotic products of conception retained in the uterus, it may multiply and infect the endometrium. (brainkart.com)
- Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a disease of the small intestine of chickens incited by C. perfringens , which can result in elevated morbidity and mortality. (biomedcentral.com)
- Necrotic enteritis (NE) incited by Clostridium perfringens is an economically-important disease of the small intestine of poultry that results in high bird mortality and costs the global poultry industry US$5-6 billion per year [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Based on this, the vaccine strain of Clostridium perfringens type D cultivated in two different media contain peptone produced from worms and meat peptone. (agrijournals.ir)
- Experimental acute Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia in sheep is not characterized by specific renal lesions. (bvsalud.org)
- Together, these findings suggest that ETX-producing C. perfringens strains are biologically plausible pathogens in MS that trigger inflammatory demyelination in the context of circulating myelin autoreactive lymphocytes. (jci.org)
- Birds administered CORT exhibited higher densities of C. perfringens in their intestine, and this corresponded to altered production of intestinal mucus. (biomedcentral.com)
- CORT administration modulated a number of host functions, which corresponded to increased densities of C. perfringens in the small intestine and weight gain impairment in chickens. (biomedcentral.com)
- A probable C. perfringens intoxication case was defined as the self-reported (by questionnaire) presence of at least one of the following symptoms: diarrhea (three or more loose stools in a 24-hour period), abdominal cramps, or nausea occurring between 5:00 p.m. on August 7 and 5:00 p.m. on August 8. (cdc.gov)
- Tailored beta-cyclodextrin blocks the translocation pores of binary exotoxins from Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium perfringens and protects mammalian cells from intoxication. (nih.gov)
- Birds inoculated with C. perfringens did not exhibit evidence of acute morbidity. (biomedcentral.com)
- Interactions of high-affinity cationic blockers with the translocation pores of B. anthracis , C. botulinum , and C. perfringens binary toxins. (nih.gov)
- The objective of the current research was to develop a predictive model for C. perfringens spore germination and outgrowth in cooked chicken products during cooling by incorporating a function to describe the prior history of the microbial cell in the secondary model. (usda.gov)
- C. perfringens outbreaks occur when food reaches unsafe temperatures. (cdc.gov)
- This study identified situations in the restaurant environment that caused food to reach unsafe temperatures and result in an outbreak of C. perfringens . (cdc.gov)
- Infections caused by Clostridium perfringens and Paeniclostridium sordellii after unsafe abortion. (gale.com)
- C. perfringens bacteria are one of the most common causes of foodborne illness (food poisoning). (cdc.gov)
- Enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens type A in selected humans : a prevalence study / Manuel J. Torres-Anjel, Hans P. Riemann, and Che C. Tsai. (who.int)
- In addition to being the first study reporting the nature of a physiological signal triggering sporulation in clostridia, these findings have relevance for the development of antisporulation drugs to prevent or treat CPE-mediated GI diseases in humans. (okstate.edu)
- Diseases caused by clostridium. (medlineplus.gov)
- This case study is the first report of Clostridium perfringens myonecrosis in a laboratory nonhuman primate. (elsevier.com)
- Retail food establishments, such as restaurants, can work to avoid the root causes of Clostridium perfringens outbreaks. (cdc.gov)
- In the absence of P i - supplementation, C. perfringens displayed a spo0A phenotype, i.e., absence of polar septation and DNA partitioning in cells that reached the stationary phase of growth. (okstate.edu)
- We found three types of root causes of C. perfringens outbreaks. (cdc.gov)
- Clostridium is found nearly everywhere. (medlineplus.gov)
- Out of 139 water samples tested, using a membrane filtration technique, 131 (94.2%) of the samples analyzed were found to be presumptively positive for C. perfringens on at least one of the culture media. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- In the present study, three media (mCP, TSCF and CP ChromoSelect Agar) were evaluated for recovery of C. perfringens in different water samples. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The identification of typical and atypical colonies isolated from all media demonstrated that CCP agar was the most specific medium for C. perfringens recovery in water samples. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- This study describes common factors that came before C. perfringens outbreaks, as reported by the investigators of those outbreaks. (cdc.gov)
- This study utilized a chicken model of chronic physiological stress mediated by corticosterone (CORT) administration to ascertain how various host metrics are altered upon challenge with Clostridium perfringens . (biomedcentral.com)
- Out of 483 green colonies on CCP agar, 96.9% (465 colonies, indole negative) were identified as C. perfringens , 15 colonies (3.1%) were indole positive and were identified as C. sordelli , C. bifermentans or C. tetani . (sigmaaldrich.com)
- It is quite common, for example, to isolate C. perfringens from contaminated wounds of patients who have no evidence of clostridial disease. (brainkart.com)
- Fishmeal has been demonstrated to alter the composition of the microbiota and may provide novel nutrient substrates for C. perfringens growth [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)