The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.
A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.
A severe condition resulting from bacteria invading healthy muscle from adjacent traumatized muscle or soft tissue. The infection originates in a wound contaminated with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM. C. perfringens accounts for the majority of cases (over eighty percent), while C. noyvi, C. septicum, and C. histolyticum cause most of the other cases.
Disease caused by the liberation of exotoxins of CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS in the intestines of sheep, goats, cattle, foals, and piglets. Type B enterotoxemia in lambs is lamb dysentery; type C enterotoxemia in mature sheep produces "struck", and in calves, lambs and piglets it produces hemorrhagic enterotoxemia; type D enterotoxemia in sheep and goats is pulpy-kidney disease or overeating disease.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.
Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.
A claudin subtype that takes part in maintaining the barrier-forming property of TIGHT JUNCTIONS. Claudin-4 is found associated with CLAUDIN-8 in the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT where it may play a role in paracellular chloride ion reabsorption.
The cause of TETANUS in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin.
An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC, it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
A ubiquitously-expressed claudin subtype that acts as a general barrier-forming protein in TIGHT JUNCTIONS. Elevated expression of claudin-3 is found in a variety of tumor cell types, suggesting its role as a therapeutic target for specific ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, used for the industrial production of SOLVENTS.
Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. Infections have a strong association with malignancies and also with GAS GANGRENE.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, found in INTESTINES and SOIL.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
Organic esters of thioglycolic acid (HS-CH2COOH).
Antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces garyphalus.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Type species of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM, a gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is used as a source of PROBIOTICS.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
The fourth stomach of ruminating animals. It is also called the "true" stomach. It is an elongated pear-shaped sac lying on the floor of the abdomen, on the right-hand side, and roughly between the seventh and twelfth ribs. It leads to the beginning of the small intestine. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
One of the short-acting SULFONAMIDES used in combination with PYRIMETHAMINE to treat toxoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and in newborns with congenital infections.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
Derived proteins or mixtures of cleavage products produced by the partial hydrolysis of a native protein either by an acid or by an enzyme. Peptones are readily soluble in water, and are not precipitable by heat, by alkalis, or by saturation with ammonium sulfate. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Basic lipopeptide antibiotic group obtained from Bacillus polymyxa. They affect the cell membrane by detergent action and may cause neuromuscular and kidney damage. At least eleven different members of the polymyxin group have been identified, each designated by a letter.
Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.
A class of iron-sulfur proteins that contains one iron coordinated to the sulfur atom of four cysteine residues. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.

Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay by using monoclonal antibody for detection of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin. (1/1215)

Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the quantitative estimation of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies as capturing and detecting antibodies, respectively. The dose-dependent relationship between absorbance at 405 nm and concentration of purified CPE was obtained over the range of 0.64-400 ng/ml. The sandwich ELISA was fond to detect crude CPE in culture and CPE in 10% fecal extracts. This method is convenient, rapid and sensitive for specific detection of CPE.  (+info)

Hemorrhagic enteritis associated with Clostridium perfringens type A in a dog. (2/1215)

A female Shetland sheep dog died suddenly with hemorrhagic diarrhea and vomitting, and was examined pathologically and microbiologically. Gross pathological change was restricted to the intestinal tract. The intestine contained watery, blood-stained fluid. Histopathologically, the principal intestinal lesion was superficial mucosal hemorrhagic necrosis at the jejunoileum. Many Gram-positive bacilli were found adhering to the necrotic mucosal surface in parts of the intestinal tract. Clostridium perfringens in pure culture were isolated from jejunal contents by anaerobic culture. These results suggested that the typical lesion of this case coincided with canine hemorrhagic enteritis and enterotoxemia due to C. perfringens infection could be the cause of sudden death.  (+info)

Cationic currents induced by Clostridium perfringens type A enterotoxin in human intestinal CaCO-2 cells. (3/1215)

Clostridium perfringens type A produces an enterotoxin that induces diarrhoea experimentally in man and animals. The enterotoxin causes increased membrane permeability in susceptible cells which is thought to be due to pore formation in the host cell membrane. The effect of purified C. perfringens enterotoxin on intact intestinal CaCO-2 monolayers was examined in Ussing chambers and on single cells by whole-cell patch clamp. Mucosal application of C. perfringens enterotoxin resulted in prompt increases in short-circuit current coupled with a reduction in transepithelial resistance consistent with movement of sodium and other cations smaller than diethanolamine from mucosa to serosa. These changes were independent of extracellular calcium. Increases in short-circuit current were also observed in the apical membranes of CaCO-2 monolayers permeabilised across the basolateral membrane with nystatin. Currents were blocked by subsequent exposure to mucosal barium and zinc. Zinc also prevented the development of the current increases in apical membranes. Cationic currents were also observed following exposure of single CaCO-2 cells in whole-cell patch clamp recordings. These data indicate that C. perfringens enterotoxin is able to form cation permeant pores in the apical membrane of human intestinal CaCO-2 epithelia and the increases in short-circuit current can be prevented by pre-exposure to zinc ions.  (+info)

Production of phospholipase C (alpha-toxin), haemolysins and lethal toxins by Clostridium perfringens types A to D. (4/1215)

To obtain high yields of extracellular enzymes and toxins for immunological analysis, type culture collection strains of Clostridium perfringens types A to D and 28 fresh isolates of C. perfringens type A from humans were grown in fermenters under controlled conditions in a pre-reduced proteose peptone medium. The type culture collection strains all showed different characteristics with respect to growth rates and pH optima for growth. Production of phospholipase C (alpha-toxin), haemolysin and lethal activity varied considerably between the different types. Growth and extracellular protein production in fermenters with pH control and static or stirred cultures were compared. Production of all extracellular proteins measured was markedly improved by cultivation in fermenters with pH control. Strain ATCC13124 produced five times more phospholipase C than any of 28 freshly isolated strains of C. perfringens type A, grown under identical conditions. Haemolytic and lethal activities of the ATCC strain were equal or superior to the activities of any of the freshly isolated strains. There were no differences in the bacterial yields and in the production of extracellular toxins between type A strains isolated from clinical cases of gas gangrene and abdominal wounds, and those isolated from faecal samples from healthy persons.  (+info)

Clostridium perfringens beta-toxin is sensitive to thiol-group modification but does not require a thiol group for lethal activity. (5/1215)

The beta-toxin gene isolated from Clostridium perfringens type B was expressed as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion gene in Escherichia coli. The purified GST-beta-toxin fusion protein from the E. coli transformant cells was not lethal. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the recombinant beta-toxin (r toxin) isolated by thrombin cleavage of the fusion protein was G-S-N-D-I-G-K-T-T-T. Biological activities and molecular mass of r toxin were indistinguishable from those of native beta-toxin (n toxin) purified from C. perfringens type C. Replacement of Cys-265 with alanine or serine by site-directed mutagenesis resulted in little loss of the activity. Treatment of C265A with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), which inactivated lethal activity of r toxin and n toxin, led to no loss of the activity. The substitution of tyrosine or histidine for Cys-265 significantly diminished lethal activity. In addition, treatment of C265H with ethoxyformic anhydride which specifically modifies histidyl residue resulted in significant decrease in lethal activity, but that of r toxin with the agent did not. These results showed that replacement of the cysteine residue at position 265 with amino acids with large size of side chain or introduction of functional groups in the position resulted in loss of lethal activity of the toxin. Replacement of Tyr-266, Leu-268 or Trp-275 resulted in complete loss of lethal activity. Simultaneous administration of r toxin and W275A led to a decrease in lethal activity of beta-toxin. These observations suggest that the site essential for the activity is close to the cysteine residue.  (+info)

Molecular subtyping of Clostridium perfringens by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to facilitate food-borne-disease outbreak investigations. (6/1215)

Clostridium perfringens is a common cause of food-borne illness. The illness is characterized by profuse diarrhea and acute abdominal pain. Since the illness is usually self-limiting, many cases are undiagnosed and/or not reported. Investigations are often pursued after an outbreak involving large numbers of people in institutions, at restaurants, or at catered meals. Serotyping has been used in the past to assist epidemiologic investigations of C. perfringens outbreaks. However, serotyping reagents are not widely available, and many isolates are often untypeable with existing reagents. We developed a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method for molecular subtyping of C. perfringens isolates to aid in epidemiologic investigations of food-borne outbreaks. Six restriction endonucleases (SmaI, ApaI, FspI, MluI, KspI, and XbaI) were evaluated with a select panel of C. perfringens strains. SmaI was chosen for further studies because it produced 11 to 13 well-distributed bands of 40 to approximately 1,100 kb which provided good discrimination between isolates. Seventeen distinct patterns were obtained with 62 isolates from seven outbreak investigations or control strains. In general, multiple isolates from a single individual had indistinguishable PFGE patterns. Epidemiologically unrelated isolates (outbreak or control strains) had unique patterns; isolates from different individuals within an outbreak had similar, if not identical, patterns. PFGE identifies clonal relationships of isolates which will assist epidemiologic investigations of food-borne-disease outbreaks caused by C. perfringens.  (+info)

Promoter upstream bent DNA activates the transcription of the Clostridium perfringens phospholipase C gene in a low temperature-dependent manner. (7/1215)

The phospholipase C gene (plc) of Clostridium perfringens possesses three phased A-tracts forming bent DNA upstream of the promoter. An in vitro transcription assay involving C.perfringens RNA polymerase (RNAP) showed that the phased A-tracts have a stimulatory effect on the plc promoter, and that the effect is proportional to the number of A-tracts, and more prominent at lower temperature. A gel retardation assay and hydroxyl radical footprinting revealed that the phased A-tracts facilitate the formation of the RNAP-plc promoter complex through extension of the contact region. The upstream (UP) element of the Escherichia coli rrnB P1 promoter stimulated the downstream promoter activity temperature independently, differing from the phased A-tracts. When the UP element was placed upstream of the plc promoter, low temperature-dependent stimulation was observed, although this effect was less prominent than that of the phased A-tracts. These results suggest that both the phased A-tracts and UP element cause low temperature-dependent activation of the plc promoter through a similar mechanism, and that the more efficient low temperature-dependent activation by the phased A-tracts may be due to an increase in the bending angle at a lower temperature.  (+info)

Differences in the carboxy-terminal (Putative phospholipid binding) domains of Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium bifermentans phospholipases C influence the hemolytic and lethal properties of these enzymes. (8/1215)

The phospholipases C of C. perfringens (alpha-toxin) and C. bifermentans (Cbp) show >50% amino acid homology but differ in their hemolytic and toxic properties. We report here the purification and characterisation of alpha-toxin and Cbp. The phospholipase C activity of alpha-toxin and Cbp was similar when tested with phosphatidylcholine in egg yolk or in liposomes. However, the hemolytic activity of alpha-toxin was more than 100-fold that of Cbp. To investigate whether differences in the carboxy-terminal domains of these proteins were responsible for differences in the hemolytic and toxic properties, a hybrid protein (NbiCalpha) was constructed comprising the N domain of Cbp and the C domain of alpha-toxin. The hemolytic activity of NbiCalpha was 10-fold that of Cbp, and the hybrid enzyme was toxic. These results confirm that the C-terminal domain of these proteins confers different properties on the enzymatically active N-terminal domain of these proteins.  (+info)

Some common types of Clostridium infections include:

* Clostridium difficile (C. diff) infection: This is a common type of diarrheal disease that can occur after taking antibiotics, especially in people who are hospitalized or living in long-term care facilities.
* Gas gangrene: This is a severe and potentially life-threatening infection that occurs when Clostridium bacteria infect damaged tissue, causing gas to build up in the affected area.
* Tetanus: This is a serious neurological infection caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani, which can enter the body through open wounds or puncture wounds.
* Botulism: This is a potentially fatal illness caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, which can be contracted through contaminated food or wounds.

Clostridium infections can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, and swelling or redness in the affected area. Treatment depends on the type of infection and may include antibiotics, surgery, or supportive care to manage symptoms.

Prevention measures for Clostridium infections include proper hand hygiene, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and practicing safe food handling practices to prevent the spread of botulism and other clostridial infections. Vaccines are also available for some types of clostridial infections, such as tetanus and botulism.

In summary, Clostridium infections are a diverse group of bacterial infections that can cause a range of illnesses, from mild to severe and life-threatening. Proper prevention and treatment measures are essential to avoid the potential complications of these infections.

The symptoms of gas gangrene can include sudden onset of severe pain, swelling, redness, and warmth in the affected area. The skin may also be tender to the touch and feel firm or hard. In severe cases, the infection can spread quickly and lead to sepsis, shock, and even death.

Gas gangrene can occur as a result of trauma, such as a wound or injury, or it can be caused by a surgical incision that becomes infected. The infection can also spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream.

Treatment of gas gangrene typically involves antibiotics and surgical debridement (removal of dead tissue) to remove the infected tissue and promote healing. In severe cases, amputation of the affected limb may be necessary. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent serious complications and improve outcomes.

In summary, gas gangrene is a life-threatening bacterial infection that can occur in muscle tissue, causing sudden pain, swelling, and warmth in the affected area. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent serious complications and improve outcomes.

The symptoms of enterotoxemia may include:

* Diarrhea
* Abdominal cramping
* Vomiting
* Fever
* Blood in stools

If you suspect you or someone else has enterotoxemia, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and supportive care, such as fluids and electrolyte replacement. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

Prevention is key in avoiding enterotoxemia, which includes:

* Proper food handling and storage
* Good hygiene practices
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick

If you have a weakened immune system or other underlying health conditions, it is especially important to take precautions to avoid getting enterotoxemia. By being aware of the risk factors and taking preventative measures, you can reduce your chances of developing this serious disease.

Foodborne diseases, also known as food-borne illnesses or gastrointestinal infections, are conditions caused by eating contaminated or spoiled food. These diseases can be caused by a variety of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites, which can be present in food products at any stage of the food supply chain.

Examples of common foodborne diseases include:

1. Salmonella: Caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica, this disease can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps.
2. E. coli: Caused by the bacterium Escherichia coli, this disease can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, urinary tract infections, and pneumonia.
3. Listeria: Caused by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, this disease can cause symptoms such as fever, headache, and stiffness in the neck.
4. Campylobacter: Caused by the bacterium Campylobacter jejuni, this disease can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps.
5. Norovirus: This highly contagious virus can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach cramps.
6. Botulism: Caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, this disease can cause symptoms such as muscle paralysis, respiratory failure, and difficulty swallowing.

Foodborne diseases can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including stool samples, blood tests, and biopsies. Treatment typically involves antibiotics or other supportive care to manage symptoms. Prevention is key to avoiding foodborne diseases, and this includes proper food handling and preparation practices, as well as ensuring that food products are stored and cooked at safe temperatures.

Symptoms of enteritis may include diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. In severe cases, the condition can lead to dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and even death if left untreated.

The diagnosis of enteritis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as endoscopy, imaging studies, and laboratory tests (e.g., blood tests, stool cultures). Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, and supportive care to manage symptoms.

PSE can be a serious condition, especially in older adults or those with weakened immune systems, as it can lead to life-threatening complications such as inflammation of the bowel wall, perforation of the bowel, and sepsis. PSE is often diagnosed through a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eradicate the infection, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms such as fluid replacement, pain management, and wound care. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged portions of the intestine.

Prevention measures for PSE include proper hand hygiene, isolation precautions, and environmental cleaning to reduce the transmission of C. diff spores. Probiotics, which are live microorganisms that are similar to the beneficial bacteria found in the gut, have also been shown to be effective in preventing PSE recurrence.

There are two main types of hemolysis:

1. Intravascular hemolysis: This type occurs within the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as mechanical injury, oxidative stress, and certain infections.
2. Extravascular hemolysis: This type occurs outside the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as bone marrow disorders, splenic rupture, and certain medications.

Hemolytic anemia is a condition that occurs when there is excessive hemolysis of RBCs, leading to a decrease in the number of healthy red blood cells in the body. This can cause symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, pale skin, and shortness of breath.

Some common causes of hemolysis include:

1. Genetic disorders such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia.
2. Autoimmune disorders such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA).
3. Infections such as malaria, babesiosis, and toxoplasmosis.
4. Medications such as antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and blood thinners.
5. Bone marrow disorders such as aplastic anemia and myelofibrosis.
6. Splenic rupture or surgical removal of the spleen.
7. Mechanical injury to the blood vessels.

Diagnosis of hemolysis is based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as complete blood count (CBC), blood smear examination, and direct Coombs test. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include supportive care, blood transfusions, and medications to suppress the immune system or prevent infection.

There are several types of diarrhea, including:

1. Acute diarrhea: This type of diarrhea is short-term and usually resolves on its own within a few days. It can be caused by a viral or bacterial infection, food poisoning, or medication side effects.
2. Chronic diarrhea: This type of diarrhea persists for more than 4 weeks and can be caused by a variety of conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), or celiac disease.
3. Diarrhea-predominant IBS: This type of diarrhea is characterized by frequent, loose stools and abdominal pain or discomfort. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including stress, hormonal changes, and certain foods.
4. Infectious diarrhea: This type of diarrhea is caused by a bacterial, viral, or parasitic infection and can be spread through contaminated food and water, close contact with an infected person, or by consuming contaminated food.

Symptoms of diarrhea may include:

* Frequent, loose, and watery stools
* Abdominal cramps and pain
* Bloating and gas
* Nausea and vomiting
* Fever and chills
* Headache
* Fatigue and weakness

Diagnosis of diarrhea is typically made through a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests to rule out other potential causes of the symptoms. Treatment for diarrhea depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, anti-diarrheal medications, fluid replacement, and dietary changes. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat any complications.

Prevention of diarrhea includes:

* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and thoroughly, especially after using the bathroom or before preparing food
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Properly storing and cooking food to prevent contamination
* Drinking safe water and avoiding contaminated water sources
* Avoiding raw or undercooked meat, poultry, and seafood
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause diarrhea

Complications of diarrhea can include:

* Dehydration: Diarrhea can lead to a loss of fluids and electrolytes, which can cause dehydration. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention.
* Electrolyte imbalance: Diarrhea can also cause an imbalance of electrolytes in the body, which can lead to serious complications.
* Inflammation of the intestines: Prolonged diarrhea can cause inflammation of the intestines, which can lead to abdominal pain and other complications.
* Infections: Diarrhea can be a symptom of an infection, such as a bacterial or viral infection. If left untreated, these infections can lead to serious complications.
* Malnutrition: Prolonged diarrhea can lead to malnutrition and weight loss, which can have long-term effects on health and development.

Treatment of diarrhea will depend on the underlying cause, but may include:

* Fluid replacement: Drinking plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration and replace lost electrolytes.
* Anti-diarrheal medications: Over-the-counter or prescription medications to slow down bowel movements and reduce diarrhea.
* Antibiotics: If the diarrhea is caused by a bacterial infection, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat the infection.
* Rest: Getting plenty of rest to allow the body to recover from the illness.
* Dietary changes: Avoiding certain foods or making dietary changes to help manage symptoms and prevent future episodes of diarrhea.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following:

* Severe diarrhea that lasts for more than 3 days
* Diarrhea that is accompanied by fever, blood in the stool, or abdominal pain
* Diarrhea that is severe enough to cause dehydration or electrolyte imbalances
* Diarrhea that is not responding to treatment

Prevention of diarrhea includes:

* Good hand hygiene: Washing your hands frequently, especially after using the bathroom or before preparing food.
* Safe food handling: Cooking and storing food properly to prevent contamination.
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause diarrhea, such as rotavirus.

Overall, while diarrhea can be uncomfortable and disruptive, it is usually a minor illness that can be treated at home with over-the-counter medications and plenty of fluids. However, if you experience severe or persistent diarrhea, it is important to seek medical attention to rule out any underlying conditions that may require more formal treatment.

Some common poultry diseases include:

1. Avian influenza (bird flu): A highly contagious viral disease that affects birds and can be transmitted to humans.
2. Newcastle disease: A viral disease that causes respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms in birds.
3. Infectious bronchitis: A viral disease that causes respiratory symptoms in birds.
4. Marek's disease: A viral disease that affects the nervous system of birds.
5. Coccidiosis: A parasitic disease caused by the Eimeria protozoa, which can cause diarrhea and weight loss in birds.
6. Chicken anemia virus: A viral disease that causes anemia and weakened immune systems in chickens.
7. Fowl pox: A viral disease that causes skin lesions and other symptoms in birds.
8. Avian encephalomyelitis (AE): A viral disease that affects the brain and spinal cord of birds, causing neurological symptoms such as paralysis and death.
9. Mycoplasmosis: A bacterial disease caused by the Mycoplasma bacteria, which can cause respiratory and other symptoms in birds.
10. Aspergillosis: A fungal disease that affects the respiratory system of birds, causing symptoms such as coughing and difficulty breathing.

Poultry diseases can have a significant impact on bird health and productivity, and can also be transmitted to humans in some cases. It is important for poultry farmers and owners to monitor their flocks closely and take steps to prevent the spread of disease, such as providing clean water and feed, maintaining good hygiene, and vaccinating birds against certain diseases.

Some common horse diseases include:

1. Equine Influenza (EI): A highly contagious respiratory disease caused by the equine influenza virus. It can cause fever, coughing, and nasal discharge.
2. Strangles: A bacterial infection of the lymph nodes, which can cause swelling of the neck and difficulty breathing.
3. West Nile Virus (WNV): A viral infection that can cause fever, weakness, and loss of coordination. It is transmitted by mosquitoes and can be fatal in some cases.
4. Tetanus: A bacterial infection caused by Clostridium tetani, which can cause muscle stiffness, spasms, and rigidity.
5. Rabies: A viral infection that affects the central nervous system and can be fatal if left untreated. It is transmitted through the saliva of infected animals, usually through a bite.
6. Cushing's Disease: A hormonal disorder caused by an overproduction of cortisol, which can cause weight gain, muscle wasting, and other health issues.
7. Laminitis: An inflammation of the laminae, the tissues that connect the hoof to the bone. It can be caused by obesity, overeating, or excessive exercise.
8. Navicular Syndrome: A condition that affects the navicular bone and surrounding tissue, causing pain and lameness in the foot.
9. Pneumonia: An inflammation of the lungs, which can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
10. Colic: A general term for abdominal pain, which can be caused by a variety of factors, including gas, impaction, or twisting of the intestines.

These are just a few examples of the many potential health issues that can affect horses. Regular veterinary care and proper management can help prevent many of these conditions, and early diagnosis and treatment can improve the chances of a successful outcome.

... has a stable G+C content around 27-28% and average genome size of 3.5 Mb. Genomes of 56 C. perfringens ... Clostridium perfringens is more often susceptible to vancomycin compared to other pathogenic Clostridia. Hyperbaric oxygen may ... a Bioinformatics Resource Center funded by NIAID Pathema-Clostridium Resource Type strain of Clostridium perfringens at BacDive ... Clostridium perfringens can be diagnosed by Nagler's reaction, in which the suspect organism is cultured on an egg yolk media ...
Unknown parameter RefSeq Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin is a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium perfringens (C. ... Clostridium perfringens beta toxin Awad, M.M.; Bryant, A.E.; Stevens, D.L. & Rood, J.I. (1995). "Virulence studies on ... Sakurai J, Nagahama M, Oda M (2004). "Clostridium perfringens Alpha-Toxin: Characterization and Mode of Action". J Biochem. 136 ... Williamson ED, Titball RW (1993). "A genetically engineered vaccine against the alpha-toxin of Clostridium perfringens also ...
... is one of the four major lethal protein toxins produced by Clostridium perfringens Type B ... Clostridium perfringens beta toxin shows significant genetic homology with several other toxins. C. perfringens beta toxin ... Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin Hunter SE, Brown JE, Oyston PC, Sakurai J, Titball RW (September 1993). "Molecular genetic ... Miclard J, Jäggi M, Sutter E, Wyder M, Grabscheid B, Posthaus H (June 2009). "Clostridium perfringens beta-toxin targets ...
The suspected cause was Clostridium perfringens. On May 9, 1987, the eighth probe was conducted by the Public Advocate's Office ...
Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium perfringens". In Fratamico, Pina M.; Bhunia, Arun K. & Smith, James L. (eds.). Foodborne ... Émile Pierre-Marie van Ermengem (1851-1932) was a Belgian bacteriologist who, in 1895, isolated Clostridium botulinum, the ...
Four species of Clostridium (Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium tetani, and Clostridium sordelli) are ... 2008), "Clostridium perfringens Poisoning", Poisoning and Toxicology Handbook (4th ed.), Informa, pp. 892-893, ISBN 978-1-4200- ... This deadly form of gangrene usually is caused by Clostridium perfringens bacteria. About 1,000 cases of gas gangrene are ... "Recent Insights into Clostridium perfringens Beta-Toxin". Toxins (Basel). 7 (2): 396-406. doi:10.3390/toxins7020396. PMC ...
Her dissertation was titled: Bacteriocine von Clostridium perfringens. Walter then worked as a scientific assistant at the ... Walter, E. (1918). Bacteriocine von Clostridium perfringens Walter, H., & Walter, E. (1929). Ökologische Untersuchungen des ... Walter, Erna (1981). Bacteriocine von Clostridium perfringens (Thesis) (in German). OCLC 45930861. Walter, H. (2012). ...
"Vet's Corner//Clostridium perfringens in domestic farm animals". Archived from the original on 2017-03- ... A form of enterotoxemia caused by type D C. perfringens that occurs in sheep and goats. When an animal is exposed to a rapid ... A form of enterotoxemia caused by type B or type C C. perfringens. Calves less than 1 month of old are affected. The symptoms ... is a condition induced by the absorption of large volumes of toxins produced by bacteria such as Clostridium perfringens from ...
Clostridium perfringens, a bacterium that can cause gas gangrene; and ricin, a castor bean derivative which can kill by ...
Clostridium perfringens can be identified presumptively with this test. Listeria monocytogenes is also positive on sheep's ...
Clostridium perfringens can be identified presumptively with this test. Listeria monocytogenes is also positive on sheep's ...
Clostridium perfringens, a bacterium that can cause gas gangrene; and ricin. She also admitted conducting research into cholera ...
... clostridium perfringens, a bacterium that can cause gas gangrene; and ricin, a castor bean derivative which can kill by ...
It can be caused by Clostridium, most commonly alpha toxin-producing C. perfringens, or various nonclostridial species. ... In wet gangrene, the tissue is infected by saprogenic microorganisms (Clostridium perfringens or Bacillus fusiformis, for ... Sakurai, J.; Nagahama, M.; Oda, M. (November 2004). "Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin: characterization and mode of action ... Chi CH, Chen KW, Huang JJ, Chuang YC, Wu MH (December 1995). "Gas composition in Clostridium septicum gas gangrene". Journal of ...
"Reverse CAMP test for the identification of Clostridium perfringens". Microbiology Notes. 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2017-04-03. " ... abilities of the CAMP factor produced by Streptococcus agalactiae with the α-toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens. ... "Use of Modified PCR Ribotyping for Direct Detection of Clostridium difficile Ribotypes in Stool Samples". Journal of Clinical ...
Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens (inhabitants of the lower bowel); and Clostridium tetani. Causes (listed in order ...
The genes encoding alpha-toxin (Clostridium perfringens), Bacillus cereus PLC (BC-PLC), and PLCs from Clostridium bifermentans ... Zinc-metallophospholipases C: Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin, Bacillus cereus PLC (BC-PLC) Sphingomyelinases: B. cereus, ... Fujii Y, Sakurai J (May 1989). "Contraction of the rat isolated aorta caused by Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin ( ... Sakurai J, Nagahama M, Oda M (November 2004). "Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin: characterization and mode of action". ...
... perfringens causes a wide range of symptoms, from food poisoning to cellulitis, fasciitis, necrotic enteritis and ... Mixtures of Clostridium species, such as Clostridium beijerinckii, Clostridium butyricum, and species from other genera have ... Clostridium difficile, now placed in Clostridioides. Clostridium histolyticum, now placed in Hathewaya. Clostridium sordellii, ... Clostridium welchii and Clostridium tetani respond to sulfonamides. Clostridia are also susceptible to tetracyclines, ...
Clostridium tetani, causative agent of tetanus; and Clostridium perfringens, commonly found in wound infections and diarrhea ... Long H, Crean CD, Lee WH, Cummings OW, Gabig TG (November 2001). "Expression of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin receptors ... Katahira J, Sugiyama H, Inoue N, Horiguchi Y, Matsuda M, Sugimoto N (October 1997). "Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin ... Czeczulin JR, Hanna PC, Mcclane BA (1993). "Cloning, nucleotide sequencing, and expression of the Clostridium perfringens ...
"Sporulation of Clostridium botulinum Types A, B and E, Clostridium Perfringens, and putrefactive Anaerobe 3679 in dialysis sacs ... "Clostridium perfringens. I. Sporulation in a Biphasic Glucose-Ion Exchange Resin Medium", Applied Microbiology 22 (no. 5), 856- ... "Radiation Resistance of Some Clostridium perfringens Strains", Applied Microbiology 29 (no. 6, June), 861-863. Abe Anellis, ... and Method of Enumeration of Several Strains of Clostridium perfringens Spores", Applied Microbiology 27 (no. 4, April), 784- ...
"Identification of Clostridium Species and DNA fingerprinting of Clostridium perfringens" (PDF). Journal of Clinical ... Clostridium cadaveris is closely related phylogenetically to Clostridium fallax and Clostridium intestinale. Infections in ... A number of Clostridium species are pathogenic to humans. Members including C.botulinium, C. perfringens, and C.septicum are ... Clostridium cadaveris is found in soil, water, and is a normal component of the human intestinal tract. The genus Clostridium ...
"Investigating the Anti-Virulent Activity of Probiotic Bioactives on Clostridium Perfringens." M.Sc. Thesis. Universitat ... Clostridium perfringens, and Salmonella Typhimurium. Yun, B.; Oh, S.; Griffiths, M.W. (2014). "Lactobacillus acidophilus ... have been shown to impact virulence gene expression in Campylobacter jejuni, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Clostridium ... Clostridium difficile, Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter jejuni. Whereas those produced by ...
2002). "Complete genome sequence of Clostridium perfringens, an anaerobic flesh-eater". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (2): ... 2003). "The genome sequence of Clostridium tetani, the causative agent of tetanus disease". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100 ( ... 2001). "Genome sequence and comparative analysis of the solvent-producing bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum". J Bacteriol. ...
AtsB is 48% similar to an enzyme present in Clostridium perfringens. Both enzymes possess the Cx3Cx2C motif unique to the ...
... can be caused by several factors: Bacterial infections (e.g. Clostridium septicum, C. perfringens (type A), C. ... Schamber, G.J.; Berg, I.E.; Molesworth, J.R. (April 1986). "Braxy or Bradsot-like Abomastitis Caused by Clostridium septicum in ...
Clostridium species involved are Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium septicum, and Clostridium sordellii, which typically ... Clostridium perfringens produces two deadly toxins: alpha-toxin and theta-toxin. Alpha-toxin causes excessive platelet ... though it is unrelated to the Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin. Myonecrotic infections caused by these clostridial species ... The key Clostridium septicum virulence factor is a pore-forming toxin called alpha-toxin, ...
The top five offenders were norovirus, salmonella, Clostridium perfringens, Campylobacter spp., and Staphylococcus aureus. The ...
Sequence studies have shown the protein to be similar both to alpha toxin from Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium ... Titball RW, Rubidge T (1990). "The role of histidine residues in the alpha toxin of Clostridium perfringens". FEMS Microbiol. ... of Clostridium perfringens". Infect. Immun. 57 (2): 367-376. doi:10.1128/IAI.57.2.367-376.1989. PMC 313106. PMID 2536355. Kocks ... These residues are all conserved in the Clostridium alpha-toxin. Some examples of this enzyme contain a C-terminal sequence ...
Examples of Gram-positive bacteria include: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Clostridium perfringens. Gram- ...
Gibert M, Perelle S, Boquet P, Popoff MR (1993). "Characterization of Clostridium perfringens iota-toxin genes and expression ...
500 Clostridium perfringens, which causes gas gangrene, is noteworthy for producing a "double zone" of both complete and ...
The embalmer must carefully handle gas buildup caused by Clostridium perfringens to avoid contamination between bodies. Body ...
Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium perfringens (gas gangrene) and several viruses (including enterovirus 17 [human ... These materials included anthrax, West Nile virus and botulism, as well as Brucella melitensis, and Clostridium perfringens. ... and Clostridium perfringens toxins. Post-war inspections by UNSCOM, however, were confounded by misinformation and obfuscation ...
Clostridium perfringens has been found in large numbers in the intestines of many affected dogs. Profuse vomiting is usually ... Antibiotics targeting C. perfringens are also used but recent studies have shown no difference in outcome or survival rate ...
Most cases of Fournier gangrene are infected with both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria such as Clostridium perfringens. It can ...
1997). "Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin utilizes two structurally related membrane proteins as functional receptors in vivo ... 1997). "Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the receptor for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin". J. Cell ...
Clostridium chauvoei Clostridium haemolyticum Clostridium novyi Clostridium perfringens Clostridium septicum Clostridium ... for sheep and cattle that protects against diseases caused by toxins produced by an infection with one or more Clostridium ... sordellii Clostridium tetani Clostridial vaccines which protect sheep against multiple clostridial diseases have been available ...
Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium baratii, Clostridium botulinum, Fusobacterium mortiferum, Streptococcus pneumoniae, ...
Clostridium perfringens: 0.05 μg/ml - 1.6 μg/ml Staphylococcus aureus: 0.013 μg/ml - 0.413 μg/ml Standard grade enramycin is ... Enramycin has been found to be very effective against Gram-positive gut pathogens, most notably, Clostridium perfringens; a ...
It has a broad spectrum of activity being active against Gram positive Clostridium perfringens Corynebacterium pyogenes ...
... can cause gas gangrene, but unlike other Clostridium species like Clostridium perfringens, no trauma is ... "Molecular and cellular basis of microvascular perfusion deficits induced by clostridium perfringens and clostridium septicum". ... Gas gangrene caused by Clostridium septicum is associated with colorectal cancer and other defects of the bowel. Clostridium ... Clostridium septicum is a resident bacterium of the human microflora, however it can be found in almost any anoxic habitat in ...
Grain-based diets can also lead to the growth of harmful bacteria such as Clostridium perfringens and E. coli. Too much grain ...
Genes that encode tissue-degrading enzymes and toxins that are associated with Clostridium perfringens have been found in the ... The regularly ingested Clostridia and Fusobacteriota outcompete other bacterial groups in the gut and become predominant. ... Unexpectedly, both anaerobic bacteria were also found on the air exposed facial skin samples, Clostridia at 7%-40% and ... Two anaerobic faecal bacteria groups that are pathogenic in other vertebrates stood out: Clostridia and Fusobacteriota ( ...
Some pathogenic bacteria, such as Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus cereus, are capable of causing spoilage. Issues of food ... The first type is called Clostridium botulinum and targets food such as meat and poultry, and Bacillus cereus, which targets ...
Bordetella pertussis Legionella pneumophila Pasteurella multocida Anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria Clostridium perfringens ...
Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Streptococcus equi subspecies equi, Equine influenza, Equine herpesvirus type 1 ...
... an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of neuropeptides and peptide hormones Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin, a contributor ...
Escherichia coli: 0.06 µg/mL Bacteroides fragilis: ≤0.06 µg/mL - 512 µg/mL Clostridium perfringens: 1 µg/mL - 4 µg/mL Stork CM ...
Horizontal method for the enumeration of Clostridium perfringens - Colony-count technique ISO/IEC 7942 Information technology ... clostridia) ISO 6461-1:1986 Part 1: Method by enrichment in a liquid medium ISO 6461-2:1986 Part 2: Method by membrane ...
... exhibited activity against Clostridium perfringens, Clostridioides difficile, Enterococcus faecalis, ...
November 2002). "Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis of Clostridium novyi, C. perfringens and Bacillus ... Clostridium novyi (oedematiens) a Gram-positive, endospore- forming, obligate anaerobic bacteria of the class Clostridia. It is ... Gas gangrene: infectious necrotic hepatitis (black disease) Clostridium novyi-NT, an attenuated form of Clostridium novyi-NT ... "Phylogenetic positions of Clostridium novyi and Clostridium haemolyticum based on 16S rDNA sequences". International Journal of ...
It can be produced by Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Listeria monocytogenes. C. ... perfringens alpha toxin (lecithinase) causes myonecrosis and hemolysis. The lecithinase of S. aureus is used in detection of ...
... by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Clostridium botulinum is a large anaerobic Gram-positive bacillus that forms ... "Prevent Illness From C. perfringens". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on 16 June ... Clostridium botulinum type C toxin has been incriminated as the cause of grass sickness, a condition in horses which occurs in ... Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic, Gram-positive, spore-forming rod. Botulinum toxin is one of the most powerful known ...
... concentration of Clostridium perfringens, and concentration of Coprostanol (this was no longer measured after 1989). Different ...
Clostridium botulinum Clostridium perfringens Bacillus cereus The rare but potentially deadly disease botulism occurs when the ... October 2019). "Phylogenomic analysis of gastroenteritis-associated Clostridium perfringens in England and Wales over a 7-year ... Campylobacter jejuni which can lead to secondary Guillain-Barré syndrome and periodontitis Clostridium perfringens, the " ... anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum grows in improperly canned low-acid foods and produces botulin, a powerful paralytic ...
... can work to avoid the root causes of Clostridium perfringens outbreaks. ... Retail food establishments, such as restaurants, can work to avoid the root causes of Clostridium perfringens outbreaks. ... C. perfringens outbreaks occur when food reaches unsafe temperatures.. C. perfringens bacteria are one of the most common ... Root Causes of Clostridium perfringens Outbreaks. Findings from CDCs National Environmental Assessment Reporting System ...
Ethanolamine utilization protein EutLSODIUM ION
CDC. Clostridium perfringens gastroenteritis associated with corned beef served at St. Patricks Day meals---Ohio and Virginia ... Clostridium perfringens Infection Among Inmates at a County Jail --- Wisconsin, August 2008. ... Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin: structure, action and detection. J Food Saf 1992;12:237--52. ... Generation times and modeling of enterotoxin-positive and enterotoxin-negative strains of Clostridium perfringens in laboratory ...
1.85 Angstrom resolution crystal structure of an ABC transporter from Clostridium perfringens ATCC 13124 ... Find proteins for A0A0H2YTW6 (Clostridium perfringens (strain ATCC 13124 / DSM 756 / JCM 1290 / NCIMB 6125 / NCTC 8237 / Type A ... 1.85 Angstrom resolution crystal structure of an ABC transporter from Clostridium perfringens ATCC 13124. Halavaty, A.S., ... 1.85 Angstrom resolution crystal structure of an ABC transporter from Clostridium perfringens ATCC 13124. *PDB DOI: https://doi ...
Humans as Reservoir for Enterotoxin Gene-carrying Clostridium perfringens Type A Annamari Heikinheimo*. , Miia Lindström*, Per ... Characterization of Clostridium perfringens isolates from fecal samples of healthy humans, type A* ... Humans as Reservoir for Enterotoxin Gene-carrying Clostridium perfringens Type A. ...
Furthermore, the main objective of this in silico investigation is to design an MEV that targets C. perfringens. For this ... Therefore, a multiple-epitope vaccine (MEV) should be designed to battle against C. perfringens infection. ... perfringens. Supportive care (medical control of pain, intravenous fluids) is the standard treatment. ... perfringens is a highly versatile bacteria of livestock and humans, causing enteritis (a common food-borne illness in humans), ...
span,,i,Clostridium perfringens,/i, enterotoxin (CPE) is a pore-forming toxin that causes the symptoms of common bacterial food ... Clostridium perfringens and foodborne infections. Brynestad S, Granum PE. Brynestad S, et al. Int J Food Microbiol. 2002 Apr 5; ... Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) is a pore-forming toxin that causes the symptoms of common bacterial food poisoning ... Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin: Action, Genetics, and Translational Applications. Freedman JC, Shrestha A, McClane BA. ...
Contains data for a collection of isolates that represent the total known diversity of Clostridium perfringens. For every ...
... administration to ascertain how various host metrics are altered upon challenge with Clostridium perfringens. Necrotic ... Body weight gain was impaired only in birds that were administered CORT and challenged with C. perfringens. CORT administration ... Birds administered CORT exhibited higher densities of C. perfringens in their intestine, and this corresponded to altered ... Characterization of mucus showed that C. perfringens treatment altered the relative abundance of five glycans. Birds inoculated ...
Clostridium perfringens/genética Enterotoxemia/microbiología Infecciones por Clostridium/patología Infecciones por Clostridium/ ... Experimental acute Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia in sheep is not characterized by specific renal lesions.. ... Type D enterotoxemia, caused by Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin (ETX), is one of the most economically important ... Four groups of 6 sheep each were intraduodenally inoculated with either a wild-type virulent C. perfringens type D strain, an ...
Based on this, the vaccine strain of Clostridium perfringens type D cultivated in two different media contain peptone produced ... perfringens have been compared in two media. The results showed that the growth rate of bacteria in the worm peptone medium in ... Based on this, the vaccine strain of Clostridium perfringens type D cultivated in two different media contain peptone produced ... 1402). Use of Esienia fetida worms to produce peptone for Clostridium perfringens vaccine production. سامانه مدیریت نشریات علمی ...
Clostridium perfringens infection. FDA is evaluating the need for regulatory action.. Epipen (epinephrine) injection Epipen Jr ...
... investigators analyzing bacterial toxin-mediated foodborne outbreaks found that Clostridium perfringens was the most common ... Vital Signs: Preventing Clostridium difficile Infections. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2012 Mar 9. 61:157-62. [QxMD MEDLINE Link] ... Organisms such as E coli and Clostridium species are normal enteric flora, pathogenic strains of which can cause ... Association of proton-pump inhibitors with outcomes in Clostridium difficile colitis. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2007 Nov 15. 64( ...
Epsilon toxin (Clostridium perfringens). *Staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB). *Typhus fever (Rickettsia prowazekii) ...
Details for: A fluorescent-antibody technique for the detection of enterotoxin-producing cells of Clostridium perfringens type ... A fluorescent-antibody technique for the detection of enterotoxin-producing cells of Clostridium perfringens type A / Manuel J ... Clostridium perfringens -- isolation and purification , Enterotoxins -- isolation and purification , Fluorescent antibody ...
Clostridium perfringens At least 90% of the microorganisms listed below exhibit in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations ( ... Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including ... Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including ... However, other reported clinical experience indicates that antibiotic-associated colitis and diarrhea (due to Clostridium ...
Clostridium difficile Clostridium perfringens Eggerthella lenta Fusobacterium species. Parabacteroides distasonis Porphyromonas ... 5.5 Clostridium difficile-associated Diarrhea. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of ... 5.5 Clostridium difficile-associated Diarrhea 5.6 Development of Drug-Resistant Bacteria 5.7 Overgrowth of Nonsusceptible ... Clostridium difficile-associated Diarrhea [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)] *Development of Drug-Resistant Bacteria [see ...
Epsilon toxin of Clostridium perfringens * Food safety threats (Salmonella species, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella) ...
abstract = "Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) is an important virulence factor for food poisoning and non-food borne ... N2 - Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) is an important virulence factor for food poisoning and non-food borne ... AB - Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) is an important virulence factor for food poisoning and non-food borne ... Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) is an important virulence factor for food poisoning and non-food borne ...
Clostridium perfringens. W. H. Welch, 1892. Syphilis. Treponema pallidum. F. R. Schaudinn and E. Hoffman, 1903. ... Clostridium botulinum produces toxins which are among the most poisonous or toxic substances known. ...
Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin. Research may include, but is not limited to: target identification and/or validation; ...
Gas gangrene is most often caused by bacteria called Clostridium perfringens. It also can be caused by group A streptococcus, ... Clostridium is found nearly everywhere. As the bacteria grow inside the body, it emits gas and harmful substances (toxins) that ... Diseases caused by clostridium. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennetts Principles and ...
Clostridium Perfringens Type C-Escherichia Coli Bacterin-Toxoid. PRODUCT DESCRIPTION: ScourGuard 4KC is for vaccination of ... and Clostridium perfringens type C. ScourGuard 4KC contains a liquid preparation of inactivated bovine rotavirus (serotypes G6 ... perfringens type C fraction.. SAFETY: The safety of ScourGuard 4KC in pregnant cows and heifers was demonstrated in 3 field ... perfringens type C in calves of vaccinated dams.. Efficacy of the bovine rotavirus (BRV) fraction of ScourGuard 4KC was ...
Clostridium difficile [‎1]‎. Clostridium perfringens [‎1]‎. Clozapine [‎3]‎. Cluster Analysis [‎14]‎. Coagulase [‎1]‎. ...
Isolation of Clostridium perfringens, Causal agents of necrotic enteritis in chickens MS Miah, M Asaduzzaman, MA Sufian, MM ...
Categories: Clostridium perfringens Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
11%), Clostridium perfringens (10%), and Campylobacter spp. (9%). Leading causes of hospitalization were nontyphoidal ...
  • Stool specimens obtained from six symptomatic inmates on August 8 were submitted to the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene (WSLH) for testing for C. perfringens and Bacillus cereus enterotoxin. (
  • Vibrio cholerae , Clostridium perfringens toxin, Bacillus cereus toxin, norovirus ( 8 , 9 ), and rotavirus ( 10 , 11 ). (
  • Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) is a pore-forming toxin that causes the symptoms of common bacterial food poisoning and several non-foodborne human gastrointestinal diseases, including antibiotic-associated diarrhea and sporadic diarrhea. (
  • The objectives of this study were to examine the potential roles of Clostridium difficile and enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens in diarrhea in dogs by comparison of isolation, determination of toxin status via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and application of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (
  • A significant association was found between the presence of diarrhea and detection of C perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) or toxin A via ELISA for both C perfringens and C difficile, respectively. (
  • Type D enterotoxemia , caused by Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin (ETX), is one of the most economically important clostridial diseases of sheep . (
  • Four groups of 6 sheep each were intraduodenally inoculated with either a wild-type virulent C. perfringens type D strain , an etx knockout mutant unable to produce ETX, the etx mutant strain complemented with the wild-type etx gene that regains the ETX toxin production , or sterile culture medium ( control group ). (
  • To address this knowledge gap, we used sensitive and quantitative PCR detection to show that people with MS were more likely to harbor and show a greater abundance of epsilon toxin (ETX)-producing strains of C. perfringens within their gut microbiomes compared to healthy controls (HC). (
  • No significant difference was found in the isolation of C perfringens or C difficile among the 3 groups. (
  • Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including clindamycin hydrochloride and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. (
  • Clostridium difficile -associated diarrhea (ranging from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis) has been reported. (
  • Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin was detected in stool samples collected from six ill inmates, and 43,000 CFU/g of the organism were isolated from a remaining sample of casserole. (
  • A confirmed case was defined as a probable case with a stool sample positive for C. perfringens enterotoxin. (
  • Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) is an important virulence factor for food poisoning and non-food borne gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. (
  • Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Prevotella intermedia were isolated from the wounds. (
  • Contains data for a collection of isolates that represent the total known diversity of Clostridium perfringens. (
  • Green-colored colonies on CP ChromoSelect agar (CCP agar) were counted as presumptive C. perfringens isolates. (
  • Characterization of mucus showed that C. perfringens treatment altered the relative abundance of five glycans. (
  • If C. perfringens gains access to necrotic products of conception retained in the uterus, it may multiply and infect the endometrium. (
  • Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a disease of the small intestine of chickens incited by C. perfringens , which can result in elevated morbidity and mortality. (
  • Necrotic enteritis (NE) incited by Clostridium perfringens is an economically-important disease of the small intestine of poultry that results in high bird mortality and costs the global poultry industry US$5-6 billion per year [ 1 ]. (
  • Based on this, the vaccine strain of Clostridium perfringens type D cultivated in two different media contain peptone produced from worms and meat peptone. (
  • Experimental acute Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia in sheep is not characterized by specific renal lesions. (
  • Together, these findings suggest that ETX-producing C. perfringens strains are biologically plausible pathogens in MS that trigger inflammatory demyelination in the context of circulating myelin autoreactive lymphocytes. (
  • Birds administered CORT exhibited higher densities of C. perfringens in their intestine, and this corresponded to altered production of intestinal mucus. (
  • CORT administration modulated a number of host functions, which corresponded to increased densities of C. perfringens in the small intestine and weight gain impairment in chickens. (
  • A probable C. perfringens intoxication case was defined as the self-reported (by questionnaire) presence of at least one of the following symptoms: diarrhea (three or more loose stools in a 24-hour period), abdominal cramps, or nausea occurring between 5:00 p.m. on August 7 and 5:00 p.m. on August 8. (
  • Tailored beta-cyclodextrin blocks the translocation pores of binary exotoxins from Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium perfringens and protects mammalian cells from intoxication. (
  • Birds inoculated with C. perfringens did not exhibit evidence of acute morbidity. (
  • Interactions of high-affinity cationic blockers with the translocation pores of B. anthracis , C. botulinum , and C. perfringens binary toxins. (
  • The objective of the current research was to develop a predictive model for C. perfringens spore germination and outgrowth in cooked chicken products during cooling by incorporating a function to describe the prior history of the microbial cell in the secondary model. (
  • Occasionally, C. perfringens is even isolated from blood cultures of patients who do not develop serious clostridial infection. (
  • 18. Clostridium perfringens infection following endometrial ablation. (
  • C. perfringens outbreaks occur when food reaches unsafe temperatures. (
  • This study identified situations in the restaurant environment that caused food to reach unsafe temperatures and result in an outbreak of C. perfringens . (
  • Infections caused by Clostridium perfringens and Paeniclostridium sordellii after unsafe abortion. (
  • C. perfringens bacteria are one of the most common causes of foodborne illness (food poisoning). (
  • Enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens type A in selected humans : a prevalence study / Manuel J. Torres-Anjel, Hans P. Riemann, and Che C. Tsai. (
  • In addition to being the first study reporting the nature of a physiological signal triggering sporulation in clostridia, these findings have relevance for the development of antisporulation drugs to prevent or treat CPE-mediated GI diseases in humans. (
  • Diseases caused by clostridium. (
  • This case study is the first report of Clostridium perfringens myonecrosis in a laboratory nonhuman primate. (
  • Retail food establishments, such as restaurants, can work to avoid the root causes of Clostridium perfringens outbreaks. (
  • In the absence of P i - supplementation, C. perfringens displayed a spo0A phenotype, i.e., absence of polar septation and DNA partitioning in cells that reached the stationary phase of growth. (
  • We found three types of root causes of C. perfringens outbreaks. (
  • Clostridium is found nearly everywhere. (
  • Out of 139 water samples tested, using a membrane filtration technique, 131 (94.2%) of the samples analyzed were found to be presumptively positive for C. perfringens on at least one of the culture media. (
  • In the present study, three media (mCP, TSCF and CP ChromoSelect Agar) were evaluated for recovery of C. perfringens in different water samples. (
  • The identification of typical and atypical colonies isolated from all media demonstrated that CCP agar was the most specific medium for C. perfringens recovery in water samples. (
  • This study describes common factors that came before C. perfringens outbreaks, as reported by the investigators of those outbreaks. (
  • This study utilized a chicken model of chronic physiological stress mediated by corticosterone (CORT) administration to ascertain how various host metrics are altered upon challenge with Clostridium perfringens . (
  • Out of 483 green colonies on CCP agar, 96.9% (465 colonies, indole negative) were identified as C. perfringens , 15 colonies (3.1%) were indole positive and were identified as C. sordelli , C. bifermentans or C. tetani . (
  • It is quite common, for example, to isolate C. perfringens from contaminated wounds of patients who have no evidence of clostridial disease. (
  • and selective media after heat shock for C perfringens. (
  • perfringens have been compared in two media. (
  • Fishmeal has been demonstrated to alter the composition of the microbiota and may provide novel nutrient substrates for C. perfringens growth [ 7 ]. (