Clostridium kluyveri: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is distinctive for its ability to ferment ETHANOL to caproic acid.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Crotonates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that include a double bond between carbon 2 and 3 of the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.Succinate-Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that plays a role in the GLUTAMATE and butanoate metabolism pathways by catalyzing the oxidation of succinate semialdehyde to SUCCINATE using NAD+ as a coenzyme. Deficiency of this enzyme, causes 4-hydroxybutyricaciduria, a rare inborn error in the metabolism of the neurotransmitter 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA).Succinic Acid: A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)Saccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.Clostridium difficile: A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.Clostridium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.Clostridium botulinum: A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.BRCA1 Protein: The phosphoprotein encoded by the BRCA1 gene (GENE, BRCA1). In normal cells the BRCA1 protein is localized in the nucleus, whereas in the majority of breast cancer cell lines and in malignant pleural effusions from breast cancer patients, it is localized mainly in the cytoplasm. (Science 1995;270(5237):713,789-91)BRCA2 Protein: A large, nuclear protein, encoded by the BRCA2 gene (GENE, BRCA2). Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. The BRCA2 protein is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev. 2000;14(11):1400-6)Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Cellular Apoptosis Susceptibility Protein: A nucleocytoplasmic transport protein that binds to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN inside the CELL NUCLEUS and participates in their export into CYTOPLASM. It is also associated with the regulation of APOPTOSIS and microtubule assembly.Bloom Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by telangiectatic ERYTHEMA of the face, photosensitivity, DWARFISM and other abnormalities, and a predisposition toward developing cancer. The Bloom syndrome gene (BLM) encodes a RecQ-like DNA helicase.Rad51 Recombinase: A Rec A recombinase found in eukaryotes. Rad51 is involved in DNA REPAIR of double-strand breaks.Phosphate Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of acetylphosphate from acetyl-CoA and inorganic phosphate. Acetylphosphate serves as a high-energy phosphate compound. EC 2.3.1.8.Acetate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of acetate in the presence of a divalent cation and ATP with the formation of acetylphosphate and ADP. It is important in the glycolysis process. EC 2.7.2.1.Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous: An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Acetobacterium: A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family Eubacteriaceae. Species are homoacetogenic, having the ability to use CARBON DIOXIDE as an electron sink, and to reduce it producing acetate as a typical fermentation product.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Acetic Acid: Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Moorella: A genus of gram positive, acetogenic, thermophilic bacteria in the family Thermoanaerobacteraceae. Known habitats include HOT SPRINGS, horse manure, emu droppings, and sewage SLUDGE.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Hydroxybutyrate DehydrogenaseFermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Fusobacteria: A phylum of anaerobic, gram-negative bacteria with a chemoorganotrophic heterotrophic metabolism. They are resident flora of the OROPHARYNX.Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.3-Hydroxybutyric Acid: BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Single-Cell Analysis: Assaying the products of or monitoring various biochemical processes and reactions in an individual cell.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.4-Aminobutyrate Transaminase: An enzyme that converts brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID) into succinate semialdehyde, which can be converted to succinic acid and enter the citric acid cycle. It also acts on beta-alanine. EC 2.6.1.19.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Iodobenzoates: Benzoic acid esters or salts substituted with one or more iodine atoms.Aminobutyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Nucleotide Motifs: Commonly observed BASE SEQUENCE or nucleotide structural components which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE or a SEQUENCE LOGO.Pyridoxal Phosphate: This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).Hexanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).Butanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).Enterococcaceae: A family of gram-positive bacteria in the order Lactobacillales, phylum Firmicutes.1-Butanol: A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.Aminocaproates: Amino derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the amino caproic acid structure.Caproates: Derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated six carbon aliphatic structure.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

Re-citrate synthase from Clostridium kluyveri is phylogenetically related to homocitrate synthase and isopropylmalate synthase rather than to Si-citrate synthase. (1/8)

The synthesis of citrate from acetyl-coenzyme A and oxaloacetate is catalyzed in most organisms by a Si-citrate synthase, which is Si-face stereospecific with respect to C-2 of oxaloacetate. However, in Clostridium kluyveri and some other strictly anaerobic bacteria, the reaction is catalyzed by a Re-citrate synthase, whose primary structure has remained elusive. We report here that Re-citrate synthase from C. kluyveri is the product of a gene predicted to encode isopropylmalate synthase. C. kluyveri is also shown to contain a gene for Si-citrate synthase, which explains why cell extracts of the organism always exhibit some Si-citrate synthase activity.  (+info)

Coupled ferredoxin and crotonyl coenzyme A (CoA) reduction with NADH catalyzed by the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase/Etf complex from Clostridium kluyveri. (2/8)

Cell extracts of butyrate-forming clostridia have been shown to catalyze acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA)- and ferredoxin-dependent formation of H2 from NADH. It has been proposed that these bacteria contain an NADH:ferredoxin oxidoreductase which is allosterically regulated by acetyl-CoA. We report here that ferredoxin reduction with NADH in cell extracts from Clostridium kluyveri is catalyzed by the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase/Etf complex and that the acetyl-CoA dependence previously observed is due to the fact that the cell extracts catalyze the reduction of acetyl-CoA with NADH via crotonyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA. The cytoplasmic butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase complex was purified and is shown to couple the endergonic reduction of ferredoxin (E0' = -410 mV) with NADH (E0' = -320 mV) to the exergonic reduction of crotonyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA (E0' = -10 mV) with NADH. The stoichiometry of the fully coupled reaction is extrapolated to be as follows: 2 NADH + 1 oxidized ferredoxin + 1 crotonyl-CoA = 2 NAD+ + 1 ferredoxin reduced by two electrons + 1 butyryl-CoA. The implications of this finding for the energy metabolism of butyrate-forming anaerobes are discussed in the accompanying paper.  (+info)

The genome of Clostridium kluyveri, a strict anaerobe with unique metabolic features. (3/8)

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Cloning and expression of a Clostridium kluyveri gene responsible for diaphorase activity. (4/8)

A small enzyme showing diaphorase activity was purified from culture supernatant of Clostridium kluyveri and its N-terminal amino acid sequence was determined. This sequence identified a gene (diaA) encoding a protein (DiaA) of 229 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 24,981 in the genomic DNA sequence database of C. kluyveri constructed by the Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth. The predicted protein was composed of a flavin reductase-like domain and a rubredoxin-like domain from its N-terminus. The diaA gene was cloned into an expression vector and expressed in an Escherichia coli recombinant. Recombinant enzyme rDiaA showed NADH/NADPH diaphorase activity with 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol and nitro blue tetrazolium. The enzyme was most active at pH 8.0 at 40 degrees C. The UV-visible absorption spectrum and thin layer chromatography (TLC) analyses indicated that one rDiaA molecule contained a tightly bound FMN molecule as a prosthetic group. An iron molecule was also detected in an enzyme molecule.  (+info)

Characterization of a dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase having diaphorase activity of Clostridium kluyveri. (5/8)

The Clostridium kluyveri bfmBC gene encoding a putative dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD; EC 1.8.1.4) was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant enzyme rBfmBC was characterized. UV-visible absorption spectrum and thin layer chromatography analysis of rBfmBC indicated that the enzyme contained a noncovalently but tightly attached FAD molecule. rBfmBC catalyzed the oxidation of dihydrolipoamide (DLA) with NAD(+) as a specific electron acceptor, and the apparent K(m) values for DLA and NAD(+) were 0.3 and 0.5 mM respectively. In the reverse reaction, the apparent K(m) values for lipoamide and NADH were 0.42 and 0.038 mM respectively. Like other DLDs, this enzyme showed NADH dehydrogenase (diaphorase) activity with some synthetic dyes, such as 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol and nitro blue tetrazolium. rBfmBC was optimally active at 40 degrees C at pH 7.0, and the enzyme maintained some activity after a 30-min incubation at 60 degrees C.  (+info)

Structure of a trimeric bacterial microcompartment shell protein, EtuB, associated with ethanol utilization in Clostridium kluyveri. (6/8)

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NADP+ reduction with reduced ferredoxin and NADP+ reduction with NADH are coupled via an electron-bifurcating enzyme complex in Clostridium kluyveri. (7/8)

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Hyperproduction of poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) from glucose by recombinant Escherichia coli. (8/8)

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We have developed a system for producing a supramolecular scaffold that permeates the entire Escherichia coli cytoplasm. This cytoscaffold is constructed from a three-component system comprising a bacterial microcompartment shell protein and two complementary de novo coiled-coil peptides. We show that other proteins can be targeted to this intracellular filamentous arrangement. Specifically, the enzymes pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase have been directed to the filaments, leading to enhanced ethanol production in these engineered bacterial cells compared to those that do not produce the scaffold. This is consistent with improved metabolic efficiency through enzyme colocation. Finally, the shell-protein scaffold can be directed to the inner membrane of the cell, demonstrating how synthetic cellular organization can be coupled with spatial optimization through in-cell protein design. The cytoscaffold has potential in the development of next-generation cell factories, wherein it ...
Homologous recombination (HR) is essential for the accurate repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), potentially lethal lesions. HR takes place in the late S-G2 phase of the cell cycle and involves the generation of a single-stranded region of DNA, followed by strand invasion, formation of a Holliday junction, DNA synthesis using the intact strand as a template, branch migration and resolution. It is investigated that RecA/Rad51 family proteins play a central role. The breast cancer susceptibility protein Brca2 and the RecQ helicase BLM (Bloom syndrome mutated) are tumor suppressors that maintain genome integrity, at least in part, through HR ...
Enzymes participating in ethanol utilization and catabolism. Each row of panels shows the expression levels of a set of enzymes catalyzing a reaction from ethan
Although great care has been taken in compiling the information given in this website, the publisher or the sponsor is not responsible for the continued currency of the information, for any errors or omissions, or for any consequence arising therefrom. To report an adverse event with a drug, please click here. ...
Encapsulins are a large and widely distributed family of proteins and are present in most bacteria and have been identified in Candidatus methanoregula, a species of archaea. They were originally called linocin-like proteins and thought to be a group of bacterial antibiotics, since they showed bacteriostatic activity in culture. However, structural analysis showed these to form a spherical nanocompartment that contains enzymes involved in the defenses against oxidative stress.[3] ...
This study was designed to achieve better understanding of (1) how carboxysome genes are regulated and expressed to yield with precise relative ratios and (2) the in vivo roles of two sets of conserved bacterial microcompartment genes, namely the three csoS1 and two csoS4 genes of H. neapolitanus , in the biogenesis and function of the carboxysome. For the first goal, a detailed transcriptional profile of carboxysomal genes in H. neapolitanus was established using absolute quantification real-time RT-PCR and transcript ends analysis. This transcriptional profile revealed that a single promoter, denoted cso promoter, was located upstream from the clustered carboxysomal genes. Transcripts of all nine carboxysomal genes were detectable but were present at different levels. In vivo activities of the cso promoter and selected internal non-coding regions within the carboxysome operon were further examined by using a promoter reporter vector and by generating a cso promoter deletion mutant. Both
AE006468.LEUA Location/Qualifiers FT CDS_pept complement(132167..133738) FT /codon_start=1 FT /transl_table=11 FT /gene="leuA" FT /locus_tag="STM0113" FT /product="2-isopropylmalate synthase" FT /EC_number="2.3.3.13" FT /note="similar to E. coli 2-isopropylmalate synthase FT (AAC73185.1); Blastp hit to AAC73185.1 (523 aa), 92% FT identity in aa 1 - 523" FT /db_xref="EnsemblGenomes-Gn:STM0113" FT /db_xref="EnsemblGenomes-Tr:AAL19077" FT /db_xref="GOA:P15875" FT /db_xref="InterPro:IPR000891" FT /db_xref="InterPro:IPR002034" FT /db_xref="InterPro:IPR005671" FT /db_xref="InterPro:IPR013709" FT /db_xref="InterPro:IPR013785" FT /db_xref="InterPro:IPR036230" FT /db_xref="UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:P15875" FT /protein_id="AAL19077.1" FT /translation="MSQQVIIFDTTLRDGEQALQASLSAKEKLQIALALERMGVDVMEV FT GFPVSSPGDFESVQTIARTIKNSRVCALARCVEKDIDVAAQALKVADAFRIHTFIATSP FT MHIATKLRSTLDEVIERAVYMVKRARNYTDDVEFSCEDAGRTPVDDLARVVEAAINAGA FT RTINIPDTVGYTMPFEFAGIISGLYERVPNIDKAIISVHTHDDLGIAVGNSLAAVHAGA FT ...
Immobilization of two organometallic complexes into a single cage to construct protein-based microcompartmentImmobilization of two organometallic complexes into a single cage to construct protein-based microcompartment ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Saab Automobile recently released the BioPower engines, advertised to use increased turbocharger boost and spark advance on ethanol fuel to enhance performance. Specifications for the 2.0 liter turbocharged engine in the Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t report 150 hp (112 kW) on gasoline and a 20% increase to 180 hp (134 kW) on E85 (nominally 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). While FFVs sold in the U.S. must be emissions certified on Federal Certification Gasoline as well as on E85, the European regulations only require certification on gasoline. Owing to renewed and growing interest in increased ethanol utilization in the U.S., a European-specification 2007 Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t was acquired by the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for benchmark evaluations. Results show that the vehicles gasoline equivalent fuel economy on the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET) are on par with similar U.S.-legal flex-fuel vehicles ...
Saab Automobile recently released the BioPower engines, advertised to use increased turbocharger boost and spark advance on ethanol fuel to enhance performance. Specifications for the 2.0 liter turbocharged engine in the Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t report 150 hp (112 kW) on gasoline and a 20% increase to 180 hp (134 kW) on E85 (nominally 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). While FFVs sold in the U.S. must be emissions certified on Federal Certification Gasoline as well as on E85, the European regulations only require certification on gasoline. Owing to renewed and growing interest in increased ethanol utilization in the U.S., a European-specification 2007 Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t was acquired by the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for benchmark evaluations. Results show that the vehicles gasoline equivalent fuel economy on the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET) are on par with similar U.S.-legal flex-fuel vehicles ...
University of Canterbury Library α-Isopropylmalate synthase (α-IPMS) is responsible for catalysing the first committed step in leucine biosynthesis. This pathway is found in plants and microorganisms, including pathogenic bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Neisseria meningitidis. α-IPMS catalyses a Claisen condensation reaction between α-ketoisovalerate (KIV) and acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA) to form the product α-isopropylmalate (IPM). This enzyme undergoes feedback inhibition by the end product of the pathway, leucine. This regulation allows the control of the rate leucine biosynthesis. This project focuses on the α-IPMS enzymes from M. tuberculosis and N. meningitidis (MtuIPMS and NmeIPMS). These α-IPMS enzymes are homodimeric in structure. Each monomer consists of a catalytic domain which comprises of a (β/α)8 barrel fold, two subdomains and a regulatory domain, to which the allosteric binding of the natural inhibitor leucine occurs. The mechanism by which the allosteric ...
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p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
"Phosphotransacetylase from Clostridium kluyveri". Methods Enzymol. Methods in Enzymology. 1: 596-599. doi:10.1016/0076-6879(55) ... BERGMEYER HU, HOLZ G, KLOTZSCH H, LANG G (1963). "[PHOSPHOTRANSACETYLASE FROM CLOSTRIDIUM KLUYVERI. CULTURE OF THE BACTERIUM, ...
Clostridium kluyveri Woods, D. D. (1957). "Albert Jan Kluyver 1888-1956". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society ...
Bartsch, R.G.; Barker, H.A. (1961). "A vinylacetyl isomerase from Clostridium kluyveri". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 92: 122-132. ... Scherf, U.; Sohling, B.; Gottschalk, G.; Linder, D.; Buckel, W. (1994). "Succinate-ethanol fermentation in Clostridium kluyveri ... Muh, U.; Cinkaya, I.; Albracht, S.P.; Buckel, W. (1996). "4-Hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydratase from Clostridium aminobutyricum: ... of an iron-sulfur and FAD-containing 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydratase/vinylacetyl-CoA Δ3-Δ2-isomerase from Clostridium ...
Gottschalk G, Barker HA (1966). "Synthesis of glutamate and citrate by Clostridium kluyveri. A new type of citrate synthase". ... Gottschalk G (1969). "Partial purification and some properties of the (R)-citrate synthase from Clostridium acidi-urici". Eur. ...
"Solubilization and partial characterisation of particulate dehydrogenases from Clostridium kluyveri". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. ...
... by utilizing the metabolic pathways present in a gram-positive anaerobic bacterium Clostridium kluyveri. Succinate is an ... The process uses the bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum, also known as the Weizmann organism, or Clostridium beijerinckii. It ... Anaerobic bacteria such as Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium saccharobutylicum also contain these pathways. Succinate ... "Molecular Analysis of the Anaerobic Succinate Degradation Pathway in Clostridium kluyveri". Journal of Bacteriology. 178: 871- ...
"Purification and characterization of a coenzyme-A-dependent succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase from Clostridium kluyveri". ...
... from Clostridium kluyveri". Eur. J. Biochem. 32 (1): 51-6. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1973. ...
I. Formyl coenzyme A, an intermediate in the formate-dependent decomposition of acetyl phosphate in Clostridium kluyveri". J. ...
Other examples of species of mesophiles are Clostridium kluyveri, Pseudomonas maltophilia, Thiobacillus novellus, Streptococcus ...
Bacterial glycerol dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.6 (gene gldA or dhaD). Clostridium kluyveri NAD-dependent 4-hydroxybutyrate ... Walter KA, Bennett GN, Papoutsakis ET (Nov 1992). "Molecular characterization of two Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 ... Clostridium acetobutylicum NADPH- and NADH-dependent butanol dehydrogenases EC 1.1.1.- (genes adh1, bdhA and bdhB), enzymes ...
"Clostridium kluyveri". Retrieved 2011-07-07. Type strain of Clostridium kluyveri at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... Clostridium kluyveri (CLOKL) is an anaerobic, motile, gram-positive bacterium. It is named after the Dutch microbiologist ... LPSN bacterio.net "Clostridium kluyveri: Barker and Taha 1942". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). UniProt ...
Clostridium histolyticum MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.493 --- Clostridium kluyveri MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.575 --- Clostridium ... Clostridium histolyticum MeSH B03.510.415.400.200.493 --- Clostridium kluyveri MeSH B03.510.415.400.200.575 --- Clostridium ... Clostridium symbiosum MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.722 --- Clostridium tertium MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.725 --- Clostridium tetani ... Clostridium symbiosum MeSH B03.510.415.400.200.722 --- Clostridium tertium MeSH B03.510.415.400.200.725 --- Clostridium tetani ...
One GRM locus in Clostridium phytofermentans has been shown to be involved in the fermentation of fucose and rhamnose, which ... associated with ethanol utilization inClostridium kluyveri". Biochemical Journal. 423 (2): 199-207. doi:10.1042/BJ20090780. ... Similar results were obtained for the GRM BMC from Clostridium phytofermentans, for which both sugars induce the genes coding ... "Involvement of a Bacterial Microcompartment in the Metabolism of Fucose and Rhamnose by Clostridium phytofermentans". PLoS ONE ...
... rabbit IgG against Clostridium kluyveri Phosphotransacetylase, conjugated with Biotin \ NE183/Bio for more molecular products ... Product name : rabbit IgG against Clostridium kluyveri Phosphotransacetylase, conjugated with Biotin Catalog number : NE183/Bio ... NE183/Bio rabbit IgG against Clostridium kluyveri Phosphotransacetylase, conjugated with Biotin Ask technical file . ... We have also other products like : rabbit IgG against Clostridium kluyveri Phosphotransacetylase, conjugated with Biotin. ...
... mainly consisting of Clostridium IV and Lactobacillus) was capable of producing a maximum caproic acid concentration of 10.92 ... Studies have been carried out with pure cultures such as Clostridium kluyveri using ethanol [7, 8] and Megasphaera elsdenii ... 2d). Clostridium species, including Clostridium IV, Clostridium Sensu Stricto and Clostridium XIVa spp. identified in this ... The synthesis of butyric and caproic acids from ethanol and acetic acid by Clostridium kluyveri. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1945; ...
"Clostridium kluyveri". Retrieved 2011-07-07. Type strain of Clostridium kluyveri at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... Clostridium kluyveri (CLOKL) is an anaerobic, motile, gram-positive bacterium. It is named after the Dutch microbiologist ... LPSN bacterio.net "Clostridium kluyveri: Barker and Taha 1942". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). UniProt ...
Homologous recombination - Clostridium kluyveri NBRC 12016 [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , ...
What is Clostridium kluyveri? Meaning of Clostridium kluyveri medical term. What does Clostridium kluyveri mean? ... Looking for online definition of Clostridium kluyveri in the Medical Dictionary? Clostridium kluyveri explanation free. ... clostri´dia an individual of the genus Clostridium. clostrid´ial. clostridium. (klŏ-strĭd′ē-əm). n. pl. clostrid·ia (-ē-ə) Any ... Clostridium. (redirected from Clostridium kluyveri). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. Clostridium. [klo- ...
Clostridium kluyveri (strain NBRC 12016). Clostridium kluyveri. 363. UniRef90_B9E1L6. Cluster: Protein RecA. 3. ... Clostridium kluyveri (strain ATCC 8527 / DSM 555 / NCIMB 10680)Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another ... Clostridium kluyveri (strain NBRC 12016). 363. UniRef100_B9E1L6. Cluster: Protein RecA. 2. ... tr,A5N856,A5N856_CLOK5 Protein RecA OS=Clostridium kluyveri (strain ATCC 8527 / DSM 555 / NCIMB 10680) OX=431943 GN=recA PE=3 ...
2008) The genome of Clostridium kluyveri, a strict anaerobe with unique metabolic features. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105: ... 1972) Particulate nature of enzymes involved in the fermentation of ethanol and acetate by Clostridium kluyveri. FEBS Lett. 21: ... It has been suggested that ethanol metabolism in the strict anaerobe Clostridium kluyveri occurs within a metabolosome, a ... associated with ethanol utilization in Clostridium kluyveri. Dana Heldt, Stefanie Frank, Arefeh Seyedarabi, Dimitrios Ladikis, ...
Cyanide-induced acetylation of amino acids by enzymes of Clostridium kluyveri. , The Journal of biological chemistry , 4/1/1952 ... Cyanide-induced acetylation of amino acids by enzymes of Clostridium kluyveri. E R Stadtman J Katz H A Barker 4/1/1952 ... Cyanide-induced acetylation of amino acids by enzymes of Clostridium kluyveri. J Biol Chem. 1952;195(2):779-85. ...
It has been suggested that ethanol metabolism in the strict anaerobe Clostridium kluyveri occurs within a metabolosome, a ... bacterial microcompartment, Clostridium kluyveri, ethanol utilization shell protein B (EtuB), metabolosome, organelle, pore, ... associated with ethanol utilization in Clostridium kluyveri. BIOCHEM J , 423 199 - 207. 10.1042/BJ20090780. ... Structure of a trimeric bacterial microcompartment shell protein, EtuB, associated with ethanol utilization in Clostridium ...
CP000674.1) of Clostridium kluyveri DSM 555 (17). Interestingly, a note in the ACLAME database mentions that pCKL555A is a ... Emergence of Clostridium difficile-associated disease in North America and Europe. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 12(Suppl. 6):2-18. ... Transcription analysis of the genes tcdA-E of the pathogenicity locus of Clostridium difficile. Eur. J. Biochem. 244:735-742. ... Prophage-Stimulated Toxin Production in Clostridium difficile NAP1/027 Lysogens Ognjen Sekulovic, Mathieu Meessen-Pinard, Louis ...
Clostridium kluyveri (strain ATCC 8527 / DSM 555 / NCIMB 10680). Loading... A6LRL7 Anti-sigma F factor. Clostridium ...
Schoberth, S., and Gottschalk, G. (1969). Considerations on the energy metabolism of Clostridium kluyveri. Arch. Mikrobiol. 65 ... This pathway had been described after studying Clostridium kluyveri, which was recently reviewed by Spirito et al. (2014). ... Thauer, R. K., Jungermann, K., Henninger, H., Wenning, J., and Decker, K. (1968). The energy metabolism of Clostridium kluyveri ... Weimer, P. J., and Stevenson, D. M. (2012). Isolation, characterization, and quantification of Clostridium kluyveri from the ...
"Phosphotransacetylase from Clostridium kluyveri". Methods Enzymol. Methods in Enzymology. 1: 596-599. doi:10.1016/0076-6879(55) ... BERGMEYER HU, HOLZ G, KLOTZSCH H, LANG G (1963). "[PHOSPHOTRANSACETYLASE FROM CLOSTRIDIUM KLUYVERI. CULTURE OF THE BACTERIUM, ...
The genome of Clostridium kluyveri, a strict anaerobe with unique metabolic features. ... Efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation in 2 children with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection and its impact on ... Efficacy of combined jejunal and colonic fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection. ... Microbiota dynamics in patients treated with fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. ...
Clostridium kluyveri Woods, D. D. (1957). "Albert Jan Kluyver 1888-1956". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society ...
Bartsch, R.G.; Barker, H.A. (1961). "A vinylacetyl isomerase from Clostridium kluyveri". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 92: 122-132. ... Scherf, U.; Sohling, B.; Gottschalk, G.; Linder, D.; Buckel, W. (1994). "Succinate-ethanol fermentation in Clostridium kluyveri ... Muh, U.; Cinkaya, I.; Albracht, S.P.; Buckel, W. (1996). "4-Hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydratase from Clostridium aminobutyricum: ... of an iron-sulfur and FAD-containing 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydratase/vinylacetyl-CoA Δ3-Δ2-isomerase from Clostridium ...
Clostridium acetobutylicum. Clostridium butyricum. Clostridium kluyveri. Clostridium pasteurianum. Fusobacterium nucleatum. ... The probiotic MIYAIRI 588 is clostridium butyricum which is marketed in Japan as a treatment for c. difficile.. A thorough ...
Schoberth, S., Gottschalk, G.: Considerations on the energy metabolism of Clostridium kluyveri. Arch. Mikrobiol. 65, 318-328 ( ... Ohwaki, K., Hungate, R. E.: Hydrogen utilization by clostridia in sewage sludge. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 33, 1270-1274 (1977) ... Karlsson, J. L., Volcani, B. E., Barker, H. A.: The nutritional requirements of Clostridium aceticum. J. Bacteriol 56, 781-782 ... Dorn, M., Andreesen, J. R., Gottschalk, G.: Fermentation of fumarate and L-malate by Clostridium formicoaceticum. J. Bacteriol ...
The genome of Clostridium kluyveri, a strict anaerobe with unique metabolic features. ... reduction with NADH catalyzed by the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase/Etf complex from Clostridium kluyveri. ... reduced ferredoxin and NADP+ reduction with NADH are coupled via an electron-bifurcating enzyme complex in Clostridium kluyveri ... Energy Conservation Associated with Ethanol Formation from H2 and CO2 in Clostridium autoethanogenum Involving Electron ...
Upgrading syngas fermentation effluent using Clostridium kluyveri in a continuous fermentation Sylvia Gildemyn (UGent) , ... Redox dependent metabolic shift in Clostridium autoethanogenum by extracellular electron supply Frauke Kracke, Bernardino ...
Gottschalk G, Barker HA (1966). "Synthesis of glutamate and citrate by Clostridium kluyveri. A new type of citrate synthase". ... Gottschalk G (1969). "Partial purification and some properties of the (R)-citrate synthase from Clostridium acidi-urici". Eur. ...
The genome of Clostridium kluyveri, a strict anaerobe with unique metabolic features.. Henning Seedorf, W. Florian Fricke, +10 ... reduction with NADH catalyzed by the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase/Etf complex from Clostridium kluyveri.. Fuli Li, Julia ...
... and Octanol Production from Syngas in a Continuous Co-culture of Clostridium ljungdahlii and Clostridium kluyveri with In-Line ... Upgrading syngas fermentation effluent using Clostridium kluyveri in a continuous fermentation.. Gildemyn S, Molitor B, Usack ...
Clostridium kluyveri, Escherichia coli. The Enzymes, 3rd Ed. (Boyer, P. D. , ed. ) ...
Bergmeyer HU, Holz G, Klotzsch H, Lang G (1963) Phosphotrans-acetylase aus Clostridium kluyveri. Biochem Z 338:114-121Google ... Thauer RK, Jungermann K, Henninger H, Wenning H, Decker K (1968) The energy metabolism of Clostridium kluyveri. Eur J Biochem 4 ... Hollaus F, Sleytr V (1972) On the taxonomy and fine structure of some hyperthermophilic saccharolytic Clostridia. Arch ... Walther R (1977) Die Vergärung von Citrat durch Clostridium sphenoides: Nachweis einer glutamatabhängigen Citrat-Lyase. Diss ...
  • Finished genome sequences were generated from Eubacterium rectale and E. eligens , which belong to Clostridium Cluster XIVa, one of the most common gut Firmicute clades. (pnas.org)
  • Tamaru Y, Miyake H, Kuroda K, Nakanishi A, Matsushima C, Doi RH, Ueda M (2011) Comparison of the mesophilic cellulosome-producing Clostridium cellulovorans genome with other cellulosome-related clostridial genomes. (springer.com)
  • With the goal of revisiting its carbon, nitrogen, and energy metabolism, and comparing studies with other clostridia, its genome has been sequenced and analyzed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2015 ) Correction to NADP+ reduction with reduced ferredoxin and NADP+ reduction with NADH are coupled via an electron-bifurcating enzyme complex in Clostridium kluyveri [J Bacteriol, 197, (2015) Journal of Bacteriology . (academictree.org)
  • Clostridium sporo´genes a species widespread in nature, reportedly associated with pathogenic anaerobes in gangrenous infections. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Comparative genomics has provided the opportunity to study the lifestyle of pathogenic and non-pathogenic clostridial species as well as to elucidate the difference in metabolic features between clostridia and other anaerobes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Based on cloning and sequencing the most abundant microorganisms were closest related to the model organism for microbial medium-chain carboxylic acid formation, Clostridium kluyveri . (ufz.de)
  • NADH and NADPH originally come from purified extracts of Clostridium kluyveri cells, where diaphorase activity is shown. (agscientific.com)
  • Here the exogenous genes of ferredoxin-NAD(P) + oxidoreductase (FdNR) and trans -enoyl-coenzyme reductase (TER) are introduced to three different Clostridium acetobutylicum strains to investigate the distribution of redox equivalents and butanol productivity. (springer.com)
  • Tracy BP, Jones SW, Fast AG, Indurthi DC, Papoutsakis ET (2011) Clostridia: the importance of their exceptional substrate and metabolite diversity for biofuel and biorefinery applications. (springer.com)