A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is distinctive for its ability to ferment ETHANOL to caproic acid.
The phosphoprotein encoded by the BRCA1 gene (GENE, BRCA1). In normal cells the BRCA1 protein is localized in the nucleus, whereas in the majority of breast cancer cell lines and in malignant pleural effusions from breast cancer patients, it is localized mainly in the cytoplasm. (Science 1995;270(5237):713,789-91)
A large, nuclear protein, encoded by the BRCA2 gene (GENE, BRCA2). Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. The BRCA2 protein is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev. 2000;14(11):1400-6)
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A nucleocytoplasmic transport protein that binds to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN inside the CELL NUCLEUS and participates in their export into CYTOPLASM. It is also associated with the regulation of APOPTOSIS and microtubule assembly.
An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by telangiectatic ERYTHEMA of the face, photosensitivity, DWARFISM and other abnormalities, and a predisposition toward developing cancer. The Bloom syndrome gene (BLM) encodes a RecQ-like DNA helicase.
A Rec A recombinase found in eukaryotes. Rad51 is involved in DNA REPAIR of double-strand breaks.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of acetylphosphate from acetyl-CoA and inorganic phosphate. Acetylphosphate serves as a high-energy phosphate compound. EC 2.3.1.8.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of acetate in the presence of a divalent cation and ATP with the formation of acetylphosphate and ADP. It is important in the glycolysis process. EC 2.7.2.1.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that include a double bond between carbon 2 and 3 of the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.
An enzyme that plays a role in the GLUTAMATE and butanoate metabolism pathways by catalyzing the oxidation of succinate semialdehyde to SUCCINATE using NAD+ as a coenzyme. Deficiency of this enzyme, causes 4-hydroxybutyricaciduria, a rare inborn error in the metabolism of the neurotransmitter 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Amino derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the amino caproic acid structure.
Derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated six carbon aliphatic structure.
An antifibrinolytic agent that acts by inhibiting plasminogen activators which have fibrinolytic properties.
A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
A species of ciliate protozoa used in genetic and cytological research.
Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family Eubacteriaceae. Species are homoacetogenic, having the ability to use CARBON DIOXIDE as an electron sink, and to reduce it producing acetate as a typical fermentation product.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A genus of gram positive, acetogenic, thermophilic bacteria in the family Thermoanaerobacteraceae. Known habitats include HOT SPRINGS, horse manure, emu droppings, and sewage SLUDGE.
A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
A subgenus of Salmonella containing several medically important serotypes. The habitat for the majority of strains is warm-blooded animals.
An enzyme that catalyzes the dehydration of 1,2-propanediol to propionaldehyde. EC 4.2.1.28.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A viscous, hygroscopic amino alcohol with an ammoniacal odor. It is widely distributed in biological tissue and is a component of lecithin. It is used as a surfactant, fluorimetric reagent, and to remove CO2 and H2S from natural gas and other gases.
Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.
A phylum of anaerobic, gram-negative bacteria with a chemoorganotrophic heterotrophic metabolism. They are resident flora of the OROPHARYNX.
Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.
BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.

Re-citrate synthase from Clostridium kluyveri is phylogenetically related to homocitrate synthase and isopropylmalate synthase rather than to Si-citrate synthase. (1/8)

The synthesis of citrate from acetyl-coenzyme A and oxaloacetate is catalyzed in most organisms by a Si-citrate synthase, which is Si-face stereospecific with respect to C-2 of oxaloacetate. However, in Clostridium kluyveri and some other strictly anaerobic bacteria, the reaction is catalyzed by a Re-citrate synthase, whose primary structure has remained elusive. We report here that Re-citrate synthase from C. kluyveri is the product of a gene predicted to encode isopropylmalate synthase. C. kluyveri is also shown to contain a gene for Si-citrate synthase, which explains why cell extracts of the organism always exhibit some Si-citrate synthase activity.  (+info)

Coupled ferredoxin and crotonyl coenzyme A (CoA) reduction with NADH catalyzed by the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase/Etf complex from Clostridium kluyveri. (2/8)

Cell extracts of butyrate-forming clostridia have been shown to catalyze acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA)- and ferredoxin-dependent formation of H2 from NADH. It has been proposed that these bacteria contain an NADH:ferredoxin oxidoreductase which is allosterically regulated by acetyl-CoA. We report here that ferredoxin reduction with NADH in cell extracts from Clostridium kluyveri is catalyzed by the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase/Etf complex and that the acetyl-CoA dependence previously observed is due to the fact that the cell extracts catalyze the reduction of acetyl-CoA with NADH via crotonyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA. The cytoplasmic butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase complex was purified and is shown to couple the endergonic reduction of ferredoxin (E0' = -410 mV) with NADH (E0' = -320 mV) to the exergonic reduction of crotonyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA (E0' = -10 mV) with NADH. The stoichiometry of the fully coupled reaction is extrapolated to be as follows: 2 NADH + 1 oxidized ferredoxin + 1 crotonyl-CoA = 2 NAD+ + 1 ferredoxin reduced by two electrons + 1 butyryl-CoA. The implications of this finding for the energy metabolism of butyrate-forming anaerobes are discussed in the accompanying paper.  (+info)

The genome of Clostridium kluyveri, a strict anaerobe with unique metabolic features. (3/8)

 (+info)

Cloning and expression of a Clostridium kluyveri gene responsible for diaphorase activity. (4/8)

A small enzyme showing diaphorase activity was purified from culture supernatant of Clostridium kluyveri and its N-terminal amino acid sequence was determined. This sequence identified a gene (diaA) encoding a protein (DiaA) of 229 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 24,981 in the genomic DNA sequence database of C. kluyveri constructed by the Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth. The predicted protein was composed of a flavin reductase-like domain and a rubredoxin-like domain from its N-terminus. The diaA gene was cloned into an expression vector and expressed in an Escherichia coli recombinant. Recombinant enzyme rDiaA showed NADH/NADPH diaphorase activity with 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol and nitro blue tetrazolium. The enzyme was most active at pH 8.0 at 40 degrees C. The UV-visible absorption spectrum and thin layer chromatography (TLC) analyses indicated that one rDiaA molecule contained a tightly bound FMN molecule as a prosthetic group. An iron molecule was also detected in an enzyme molecule.  (+info)

Characterization of a dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase having diaphorase activity of Clostridium kluyveri. (5/8)

The Clostridium kluyveri bfmBC gene encoding a putative dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD; EC 1.8.1.4) was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant enzyme rBfmBC was characterized. UV-visible absorption spectrum and thin layer chromatography analysis of rBfmBC indicated that the enzyme contained a noncovalently but tightly attached FAD molecule. rBfmBC catalyzed the oxidation of dihydrolipoamide (DLA) with NAD(+) as a specific electron acceptor, and the apparent K(m) values for DLA and NAD(+) were 0.3 and 0.5 mM respectively. In the reverse reaction, the apparent K(m) values for lipoamide and NADH were 0.42 and 0.038 mM respectively. Like other DLDs, this enzyme showed NADH dehydrogenase (diaphorase) activity with some synthetic dyes, such as 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol and nitro blue tetrazolium. rBfmBC was optimally active at 40 degrees C at pH 7.0, and the enzyme maintained some activity after a 30-min incubation at 60 degrees C.  (+info)

Structure of a trimeric bacterial microcompartment shell protein, EtuB, associated with ethanol utilization in Clostridium kluyveri. (6/8)

 (+info)

NADP+ reduction with reduced ferredoxin and NADP+ reduction with NADH are coupled via an electron-bifurcating enzyme complex in Clostridium kluyveri. (7/8)

 (+info)

Hyperproduction of poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) from glucose by recombinant Escherichia coli. (8/8)

 (+info)

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We have developed a system for producing a supramolecular scaffold that permeates the entire Escherichia coli cytoplasm. This cytoscaffold is constructed from a three-component system comprising a bacterial microcompartment shell protein and two complementary de novo coiled-coil peptides. We show that other proteins can be targeted to this intracellular filamentous arrangement. Specifically, the enzymes pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase have been directed to the filaments, leading to enhanced ethanol production in these engineered bacterial cells compared to those that do not produce the scaffold. This is consistent with improved metabolic efficiency through enzyme colocation. Finally, the shell-protein scaffold can be directed to the inner membrane of the cell, demonstrating how synthetic cellular organization can be coupled with spatial optimization through in-cell protein design. The cytoscaffold has potential in the development of next-generation cell factories, wherein it ...
Re-imagining discovery and access to research: grants, datasets, publications, citations, clinical trials, patents and policy documents in one place.
Homologous recombination (HR) is essential for the accurate repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), potentially lethal lesions. HR takes place in the late S-G2 phase of the cell cycle and involves the generation of a single-stranded region of DNA, followed by strand invasion, formation of a Holliday junction, DNA synthesis using the intact strand as a template, branch migration and resolution. It is investigated that RecA/Rad51 family proteins play a central role. The breast cancer susceptibility protein Brca2 and the RecQ helicase BLM (Bloom syndrome mutated) are tumor suppressors that maintain genome integrity, at least in part, through HR ...
p,The ethanolamine utilization (Eut) microcompartment is a protein-based metabolic organelle that is strongly associated with pathogenesis in bacteria that inhabit the human gut. The exterior shell of this elaborate protein complex is composed from a few thousand copies of BMC-domain shell proteins, which form a semi-permeable diffusion barrier that provides the interior enzymes with substrates and cofactors while simultaneously retaining metabolic intermediates. The ability of this protein shell to regulate passage of substrate and cofactor molecules is critical for microcompartment function, but the details of how this diffusion barrier can allow the passage of large cofactors while still retaining small intermediates remain unclear. Previous work has revealed two conformations of the EutL shell protein, providing substantial evidence for a gated pore that might allow the passage of large cofactors. Here we report structural and biophysical evidence to show that ethanolamine, the substrate of ...
Synthesis gas, a mixture of CO, H2, and CO2, is a promising renewable feedstock for bio-based production of organic chemicals. Production of medium-chain fatty acids can be performed via chain elongation, utilizing acetate and ethanol as main substrates. Acetate and ethanol are main products of syngas fermentation by acetogens. Therefore, syngas can be indirectly used as a substrate for the chain elongation process. Here, we report the establishment of a synthetic co-culture consisting of Clostridium autoethanogenum and Clostridium kluyveri. Together, these bacteria are capable of converting CO and syngas to a mixture of C4 and C6 fatty acids and their respective alcohols. The co-culture is able to grow using solely CO or syngas as a substrate, and presence of acetate significantly stimulated production rates. The co-culture produced butyrate and caproate at a rate of 8.5 ± 1.1 and 2.5 ± 0.63 mmol/l/day, respectively. Butanol and hexanol were produced at a rate of 3.5 ± 0.69 and 2.0 ± 0.46 mmol/l
Enzymes participating in ethanol utilization and catabolism. Each row of panels shows the expression levels of a set of enzymes catalyzing a reaction from ethan
Although great care has been taken in compiling the information given in this website, the publisher or the sponsor is not responsible for the continued currency of the information, for any errors or omissions, or for any consequence arising therefrom. To report an adverse event with a drug, please click here. ...
Encapsulins are a large and widely distributed family of proteins and are present in most bacteria and have been identified in Candidatus methanoregula, a species of archaea. They were originally called linocin-like proteins and thought to be a group of bacterial antibiotics, since they showed bacteriostatic activity in culture. However, structural analysis showed these to form a spherical nanocompartment that contains enzymes involved in the defenses against oxidative stress.[3] ...
This study was designed to achieve better understanding of (1) how carboxysome genes are regulated and expressed to yield with precise relative ratios and (2) the in vivo roles of two sets of conserved bacterial microcompartment genes, namely the three csoS1 and two csoS4 genes of H. neapolitanus , in the biogenesis and function of the carboxysome. For the first goal, a detailed transcriptional profile of carboxysomal genes in H. neapolitanus was established using absolute quantification real-time RT-PCR and transcript ends analysis. This transcriptional profile revealed that a single promoter, denoted cso promoter, was located upstream from the clustered carboxysomal genes. Transcripts of all nine carboxysomal genes were detectable but were present at different levels. In vivo activities of the cso promoter and selected internal non-coding regions within the carboxysome operon were further examined by using a promoter reporter vector and by generating a cso promoter deletion mutant. Both
AE006468.LEUA Location/Qualifiers FT CDS_pept complement(132167..133738) FT /codon_start=1 FT /transl_table=11 FT /gene=leuA FT /locus_tag=STM0113 FT /product=2-isopropylmalate synthase FT /EC_number=2.3.3.13 FT /note=similar to E. coli 2-isopropylmalate synthase FT (AAC73185.1); Blastp hit to AAC73185.1 (523 aa), 92% FT identity in aa 1 - 523 FT /db_xref=EnsemblGenomes-Gn:STM0113 FT /db_xref=EnsemblGenomes-Tr:AAL19077 FT /db_xref=GOA:P15875 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR000891 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR002034 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR005671 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR013709 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR013785 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR036230 FT /db_xref=UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:P15875 FT /protein_id=AAL19077.1 FT /translation=MSQQVIIFDTTLRDGEQALQASLSAKEKLQIALALERMGVDVMEV FT GFPVSSPGDFESVQTIARTIKNSRVCALARCVEKDIDVAAQALKVADAFRIHTFIATSP FT MHIATKLRSTLDEVIERAVYMVKRARNYTDDVEFSCEDAGRTPVDDLARVVEAAINAGA FT RTINIPDTVGYTMPFEFAGIISGLYERVPNIDKAIISVHTHDDLGIAVGNSLAAVHAGA FT ...
Immobilization of two organometallic complexes into a single cage to construct protein-based microcompartmentImmobilization of two organometallic complexes into a single cage to construct protein-based microcompartment ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Downregulation of dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase by UVA suppresses melanoma progression via triggering oxidative stress and altering energy metabolism. AU - Yumnam, Silvia. AU - Kang, Min Cheol. AU - Oh, Seung Hyun. AU - Kwon, Hak Cheol. AU - Kim, Jin Chul. AU - Jung, Eun Sung. AU - Lee, Choong Hwan. AU - Lee, Ai Young. AU - Hwang, Jong Ik. AU - Kim, Sun Yeou. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by the KIST Institutional Program (Project No. 2E29563-19-120 ) and Ambrobnp (Seoul, Korea), grant number 202006250001. We would like to thank Editage ( www.editage.co.kr ) for English language editing. Publisher Copyright: © 2020 The Author(s). PY - 2021/1. Y1 - 2021/1. N2 - Melanoma, the most severe form of skin cancer, has poor prognosis and is resistant to chemotherapy. Targeting cancer metabolism is a promising approach in cancer therapeutics. Dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD) is a mitochondrial enzyme with diaphorase activity. Here we report a pivotal role of DLD in ...
Saab Automobile recently released the BioPower engines, advertised to use increased turbocharger boost and spark advance on ethanol fuel to enhance performance. Specifications for the 2.0 liter turbocharged engine in the Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t report 150 hp (112 kW) on gasoline and a 20% increase to 180 hp (134 kW) on E85 (nominally 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). While FFVs sold in the U.S. must be emissions certified on Federal Certification Gasoline as well as on E85, the European regulations only require certification on gasoline. Owing to renewed and growing interest in increased ethanol utilization in the U.S., a European-specification 2007 Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t was acquired by the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for benchmark evaluations. Results show that the vehicles gasoline equivalent fuel economy on the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET) are on par with similar U.S.-legal flex-fuel vehicles ...
Saab Automobile recently released the BioPower engines, advertised to use increased turbocharger boost and spark advance on ethanol fuel to enhance performance. Specifications for the 2.0 liter turbocharged engine in the Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t report 150 hp (112 kW) on gasoline and a 20% increase to 180 hp (134 kW) on E85 (nominally 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). While FFVs sold in the U.S. must be emissions certified on Federal Certification Gasoline as well as on E85, the European regulations only require certification on gasoline. Owing to renewed and growing interest in increased ethanol utilization in the U.S., a European-specification 2007 Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t was acquired by the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for benchmark evaluations. Results show that the vehicles gasoline equivalent fuel economy on the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET) are on par with similar U.S.-legal flex-fuel vehicles ...
University of Canterbury Library α-Isopropylmalate synthase (α-IPMS) is responsible for catalysing the first committed step in leucine biosynthesis. This pathway is found in plants and microorganisms, including pathogenic bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Neisseria meningitidis. α-IPMS catalyses a Claisen condensation reaction between α-ketoisovalerate (KIV) and acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA) to form the product α-isopropylmalate (IPM). This enzyme undergoes feedback inhibition by the end product of the pathway, leucine. This regulation allows the control of the rate leucine biosynthesis. This project focuses on the α-IPMS enzymes from M. tuberculosis and N. meningitidis (MtuIPMS and NmeIPMS). These α-IPMS enzymes are homodimeric in structure. Each monomer consists of a catalytic domain which comprises of a (β/α)8 barrel fold, two subdomains and a regulatory domain, to which the allosteric binding of the natural inhibitor leucine occurs. The mechanism by which the allosteric ...
SUMMARY: The presence of several NADH dehydrogenase activities associated with cytoplasmic membrane vesicles of chemoheterotrophically grown Rhodobacter capsulatus MT1131 was demonstrated by combining isoelectric focusing with NADH-tetranitrobluetetrazolium activity staining, a procedure that should have general applicability in the analysis of bacterial NADH dehydrogenase activities. Low pI (pI = 5.7), Mid pI (pI = 6.9) and High pI (pI = 8.5) bands were resolved. The Mid pI NADH dehydrogenase activity was purified and identified as a dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase. Our data indicate that this dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase is derived from a 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complex which is associated with the cytoplasmic membrane.
Our raw water clarification programs are designed to enhance TSS, color and TOC removal, minimize sludge volume and help achieve environmental compliance. | Nalco Champion
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
BERGMEYER HU, HOLZ G, KLOTZSCH H, LANG G (1963). "Phosphotransacetylase from Clostridium Kluyveri. Culture of the Bacterium, ... Stadtman ER (1955). Stadtman, ER (ed.). "Phosphotransacetylase from Clostridium kluyveri". Methods Enzymol. Methods in ...
Clostridium kluyveri Woods, D. D. (1957). "Albert Jan Kluyver 1888-1956". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society ...
Scherf U, Söhling B, Gottschalk G, Linder D, Buckel W (1994). "Succinate-ethanol fermentation in Clostridium kluyveri: ... Bartsch RG, Barker HA (January 1961). "A vinylacetyl isomerase from Clostridium kluyveri". Archives of Biochemistry and ... Müh U, Cinkaya I, Albracht SP, Buckel W (September 1996). "4-Hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydratase from Clostridium aminobutyricum: ... an iron-sulfur and FAD-containing 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydratase/vinylacetyl-CoA delta 3-delta 2-isomerase from Clostridium ...
Gottschalk G, Barker HA (1966). "Synthesis of glutamate and citrate by Clostridium kluyveri. A new type of citrate synthase". ... Gottschalk G (1969). "Partial purification and some properties of the (R)-citrate synthase from Clostridium acidi-urici". Eur. ...
"Solubilization and partial characterisation of particulate dehydrogenases from Clostridium kluyveri". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. ...
Sohling, B., & Gottschalk G. (1996). "Molecular Analysis of the Anaerobic Succinate Degradation Pathway in Clostridium kluyveri ... Butanol can be produced by fermentation of biomass by the A.B.E. process using Clostridium acetobutylicum, Clostridium ... Anaerobic bacteria such as Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium saccharobutylicum also contain these pathways. Succinate ... by utilizing the metabolic pathways present in Clostridium kluyveri. Succinate is an intermediate of the TCA cycle, which ...
"Purification and characterization of a coenzyme-A-dependent succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase from Clostridium kluyveri". ...
... from Clostridium kluyveri". Eur. J. Biochem. 32 (1): 51-6. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1973. ...
... associated with ethanol utilization in Clostridium kluyveri". The Biochemical Journal. 423 (2): 199-207. doi:10.1042/BJ20090780 ...
I. Formyl coenzyme A, an intermediate in the formate-dependent decomposition of acetyl phosphate in Clostridium kluyveri". The ...
Other examples of species of mesophiles are Clostridium kluyveri, Pseudomonas maltophilia, Thiobacillus novellus, Streptococcus ...
Clostridium acetobutylicum Clostridium botulinum Clostridium butyricum Clostridium difficile Clostridium kluyveri Clostridium ... novyi Clostridium perfringens Clostridium phytofermentans Clostridium tetani Clostridium thermocellum Pathema-Entamoeba ... Clostridium botulinum, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Clostridium perfringens, and Entamoeba histolytica) ... Burkholderia phages Pseudomonas aeruginosa Ralstonia solanacearum Pathema-Clostridium ...
Bacterial glycerol dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.6 (gene gldA or dhaD). Clostridium kluyveri NAD-dependent 4-hydroxybutyrate ... Walter KA, Bennett GN, Papoutsakis ET (November 1992). "Molecular characterization of two Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 ... Clostridium acetobutylicum NADPH- and NADH-dependent butanol dehydrogenases EC 1.1.1.- (genes adh1, bdhA and bdhB), enzymes ...
... innocuum Clostridium intestinale Clostridium irregulare Clostridium isatidis Clostridium josui Clostridium kluyveri ... Clostridium aceticum Clostridium acetireducens Clostridium acetobutylicum Clostridium acidisoli Clostridium aciditolerans ... Clostridium acidurici Clostridium aerotolerans Clostridium aestuarii Clostridium akagii Clostridium aldenense Clostridium ... difficile Clostridium diolis Clostridium disporicum Clostridium drakei Clostridium durum Clostridium estertheticum Clostridium ...
"Clostridium kluyveri". Retrieved 2011-07-07. Type strain of Clostridium kluyveri at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... Clostridium kluyveri (CLOKL) is an anaerobic, motile, gram-positive bacterium. It is named after the Dutch microbiologist ... LPSN lpsn.dsmz.de "Clostridium kluyveri: Barker and Taha 1942". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). UniProt ...
Clostridium histolyticum MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.493 - Clostridium kluyveri MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.575 - Clostridium ... Clostridium histolyticum MeSH B03.510.415.400.200.493 - Clostridium kluyveri MeSH B03.510.415.400.200.575 - Clostridium ... Clostridium botulinum type G MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.180 - Clostridium butyricum MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.200 - Clostridium ... Clostridium botulinum type G MeSH B03.510.415.400.200.180 - Clostridium butyricum MeSH B03.510.415.400.200.200 - Clostridium ...
Clostridium butyricum. *Clostridium kluyveri. *Clostridium pasteurianum. *Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. *Fusobacterium ... Clostridium aurantibutyricum. Ove bakterije počinju sa fermentacijom butirata, kao što je opisano gore, ali, kada pH padne ... Clostridium acetobutylicum, najistaknutiji producent acetona i propianola, koji se također koristi u industriji; ...
One GRM locus in Clostridium phytofermentans has been shown to be involved in the fermentation of fucose and rhamnose, which ... associated with ethanol utilization inClostridium kluyveri". Biochemical Journal. 423 (2): 199-207. doi:10.1042/BJ20090780. ... Similar results were obtained for the GRM BMC from Clostridium phytofermentans, for which both sugars induce the genes coding ... "Involvement of a Bacterial Microcompartment in the Metabolism of Fucose and Rhamnose by Clostridium phytofermentans". PLOS ONE ...
"Clostridium kluyveri". Retrieved 2011-07-07. Type strain of Clostridium kluyveri at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... Clostridium kluyveri (CLOKL) is an anaerobic, motile, gram-positive bacterium. It is named after the Dutch microbiologist ... LPSN lpsn.dsmz.de "Clostridium kluyveri: Barker and Taha 1942". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). UniProt ...
Clostridium kluyveri is unique among the clostridia; it grows anaerobically on ethanol and acetate as sole energy sources. ... 1985) Studies on the substrate range of Clostridium kluyveri: The use of propanol and succinate. Arch Microbiol 141:187-194. ... 1966) Synthesis of glutamate and citrate by Clostridium kluyveri: An new type of citrate synthase. Biochemistry 5:1125-1133. ... 1972) Particulate nature of enzymes involved in the fermentation of ethanol and acetate by Clostridium kluyveri. FEBS Lett 21: ...
Homologous recombination - Clostridium kluyveri NBRC 12016 [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , ...
What is Clostridium kluyveri? Meaning of Clostridium kluyveri medical term. What does Clostridium kluyveri mean? ... Looking for online definition of Clostridium kluyveri in the Medical Dictionary? Clostridium kluyveri explanation free. ... clostri´dia an individual of the genus Clostridium. clostrid´ial. clostridium. (klŏ-strĭd′ē-əm). n. pl. clostrid·ia (-ē-ə) Any ... Clostridium. (redirected from Clostridium kluyveri). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. Clostridium. [klo- ...
Clostridium kluyveri (strain NBRC 12016). Clostridium kluyveri. 363. UniRef90_B9E1L6. Cluster: Protein RecA. 3. ... Clostridium kluyveri (strain ATCC 8527 / DSM 555 / NCIMB 10680)Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another ... Clostridium kluyveri (strain NBRC 12016). 363. UniRef100_B9E1L6. Cluster: Protein RecA. 2. ... tr,A5N856,A5N856_CLOK5 Protein RecA OS=Clostridium kluyveri (strain ATCC 8527 / DSM 555 / NCIMB 10680) OX=431943 GN=recA PE=3 ...
Clostridium kluyveri DSM 555). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay ...
2008) The genome of Clostridium kluyveri, a strict anaerobe with unique metabolic features. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105: ... 1972) Particulate nature of enzymes involved in the fermentation of ethanol and acetate by Clostridium kluyveri. FEBS Lett. 21: ... It has been suggested that ethanol metabolism in the strict anaerobe Clostridium kluyveri occurs within a metabolosome, a ... associated with ethanol utilization in Clostridium kluyveri. Dana Heldt, Stefanie Frank, Arefeh Seyedarabi, Dimitrios Ladikis, ...
Cyanide-induced acetylation of amino acids by enzymes of Clostridium kluyveri. , The Journal of biological chemistry , 4/1/1952 ... Cyanide-induced acetylation of amino acids by enzymes of Clostridium kluyveri. E R Stadtman J Katz H A Barker 4/1/1952 ... Cyanide-induced acetylation of amino acids by enzymes of Clostridium kluyveri. J Biol Chem. 1952;195(2):779-85. ...
Bacteria -> Firmicutes -> Clostridia -> Clostridiales -> Clostridiaceae -> Clostridium -> Clostridium kluyveri article { width ...
... rabbit IgG against Clostridium kluyveri Phosphotransacetylase, conjugated with Biotin \ NE183/Bio for more molecular products ... Product name : rabbit IgG against Clostridium kluyveri Phosphotransacetylase, conjugated with Biotin Catalog number : NE183/Bio ... NE183/Bio rabbit IgG against Clostridium kluyveri Phosphotransacetylase, conjugated with Biotin Ask technical file . ... We have also other products like : rabbit IgG against Clostridium kluyveri Phosphotransacetylase, conjugated with Biotin. ...
It has been suggested that ethanol metabolism in the strict anaerobe Clostridium kluyveri occurs within a metabolosome, a ... bacterial microcompartment, Clostridium kluyveri, ethanol utilization shell protein B (EtuB), metabolosome, organelle, pore, ... associated with ethanol utilization in Clostridium kluyveri. BIOCHEM J , 423 199 - 207. 10.1042/BJ20090780. ... Structure of a trimeric bacterial microcompartment shell protein, EtuB, associated with ethanol utilization in Clostridium ...
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BERGMEYER HU, HOLZ G, KLOTZSCH H, LANG G (1963). "Phosphotransacetylase from Clostridium Kluyveri. Culture of the Bacterium, ... Stadtman ER (1955). Stadtman, ER (ed.). "Phosphotransacetylase from Clostridium kluyveri". Methods Enzymol. Methods in ...
Clostridium kluyveri (strain ATCC 8527 / DSM 555 / NCIMB 10680). Loading... A6LRL7 Anti-sigma F factor. Clostridium ...
Schoberth, S., and Gottschalk, G. (1969). Considerations on the energy metabolism of Clostridium kluyveri. Arch. Mikrobiol. 65 ... This pathway had been described after studying Clostridium kluyveri, which was recently reviewed by Spirito et al. (2014). ... Thauer, R. K., Jungermann, K., Henninger, H., Wenning, J., and Decker, K. (1968). The energy metabolism of Clostridium kluyveri ... Weimer, P. J., and Stevenson, D. M. (2012). Isolation, characterization, and quantification of Clostridium kluyveri from the ...
Phosphotransacetylase from Clostridium kluyveri, vol. 1. Academic Press, New York, N.Y. ... Clostridium acetobutylicum butyrate kinase I (gi:20137334 ); CP BK, Clostridium perfringens butyrate kinase (gi:4239872 ); CB ...
This research team discovered that cell extracts from Clostridium kluyveri or Clostridium pasteurianum catalyzed the formation ... Untersuchungen zur Kopplung von H2-Bildung und Fettsäuresynthese in Clostridium kluyveri. (Investigations of the coupling of H2 ... Hydrogen formation from NADH in cell-free extracts of Clostridium kluyveri. Acetyl coenzyme A requirement and ferredoxin ... Considerations on the energy metabolism of Clostridium kluyveri. Arch. Mikrobiol. 65 : 318-328. ...
The genome of Clostridium kluyveri, a strict anaerobe with unique metabolic features. ... Efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation in 2 children with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection and its impact on ... Efficacy of combined jejunal and colonic fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection. ... Microbiota dynamics in patients treated with fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. ...
The genome of Clostridium kluyveri, a strict anaerobe with unique metabolic features Henning Seedorf, W. Florian Fricke, Birgit ...
Clostridium acetobutylicum. Clostridium butyricum. Clostridium kluyveri. Clostridium pasteurianum. Fusobacterium nucleatum. ... The probiotic MIYAIRI 588 is clostridium butyricum which is marketed in Japan as a treatment for c. difficile.. A thorough ...
Schoberth, S., Gottschalk, G.: Considerations on the energy metabolism of Clostridium kluyveri. Arch. Mikrobiol. 65, 318-328 ( ... Ohwaki, K., Hungate, R. E.: Hydrogen utilization by clostridia in sewage sludge. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 33, 1270-1274 (1977) ... Karlsson, J. L., Volcani, B. E., Barker, H. A.: The nutritional requirements of Clostridium aceticum. J. Bacteriol 56, 781-782 ... Dorn, M., Andreesen, J. R., Gottschalk, G.: Fermentation of fumarate and L-malate by Clostridium formicoaceticum. J. Bacteriol ...
The genome of Clostridium kluyveri, a strict anaerobe with unique metabolic features. ... reduction with NADH catalyzed by the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase/Etf complex from Clostridium kluyveri. ... reduced ferredoxin and NADP+ reduction with NADH are coupled via an electron-bifurcating enzyme complex in Clostridium kluyveri ... Energy Conservation Associated with Ethanol Formation from H2 and CO2 in Clostridium autoethanogenum Involving Electron ...
Upgrading syngas fermentation effluent using Clostridium kluyveri in a continuous fermentation Sylvia Gildemyn (UGent) , ... Redox dependent metabolic shift in Clostridium autoethanogenum by extracellular electron supply Frauke Kracke, Bernardino ...
The genome of Clostridium kluyveri, a strict anaerobe with unique metabolic features.. Henning Seedorf, W. Florian Fricke, +10 ... reduction with NADH catalyzed by the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase/Etf complex from Clostridium kluyveri.. Fuli Li, Julia ...
The Clostridium kluyveri system remains under consideration as a potentially viable alternative to the encapsulin-based ... 9.Seedorf, H., et al., The genome of Clostridium kluyveri, a strict anaerobe with unique metabolic features. Proc Natl Acad Sci ... In order to find the targeting sequence for the Clostridium kluyveri microcompartment, it will be necessary to fine tune the ... One of the putative microcompartment systems in Clostridium kluyveri associated with the oxidation of ethanol, however, shows ...
Clostridium kluyveri, Escherichia coli. The Enzymes, 3rd Ed. (Boyer, P. D. , ed. ) ...
Bergmeyer HU, Holz G, Klotzsch H, Lang G (1963) Phosphotrans-acetylase aus Clostridium kluyveri. Biochem Z 338:114-121Google ... Thauer RK, Jungermann K, Henninger H, Wenning H, Decker K (1968) The energy metabolism of Clostridium kluyveri. Eur J Biochem 4 ... Hollaus F, Sleytr V (1972) On the taxonomy and fine structure of some hyperthermophilic saccharolytic Clostridia. Arch ... Walther R (1977) Die Vergärung von Citrat durch Clostridium sphenoides: Nachweis einer glutamatabhängigen Citrat-Lyase. Diss ...
Utilization of (E)-2-butenoate (crotonate) by Clostridium kluyveri and some other Clostridium species. Arch. Microbiol. 125:159 ... 13C-NMR studies of butyric fermentation in Clostridium kluyveri. J. Biol. Chem. 260:13509-13512. ... The energy metabolism of Clostridium kluyveri. Eur. J. Biochem. 4:173-180. ... carboxylate formation probably serves a function analogous to the formation of butyrate and caproate by Clostridium kluyveri (4 ...
Predicting and experimental evaluating bio-electrochemical synthesis - A case study with Clostridium kluyveri. ... Identification of Clostridium cochlearium as an electroactive microorganism from the mouse gut microbiome. Bioelectrochemistry ... Identification of Clostridium cochlearium as an electroactive microorganism from the mouse gut microbiome. Bioelectrochemistry ...
Predicting and experimental evaluating bio-electrochemical synthesis - A case study with Clostridium kluyveri. ... Redox dependent metabolic shift in Clostridium autoethanogenum by extracellular electron supply.. Biotechnol Biofuels. 9, 249. ...
  • O'Brien, W. E., Ljungdahl, L. G.: Fermentation of fructose and synthesis of acetate from carbon dioxide by Clostridium formicoaceticum . (springer.com)
  • A striking metabolic feature of Clostridia is the fermentation of amino acids via the Stickland reaction, described in 1934 by L. H. Stickland [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clostridium thermocellum , a thermophilic, cellulolytic member of the Firmicutes phylum, is a potential platform to engineer into a CBP organism due to its native ability to efficiently solubilize cellulose and produce ethanol as a fermentation product. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Butyric Acid (chemical name butanoic acid) is a carboxylic acid that is produced by anaerobic bacteria such as Clostridium butyricum, C. kluyveri, and Megasphaera spp during glucose fermentation, and is generally considered an off flavor in sour beer. (boekhandeldeoorsprong.nl)
  • Any of various rod-shaped, spore-forming, chiefly anaerobic bacteria of the genus Clostridium, such as certain nitrogen-fixing species found in soil and those causing botulism and tetanus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Clostridium acetobutylicum NADPH- and NADH-dependent butanol dehydrogenases ( EC 1.1.1 ) (genes adh1, bdhA and bdhB) [( PUBMED:1385386 )], an enzyme which has activity using butanol and ethanol as substrates. (embl.de)
  • Energy Conservation Associated with Ethanol Formation from H2 and CO2 in Clostridium autoethanogenum Involving Electron Bifurcation. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we report the establishment of a synthetic co-culture consisting of Clostridium autoethanogenum and Clostridium kluyveri . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we report the use of a synthetic co-culture of Clostridium autoethanogenum (DSM 10061) and Clostridium kluyveri (DSM 555) to convert CO or syngas into MCFA and their respective alcohols. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clostridium autoethanogenum (DSM 10061) and Clostridium kluyveri (DSM 555) were purchased from the DSMZ strain collection (Braunschweig, Germany). (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2015 ) Energy conservation associated with ethanol formation from H 2 and CO 2 in Clostridium autoethanogenum involving electron bifurcation Journal of Bacteriology . (academictree.org)
  • 2015) The complete genome sequence of Clostridium aceticum: a missing link between Rnf and cytochrome‐containing autotrophic acetogens. (els.net)
  • Members of the genus Clostridium are nutritionally extremely versatile, able to degrade a large variety of heterotrophic substrates and able to grow under autotrophic conditions. (els.net)
  • Lee C‐K, Dürre P, Hippe H and Gottschalk G (1987) Screening for plasmids in the genus Clostridium. (els.net)
  • While CNTs have undergone frequent lateral transfer between species of Clostridium , no CNT homologues have been identified outside of the Clostridium genus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clostridia are strictly anaerobic or moderately aerotolerant bacteria, gaining adenosine triphosphate (ATP) mostly by substrate level phosphorylation. (els.net)
  • 2016 ). Since that the first DI was purified from mammalian heart muscle, many DIs have been obtained from various bacteria including Thermotoga maritima, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus subtilis and Clostridium kluyveri (Bergsma et al. (springeropen.com)
  • 2015 ) Correction to NADP+ reduction with reduced ferredoxin and NADP+ reduction with NADH are coupled via an electron-bifurcating enzyme complex in Clostridium kluyveri [J Bacteriol, 197, (2015) 792] Journal of Bacteriology . (academictree.org)
  • We report here the genome sequence of C. kluyveri , which revealed new insights into the metabolic capabilities of this well studied organism. (pnas.org)
  • All three organisms came to fame, C. kluyveri as a model organism in the early 1950s for the study of fatty acid synthesis and fatty acid oxidation ( 8 ⇓ - 10 ), and the S-organism and M. bryantii for the development of the concept of interspecies hydrogen transfer and of syntrophy ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Clostridium thermocellum is a good candidate organism for CBP due to its ability to rapidly ferment cellulose and produce ethanol. (biomedcentral.com)
  • C. kluyveri can also ferment 2 ethanol and 2 succinate to 4 acetate, 1 butyrate, and 0.1 H 2 ( 12 ) and 2 crotonate to 2 acetate, 1 butyrate, and 0.1 H 2 ( 13 , 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • Unique for a strict anaerobe, C. kluyveri harbors three sets of genes predicted to encode for polyketide/nonribosomal peptide synthetase hybrides and one set for a nonribosomal peptide synthetase. (pnas.org)
  • It has been suggested that ethanol metabolism in the strict anaerobe Clostridium kluyveri occurs within a metabolosome, a subcellular proteinaceous bacterial microcompartment. (biochemj.org)
  • We resequenced the genome of Clostridium difficile 630Δ erm (DSM 28645), a model strain commonly used for the generation of insertion mutants. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Hussain HA , Roberts AP , Mullany P . Generation of an erythromycin-sensitive derivative of Clostridium difficile strain 630 (630Δerm) and demonstration that the conjugative transposon Tn916ΔE enters the genome of this strain at multiple sites. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Description: Clostridium Novyi (strain NT) Bifunctional purine biosynthesis protein PurH, recombinant protein. (cytologygeneva2014.com)
  • Dehydrogenases involved in the conversion of succinate to 4-hydroxybutanoate by Clostridium kluyveri. (asm.org)
  • Molecular analysis of the anaerobic succinate degradation pathway in Clostridium kluyveri. (northwestern.edu)
  • 40. The isolated mutant microorganism according to claim 33, wherein the gene encoding the enzyme converting succinate into 4-hydroxybutyrate is derived from Clostridium kluyveri. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Clostridium bifermen´tans a species common in feces, sewage, and soil and associated with gas gangrene. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Clostridium diffi´cile a species often occurring transiently in the gut of infants, but whose toxin causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis in those receiving prolonged antibiotic therapy. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Clostridium histoly´ticum a species found in feces and soil. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Clostridium kluy´veri a species used in the study of both microbial synthesis and microbial oxidation of fatty acids. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Clostridium ramo´sum a species found in human and animal infections and feces and commonly isolated from clinical specimens. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Clostridium sporo´genes a species widespread in nature, reportedly associated with pathogenic anaerobes in gangrenous infections. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Clostridium ter´tium a species found in feces, sewage, and soil and present in some gangrenous infections. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As demonstrated by the scattered phyletic distribution of neurotoxin-producing clostridia [ 10 ] and the patterns of sequence similarity between different neurotoxin gene clusters [ 11 ], CNT genes appear to have undergone significant lateral transfer between different species of Clostridium . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Comparative genomics has provided the opportunity to study the lifestyle of pathogenic and non-pathogenic clostridial species as well as to elucidate the difference in metabolic features between clostridia and other anaerobes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this context, one of the best biochemically studied clostridial species is Clostridium sticklandii . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phylogenetic tree of 16S rDNA of 5 different Clostridium species and Framework sequences . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genome-scale modeling and simulations have been guided for metabolic engineering of Clostridium species for the production of organic solvents and organic acids. (cyberleninka.org)
  • When grown on ethanol C. kluyveri produce caproic acid in addition to acetic acid. (up.ac.za)
  • Few clostridia produce one or several toxins, however, among these toxins are the most potent known (botulinum toxin). (els.net)
  • Lund BM and Peck MW (2000) Clostridium botulinum. (els.net)
  • Clostridium sticklandii belongs to a cluster of non-pathogenic proteolytic clostridia which utilize amino acids as carbon and energy sources. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Among them, Clostridium sticklandii is one of the potential organisms to be exploited as a microbial cell factory for biofuel production. (cyberleninka.org)
  • Comparison of the azoreductase and nitroreductase from Clostridium perfringens. (asm.org)
  • Description: Clostridium Perfringens Bifunctional purine biosynthesis protein PurH, recombinant protein. (cytologygeneva2014.com)
  • C lostridium kluyveri was first enriched by H. A. Barker in 1937 from the mud of a canal in Delft, The Netherlands ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Braun M, Mayer F and Gottschalk G (1981) Clostridium aceticum (Wieringa), a microorganism producing acetic acid from molecular hydrogen and carbon dioxide. (els.net)
  • Schematic structure of a Bacillus / Clostridium spore. (asmscience.org)
  • A neighbor - joining analysis with Jukes-Cantor correction and bootstrap support was performed on the rrs sequences of Clostridium kluyveri - 14, C. pasteurianum - 13, C. colicanis - 9, C. chauvoei and C. tetani - 8 each (shown in red, except those used as framework sequences) along with 56 of phylogenetic framework (Figure 1). (biomedcentral.com)
  • NADH and NADPH originally come from purified extracts of Clostridium kluyveri cells, where diaphorase activity is shown. (agscientific.com)
  • The native ability of Clostridium thermocellum to rapidly consume cellulose and produce ethanol makes it a leading candidate for a consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) biofuel production strategy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The purified bacterial enzymes retained 20% of activity after incubation for 30 min at 55 °C. Expression of these PDC genes, except the one from Zymomonas mobilis , improved ethanol production by Clostridium thermocellum . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clostridium kluyveri was enriched from mud in a co-culture with Methanobacterium omelianskii. (up.ac.za)
  • With the goal of revisiting its carbon, nitrogen, and energy metabolism, and comparing studies with other clostridia, its genome has been sequenced and analyzed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cyanide-induced acetylation of amino acids by enzymes of Clostridium kluyveri. (docphin.com)
  • A microcompartment was suggested to be involved in the oxidation of ethanol by Clostridium kluyveri . (igem.org)
  • Tracer experiments on the mechanism of synthesis of valeric and caproic acids by Clostridium kluyveri. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Description: Clostridium Tetani Bifunctional purine biosynthesis protein PurH, recombinant protein. (cytologygeneva2014.com)
  • C. kluyveri is well known for its reversed β-oxidation metabolism, converting short chain fatty acids with ethanol into MCFA and hydrogen (Table 1 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Several clostridia are also able of autotrophic growth, using CO 2 and CO as carbon source. (els.net)
  • Clostridia participate to a large extent in biogeochemical cycles (e.g. of carbon, nitrogen and metals). (els.net)
  • Clostridium botuli´num the causative agent of botulism, divided into six types (A through F) which elaborate immunologically distinct toxins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Coupled ferredoxin and crotonyl coenzyme A (CoA) reduction with NADH catalyzed by the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase/Etf complex from Clostridium kluyveri. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Clostridium kluyveri NAD-dependent 4-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (4hbd) ( EC 1.1.1.61 ). (embl.de)
  • Clostridia are anaerobic (sometimes not strictly) and form endospores, which is the cause for their ubiquitous occurrence. (els.net)
  • Despite considerable progress in understanding CNT structure and function, the evolutionary origins of CNTs remain a mystery as they are unique to Clostridium and possess a sequence and structural architecture distinct from other protein families. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clostridium tyrobutyricum is a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium that efficiently produces butyric acid and is considered a promising host for anaerobic production of bulk chemicals. (asm.org)
  • Clostridia are composing a taxonomically diverse group, which undergoes frequent reclassification. (els.net)
  • Jungermann K, Leimenstoll G, Rupprecht E, Thauer RK (1971) Demonstration of NADH-ferredoxin reductase in two saccharolytic Clostridia. (springer.com)