Clostridium botulinum type A
Clostridium botulinum type E
Molecular Sequence Data
ADP Ribose Transferases
Clostridium botulinum type B
Clostridium botulinum type D
Clostridium botulinum type F
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
Amino Acid Sequence
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Clostridium botulinum type C
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Bacterial Typing Techniques
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
Characteristics of a strain of Clostridium carnis causing septicaemia in a young infant. (1/851)Clostridium carnis is a species which is only rarely isolated from man or animals and is occasionally found in the soil. This paper is an account of a single isolate found in blood cultures obtained from an 8-week-old boy who was suffering from gastroenteritis. (+info)
Hemorrhagic enteritis associated with Clostridium perfringens type A in a dog. (2/851)A female Shetland sheep dog died suddenly with hemorrhagic diarrhea and vomitting, and was examined pathologically and microbiologically. Gross pathological change was restricted to the intestinal tract. The intestine contained watery, blood-stained fluid. Histopathologically, the principal intestinal lesion was superficial mucosal hemorrhagic necrosis at the jejunoileum. Many Gram-positive bacilli were found adhering to the necrotic mucosal surface in parts of the intestinal tract. Clostridium perfringens in pure culture were isolated from jejunal contents by anaerobic culture. These results suggested that the typical lesion of this case coincided with canine hemorrhagic enteritis and enterotoxemia due to C. perfringens infection could be the cause of sudden death. (+info)
Naturally occurring Tyzzer's disease in a calf. (3/851)Naturally occurring Clostridium piliforme infection (Tyzzer's disease) was found in a calf. Light microscopic examination revealed multifocal coagulative necrosis in the liver, catarrhal gastroenteritis, tracheitis and pneumonia, and thymic atrophy. Warthin-Starry staining clearly showed large filamentous bacilli in bundles or criss-cross patterns within the hepatocytes and epithelium and smooth muscle cells of the ileum and cecum. Immunohistochemistry using anti-C. piliforme RT and MSK strain antisera showed positive reaction against the bacilli. Electron microscopic examination revealed bacilli within the hepatocytes that demonstrated a characteristic vegetative form, with peritrichous flagella, and spores. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) study using the paraffin-embedded liver sections, the 196-bp DNA fragment specific to 16S ribosomal RNA of C. piliforme was amplified. The characteristics of these bacilli are consistent with those of of C. piliforme. The PCR technique using paraffin-embedded sections should be useful for confirming C. piliforme infection in spontaneous cases. (+info)
Production of phospholipase C (alpha-toxin), haemolysins and lethal toxins by Clostridium perfringens types A to D. (4/851)To obtain high yields of extracellular enzymes and toxins for immunological analysis, type culture collection strains of Clostridium perfringens types A to D and 28 fresh isolates of C. perfringens type A from humans were grown in fermenters under controlled conditions in a pre-reduced proteose peptone medium. The type culture collection strains all showed different characteristics with respect to growth rates and pH optima for growth. Production of phospholipase C (alpha-toxin), haemolysin and lethal activity varied considerably between the different types. Growth and extracellular protein production in fermenters with pH control and static or stirred cultures were compared. Production of all extracellular proteins measured was markedly improved by cultivation in fermenters with pH control. Strain ATCC13124 produced five times more phospholipase C than any of 28 freshly isolated strains of C. perfringens type A, grown under identical conditions. Haemolytic and lethal activities of the ATCC strain were equal or superior to the activities of any of the freshly isolated strains. There were no differences in the bacterial yields and in the production of extracellular toxins between type A strains isolated from clinical cases of gas gangrene and abdominal wounds, and those isolated from faecal samples from healthy persons. (+info)
Factors associated with prolonged symptoms and severe disease due to Clostridium difficile. (5/851)OBJECTIVE: toxigenic Clostridium difficile is responsible for a spectrum of disease severity ranging from mild diarrhoea to fulminant colitis. This study attempts to determine the proportion of patients in each category of severity and evaluate the risk factors for a more prolonged and complicated course. DESIGN: prospective cohort study. SETTING: university teaching hospital. SUBJECTS: all patients with symptomatic C. difficile infection during 4 months of an outbreak (January-April 1995); n=73; median age 74 years (range 17-91). MEASUREMENTS: incidence of C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD); severity of disease; percentage of patients in each category of severity; risk factors for severe disease/prolonged symptoms (univariate and multivariable analyses). RESULTS: the incidence of CDAD was 0.93%. Of the cases identified, 18 (24.7%) had mild, self-limiting disease; 26 (35.6%) had moderately severe disease; 23 (31.5%) had prolonged symptoms and six (8.2%) had a complicated course. Although CDAD was more common in older patients (P < 0.001), increasing age was not a risk factor for severity. Significant risk factors for severe CDAD included low Barthel and abbreviated mental test scores (P < 0.01, P < 0.001 respectively) and recent endoscopy (P=0.03). Logistic regression analysis revealed the following independent predictors of severe CDAD: endoscopy [odds ratios (OR) 4.0, P=0.03] and cognitive impairment (OR 11.0, P < 0.01). A trend towards significance was noted for nasogastric tube insertion (OR 3.1, P=0.08). Complications of infection included dehydration, malnutrition and faecal incontinence (which was statistically significantly associated with more severe disease; P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: risk factors for severity of CDAD include functional disability, cognitive impairment, and recent endoscopy. Anticipation of severe CDAD may limit morbidity and mortality. (+info)
Molecular subtyping of Clostridium perfringens by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to facilitate food-borne-disease outbreak investigations. (6/851)Clostridium perfringens is a common cause of food-borne illness. The illness is characterized by profuse diarrhea and acute abdominal pain. Since the illness is usually self-limiting, many cases are undiagnosed and/or not reported. Investigations are often pursued after an outbreak involving large numbers of people in institutions, at restaurants, or at catered meals. Serotyping has been used in the past to assist epidemiologic investigations of C. perfringens outbreaks. However, serotyping reagents are not widely available, and many isolates are often untypeable with existing reagents. We developed a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method for molecular subtyping of C. perfringens isolates to aid in epidemiologic investigations of food-borne outbreaks. Six restriction endonucleases (SmaI, ApaI, FspI, MluI, KspI, and XbaI) were evaluated with a select panel of C. perfringens strains. SmaI was chosen for further studies because it produced 11 to 13 well-distributed bands of 40 to approximately 1,100 kb which provided good discrimination between isolates. Seventeen distinct patterns were obtained with 62 isolates from seven outbreak investigations or control strains. In general, multiple isolates from a single individual had indistinguishable PFGE patterns. Epidemiologically unrelated isolates (outbreak or control strains) had unique patterns; isolates from different individuals within an outbreak had similar, if not identical, patterns. PFGE identifies clonal relationships of isolates which will assist epidemiologic investigations of food-borne-disease outbreaks caused by C. perfringens. (+info)
Differences in the carboxy-terminal (Putative phospholipid binding) domains of Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium bifermentans phospholipases C influence the hemolytic and lethal properties of these enzymes. (7/851)The phospholipases C of C. perfringens (alpha-toxin) and C. bifermentans (Cbp) show >50% amino acid homology but differ in their hemolytic and toxic properties. We report here the purification and characterisation of alpha-toxin and Cbp. The phospholipase C activity of alpha-toxin and Cbp was similar when tested with phosphatidylcholine in egg yolk or in liposomes. However, the hemolytic activity of alpha-toxin was more than 100-fold that of Cbp. To investigate whether differences in the carboxy-terminal domains of these proteins were responsible for differences in the hemolytic and toxic properties, a hybrid protein (NbiCalpha) was constructed comprising the N domain of Cbp and the C domain of alpha-toxin. The hemolytic activity of NbiCalpha was 10-fold that of Cbp, and the hybrid enzyme was toxic. These results confirm that the C-terminal domain of these proteins confers different properties on the enzymatically active N-terminal domain of these proteins. (+info)
Septicemia in neutropenic patients infected with Clostridium tertium resistant to cefepime and other expanded-spectrum cephalosporins. (8/851)Clostridium tertium was isolated from two immunocompromised patients with septicemia, fever, and gastrointestinal symptoms. The strains were resistant to ceftazidime, cefepime, and clindamycin; intermediately resistant to penicillin; and susceptible to metronidazole, quinolones, and vancomycin. (+info)
Some common types of Clostridium infections include:
* Clostridium difficile (C. diff) infection: This is a common type of diarrheal disease that can occur after taking antibiotics, especially in people who are hospitalized or living in long-term care facilities.
* Gas gangrene: This is a severe and potentially life-threatening infection that occurs when Clostridium bacteria infect damaged tissue, causing gas to build up in the affected area.
* Tetanus: This is a serious neurological infection caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani, which can enter the body through open wounds or puncture wounds.
* Botulism: This is a potentially fatal illness caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, which can be contracted through contaminated food or wounds.
Clostridium infections can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, and swelling or redness in the affected area. Treatment depends on the type of infection and may include antibiotics, surgery, or supportive care to manage symptoms.
Prevention measures for Clostridium infections include proper hand hygiene, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and practicing safe food handling practices to prevent the spread of botulism and other clostridial infections. Vaccines are also available for some types of clostridial infections, such as tetanus and botulism.
In summary, Clostridium infections are a diverse group of bacterial infections that can cause a range of illnesses, from mild to severe and life-threatening. Proper prevention and treatment measures are essential to avoid the potential complications of these infections.
PSE can be a serious condition, especially in older adults or those with weakened immune systems, as it can lead to life-threatening complications such as inflammation of the bowel wall, perforation of the bowel, and sepsis. PSE is often diagnosed through a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eradicate the infection, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms such as fluid replacement, pain management, and wound care. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged portions of the intestine.
Prevention measures for PSE include proper hand hygiene, isolation precautions, and environmental cleaning to reduce the transmission of C. diff spores. Probiotics, which are live microorganisms that are similar to the beneficial bacteria found in the gut, have also been shown to be effective in preventing PSE recurrence.
1. Foodborne botulism: This type of botulism is caused by eating foods that have been contaminated with the bacteria. Symptoms typically begin within 12 to 72 hours after consuming the contaminated food and can include double vision, droopy eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, and muscle weakness.
2. Infant botulism: This type of botulism occurs in infants who are exposed to the bacteria through contact with contaminated soil or object. Symptoms can include constipation, poor feeding, and weak cry.
3. Wound botulism: This type of botulism is caused by the bacteria entering an open wound, usually a deep puncture wound or surgical incision.
Botulism is a rare illness in the United States, but it can be deadly if not treated promptly. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as mechanical ventilation and fluids, as well as antitoxin injections to neutralize the effects of the toxin. Prevention measures include proper food handling and storage, good hygiene practices, and avoiding consumption of improperly canned or preserved foods.
The symptoms of gas gangrene can include sudden onset of severe pain, swelling, redness, and warmth in the affected area. The skin may also be tender to the touch and feel firm or hard. In severe cases, the infection can spread quickly and lead to sepsis, shock, and even death.
Gas gangrene can occur as a result of trauma, such as a wound or injury, or it can be caused by a surgical incision that becomes infected. The infection can also spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream.
Treatment of gas gangrene typically involves antibiotics and surgical debridement (removal of dead tissue) to remove the infected tissue and promote healing. In severe cases, amputation of the affected limb may be necessary. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent serious complications and improve outcomes.
In summary, gas gangrene is a life-threatening bacterial infection that can occur in muscle tissue, causing sudden pain, swelling, and warmth in the affected area. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent serious complications and improve outcomes.
There are several types of diarrhea, including:
1. Acute diarrhea: This type of diarrhea is short-term and usually resolves on its own within a few days. It can be caused by a viral or bacterial infection, food poisoning, or medication side effects.
2. Chronic diarrhea: This type of diarrhea persists for more than 4 weeks and can be caused by a variety of conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), or celiac disease.
3. Diarrhea-predominant IBS: This type of diarrhea is characterized by frequent, loose stools and abdominal pain or discomfort. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including stress, hormonal changes, and certain foods.
4. Infectious diarrhea: This type of diarrhea is caused by a bacterial, viral, or parasitic infection and can be spread through contaminated food and water, close contact with an infected person, or by consuming contaminated food.
Symptoms of diarrhea may include:
* Frequent, loose, and watery stools
* Abdominal cramps and pain
* Bloating and gas
* Nausea and vomiting
* Fever and chills
* Fatigue and weakness
Diagnosis of diarrhea is typically made through a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests to rule out other potential causes of the symptoms. Treatment for diarrhea depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, anti-diarrheal medications, fluid replacement, and dietary changes. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat any complications.
Prevention of diarrhea includes:
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and thoroughly, especially after using the bathroom or before preparing food
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Properly storing and cooking food to prevent contamination
* Drinking safe water and avoiding contaminated water sources
* Avoiding raw or undercooked meat, poultry, and seafood
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause diarrhea
Complications of diarrhea can include:
* Dehydration: Diarrhea can lead to a loss of fluids and electrolytes, which can cause dehydration. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention.
* Electrolyte imbalance: Diarrhea can also cause an imbalance of electrolytes in the body, which can lead to serious complications.
* Inflammation of the intestines: Prolonged diarrhea can cause inflammation of the intestines, which can lead to abdominal pain and other complications.
* Infections: Diarrhea can be a symptom of an infection, such as a bacterial or viral infection. If left untreated, these infections can lead to serious complications.
* Malnutrition: Prolonged diarrhea can lead to malnutrition and weight loss, which can have long-term effects on health and development.
Treatment of diarrhea will depend on the underlying cause, but may include:
* Fluid replacement: Drinking plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration and replace lost electrolytes.
* Anti-diarrheal medications: Over-the-counter or prescription medications to slow down bowel movements and reduce diarrhea.
* Antibiotics: If the diarrhea is caused by a bacterial infection, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat the infection.
* Rest: Getting plenty of rest to allow the body to recover from the illness.
* Dietary changes: Avoiding certain foods or making dietary changes to help manage symptoms and prevent future episodes of diarrhea.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following:
* Severe diarrhea that lasts for more than 3 days
* Diarrhea that is accompanied by fever, blood in the stool, or abdominal pain
* Diarrhea that is severe enough to cause dehydration or electrolyte imbalances
* Diarrhea that is not responding to treatment
Prevention of diarrhea includes:
* Good hand hygiene: Washing your hands frequently, especially after using the bathroom or before preparing food.
* Safe food handling: Cooking and storing food properly to prevent contamination.
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause diarrhea, such as rotavirus.
Overall, while diarrhea can be uncomfortable and disruptive, it is usually a minor illness that can be treated at home with over-the-counter medications and plenty of fluids. However, if you experience severe or persistent diarrhea, it is important to seek medical attention to rule out any underlying conditions that may require more formal treatment.
The symptoms of enterotoxemia may include:
* Abdominal cramping
* Blood in stools
If you suspect you or someone else has enterotoxemia, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and supportive care, such as fluids and electrolyte replacement. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
Prevention is key in avoiding enterotoxemia, which includes:
* Proper food handling and storage
* Good hygiene practices
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
If you have a weakened immune system or other underlying health conditions, it is especially important to take precautions to avoid getting enterotoxemia. By being aware of the risk factors and taking preventative measures, you can reduce your chances of developing this serious disease.
Symptoms of enteritis may include diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. In severe cases, the condition can lead to dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and even death if left untreated.
The diagnosis of enteritis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as endoscopy, imaging studies, and laboratory tests (e.g., blood tests, stool cultures). Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, and supportive care to manage symptoms.
Foodborne diseases, also known as food-borne illnesses or gastrointestinal infections, are conditions caused by eating contaminated or spoiled food. These diseases can be caused by a variety of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites, which can be present in food products at any stage of the food supply chain.
Examples of common foodborne diseases include:
1. Salmonella: Caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica, this disease can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps.
2. E. coli: Caused by the bacterium Escherichia coli, this disease can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, urinary tract infections, and pneumonia.
3. Listeria: Caused by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, this disease can cause symptoms such as fever, headache, and stiffness in the neck.
4. Campylobacter: Caused by the bacterium Campylobacter jejuni, this disease can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps.
5. Norovirus: This highly contagious virus can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach cramps.
6. Botulism: Caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, this disease can cause symptoms such as muscle paralysis, respiratory failure, and difficulty swallowing.
Foodborne diseases can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including stool samples, blood tests, and biopsies. Treatment typically involves antibiotics or other supportive care to manage symptoms. Prevention is key to avoiding foodborne diseases, and this includes proper food handling and preparation practices, as well as ensuring that food products are stored and cooked at safe temperatures.
In medicine, cross-infection refers to the transmission of an infectious agent from one individual or source to another, often through direct contact or indirect exposure. This type of transmission can occur in various settings, such as hospitals, clinics, and long-term care facilities, where patients with compromised immune systems are more susceptible to infection.
Cross-infection can occur through a variety of means, including:
1. Person-to-person contact: Direct contact with an infected individual, such as touching, hugging, or shaking hands.
2. Contaminated surfaces and objects: Touching contaminated surfaces or objects that have been touched by an infected individual, such as doorknobs, furniture, or medical equipment.
3. Airborne transmission: Inhaling droplets or aerosolized particles that contain the infectious agent, such as during coughing or sneezing.
4. Contaminated food and water: Consuming food or drinks that have been handled by an infected individual or contaminated with the infectious agent.
5. Insect vectors: Mosquitoes, ticks, or other insects can transmit infections through their bites.
Cross-infection is a significant concern in healthcare settings, as it can lead to outbreaks of nosocomial infections (infections acquired in hospitals) and can spread rapidly among patients, healthcare workers, and visitors. To prevent cross-infection, healthcare providers use strict infection control measures, such as wearing personal protective equipment (PPE), thoroughly cleaning and disinfecting surfaces, and implementing isolation precautions for infected individuals.
In summary, cross-infection refers to the transmission of an infectious agent from one individual or source to another, often through direct contact or indirect exposure in healthcare settings. Preventing cross-infection is essential to maintaining a safe and healthy environment for patients, healthcare workers, and visitors.
Clostridioides difficile infection
Fecal microbiota transplant
Clostridium difficile toxin A
Immunization during pregnancy
Food and biological process engineering
Barking, Havering and Redbridge University Hospitals NHS Trust
Childhood immunizations in the United States
Lida Holmes Mattman
Artificial induction of immunity
Prophage Hp1 holin family
Vital Signs: Preventing Clostridium difficile Infections
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- The intended purpose and regional patterns of use of antibiotics for managing Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infections: An analysis of the National Database of Health Insurance Claims and Specific Health Checkups data of Japan. (bvsalud.org)
- We previously showed the trend of antimicrobial use (AMU) for Clostridioides ( Clostridium ) difficile infection (CDI) using sales data. (bvsalud.org)
- Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and one of the most common healthcare-associated infections in the United States. (cdc.gov)
- The Clostridioides difficile infection surveillance program is an active population- and laboratory-based surveillance system conducted through CDC's Emerging Infections Program (EIP) Healthcare-Associated Infections Community Interface (HAIC). (cdc.gov)
- Clostridioides difficile (formerly Clostridium difficle) infection. (medlineplus.gov)
Difficile is the most common2
- Probiotics have shown promise for a variety of health purposes, including prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (including diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile ), prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis in premature infants, treatment of infant colic , treatment of periodontal disease , and induction or maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis . (nih.gov)
- Conserving the effectiveness of existing treatments through infection prevention and control guidelines, education and awareness, regulations, and oversight. (healthcareexcellence.ca)
- The framework encompasses the three pillars listed above, as well as a fourth pillar for Infection Prevention and Control (IPC). (healthcareexcellence.ca)
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2016, " Clostridium difficile" ). (healthcareexcellence.ca)
- Diflucan is also used for treating cryptococcal meningitis , and prevention of Candida infections in patients treated with chemotherapy or radiation after bone marrow transplantation. (medicinenet.com)
- The CDC/STRIVE curriculum was developed by national infection prevention experts led by the Health Research & Educational Trust (HRET) for CDC. (cdc.gov)
- Courses address both the technical and foundational elements of healthcare-associated infection (HAI) prevention. (cdc.gov)
- Defines competency-based training and describes key components to consider when designing infection prevention training. (cdc.gov)
- Reviews the importance of conducting infection prevention audits and how audits can be performed and implemented as part of an infection prevention surveillance program. (cdc.gov)
- Developed by national infection prevention experts, the curriculum focuses on foundational and HAI-specific prevention practices. (cdc.gov)
- Describe the key components of a competency- based training program for infection prevention at the completion of the module set. (cdc.gov)
- Describe how to design and implement audits for infection prevention practices at the completion of the module set. (cdc.gov)
- 9. Probiotics and prevention of Clostridium difficile infection. (nih.gov)
- Clostridium difficile (CD) produces antibiotic associated diarrhea and leads to a broad range of diseases. (urosario.edu.co)
- abstract = "Several studies have raised concern regarding the possible association between proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). (uea.ac.uk)
- Adults with acute symptoms of C. difficile infection and a positive result on a stool toxin test were eligible for study entry. (nih.gov)
- The secondary end points were recurrence of C. difficile infection (diarrhea and a positive result on a stool toxin test within 4 weeks after treatment) and global cure (i.e., cure with no recurrence). (nih.gov)
- Objective - To compare clinical, microbiologic, and clinicopathologic findings among horses infected with Clostridium difficile that had toxin A in their feces, horses with evidence of C difficile infection that were negative for toxin A in their feces, and horses with diarrhea that were negative for C difficile infection. (uky.edu)
- Results - Horses with toxin A in their feces had higher band neutrophil count, rectal temperature, hospitalization time prior to the onset of diarrhea, and total hospitalization time than did horses without evidence of C difficile infection, and 32 of the 33 (97%) horses with toxin A in their feces had received antimicrobials prior to the onset of diarrhea. (uky.edu)
- Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Results provided some evidence that horses positive for toxin A had more severe clinical disease than did horses with evidence of C difficile infection that were negative for toxin A and horses with diarrhea without evidence of C difficile infection. (uky.edu)
- Some of the antibiotics with the highest CDI risk are fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins, which are often used to treat common bacterial infections like pneumonia and urinary tract infections. (science20.com)
- The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, has awarded approximately $5 million in funding for 24 research projects seeking to develop non-traditional therapeutics for bacterial infections to help address the growing health threat of antibiotic resistance. (nih.gov)
- Increasing resistance to antibiotics coupled with the slow pace of new antibiotic development threatens to erode the past 70 years of progress in fighting life-threatening bacterial infections. (nih.gov)
- The role of clostridia as intestinal pathogens has been recognized ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- It can colonize the gut and result in an intestinal disease called Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). (science20.com)
- Clostridium difficile ( C. difficile ) is a bacterium that causes mild to severe diarrhea and intestinal conditions like pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon). (healthcareexcellence.ca)
- Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, spore-forming bacillus that causes pseudomembranous colitis, manifesting as diarrhea that often recurs and can progress to toxic megacolon, sepsis, and death. (cdc.gov)
- Clostridium difficile infections can lead to diarrhea, sepsis, and even death. (cdc.gov)
- can lead to sepsis (a serious infection that spreads through the blood) or a puncture in your intestines. (novascotia.ca)
- Although the incidence of other health-care-associated infections has declined ( 2 ), CDIs have increased and only recently plateaued ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- In the United States, health care-associated infections are the fifth leading cause of death among hospitalized patients, accounting for nearly 100,000 deaths in the US each year. (science20.com)
- Other health care-associated infections, like catheter-associated infections and surgical site infections, are associated with the use of medical devices and surgical procedures. (science20.com)
- Jon Mark Hirshon] Well, as with all health care associated infections, it's important that doctors, nurses, patients, and visitors wash their hands with soap and water. (cdc.gov)
- This can greatly reduce all health care-associated infections, including C. diff . (cdc.gov)
- Control of Clostridium difficile Infection by Defined Microbial Communities. (nih.gov)
- Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) often occurs in patients in health-care settings, where antibiotics are prescribed and symptomatic patients, an important source for transmission, are concentrated. (cdc.gov)
- Patients can be exposed to dangerous infections while receiving treatment. (science20.com)
- Patients with severe Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) are at increased risk for IAH and ACS. (medscimonit.com)
- Includes patients aged ≥65 years who were either hospitalized with Clostridium difficile infections or who acquired C. difficile during the hospital stay. (cdc.gov)
- The majority of infections with C. difficile occur among persons aged ≥65 years and among patients in health-care facilities, such as hospitals and nursing homes. (cdc.gov)
- The figure above shows rates of Clostridium difficile infection among hospitalized patients aged ≥65 years, by age group in the United States from 1996-2009, according to the National Hospital Discharge Survey. (cdc.gov)
- The Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) estimates that approximately two per cent of patients admitted to large, academic Canadian hospitals will have acquired an infection with an Antibiotic Resistant Organism (ARO) during the course of their hospital stay (Mitchell et al. (healthcareexcellence.ca)
- Whereas metronidazole is the recommended first-line treatment for mild to moderate disease without complications, vancomycin is recommended first-line therapy for severe infection or for patients with risk factors for adverse outcomes, such as advanced age, critical illness, overall debility, or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). (medscape.com)
- For 139 patients tested for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) by polymerase chain reaction, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of testing perirectal swabs versus stool specimens were 95.7%, 100%, 100%, and 99.1%, respectively. (wustl.edu)
- In the end, among the almost 1100 patients whose stool we tested for C. diff , we found 43 with the infection. (cdc.gov)
- So, as it turned out, we only found three patients without known risk factors or a co-infection. (cdc.gov)
- however, microbes continually evolve and become resistant to these lifesaving drugs," said NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D. "New strategies are desperately needed to treat patients with antibiotic-resistant infections that often are deadly. (nih.gov)
- Utility of Perirectal Swab Specimens for Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile Infection. (wustl.edu)
- major reductions will require antibiotic stewardship along with infection control applied to nursing homes and ambulatory-care settings as well as hospitals. (cdc.gov)
- Better antimicrobial stewardship could curb infection rates. (science20.com)
- Antimicrobial stewardship should be a central component of C difficile infection control programmes. (ox.ac.uk)
- Since its inception in 2013, the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG)'s clinical research agenda has focused on studies to address gram-negative and where appropriate gram-positive infections, as well as studies to support the development and use of diagnostic tests and to inform antibiotic stewardship efforts. (nih.gov)
Emerging Infections Program2
- Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin was detected in stool samples collected from six ill inmates, and 43,000 CFU/g of the organism were isolated from a remaining sample of casserole. (cdc.gov)
- Ordinarily, the absolute prerequisite for clostridial infection is a focus of necrotic tissue, which this organism then infects ( 7 ). (cdc.gov)
- However, the full extent of the pathogenicity, clinical spectrum, and optimal therapy of Clostridium sphenoides infections remains to be determined. (cdc.gov)
- This phase 3 clinical trial compared the efficacy and safety of fidaxomicin with those of vancomycin in treating C. difficile infection. (nih.gov)
- The primary end point was clinical cure (resolution of symptoms and no need for further therapy for C. difficile infection as of the second day after the end of the course of therapy). (nih.gov)
- BACKGROUND:The control of Clostridium difficile infections is an international clinical challenge. (ox.ac.uk)
- Team membership will vary among organizations, but the core team should include an infectious disease physician, PharmD, clinical microbiologist, infection control representative, hospital epidemiologist, information technology (IT) representative, and senior administrator. (ahrq.gov)
- Kass, Philip H. / Comparison of clinical, microbiologic, and clinicopathologic findings in horses positive and negative for Clostridium difficile infection . (uky.edu)
- An integrated clinical research program that both explores ways to reduce the overall risk of antimicrobial resistance and tests new approaches to diagnose, prevent, and treat AR infections is a critical component of the response to the AR problem. (nih.gov)
- Current treatments rely on metronidazol and vancomycin, but the limited ability of these antibiotics to cure infection and prevent relapse highlights the need for new strategies. (uzh.ch)
- infection, such as metronidazole or vancomycin. (novascotia.ca)
- Oral metronidazole and oral vancomycin have similar efficacy rates in treating diarrhea caused by C difficile in mild to moderate infection but not in severe disease. (medscape.com)
- Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) occurs when microbes (e.g. bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites) evolve in ways that reduces or eliminates the effectiveness of antimicrobial medicines (e.g. antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals and antiparasitics) to treat infections. (healthcareexcellence.ca)
- and, if no action is taken, it's estimated that by 2050, 10 million lives are at risk worldwide due to the rise of drug resistant infections ( Review on Antimicrobial Resistance, 2016). (healthcareexcellence.ca)
- NIHR Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare Associated Infection and Antimicrobial Resistance at University of Oxford in partnership with Public Health England, Oxford, UK. (ox.ac.uk)
- First, if C difficile infection declines in England were driven by reductions in use of particular antibiotics, then incidence of C difficile infections caused by resistant isolates should decline faster than that caused by susceptible isolates across multiple genotypes. (ox.ac.uk)
- METHODS:Regional (Oxfordshire and Leeds, UK) and national data for the incidence of C difficile infections and antimicrobial prescribing data (1998-2014) were combined with whole genome sequences from 4045 national and international C difficile isolates. (ox.ac.uk)
- The incidence of C difficile infections caused by fluoroquinolone-resistant and fluoroquinolone-susceptible isolates was estimated with negative-binomial regression, overall and per genotype. (ox.ac.uk)
- INTERPRETATION:Restricting fluoroquinolone prescribing appears to explain the decline in incidence of C difficile infections, above other measures, in Oxfordshire and Leeds, England. (ox.ac.uk)
- RTI recently reached the milestone of providing more than 8 million tissue-based implants processed through its three proprietary sterilization processes (including the BioCleanse Process) with zero confirmed incidence of implant-associated infection. (orlandosentinel.com)
- Fidaxomicin: the newest addition to the armamentarium against Clostridium difficile infections. (nih.gov)
- Advances in the treatment of Clostridium difficile with fidaxomicin: a narrow spectrum antibiotic. (nih.gov)
- Fidaxomicin: a novel macrocyclic antibiotic approved for treatment of Clostridium difficile infection. (nih.gov)
- Gerding DN, Johnson S. Clostridial infections. (medlineplus.gov)
- Our conversation is based on his paper about a Clostridium difficile infection in outpatients, which appears in CDC's journal, Emerging Infectious Diseases. (cdc.gov)
- Healthcare-associated infections result in a substantial burden of disease in Canadians, and are an important public health problem. (healthcareexcellence.ca)
- Diflucan also may be effective in treating urinary tract infections , peritonitis , pneumonia , and disseminated infections caused by Candida. (medicinenet.com)
- Clostridium difficile infection is a major cause of nosocomial disease in Western countries. (uzh.ch)
- Hospital-onset CDIs were prevented through an emphasis on infection control. (cdc.gov)
- While it is important to prevent, and control the spread of all infections, there are certain, antimicrobial resistant organisms that are more prevalent and pose a great risk in healthcare settings. (healthcareexcellence.ca)
- Effects of control interventions on Clostridium difficile infection in England: an observational study. (ox.ac.uk)
- Second, if C difficile infection declines were driven by improvements in hospital infection control, then transmitted (secondary) cases should decline regardless of susceptibility. (ox.ac.uk)
- Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy , 21 (10), 718-722. (edu.au)
- Clostridium Difficile (C. diff. (novascotia.ca)
- Jon Mark Hirshon] Well, Clostridium difficile , or C. diff , is a serious cause of infectious diarrhea seen mostly in older people who have recently stayed in a hospital or have been taking antibiotics. (cdc.gov)
- Now, C. diff is considered a serious healthcare-acquired infection. (cdc.gov)
- Additionally, in the hospital, if a patient has C. diff infection, the patient should ideally have a single room and visitors may need to wear a gown and gloves. (cdc.gov)
- Jon Mark Hirshon] Well, again, good hand hygiene - keeping your hands clean - is the best single action people can take to help prevent C. diff infection in themselves and in their loved ones. (cdc.gov)
- Clostridium difficile infection is a serious diarrheal illness associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. (nih.gov)
- Fluconazole is an antifungal medication used for treating vaginal, oral, and esophageal fungal infections caused by Candida. (medicinenet.com)
- If your infection gets worse, you may become dehydrated or be unable to pass stool. (novascotia.ca)
- Metronidazole and fluconazole are used to treat different types of vaginal infections. (medicinenet.com)
- Metronidazole is an antibiotic used to treat bacterial vaginosis and trichomonas vaginal infections, and fluconazole is an antifungal used to treat vaginal fungal infections caused by Candida. (medicinenet.com)
- In the hospital, metronidazole can be administered intravenously to treat serious infections. (medicinenet.com)
- Pharmacologic therapy should be tailored according to the severity of C difficile infection (CDI). (medscape.com)
- An unusual aspect of the infection in our patient was that it represents a primary invasion of clostridia in apparently healthy colonic tissue. (cdc.gov)
- Despite certain infections associated with unsterilized allograft tissue, sterilization is not required or consistently performed. (orlandosentinel.com)
- Clostridium Infections Associated with Musculoskeletal-Tissue Allografts. (orlandosentinel.com)
- Editorial: Current Status of Oral Antiviral Drug Treatments for SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Non-Hospitalized Pa. (medscimonit.com)
- Infections are diseases caused by microorganisms and parasites. (nih.gov)
- Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) causes inflammation of the colon and is a potentially life-threatening diarrheal illness. (medscape.com)
- A better knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of the disease, the host immune response and identification of key virulence factors of Clostridium difficile now permits the development of new products specifically targeting the pathogen. (uzh.ch)
- infection, wash your hands with soap and water before eating and after using the restroom. (novascotia.ca)