A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is a cellulolytic, mesophilic species isolated from decayed GRASS.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.
Extracellular structures found in a variety of microorganisms. They contain CELLULASES and play an important role in the digestion of CELLULOSE.
A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.
A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, used for the industrial production of SOLVENTS.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.

Structural insights into the mechanism of formation of cellulosomes probed by small angle X-ray scattering. (1/23)

Exploring the mechanism by which the multiprotein complexes of cellulolytic organisms, the cellulosomes, attain their exceptional synergy is a challenge for biologists. We have studied the solution structures of the Clostridium cellulolyticum cellulosomal enzyme Cel48F in the free and complexed states with cohesins from Clostridium thermocellum and Clostridium cellulolyticum by small angle x-ray scattering in order to investigate the conformational events likely to occur upon complexation. The solution structure of the free cellulase indicates that the dockerin module is folded, whereas the linker connecting the catalytic module to the dockerin is extended and flexible. Remarkably, the docking of the different cohesins onto Cel48F leads to a pleating of the linker. The global structure determined here allowed modeling of the atomic structure of the C. cellulolyticum dockerin-cohesin interface, highlighting the local differences between both organisms responsible for the species specificity.  (+info)

Action of designer cellulosomes on homogeneous versus complex substrates: controlled incorporation of three distinct enzymes into a defined trifunctional scaffoldin. (2/23)

In recent work, we reported the self-assembly of a comprehensive set of defined "bifunctional" chimeric cellulosomes. Each complex contained the following: (i) a chimeric scaffoldin possessing a cellulose-binding module and two cohesins of divergent specificity and (ii) two cellulases, each bearing a dockerin complementary to one of the divergent cohesins. This approach allowed the controlled integration of desired enzymes into a multiprotein complex of predetermined stoichiometry and topology. The observed enhanced synergy on recalcitrant substrates by the bifunctional designer cellulosomes was ascribed to two major factors: substrate targeting and proximity of the two catalytic components. In the present work, the capacity of the previously described chimeric cellulosomes was amplified by developing a third divergent cohesin-dockerin device. The resultant trifunctional designer cellulosomes were assayed on homogeneous and complex substrates (microcrystalline cellulose and straw, respectively) and found to be considerably more active than the corresponding free enzyme or bifunctional systems. The results indicate that the synergy between two prominent cellulosomal enzymes (from the family-48 and -9 glycoside hydrolases) plays a crucial role during the degradation of cellulose by cellulosomes and that one dominant family-48 processive endoglucanase per complex is sufficient to achieve optimal levels of synergistic activity. Furthermore cooperation within a cellulosome chimera between cellulases and a hemicellulase from different microorganisms was achieved, leading to a trifunctional complex with enhanced activity on a complex substrate.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and transcriptional and expression analysis of engO, encoding a new noncellulosomal family 9 enzyme, from Clostridium cellulovorans. (3/23)

Clostridium cellulovorans produces a major noncellulosomal family 9 endoglucanase EngO. A genomic DNA fragment (40 kb) containing engO and neighboring genes was cloned. The nucleotide sequence contained reading frames for endoglucanase EngO, a putative response regulator, and a putative sensor histidine kinase protein. The engO gene consists of 2,172 bp and encodes a protein of 724 amino acids with a molecular weight of 79,474. Northern hybridizations revealed that the engO gene is transcribed as a monocistronic 2.6-kb mRNA. 5' RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLM-RACE) PCR analysis indicated that the single transcriptional start site of engO was located 264 bp upstream from the first nucleotide of the translation initiation codon. Alignment of the engO promoter region provided evidence for highly conserved sequences that exhibited strong similarity to the sigma(A) consensus promoter sequences of gram-positive bacteria. EngO contains a typical N-terminal signal peptide of 28 amino acid residues, followed by a 149-amino-acid sequence which is homologous to the family 4-9 carbohydrate-binding domain. Downstream of this domain was an immunoglobulin-like domain of 89 amino acids. The C terminus contains a family 9 catalytic domain of glycosyl hydrolase. Mass spectrometry analysis of EngO was in agreement with that deduced from the nucleotide sequence. Expression of engO mRNA increased from early to middle exponential phase and decreased during the early stationary phase. EngO was highly active toward carboxymethyl cellulose but showed no activity towards xylan. It was optimally active at 40 to 50 degrees C and pH 5 to 6. The analysis of the products from the cellulose hydrolysis through thin-layer chromatography indicated its endoglucanase activity.  (+info)

Structural basis of cellulosome efficiency explored by small angle X-ray scattering. (4/23)

Cellulose, the main structural component of plant cell walls, is the most abundant carbohydrate polymer in nature. To break down plant cell walls, anaerobic microorganisms have evolved a large extracellular enzyme complex termed cellulosome. This megadalton catalytic machinery organizes an enzymatic assembly, tenaciously bound to a scaffolding protein via specialized intermodular "cohesin-dockerin" interactions that serve to enhance synergistic activity among the different catalytic subunits. Here, we report the solution structure properties of cellulosome-like assemblies analyzed by small angle x-ray scattering and molecular dynamics. The atomic models, generated by our strategy for the free chimeric scaffoldin and for binary and ternary complexes, reveal the existence of various conformations due to intrinsic structural flexibility with no, or only coincidental, inter-cohesin interactions. These results provide primary evidence concerning the mechanisms by which these protein assemblies attain their remarkable synergy. The data suggest that the motional freedom of the scaffoldin allows precise positioning of the complexed enzymes according to the topography of the substrate, whereas short-scale motions permitted by residual flexibility of the enzyme linkers allow "fine-tuning" of individual catalytic domains.  (+info)

Transcriptional analysis of the cip-cel gene cluster from Clostridium cellulolyticum. (5/23)

Twelve genes encoding key components of Clostridium cellulolyticum cellulosomes are clustered. Among them, the first, second, and fifth genes encode the assembly factor CipC and the two major cellulases Cel48F and Cel9E, respectively. Cellulolytic clones were selected from the noncellulolytic cipC insertional mutant trans-complemented with a cipC expression vector, in which one homologous recombination event between the 3' end of the chromosomal cipC gene and the plasmidic cipC gene has restored the cluster continuity. The absence of the enzymes encoded by the cluster in the cipC mutant was thus only due to a strong polar effect, indicating that all genes were transcriptionally linked. Two large transcripts were detected in cellulose-grown cells by Northern hybridization: a 14-kb messenger which carries the cipC-cel48F-cel8C-cel9G-cel9E coding sequences and, in a smaller amount, a 12-kb messenger which carries the genes located in the 3' part of the cluster. Four smaller transcripts were found in large amounts: a cipC-cel48F bicistronic one and three monocistronic ones, cipC, cel48F, and cel9E. The cipC-cel48F and cel48F messengers were shown to be stable. Analysis by reverse transcription-PCR suggested transcriptional linkage of all of the open reading frames. The production of a primary very large transcript covering the entire cluster was hypothesized. Primer extension analysis has identified two putative transcriptional start sites located 638/637 and 194 nucleotides upstream of the cipC translational start. The processing of the primary transcript would lead to the production of several secondary messengers displaying different stabilities, contributing to fine tuning of expression of individual genes of the operon.  (+info)

Enzyme diversity of the cellulolytic system produced by Clostridium cellulolyticum explored by two-dimensional analysis: identification of seven genes encoding new dockerin-containing proteins. (6/23)

The enzyme diversity of the cellulolytic system produced by Clostridium cellulolyticum grown on crystalline cellulose as a sole carbon and energy source was explored by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The cellulolytic system of C. cellulolyticum is composed of at least 30 dockerin-containing proteins (designated cellulosomal proteins) and 30 noncellulosomal components. Most of the known cellulosomal proteins, including CipC, Cel48F, Cel8C, Cel9G, Cel9E, Man5K, Cel9M, and Cel5A, were identified by using two-dimensional Western blot analysis with specific antibodies, whereas Cel5N, Cel9J, and Cel44O were identified by using N-terminal sequencing. Unknown enzymes having carboxymethyl cellulase or xylanase activities were detected by zymogram analysis of two-dimensional gels. Some of these enzymes were identified by N-terminal sequencing as homologs of proteins listed in the NCBI database. Using Trap-Dock PCR and DNA walking, seven genes encoding new dockerin-containing proteins were cloned and sequenced. Some of these genes are clustered. Enzymes encoded by these genes belong to glycoside hydrolase families GH2, GH9, GH10, GH26, GH27, and GH59. Except for members of family GH9, which contains only cellulases, the new modular glycoside hydrolases discovered in this work could be involved in the degradation of different hemicellulosic substrates, such as xylan or galactomannan.  (+info)

Incorporation of fungal cellulases in bacterial minicellulosomes yields viable, synergistically acting cellulolytic complexes. (7/23)

Artificial designer minicellulosomes comprise a chimeric scaffoldin that displays an optional cellulose-binding module (CBM) and bacterial cohesins from divergent species which bind strongly to enzymes engineered to bear complementary dockerins. Incorporation of cellulosomal cellulases from Clostridium cellulolyticum into minicellulosomes leads to artificial complexes with enhanced activity on crystalline cellulose, due to enzyme proximity and substrate targeting induced by the scaffoldin-borne CBM. In the present study, a bacterial dockerin was appended to the family 6 fungal cellulase Cel6A, produced by Neocallimastix patriciarum, for subsequent incorporation into minicellulosomes in combination with various cellulosomal cellulases from C. cellulolyticum. The binding of the fungal Cel6A with a bacterial family 5 endoglucanase onto chimeric miniscaffoldins had no impact on their activity toward crystalline cellulose. Replacement of the bacterial family 5 enzyme with homologous endoglucanase Cel5D from N. patriciarum bearing a clostridial dockerin gave similar results. In contrast, enzyme pairs comprising the fungal Cel6A and bacterial family 9 endoglucanases were substantially stimulated (up to 2.6-fold) by complexation on chimeric scaffoldins, compared to the free-enzyme system. Incorporation of enzyme pairs including Cel6A and a processive bacterial cellulase generally induced lower stimulation levels. Enhanced activity on crystalline cellulose appeared to result from either proximity or CBM effects alone but never from both simultaneously, unlike minicellulosomes composed exclusively of bacterial cellulases. The present study is the first demonstration that viable designer minicellulosomes can be produced that include (i) free (noncellulosomal) enzymes, (ii) fungal enzymes combined with bacterial enzymes, and (iii) a type (family 6) of cellulase never known to occur in natural cellulosomes.  (+info)

Evolution of acetoclastic methanogenesis in Methanosarcina via horizontal gene transfer from cellulolytic Clostridia. (8/23)

Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that two genes required for acetoclastic methanogenesis, ackA and pta, were horizontally transferred to the ancestor of Methanosarcina from a derived cellulolytic organism in the class Clostridia. This event likely occurred within the last 475 million years, causing profound changes in planetary methane biogeochemistry.  (+info)

'Clostridium cellulolyticum' is a species of gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic bacteria found in soil and aquatic environments. It is known for its ability to break down complex carbohydrates such as cellulose and hemicellulose into simple sugars through the process of fermentation. This makes it a potential candidate for biofuel production from plant biomass.

The bacterium produces a range of enzymes that can degrade these polysaccharides, including cellulases and xylanases. These enzymes work together in a complex system to break down the cellulose and hemicellulose into monosaccharides, which can then be fermented by the bacterium to produce various end products such as acetate, ethanol, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide.

'Clostridium cellulolyticum' is also known to produce a number of other enzymes and metabolites that have potential applications in industry, including amylases, proteases, and lipases. However, further research is needed to fully understand the biology and potential uses of this organism.

'Clostridium' is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in nature, including in soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. Many species of Clostridium are anaerobic, meaning they can grow and reproduce in environments with little or no oxygen. Some species of Clostridium are capable of producing toxins that can cause serious and sometimes life-threatening illnesses in humans and animals.

Some notable species of Clostridium include:

* Clostridium tetani, which causes tetanus (also known as lockjaw)
* Clostridium botulinum, which produces botulinum toxin, the most potent neurotoxin known and the cause of botulism
* Clostridium difficile, which can cause severe diarrhea and colitis, particularly in people who have recently taken antibiotics
* Clostridium perfringens, which can cause food poisoning and gas gangrene.

It is important to note that not all species of Clostridium are harmful, and some are even beneficial, such as those used in the production of certain fermented foods like sauerkraut and natto. However, due to their ability to produce toxins and cause illness, it is important to handle and dispose of materials contaminated with Clostridium species carefully, especially in healthcare settings.

Cellulose is a complex carbohydrate that is the main structural component of the cell walls of green plants, many algae, and some fungi. It is a polysaccharide consisting of long chains of beta-glucose molecules linked together by beta-1,4 glycosidic bonds. Cellulose is insoluble in water and most organic solvents, and it is resistant to digestion by humans and non-ruminant animals due to the lack of cellulase enzymes in their digestive systems. However, ruminants such as cows and sheep can digest cellulose with the help of microbes in their rumen that produce cellulase.

Cellulose has many industrial applications, including the production of paper, textiles, and building materials. It is also used as a source of dietary fiber in human food and animal feed. Cellulose-based materials are being explored for use in biomedical applications such as tissue engineering and drug delivery due to their biocompatibility and mechanical properties.

Cellulase is a type of enzyme that breaks down cellulose, which is a complex carbohydrate and the main structural component of plant cell walls. Cellulases are produced by certain bacteria, fungi, and protozoans, and are used in various industrial applications such as biofuel production, food processing, and textile manufacturing. In the human body, there are no known physiological roles for cellulases, as humans do not produce these enzymes and cannot digest cellulose.

Cellulosomes are large, complex enzymatic structures produced by certain anaerobic bacteria that allow them to break down and consume cellulose, a major component of plant biomass. These structures are composed of multiple enzymes that work together in a coordinated manner to degrade cellulose into simpler sugars, which the bacteria can then use as a source of energy and carbon.

The individual enzymes in a cellulosome are non-covalently associated with a central scaffoldin protein, forming a multi-enzyme complex. The scaffoldin protein contains cohesin modules that bind to dockerin modules on the enzyme subunits, creating a highly organized and stable structure.

Cellulosomes have been identified in several species of anaerobic bacteria, including members of the genera Clostridium and Ruminococcus. They are thought to play a key role in the global carbon cycle by breaking down plant material and releasing carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere.

Cellobiose is a disaccharide made up of two molecules of glucose joined by a β-1,4-glycosidic bond. It is formed when cellulose or beta-glucans are hydrolyzed, and it can be further broken down into its component glucose molecules by the action of the enzyme beta-glucosidase. Cellobiose has a sweet taste, but it is not as sweet as sucrose (table sugar). It is used in some industrial processes and may have potential applications in the food industry.

Cellulases are a group of enzymes that break down cellulose, which is a complex carbohydrate and the main structural component of plant cell walls. These enzymes are produced by various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. They play an important role in the natural decomposition process and have various industrial applications, such as in the production of biofuels, paper, and textiles.

Cellulases work by hydrolyzing the beta-1,4 glycosidic bonds between the glucose molecules that make up cellulose, breaking it down into simpler sugars like glucose. This process is known as saccharification. The specific type of cellulase enzyme determines where on the cellulose molecule it will cleave the bond.

There are three main types of cellulases: endoglucanases, exoglucanases, and beta-glucosidases. Endoglucanases randomly attack internal bonds in the amorphous regions of cellulose, creating new chain ends for exoglucanases to act on. Exoglucanases (also known as cellobiohydrolases) cleave cellobiose units from the ends of the cellulose chains, releasing cellobiose or glucose. Beta-glucosidases convert cellobiose into two molecules of glucose, which can then be further metabolized by the organism.

In summary, cellulases are a group of enzymes that break down cellulose into simpler sugars through hydrolysis. They have various industrial applications and play an essential role in natural decomposition processes.

Biomass is defined in the medical field as a renewable energy source derived from organic materials, primarily plant matter, that can be burned or converted into fuel. This includes materials such as wood, agricultural waste, and even methane gas produced by landfills. Biomass is often used as a source of heat, electricity, or transportation fuels, and its use can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on fossil fuels.

In the context of human health, biomass burning can have both positive and negative impacts. On one hand, biomass can provide a source of heat and energy for cooking and heating, which can improve living standards and reduce exposure to harmful pollutants from traditional cooking methods such as open fires. On the other hand, biomass burning can also produce air pollution, including particulate matter and toxic chemicals, that can have negative effects on respiratory health and contribute to climate change.

Therefore, while biomass has the potential to be a sustainable and low-carbon source of energy, it is important to consider the potential health and environmental impacts of its use and implement appropriate measures to minimize any negative effects.

'Clostridium difficile' (also known as 'C. difficile' or 'C. diff') is a type of Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium that can be found in the environment, including in soil, water, and human and animal feces. It is a common cause of healthcare-associated infections, particularly in individuals who have recently received antibiotics or have other underlying health conditions that weaken their immune system.

C. difficile produces toxins that can cause a range of symptoms, from mild diarrhea to severe colitis (inflammation of the colon) and potentially life-threatening complications such as sepsis and toxic megacolon. The most common toxins produced by C. difficile are called TcdA and TcdB, which damage the lining of the intestine and cause inflammation.

C. difficile infections (CDIs) can be difficult to treat, particularly in severe cases or in patients who have recurrent infections. Treatment typically involves discontinuing any unnecessary antibiotics, if possible, and administering specific antibiotics that are effective against C. difficile, such as metronidazole, vancomycin, or fidaxomicin. In some cases, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may be recommended as a last resort for patients with recurrent or severe CDIs who have not responded to other treatments.

Preventing the spread of C. difficile is critical in healthcare settings, and includes measures such as hand hygiene, contact precautions, environmental cleaning, and antibiotic stewardship programs that promote the appropriate use of antibiotics.

Fermentation is a metabolic process in which an organism converts carbohydrates into alcohol or organic acids using enzymes. In the absence of oxygen, certain bacteria, yeasts, and fungi convert sugars into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and various end products, such as alcohol, lactic acid, or acetic acid. This process is commonly used in food production, such as in making bread, wine, and beer, as well as in industrial applications for the production of biofuels and chemicals.

Clostridium infections are caused by bacteria of the genus Clostridium, which are gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming, and often anaerobic organisms. These bacteria can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the human gastrointestinal tract. Some Clostridium species can cause severe and potentially life-threatening infections in humans. Here are some of the most common Clostridium infections with their medical definitions:

1. Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI): An infection caused by the bacterium Clostridioides difficile, previously known as Clostridium difficile. It typically occurs after antibiotic use disrupts the normal gut microbiota, allowing C. difficile to overgrow and produce toxins that cause diarrhea, colitis, and other gastrointestinal symptoms. Severe cases can lead to sepsis, toxic megacolon, or even death.
2. Clostridium tetani infection: Also known as tetanus, this infection is caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. The spores of this bacterium are commonly found in soil and animal feces. They can enter the body through wounds, cuts, or punctures, germinate, and produce a potent exotoxin called tetanospasmin. This toxin causes muscle stiffness and spasms, particularly in the neck and jaw (lockjaw), which can lead to difficulty swallowing, breathing, and potentially fatal complications.
3. Clostridium botulinum infection: This infection is caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and results in botulism, a rare but severe paralytic illness. The bacteria produce neurotoxins (botulinum toxins) that affect the nervous system, causing symptoms such as double vision, drooping eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, dry mouth, and muscle weakness. In severe cases, botulism can lead to respiratory failure and death.
4. Gas gangrene (Clostridium perfringens infection): A rapidly progressing soft tissue infection caused by Clostridium perfringens or other clostridial species. The bacteria produce potent exotoxins that cause tissue destruction, gas production, and widespread necrosis. Gas gangrene is characterized by severe pain, swelling, discoloration, and a foul-smelling discharge. If left untreated, it can lead to sepsis, multi-organ failure, and death.
5. Clostridioides difficile infection (C. difficile infection): Although not caused by a typical clostridial species, C. difficile is a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium that can cause severe diarrhea and colitis, particularly in hospitalized patients or those who have recently taken antibiotics. The bacteria produce toxins A and B, which damage the intestinal lining and contribute to inflammation and diarrhea. C. difficile infection can range from mild to life-threatening, with complications such as sepsis, toxic megacolon, and bowel perforation.

'Clostridium acetobutylicum' is a gram-positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in soil and aquatic environments. It is a species of the genus Clostridium, which includes many bacteria capable of producing industrial chemicals through fermentation.

'Clostridium acetobutylicum' is particularly known for its ability to produce acetic acid and butyric acid, as well as solvents such as acetone and butanol, during the process of anaerobic respiration. This makes it a potential candidate for biotechnological applications in the production of biofuels and other industrial chemicals.

However, like many Clostridium species, 'Clostridium acetobutylicum' can also produce toxins and cause infections in humans and animals under certain circumstances. Therefore, it is important to handle this organism with care and follow appropriate safety protocols when working with it in a laboratory setting.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

'Clostridium botulinum' is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic bacteria that produces one or more neurotoxins known as botulinum toxins. These toxins are among the most potent naturally occurring biological poisons and can cause a severe form of food poisoning called botulism in humans and animals. Botulism is characterized by symmetrical descending flaccid paralysis, which can lead to respiratory and cardiovascular failure, and ultimately death if not treated promptly.

The bacteria are widely distributed in nature, particularly in soil, sediments, and the intestinal tracts of some animals. They can form spores that are highly resistant to heat, chemicals, and other environmental stresses, allowing them to survive for long periods in adverse conditions. The spores can germinate and produce vegetative cells and toxins when they encounter favorable conditions, such as anaerobic environments with appropriate nutrients.

Human botulism can occur through three main routes of exposure: foodborne, wound, and infant botulism. Foodborne botulism results from consuming contaminated food containing preformed toxins, while wound botulism occurs when the bacteria infect a wound and produce toxins in situ. Infant botulism is caused by the ingestion of spores that colonize the intestines and produce toxins, mainly affecting infants under one year of age.

Prevention measures include proper food handling, storage, and preparation practices, such as cooking and canning foods at appropriate temperatures and for sufficient durations. Wound care and prompt medical attention are crucial in preventing wound botulism. Vaccines and antitoxins are available for prophylaxis and treatment of botulism in high-risk individuals or in cases of confirmed exposure.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Carboxymethylcellulose sodium is a type of cellulose derivative that is widely used in the medical and pharmaceutical fields as an excipient or a drug delivery agent. It is a white, odorless powder with good water solubility and forms a clear, viscous solution.

Chemically, carboxymethylcellulose sodium is produced by reacting cellulose, which is derived from plant sources such as wood or cotton, with sodium hydroxide and chloroacetic acid. This reaction introduces carboxymethyl groups (-CH2COO-) to the cellulose molecule, making it more soluble in water and providing negative charges that can interact with positively charged ions or drugs.

In medical applications, carboxymethylcellulose sodium is used as a thickening agent, binder, disintegrant, and suspending agent in various pharmaceutical formulations such as tablets, capsules, liquids, and semisolids. It can also be used as a lubricant in the manufacture of tablets and capsules to facilitate their ejection from molds or dies.

Carboxymethylcellulose sodium has been shown to have good biocompatibility and low toxicity, making it a safe and effective excipient for use in medical and pharmaceutical applications. However, like any other excipient, it should be used with caution and in appropriate amounts to avoid any adverse effects or interactions with the active ingredients of the drug product.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

"Clostridium cellulolyticum". Retrieved 7 July 2011. Type strain of Clostridium cellulolyticum at BacDive - the Bacterial ... "Clostridium cellulolyticum". Retrieved 24 February 2022. "Clostridium cellulolyticum: Petitdemange et al. 1984". National ... Ruminiclostridium cellulolyticum is an anaerobic, motile, gram-positive bacterium. It is the most cellulolytic bacteria. Page ... Species: Ruminiclostridium cellulolyticum on "LPSN - List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature". Deutsche ...
Pagès S, Valette O, Abdou L, Bélaïch A, Bélaïch JP (August 2003). "A rhamnogalacturonan lyase in the Clostridium cellulolyticum ...
A strain of Clostridium cellulolyticum, a native cellulose-degrading microbe, affords isobutanol directly from cellulose. A ... n-Butanol can be produced by fermentation of biomass by the A.B.E. process using Clostridium acetobutylicum, Clostridium ... Anaerobic bacteria such as Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium saccharobutylicum also contain these pathways. Succinate ... "Metabolic Engineering of Clostridium cellulolyticum for Production of Isobutanol from Cellulose". Applied and Environmental ...
For example, Clostridium cellulolyticum produces 13 GH9 modular cellulases containing a different number and arrangement of ... Zverlov VV, Schantz N, Schwarz WH (August 2005). "A major new component in the cellulosome of Clostridium thermocellum is a ... of all family-9 glycoside hydrolases synthesized by the cellulosome-producing bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum". The ...
Clostridium cellulolyticum, Clostridium hungatei, Clostridium josui, Clostridium papyrosolvens, Clostridium sufflavum and ... Clostridium baratii Clostridium beihaiense Clostridium beijerinckii Clostridium diolis Clostridium bornimense Clostridium ... Clostridium aceticum Clostridium acetireducens Clostridium acetobutylicum Clostridium acidisoli Clostridium aciditolerans ... Clostridium aestuarii Clostridium akagii Clostridium algidicarnis Clostridium algifaecis Clostridium algoriphilum Clostridium ...
Bacillus polymyxa Chromobacterium violaceum Clostridium beijerinckii Clostridium cellulolyticum Pseudomonas putida While this ... Acetoacetate decarboxylase from Clostridium acetobutylicum catalyzes the decarboxylation of acetoacetate to yield acetone and ... In 1916, biochemist and future first president of Israel Chaim Weizmann was the first to isolate Clostridium acetobutylicum, a ... Acetoacetate decarboxylase has been found and studied in the following bacteria in addition to Clostridium acetobutylicum: ...
Clostridium acetobutylicum Clostridium cellulolyticum Clostridium cellulovorans Clostridium clariflavum Clostridium josui ... The scaffoldin of some cellulosomes, an example being that of Clostridium thermocellum, contains a carbohydrate-binding module ... Dockerin Organelle Bayer, EA; Kenig, R; Lamed, R (1983). "Adherence of Clostridium thermocellum to cellulose". J. Bacteriol. ... Clostridium papyrosolvens Clostridium thermocellum (treated as model organism in cellulose utilization and also anaerobic ...
Clostridium butyricum MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.200 - Clostridium cellulolyticum MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.205 - Clostridium ... Clostridium butyricum MeSH B03.510.415.400.200.200 - Clostridium cellulolyticum MeSH B03.510.415.400.200.205 - Clostridium ... Clostridium symbiosum MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.722 - Clostridium tertium MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.725 - Clostridium tetani MeSH ... Clostridium symbiosum MeSH B03.510.415.400.200.722 - Clostridium tertium MeSH B03.510.415.400.200.725 - Clostridium tetani MeSH ...
nov.; Reclassification of Thermoanaerobium brockii, Clostridium thermosulfurogenes, and Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum E100- ... 2018, Hungateiclostridium cellulolyticum (Patel et al. 1980) Zhang et al. 2018, Hungateiclostridium aldrichii (Yang et al. 1990 ... "Species: Clostridium thermosulfurigenes". lpsn.dsmz.de. Archived from the original on 2021-02-26. Retrieved 2021-03-22. Nogi, ... Originally described as Clostridium glycyrrhizinilyticum (31 letters) and later reclassified in genus Mediterraneibacter. Its ...
COHESIN MODULE FROM THE CELLULOSOME OF CLOSTRIDIUM CELLULOLYTICUM ... In the assembly of the Clostridium cellulolyticum cellulosome, ... Crystal structure of a cohesin module from Clostridium cellulolyticum: implications for dockerin recognition.. Spinelli, S., ... cellulolyticum and C. thermocellum. We have produced a topology model of a C. cellulolyticum dockerin and of a Cc-cohesin/ ... The X-ray structure of a type I C. cellulolyticum cohesin module (Cc-cohesin) has been solved using molecular replacement, and ...
"Clostridium cellulolyticum". Retrieved 7 July 2011. Type strain of Clostridium cellulolyticum at BacDive - the Bacterial ... "Clostridium cellulolyticum". Retrieved 24 February 2022. "Clostridium cellulolyticum: Petitdemange et al. 1984". National ... Ruminiclostridium cellulolyticum is an anaerobic, motile, gram-positive bacterium. It is the most cellulolytic bacteria. Page ... Species: Ruminiclostridium cellulolyticum on "LPSN - List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature". Deutsche ...
Sporulation of Clostridium cellulolyticum while grown in cellulose-batch and cellulose-fed continuous cultures on a minera-salt ... Sporulation of Clostridium cellulolyticum while grown in cellulose-batch and cellulose-fed continuous cultures on a minera-salt ... T1 - Sporulation of Clostridium cellulolyticum while grown in cellulose-batch and cellulose-fed continuous cultures on a minera ... Clostridium cellulolyticum sporulation was investigated during growth on cellulose fibers in a mineral-salt based medium which ...
Celluloseabbaukinetik; Vollsynthetisches Medium; Clostridium cellulovorans; Clostridium cellulolyticum. Übersetzte Stichworte: ... Cellulose hydrolysis kinetics; Artificial medium; Clostridium cellulovorans; Clostridium cellulolyticum. TU-Systematik:. CIT ...
Clostridium cellulolyticum H10 Bacteria normal 0.529234 n/a -. NC_009012 Cthe_1846 periplasmic sensor signal transduction ... Clostridium cellulolyticum H10 Bacteria hitchhiker 0.00129948 n/a -. NC_009455 DehaBAV1_0938 integral membrane sensor signal ... Clostridium phytofermentans ISDg Bacteria normal 1 n/a -. NC_010320 Teth514_0767 integral membrane sensor signal transduction ... Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 Bacteria hitchhiker 0.0000887504 n/a -. NC_010001 Cphy_2122 integral membrane sensor signal ...
Clostridium cellulolyticum H10 Bacteria normal 0.015461 n/a -. NC_009012 Cthe_0934 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase ... Clostridium perfringens ATCC 13124 Bacteria normal 1 n/a -. NC_009253 Dred_2072 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase ... Clostridium perfringens SM101 Bacteria normal 0.697899 n/a -. NC_013216 Dtox_1180 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase ... Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 Bacteria hitchhiker 0.00491532 n/a -. NC_013411 GYMC61_1972 3-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier- ...
... of Clostridium cellulolyticum were investigated. Unlike the cip-cel operon, these genes are transcribed as monocistronic units ... Regulation of cel genes of C. cellulolyticum: identification of GlyR2, a transcriptional regulator regulating cel5D gene ... cellulolyticum: identification of GlyR2, a transcriptional regulator regulating cel5D gene expression. PLoS ONE, 8 (1). e44708 ...
1999). Sequence analysis of scaffolding protein CipC and ORFXp, a new cohesin-containing protein in Clostridium cellulolyticum ... 2005). Cellulase, clostridia, and ethanol. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2005;69(1):124-54. DOI:10.1128/MMBR.69.1.124-154.2005 , ... Bayer EA, Kenig R, and Lamed R. (1983). Adherence of Clostridium thermocellum to cellulose. J Bacteriol. 1983;156(2):818-27. ... 1992). Primary sequence analysis of Clostridium cellulovorans cellulose binding protein A. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89(8 ...
Combined inactivation of the Clostridium cellulolyticum lactate and malate dehydrogenase genes substantially increases ethanol ...
The Clostridium cellulolyticum dockerin displays a dual binding mode for its cohesin partner. Pinheiro, B. A., Proctor, M. R., ...
Clostridium cellulolyticum and Clostridium populeti catalysed the highest H 2 production from cellulose, with yields of 1.7 and ... Clostridium cellulolyticum and Clostridium populeti catalysed the highest H 2 production from cellulose, with yields of 1.7 and ... Clostridium cellulolyticum and Clostridium populeti catalysed the highest H 2 production from cellulose, with yields of 1.7 and ... Clostridium cellulolyticum and Clostridium populeti catalysed the highest H 2 production from cellulose, with yields of 1.7 and ...
Clostridium cellulolyticum H10 Bacteria normal 1 n/a -. NC_013132 Cpin_3101 histidine kinase 24.4 ... Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 Bacteria normal 0.52949 n/a -. Page 1 of 3 << first < prev 1 2 3 next > last >> 20. 50. 100 ... Clostridium perfringens ATCC 13124 Bacteria normal 0.412354 n/a -. NC_008262 CPR_1493 sensor histidine kinase/response ... Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 Bacteria normal 0.136894 n/a -. NC_009012 Cthe_2076 periplasmic sensor signal transduction ...
Clostridium cellulolyticum H10 Site: position = -124. score = 20.83 sequence = AAAAGACAGTTCGTG.... Gene: Ccel_1404: Substrate- ... Clostridium cellulolyticum H10 Gene: Ccel_1328: GTP cyclohydrolase I (EC 3.5.4.16) type 1 ... Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 3502 Site: position = -417. score = 23.67 sequence = TAAAGACAGTTCGTA.... Gene: CBO1552: ... Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 3502 Site: position = -54. score = 23.99 sequence = TAATAGACAGTTCGT.... Gene: CBO3177: ...
Clostridium cellulolyticum H10. Ccel_2146 (GI 220929560). Response regulator, Xre family. 1 Response_reg,1 HTH_XRE. Genomic ... Clostridium sp. BNL1100. Clo1100_2551 (GI 376261802). Response regulator, Xre family. 1 Response_reg,1 HTH_3. Genomic Context. ... Clostridium pasteurianum BC1. Clopa_1385 (GI 488770246). Response regulator, Xre family. 1 Response_reg,1 HTH_XRE. Genomic ... Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864. CLSA_c11180 (GI 550917569). Response regulator, Xre family. 1 Response_reg,1 HTH_XRE. ...
Deconstruction by Clostridium Cellulolyticum. DOWNLOAD. Innovative Technology that Enables RNAi in Difficult to Transfect Cells ...
Clostridium cellulolyticum H10, complete genome. anti-sigma-factor antagonist. 8e-07. 52.4. ... Clostridium acidurici 9a chromosome, complete genome. anti-sigma F factor antagonist SpoIIAA. 4e-06. 50.1. ... Clostridium sticklandii, complete genome. anti sigma b factor antagonist RsbV. 1e-06. 52. ...
Clostridium cellulolyticum H10, complete genome. transcriptional regulator, AraC family. 6e-07. 55.1. ... Clostridium botulinum E3 str. Alaska E43, complete genome. DNA-bindng response regulator, AraC family. 3e-09. 62.8. ... Clostridium botulinum B str. Eklund 17B, complete genome. DNA-bindng response regulator, AraC family. 2e-07. 56.2. ... Clostridium botulinum E3 str. Alaska E43, complete genome. AraC-family transcriptional regulator. 4e-07. 55.8. ...
CAG:317 (DSdpe) and Clostridium cellulolyticum H10 (RCdpe) were expressed in tandem under the promoter HpaII in one cell. A ...
Endoglucanase A OS=Clostridium cellulolyticum (strain ATCC 35319 / DSM 5812 / JCM 6584 / H10) GN=celCCA PE=1 SV=1. 117. 302. ... Endoglucanase D OS=Clostridium cellulovorans (strain ATCC 35296 / DSM 3052 / OCM 3 / 743B) GN=engD PE=1 SV=2. 128. 302. 6.0E-08 ... Endoglucanase B OS=Clostridium cellulovorans (strain ATCC 35296 / DSM 3052 / OCM 3 / 743B) GN=engB PE=3 SV=1. 136. 302. 3.0E-06 ... Endoglucanase C307 OS=Clostridium sp. (strain F1) GN=celC307 PE=1 SV=1. 136. 269. 2.0E-06. ...
Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 is a candidate for ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass using consolidated ... Guedon E, Desvaux M, Petitdemange H. Kinetic analysis of Clostridium cellulolyticum carbohydrate metabolism: importance of ... Clostridium termitidis or Clostridium thermosuccinogenes [63,64,65].. Co-expression of both Pfp and PfkA is one plausible ... Clostridium thermocellum PfkA was closer to both Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus and Geobacillus stearothermophilus ...
Payot S, Guedon E, Cailliez C, Gelhaye E, Petitdemange H: Metabolism of cellobiose by Clostridium cellulolyticum growing in ... Increased formate yield in response to high P H2 was reported also for Clostridium thermocellum [45, 46]. Formate production ... Liu IC, Whang LM, Ren WJ, Lin PY: The effect of pH on the production of biohydrogen by clostridia: Thermodynamic and metabolic ... Rydzak T, Levin DB, Cicek N, Sparling R: End-product induced metabolic shifts in Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405. Appl ...
Clostridium cellulolyticum * Clostridium cellulosi * Clostridium cellulovorans * Clostridium chartatabidum * Clostridium ... Parent taxon: Clostridium Prazmowski 1880 (Approved Lists 1980) Assigned by: Wilde E, Collins MD, Hippe H. Clostridium pascui ... Valid publication: Wilde E, Collins MD, Hippe H. Clostridium pascui sp. nov., a new glutamate-fermenting sporeformer from a ... Linking: To permanently link to this page, use https://lpsn.dsmz.de/species/clostridium-pascui. Copy to clipboard. Link copied ...
Clostridium cellulolyticum * Clostridium cellulosi * Clostridium cellulovorans * Clostridium chartatabidum * Clostridium ... Parent taxon: Clostridium Prazmowski 1880 (Approved Lists 1980) Assigned by: Dorn-In S, Schwaiger K, Springer C, Barta L, ... Development of a multiplex qPCR for the species identification of Clostridium estertheticum, C. frigoriphilum, C. bowmanii and ... Ulrich S, Gareis M. Development of a multiplex qPCR for the species identification of Clostridium estertheticum, C. ...
Clostridium botulinum type G B3.353.625.500.160.350 Clostridium butyricum B3.353.625.500.180 Clostridium cellulolyticum B3.353. ... Clostridium B3.353.625.500 Clostridium acetobutylicum B3.353.625.500.25 Clostridium beijerinckii B3.353.625.500.100 Clostridium ... Clostridium botulinum type A B3.353.625.500.160.50 Clostridium botulinum type B B3.353.625.500.160.100 Clostridium botulinum ... 625.500.200 Clostridium cellulovorans B3.353.625.500.205 Clostridium chauvoei B3.353.625.500.215 Clostridium difficile B3.353. ...
Clostridium botulinum type G B3.353.625.500.160.350 Clostridium butyricum B3.353.625.500.180 Clostridium cellulolyticum B3.353. ... Clostridium B3.353.625.500 Clostridium acetobutylicum B3.353.625.500.25 Clostridium beijerinckii B3.353.625.500.100 Clostridium ... Clostridium botulinum type A B3.353.625.500.160.50 Clostridium botulinum type B B3.353.625.500.160.100 Clostridium botulinum ... 625.500.200 Clostridium cellulovorans B3.353.625.500.205 Clostridium chauvoei B3.353.625.500.215 Clostridium difficile B3.353. ...
Clostridium botulinum type G B3.353.625.500.160.350 Clostridium butyricum B3.353.625.500.180 Clostridium cellulolyticum B3.353. ... Clostridium B3.353.625.500 Clostridium acetobutylicum B3.353.625.500.25 Clostridium beijerinckii B3.353.625.500.100 Clostridium ... Clostridium botulinum type A B3.353.625.500.160.50 Clostridium botulinum type B B3.353.625.500.160.100 Clostridium botulinum ... 625.500.200 Clostridium cellulovorans B3.353.625.500.205 Clostridium chauvoei B3.353.625.500.215 Clostridium difficile B3.353. ...
Clostridium botulinum type G B3.353.625.500.160.350 Clostridium butyricum B3.353.625.500.180 Clostridium cellulolyticum B3.353. ... Clostridium B3.353.625.500 Clostridium acetobutylicum B3.353.625.500.25 Clostridium beijerinckii B3.353.625.500.100 Clostridium ... Clostridium botulinum type A B3.353.625.500.160.50 Clostridium botulinum type B B3.353.625.500.160.100 Clostridium botulinum ... 625.500.200 Clostridium cellulovorans B3.353.625.500.205 Clostridium chauvoei B3.353.625.500.215 Clostridium difficile B3.353. ...
Clostridium botulinum type G B3.353.625.500.160.350 Clostridium butyricum B3.353.625.500.180 Clostridium cellulolyticum B3.353. ... Clostridium B3.353.625.500 Clostridium acetobutylicum B3.353.625.500.25 Clostridium beijerinckii B3.353.625.500.100 Clostridium ... Clostridium botulinum type A B3.353.625.500.160.50 Clostridium botulinum type B B3.353.625.500.160.100 Clostridium botulinum ... 625.500.200 Clostridium cellulovorans B3.353.625.500.205 Clostridium chauvoei B3.353.625.500.215 Clostridium difficile B3.353. ...
Clostridium bifermentans. *Clostridium botulinum. *Clostridium butyricum. *Clostridium cellulolyticum. *Clostridium ... "Clostridium perfringens" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... In silico, in vitro and in vivo analysis of binding affinity between N and C-domains of Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin. ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Clostridium perfringens" by people in this website by year, ...
  • Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 is a candidate for ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass using consolidated bioprocessing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clostridium perfringens" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (ucdenver.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Clostridium perfringens" by people in this website by year, and whether "Clostridium perfringens" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Clostridium perfringens" by people in Profiles. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Immunization with recombinant bivalent chimera r-Cpae confers protection against alpha toxin and enterotoxin of Clostridium perfringens type A in murine model. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Heterologous protection against alpha toxins of Clostridium perfringens and Staphylococcus aureus induced by binding domain recombinant chimeric protein. (ucdenver.edu)
  • In silico, in vitro and in vivo analysis of binding affinity between N and C-domains of Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Taguchi optimization of duplex PCR for simultaneous identification of Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium perfringens alpha toxins. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Clostridium cellulolyticum sporulation was investigated during growth on cellulose fibers in a mineral-salt based medium which corresponds to conditions linked to its natural ecological niche. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Much of our understanding of its catalytic components, architecture, and mechanisms of attachment to the bacterial cell and to cellulose, has been derived from the study of Clostridium thermocellum [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ]. (cazypedia.org)
  • Methods and Results: H 2 production from cellulose by six mesophilic clostridia was characterized in standardized batch experiments using MN301 cellulose, Avicel and cellobiose. (princeton.edu)
  • All species produced a significant amount of H 2 from cellobiose, with Clostridium acetobutylicum achieving the highest H 2 yield of 2.3 mol H 2 mol -1 hexose, but it did not degrade cellulose. (princeton.edu)
  • Clostridium cellulolyticum and Clostridium populeti catalysed the highest H 2 production from cellulose, with yields of 1.7 and 1.6 mol H 2 mol -1 hexose from MN301 and 1.6 and 1.4 mol H 2 mol -1 hexose from Avicel, respectively. (princeton.edu)
  • By allowing the maintenance and the integrity of the bacteria in the microbiota, spore formation could then explain the successful survival of C. cellulolyticum in cellulosic anaerobic habitats where low environmental pH conditions are often found. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Ruminiclostridium cellulolyticum is an anaerobic, motile, gram-positive bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • In collaboration with a group at the Weizmann Institute and the University of Oklahoma, the model for the Clostridium cellulolyticum degradome was built on a complete genome sequence and comparing its transcriptomes and extracellular proteomes. (window-to-china.eu)
  • The nature of the overall surface and of the dimer interface of Cc-cohesin differ notably from those of the Ct-cohesin modules, being much less polar, and this may explain the species specificity observed in the cohesin/dockerin interaction of C. cellulolyticum and C. thermocellum. (rcsb.org)
  • Dorn-In S, Schwaiger K, Springer C, Barta L, Ulrich S, Gareis M. Development of a multiplex qPCR for the species identification of Clostridium estertheticum , C. frigoriphilum , C. bowmanii and C. tagluense -like from blown pack spoilage (BPS) meats and from wild boars. (dsmz.de)
  • In the assembly of the Clostridium cellulolyticum cellulosome, the multiple cohesin modules of the scaffolding protein CipC serve as receptors for cellulolytic enzymes which bear a dockerin module. (rcsb.org)
  • Aims: To characterize cellulolytic, hydrogen-producing clostridia on a comparable basis. (princeton.edu)
  • Conclusions: These cellulolytic, hydrogen-producing clostridia varied in H 2 production, with Cl. (princeton.edu)
  • Transcription and expression regulation of some individual cel genes (cel5A, cel5I, cel5D and cel44O) of Clostridium cellulolyticum were investigated. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • When C. cellulolyticum was grown in batch culture, the level of sporulation was dramatically higher in unregulated-pH fermentation compared to pH-controlled growth conditions at pH 7.2 since in the former it reached 45% within 5 days of cultivation. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • The X-ray structure of a type I C. cellulolyticum cohesin module (Cc-cohesin) has been solved using molecular replacement, and refined at 2.0 A resolution. (rcsb.org)
  • We have produced a topology model of a C. cellulolyticum dockerin and of a Cc-cohesin/dockerin complex using homology modeling and available biochemical data. (rcsb.org)
  • It then appeared that a low specific growth rate and a low environmental pH in the presence of an insoluble carbon substrate were the major factors inducing sporulation in C. cellulolyticum. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Especie tipo del género CLOSTRIDIUM, bacteria grampositiva de la familia Clostridiaceae. (bvsalud.org)
  • We report here that Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 enters non-growth states in response to specific growth conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Like all clostridia, this organism forms terminal endospores, which confer a high degree of resistance to heat, desiccation and other environmental challenges. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Butanol can be produced anaerobically by several solventogenic bacteria belonging to the genus of Clostridium . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Non contiguous-finished genome sequence and description of Clostridium jeddahense sp. (nih.gov)
  • It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. (up.ac.za)
  • Analysis of the genome of R. cellulolyticum showed that putative cellulosomal α- l -ABFs are exclusively encoded by the xyl - doc gene cluster, a large 32-kb gene cluster. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ruminiclostridium cellulolyticum is an anaerobic, motile, gram-positive bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The X-ray crystal structure of the multidomain endoglucanase Cel9G from Clostridium cellulolyticum complexed with natural and synthetic cello-olligosaccharides. (expasy.org)
  • Es una especie mesófila celulolítica que se aísla de la HIERBA en descomposición. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cellulose-degradation by C. cellulolyticum has been extensively studied. (up.ac.za)
  • α- l -ABFs encoded by the xyl - doc gene cluster of R. cellulolyticum can remove all the decorations present in the backbone of arabinoxylan and arabinan, act synergistically, and, thus, play a crucial role in the degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Spring S, Merkhoffer B, Weiss N, Kroppenstedt RM, Hippe H, Stackebrandt E. Characterization of novel psychrophilic clostridia from an Antarctic microbial mat: description of Clostridium frigoris sp. (dsmz.de)