Clostridium butyricum: Type species of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM, a gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is used as a source of PROBIOTICS.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Botulinum Toxins: Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.Plasmalogens: GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.Clostridium botulinum: A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.Botulism: A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)Propylene Glycols: Derivatives of propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol). They are used as humectants and solvents in pharmaceutical preparations.Clostridium difficile: A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Clostridium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.JapanPharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.CDP-Diacylglycerol-Inositol 3-Phosphatidyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and CMP from CDP-DIACYLGLYCEROL and MYOINOSITOL.Transferases (Other Substituted Phosphate Groups): A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Amylases: A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Lactobacillus rhamnosus: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria used in PROBIOTICS.Bifidobacterium: A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.Food Service, Hospital: Hospital department that manages and supervises the dietary program in accordance with the patients' requirements.Nucleic Acid Probes: Nucleic acid which complements a specific mRNA or DNA molecule, or fragment thereof; used for hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms and for genetic studies.Peptide Nucleic Acids: DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Probe Techniques: The use of devices which use detector molecules to detect, investigate, or analyze other molecules, macromolecules, molecular aggregates, or organisms.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous: An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Bankruptcy: The state of legal insolvency with assets taken over by judicial process so that they may be distributed among creditors.Carnobacterium: A genus of gram-positive bacteria in the family CARNOBACTERIACEAE. They are tolerant to freezing/thawing and high pressure and able to grow at low temperatures.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Amoxicillin: A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.Bacteroides fragilis: Gram-negative bacteria occurring in the lower intestinal tracts of man and other animals. It is the most common species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human soft tissue infections.Bacteroides Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus BACTEROIDES.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Portraits as Topic: Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)Bacteria, AnaerobicIntra-Abdominal Hypertension: Pathological elevation of intra-abdominal pressure (>12 mm Hg). It may develop as a result of SEPSIS; PANCREATITIS; capillary leaks, burns, or surgery. When the pressure is higher than 20 mm Hg, often with end-organ dysfunction, it is referred to as abdominal compartment syndrome.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Amylose: An unbranched glucan in starch.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.

Batch and fed-batch production of butyric acid by clostridium butyricum ZJUCB. (1/22)

The production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB at various pH values was investigated. In order to study the effect of pH on cell growth, butyric acid biosynthesis and reducing sugar consumption, different cultivation pH values ranging from 6.0 to 7.5 were evaluated in 5-L bioreactor. In controlled pH batch fermentation, the optimum pH for cell growth and butyric acid production was 6.5 with a cell yield of 3.65 g/L and butyric acid yield of 12.25 g/L. Based on these results, this study then compared batch and fed-batch fermentation of butyric acid production at pH 6.5. Maximum value (16.74 g/L) of butyric acid concentration was obtained in fed-batch fermentation compared to 12.25 g/L in batch fermentation. It was concluded that cultivation under fed-batch fermentation mode could enhance butyric acid production significantly (P<0.01) by C. butyricum ZJUCB.  (+info)

Microbial conversion of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol: physiological comparison of a natural producer, Clostridium butyricum VPI 3266, and an engineered strain, Clostridium acetobutylicum DG1(pSPD5). (2/22)

Clostridium acetobutylicum is not able to grow on glycerol as the sole carbon source since it cannot reoxidize the excess of NADH generated by glycerol catabolism. Nevertheless, when the pSPD5 plasmid, carrying the NADH-consuming 1,3-propanediol pathway from C. butyricum VPI 3266, was introduced into C. acetobutylicum DG1, growth on glycerol was achieved, and 1,3-propanediol was produced. In order to compare the physiological behavior of the recombinant C. acetobutylicum DG1(pSPD5) strain with that of the natural 1,3-propanediol producer C. butyricum VPI 3266, both strains were grown in chemostat cultures with glycerol as the sole carbon source. The same "global behavior" was observed for both strains: 1,3-propanediol was the main fermentation product, and the qH2 flux was very low. However, when looking at key intracellular enzyme levels, significant differences were observed. Firstly, the pathway for glycerol oxidation was different: C. butyricum uses a glycerol dehydrogenase and a dihydroxyacetone kinase, while C. acetobutylicum uses a glycerol kinase and a glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Secondly, the electron flow is differentially regulated: (i) in C. butyricum VPI 3266, the in vitro hydrogenase activity is 10-fold lower than that in C. acetobutylicum DG1(pSPD5), and (ii) while the ferredoxin-NAD+ reductase activity is high and the NADH-ferredoxin reductase activity is low in C. acetobutylicum DG1(pSPD5), the reverse is observed for C. butyricum VPI 3266. Thirdly, lactate dehydrogenase activity is only detected in the C. acetobutylicum DG1(pSPD5) culture, explaining why this microorganism produces lactate.  (+info)

Effect of Clostridium butyricum on fecal flora in Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. (3/22)

AIM: To investigate the effect of probiotic bacterium, Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI 588 strain (CBM) on the changes of the fecal flora in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) treatment. METHODS: Thirty-five patients with gastric or duodenal ulcers positive for H. pylori were randomized either to 1 wk amoxicillin, clarithromycin, lansoprazole (Group 1) or to the same regimen supplemented with CBM 7 d ahead of the triple therapy (Group 2). Stool samples were collected before and 2, 4, 7, 15, and 22 d after the starting eradication therapy, and were examined intestinal flora. Patients were required to keep a diary record of their condition. RESULTS: Obligate anaerobes decreased significantly on d 2, 4, 8 and 15 in Group 1. On the other hand, they did not decrease significantly in Group 2. The Escherichia coli was dominant bacterium in Enterobacteriaceae, but that was replaced by other species such as Klebsiella and Enterobacter after eradication in Group 1. The change was suppressed in Group 2. Abdominal symptoms were less frequent in Group 2 than in Group 1. CONCLUSION: The combined use of CBM reduced the changes in the intestinal flora and decreased the incidence of gastrointestinal side effects.  (+info)

Effects of dietary supplementation with clostridium butyricum on the growth performance and humoral immune response in Miichthys miiuy. (4/22)

The effects of dietary supplementation with Clostridium butyricum on growth performance and humoral immune response in Miichthys miiuy were evaluated. One hundred and fifty Miichthys miiuy weighing approximately 200-260 g were divided into five groups and reared in 15 tanks with closed circuiting culture system. The animals were fed 5 diets: basal diet only (control) or supplemented of the basal diet with C. butyricum at doses of 10(3) (CB1), 10(5) (CB2), 10(7) (CB3) or 10(9) (CB4) CFU/g. Compared with the control, the serum phenoloxidase activity was significantly increased by the supplementation (P<0.05), acid phosphatases activity was increased significantly (P<0.05) at the doses of 10(9) CFU/g. Serum lysozyme activity peaked at dose of 10(7) CFU/g and in the skin mucus at dose of 10(9) CFU/g. Immunoglobulin M level in the serum and skin mucus was increased except at dose of 10(3) CFU/g (P<0.05). The growth at the dose of 10(9) CFU/g was higher than that of the control (P<0.05). It is concluded that supplementation of C. butyricum can mediate the humoral immune responses and improve the growth performance in Miichthys miiuy.  (+info)

Clostridium butyricum sepsis in an injection drug user with an indwelling central venous catheter. (5/22)


Ability of Lactobacillus fermentum to overcome host alpha-galactosidase deficiency, as evidenced by reduction of hydrogen excretion in rats consuming soya alpha-galacto-oligosaccharides. (6/22)


Effects of active egg white product/ Clostridium butyricum Miyairi 588 additive on peripheral leukocyte populations in periparturient dairy cows. (7/22)

The leukocyte populations of periparturient dairy cows were analyzed after administration of active egg white/Clostridium butyricum Miyairi additive. Sixty-eight Holstein milking cows were divided into 3 groups. Group A was administered active egg white product (AEWP)/Clostridium butyricum Miyairi 588 (Miyairi 588) additive (n=23). Group B was administered Miyairi 588 only (n=23), and Group C was the control group (n=22). The challenged groups were administered 100 g of AEWP + Miyairi 588, or Miyairi 588 alone, daily for 60 days from 1 month before until 1 month after paturition. Blood samples were collected from all groups three times (1 month before, 1 week after and 1 month after parturition) for analysis of the peripheral leukocyte population. The results showed significantly higher numbers of CD4+ cells in Group A compared with Group C 1 week after paturition. AEWP/Miyairi 588 additive may enhance the number of CD4+ T cells in periparturient dairy cows.  (+info)

Microbial conversion of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol by an engineered strain of Escherichia coli. (8/22)


  • The standard preparation as marketed by Miyarisan Pharmaceutical (Tokyo, Japan) consists of white, marked tablets each containing 0.35 × 106 colony forming units (CFU) of C. butyricum MIYAIRI 588 (as active agent). (
  • Pripravek Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI 588 (FERM-BP 2789), ki vsebuje najmanj 1,25 x 10 9 spor, sposobnih preživetja KFE/ g. (
  • The 1,3-PD production and growth of C. butyricum were considerably higher in glycerol plus CPF and xylan than in glycerol alone, whereas another major polysaccharide (cellulose co-substrate) failed to improve the 1,3-PD production. (
  • for example, Clostridium maximizes its biomass yield per enzyme usage under glycerol limitation. (
  • By contrast, under glycerol excess conditions, Clostridium grows sub-optimally, maximizing biomass yield while minimizing both enzyme usage and ATP production. (
  • A more detailed understanding of the metabolic pathways in species such as Clostridium butyricum could therefore shed light on a better ways to promote glycerol transformation to PDO in this organism. (
  • Species of Klebsiella , Citrobacter , Enterobacter , Clostridium , Lactobcillus and Bacillus have been reported to convert glycerol into 1,3-propanediol (27) including several species of the Enterobacteriaceae family, such as Citrobacter freundii and Klebsiella pneumonia (6). (
  • However, Clostridium and Enterobacter can metabolize glycerol through both oxidative and reductive pathways (30). (
  • The continuous fermentation by the consortium was able to operate for a longer period of time (31 volume changes) than that using pure culture (24 volume changes) with the average 1,3-PDO concentration of 53.52 g/L and productivity of 6.69 g/(L·h) under glycerol-excess condition, which could be contributed to the intraspecies diversity among Clostridium butyricum in the consortium. (
  • Abbad-Andaloussi S, Guedon E, Spiesser E, Petitdemange H (1996) Glycerol dehydratase activity: the limiting step for 1,3-propanediol production by Clostridium butyricum DSM 5431. (
  • Biebl H (1991) Glycerol fermentation of 1,3-propanediol by Clostridium butyricum . (
  • Chatzifragkou A, Papanikolaou S, Dietz D, Doulgeraki AI, Nychas GJ, Zeng AP (2011) Production of 1,3-propanediol by Clostridium butyricum growing on biodiesel-derived crude glycerol through a non-sterilized fermentation process. (
  • Clostridium difficile diarrhea, however, which is among the most serious of the adverse events related to antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD), occurs most often in older, immunocompromised adults who have been admitted to hospital. (
  • It has become common practice to use probiotics alongside antibiotics, as research suggests they help reduce antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile -associated diarrhea (CDAD). (
  • C. butyricum is a soil inhabitant in various parts of the world, has been cultured from the stool of healthy children and adults, and is common in soured milk and cheeses. (
  • Clostridia are ubiquitous and are found in the soil, marine sediment, decaying vegetation and intestinal tract of humans, other vertebrate and insects. (
  • Clostridium te´tani a common inhabitant of soil and human and horse intestines, and the cause of tetanus in humans and domestic animals. (
  • The results led us to develop a specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for Clostridium butyricum, and we tested stool samples from preterm neonates with NEC (n = 93) and controls (n = 270). (
  • By combining results of both culture and quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods, C. butyricum was significantly more frequent in stool samples. (
  • This work, contributing to the field of dark fermentative hydrogen production, provides a multidisciplinary approach for the investigation of the processes involved in the molecular H 2 metabolism of clostridia. (
  • Scenedesmus obliquus as feedstock for biohydrogen production by Enterobacter aerogenes and Clostridium butyricum . (
  • 0001). Culture supernatants of C. butyricum strains from preterm neonates with NEC (n = 14) exhibited significant cytotoxic activity (P = .008), and we identified in all a homologue of the β-hemolysin toxin gene shared by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the etiologic agent of swine dysentery. (
  • This blog entry will detail the theory behind Clostridium Butyricum as an ME treatment as well as my experience with this probiotic. (
  • Clostridium Butyricum (CB) is a probiotic that many ME patients have trialled, some noting a reduction in symptoms. (
  • R. Sato and M. Tanaka, "Intestinal distribution and intraluminal localization of orally administered Clostridium butyricum in rats," Microbiology and Immunology , vol. 41, no. 9, pp. 665-671, 1997. (
  • The study was conducted to investigate whether combined use of C. butyricum Sx-01 and L. salivarius C-1-3 could improve the intestinal health and reduce the lipid levels in sera of mice and whether these benefits were related to regulating the intestinal microflora. (
  • Overall, the results demonstrated that the combined use of C. butyricum Sx-01 and L. salivarius C-1-3 can significantly improve intestinal health and reduce the amount of lipids in sera of mice. (
  • This is caused by the absorption of toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum that colonize the intestinal tracts of infants under one year of age. (
  • R. Sato and M. Tanaka, "Multiplication of orally administered Clostridium butyricum in rats," Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease , vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 115-122, 1996. (
  • mice in three experimental groups were daily orally administrated with 4 × 10 8 cfu of L. salivarius , 4 × 10 8 cfu of C. butyricum , and a combination thereof (2 × 10 8 cfu of L. salivarius , and 2 × 10 8 cfu of C. butyricum ), respectively. (