Botulinum Toxins: Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.Clostridium butyricum: Type species of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM, a gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is used as a source of PROBIOTICS.Clostridium botulinum: A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.Botulinum Toxins, Type A: A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.Botulism: A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)Clostridium botulinum type E: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type E which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.Clostridium botulinum type A: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces BOTULINUM TOXINS, TYPE A which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.Persian Gulf Syndrome: Unexplained symptoms reported by veterans of the Persian Gulf War with Iraq in 1991. The symptoms reported include fatigue, skin rash, muscle and joint pain, headaches, loss of memory, shortness of breath, gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms, and extreme sensitivity to commonly occurring chemicals. (Nature 1994 May 5;369(6475):8)Gulf War: United Nations' action to intervene in conflict between the nation of Kuwait and occupying Iraqi forces, occurring from 1990 through 1991.Refugees: Persons fleeing to a place of safety, especially those who flee to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution in their own country or habitual residence because of race, religion, or political belief. (Webster, 3d ed)Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.Veterans: Former members of the armed services.War: Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.Single Parent: A natural, adoptive, or substitute parent of a dependent child, who lives with only one parent. The single parent may live with or visit the child. The concept includes the never-married, as well as the divorced and widowed.Africa, Eastern: The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Neisseria: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and genitourinary tract. Some species are primary pathogens for humans.Selenomonas: Curved bacteria, usually crescent-shaped rods, with ends often tapered, occurring singly, in pairs, or short chains. They are non-encapsulated, non-sporing, motile, and ferment glucose. Selenomonas are found mainly in the human buccal cavity, the rumen of herbivores, and the cecum of pigs and several rodents. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Thermus thermophilus: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in hot springs of neutral to alkaline pH, as well as in hot-water heaters.Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Cytochrome b Group: Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) with protoheme (HEME B) as the prosthetic group.Biometric Identification: A method of differentiating individuals based on the analysis of qualitative or quantitative biological traits or patterns. This process which has applications in forensics and identity theft prevention includes DNA profiles or DNA fingerprints, hand fingerprints, automated facial recognition, iris scan, hand geometry, retinal scan, vascular patterns, automated voice pattern recognition, and ultrasound of fingers.Radio Frequency Identification Device: Machine readable patient or equipment identification device using radio frequency from 125 kHz to 5.8 Ghz.Doping in Sports: Illegitimate use of substances for a desired effect in competitive sports. It includes humans and animals.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Clostridium botulinum type F: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type F which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Neurotoxins: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Video Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Peer Review: An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.

Efficient DNA fingerprinting of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E, and F by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis. (1/7)

Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was applied to characterize 33 group I and 37 group II Clostridium botulinum strains. Four restriction enzyme and 30 primer combinations were screened to tailor the AFLP technique for optimal characterization of C. botulinum. The enzyme combination HindIII and HpyCH4IV, with primers having one selective nucleotide apiece (Hind-C and Hpy-A), was selected. AFLP clearly differentiated between C. botulinum groups I and II; group-specific clusters showed <10% similarity between proteolytic and nonproteolytic C. botulinum strains. In addition, group-specific fragments were detected in both groups. All strains studied were typeable by AFLP, and a total of 42 AFLP types were identified. Extensive diversity was observed among strains of C. botulinum type E, whereas group I had lower genetic biodiversity. These results indicate that AFLP is a fast, highly discriminating, and reproducible DNA fingerprinting method with excellent typeability, which, in addition to its suitability for typing at strain level, can be used for C. botulinum group identification.  (+info)

Development of enrichment semi-nested PCR for Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E, and F and its application to Korean environmental samples. (2/7)

An enrichment semi-nested PCR procedure was developed for detection of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E, and F. It was applied to sediment samples to examine the prevalence of C. botulinum in the Korean environment. The first pair of primers for the semi-nested PCR was designed using a region shared by the types A, B, E, and F neurotoxin gene sequences, and the second round employed four nested primers complementary to the BoNT/A, /B, /E, and /F encoding genes for simultaneous detection of the four serotypes. Positive results were obtained from the PCR analysis of five of 44 sediments (11%) collected from Yeong-am Lake in Korea; all were identified as deriving from type B neurotoxin (bontb) genes. Two of the C. botulinum type B organisms were isolated, and their bontb genes sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequences of BoNT/B showed 99.5 and 99.8% identity with the amino acid sequence of accession no. AB084152. Our data suggest that semi-nested PCR is a useful tool for detecting C. botulinum in sediments, and renders it practicable to conduct environmental surveys.  (+info)

Evaluation of a recombinant Hc of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin serotype F as an effective subunit vaccine. (3/7)

 (+info)

Molecular mechanisms of substrate recognition and specificity of botulinum neurotoxin serotype F. (4/7)

 (+info)

Different substrate recognition requirements for cleavage of synaptobrevin-2 by Clostridium baratii and Clostridium botulinum type F neurotoxins. (5/7)

 (+info)

Novel structural elements within the nonproteolytic clostridium botulinum type F toxin gene cluster. (6/7)

 (+info)

Differentiating microbial forensic qPCR target and control products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. (7/7)

 (+info)

*List of foodborne illness outbreaks in the United States

Botulism (Type A Clostridium botulinum) in Peoria, Illinois. 28 persons were hospitalized, and 20 patients were treated with an ... "Outbreak of Botulism Type E Associated with Eating a Beached Whale - Western Alaska, July 2002". cdc.gov. Johnson, Annysa ( ... Mann JM, Martin S, Hoffman R, Marrazzo S (March 1981). "Patient recovery from type A botulism: morbidity assessment following a ... http://starpas.azcc.gov/scripts/cgiip.exe/WService=wsbroker1/names-detail.p?name-id=L12696489&type=L.L.C. Fox, Maggie (November ...

*Myron W. Wentz

"Clostridium botulinum type F: Seasonal inhibition by Bacillus lichenoformis". Science 1967;155(758): 89-90. "Meet the Founder ...

*Polyneuropathy in dogs and cats

"Natural Clostridium botulinum Type C Toxicosis in a Group of Cats". J Clin Microbiol. 42 (11): 5406-8. doi:10.1128/JCM.42.11. ... The most common type is Coonhound paralysis. This is similar to Guillain-Barré syndrome in humans. Coonhound paralysis seems to ... Hyperchylomicronemia or hyperlipoproteinemia is a type of inherited hyperlipidemia in cats. Polyneuropathy is caused by ...

*Clostridium botulinum

... botulinum types A or B. C. botulinum type A was found to be present in soil samples from mountain areas of Victoria. Type-B ... 1988, Clostridium argentinense sp.nov.: a genetically homogeneous group composed of all strains of Clostridium botulinum type G ... Type A C. botulinum predominates the soil samples from the western regions, while type B is the major type found in eastern ... Clostridium Botulinum type A (most potent type) can be broken down and destroyed for 160 °f for 10 minutes, but they are ...

*Avian botulism

... of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. C. botulinum can fall into one of 7 different types which are strains A through G. Type ... Yule, Adam; Ian K. Barker; John W. Austin; Richard D. Moccia (2006). "Toxicity of Clostridium Botulinum Type E Neurotoxin to ... Franciosa, G; L. Fenicia; C. Caldiani; P. Aureli (1996). "PCR for detection of Clostridium botulinum type C in avian and ... The Type E strain is also commonly associated with avian outbreaks and is frequently found in fish species which is why most ...

*Grass sickness

... however the toxin produced from the bacterium Clostridium botulinum type C may be involved. Clostridium botulinum is a soil- ... It may cause grass sickness when the spores of C. botulinum type C are ingested and produce their toxin locally within the ... Grass sickness may affect all types of horse, pony and donkey, and has affected some well known horses including the ...

*Abe Anellis

"Sporulation of Clostridium botulinum Types A, B and E, Clostridium Perfringens, and putrefactive Anaerobe 3679 in dialysis sacs ... "Comparative Dose-Survival Curves of Representative Clostridium botulinum Type F Spores and Type A and B Spores", Applied and ... "Production of Types A and B Spores of Clostridium botulinum by the Biphasic Method: Effect on Spore Population, Radiation ... "Cryogenic Gamma Irradiation of Prototype Pork and Chicken and Antagonistic Effect between Clostridium botulinum Types A and B ...

*Laminitis

Botulinum toxin infusion As an alternative to the deep digital flexor tenotomy, Clostridium botulinum type A toxin has been ... Carter, D; Renfroe (2009). "A Novel Approach to the Treatment and Prevention of Laminitis: Botulinum Toxin Type A for the ... Trimming Successful treatment for any type of founder must necessarily involve stabilization of the bony column by some means. ...

*Eric Robinson (veterinarian)

"The Bacteria of the Clostridium Botulinum C and D types". In 1929 he was also director of the Bacterial Vaccine Section at ...

*Qapqal disease

According to further researches, the Clostridium botulinum strains isolated were mainly type A, with several cases of type B. ... FU, Si-Wu; WANG, Chen-Huai (2008). "An Overview of Type E Botulism in China". Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. 21 (4): ... The team also discovered that, the source of the botulinum was a local fermented food called mi song hu hu. They promoted the ... and they were eradicated soon after the identification of them as cases type A botulism. After the liberation of 1949, a ...

*List of MeSH codes (B03)

Clostridium botulinum type A MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.160.100 --- Clostridium botulinum type B MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.160.150 ... Clostridium botulinum type C MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.160.200 --- Clostridium botulinum type D MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.160.250 ... Clostridium botulinum type E MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.160.300 --- Clostridium botulinum type F MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.160.350 ... Clostridium botulinum type A MeSH B03.510.415.400.200.160.100 --- Clostridium botulinum type B MeSH B03.510.415.400.200.160.150 ...

*Botulism

Clostridium botulinum type C toxin has been incriminated as the cause of grass sickness, a condition in horses which occurs in ... by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Clostridium botulinum is a large anaerobic Gram-positive bacillus that forms ... Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic, Gram positive, spore-forming rod. Botulinum toxin is one of the most powerful known ... However, further studies showed type H to be a chimeric toxin composed of parts of types F and A (FA). Some types produce a ...

*Theiler's disease

Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Streptococcus equi subspecies equi, Equine influenza, Equine herpesvirus type 1 ... Eight horses that had received prophylactic botulinum antitoxin and developed subsequent signs of Theiler's disease were ...

*Clostridium novyi

Some authors include Clostridium haemolyticum as Clostridium novyi type D. C novyi is closely related to Clostridium botulinum ... The toxins normally produced by the various types are shown in table 1 The alpha-toxin of Clostridium botulinum types C and D, ... Type strain of Clostridium novyi at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Biology portal. ... Moore WB (October 1968). "Solidified media suitable for the cultivation of Clostridium novyi type B". Journal of General ...

*Clostridium argentinense

"Clostridium argentinense sp. nov.: A Genetically Homogeneous Group Composed of All Strains of Clostridium botulinum Toxin Type ... botulinum toxin group G, respectively. Like Cl. botulinum, Cl. argentinense produces botulin, a neurotoxin that causes botulism ... "Clostridium argentinense: Suen et al., 1988". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). "Clostridium argentinense ... Clostridium argentinense is an anaerobic, motile, gram-positive bacterium. Some bacilli now identified as Cl. argentinense were ...

*Sodium nitrite

... is well known for its role in inhibiting the growth of Clostridium botulinum spores in refrigerated meats. The ... Furthermore, the type of bacteria also affects sodium nitrites effectiveness. It is generally agreed upon that sodium nitrite ... for this activity results from the inhibition of iron-sulfur clusters essential to energy metabolism of Clostridium botulinum. ... "Contribution of different vegetable types to exogenous nitrate and nitrite exposure". Food Chemistry. 120 (4): 960-966. doi: ...

*Host-pathogen interaction

Many pathogenic bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureusand Clostridium botulinum are food borne pathogens that secrete toxins ... Each of these different types of organisms can then be further classified as a pathogen based on its mode of transmission. This ... Each of these three types of antimicrobials can be classified into two subsequent groups: bactericidal and bacteriostatic. ...

*Select agent

Tier 1 BSATs are indicated by an asterisk (*). Botulinum neurotoxin-producing species of Clostridium* Coxiella burnetii ... Alcelaphine herpesvirus type 1) Menangle virus Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (contagious caprine ... Abrin Botulinum neurotoxins* Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin Conotoxins Ricin Saxitoxin Shiga-like ribosome inactivating ... proteins Shiga toxin Staphylococcal enterotoxins Tetrodotoxin 2 Type A trichothecenes: Diacetoxyscirpenol T-2 toxin Bacillus ...

*Bacteria

H7 and Clostridium botulinum, the toxin genes in an integrated phage converted a harmless ancestral bacterium into a lethal ... This environmentally important trait can be found in most bacteria of the metabolic types listed above. Regardless of the type ... There are many types of antibiotics and each class inhibits a process that is different in the pathogen from that found in the ... Many types of secretion systems are known and these structures are often essential for the virulence of pathogens, so are ...

*Wrinkle

Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botox is a specific form of botulinum ... botulinum toxin type B) in type A-resistant cervical dystonia". Neurology. 53 (7): 1431-8. doi:10.1212/WNL.53.7.1431. PMID ... Botulinum toxin treats wrinkles by immobilizing the muscles which cause wrinkles. It is not appropriate for the treatment of ... Botulinum toxin Injectable filler Danby, FW (Jul-Aug 2010). "Nutrition and aging skin: sugar and glycation". Cln Dermatol. 4. ...

*Curing salt

... specifically Clostridium botulinum in an effort to prevent botulism, and helps preserve the color of cured meat. Many also ... There are many types of curing salts often specific to a country or region. One of the most common curing salts. It is also ...

*Toxoid

Botulin is produced by Clostridium botulinum and causes the deadly disease botulism. While patients may sometimes complain of ... which has replaced horse serum-type tetanus antitoxin in most of the developed world. Anatoxin "The Preparation and Testing of ... For example, the tetanus toxoid is derived from the tetanospasmin produced by Clostridium tetani. The latter causes tetanus and ...

*Food storage

... meats serve to reduce the risks of food poisoning from anaerobic bacteria such as species of Clostridium that release botulinum ... when some types begin to go rancid. Unopened oils can have a storage life of up to one year, but some types have a shorter ... Modern techniques of preparing meat for storage vary with the type of meat and special requirements of tenderness, flavour, ...

*Sausage making

The bacterium responsible, Clostridium botulinum, is ubiquitous in the environment, grows in the anaerobic conditions created ... Emulsion-type cooked sausages, such as frankfurters or bologna, use a bowl chopper to make finely ground meat batter that is ... Nitrites are used for all types of sausages and are the most common. Nitrates are used only in the preparation of the cured dry ... Sausages come in two main types: fresh and cured. Cured sausages may be either cooked or dried. Most cured sausages are smoked ...

*Clostridium baratii

"Clostridium baratii". Retrieved 2011-01-24. Type strain of Clostridium baratii at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... As opposed to the classic cause of botulism, C. botulinum, its environmental source is unknown. Therefore, it is unclear how to ... "Clostridium baratii: Prévot 1938". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Clostridium baratii at the ... Infant Botulism Caused by Clostridium baratii Type F - Iowa, 2013". MMWR. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved ...

*Iraqi biological weapons program

Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium perfringens (gas gangrene) and several viruses (including enterovirus 17 [human ... five types of virus, and four toxins. Of these, three-anthrax, botulinum and aflatoxin-had proceeded to weaponization for ... botulinum toxins, and Clostridium perfringens toxins. Post-war inspections by UNSCOM, however, were confounded by ... From the United States, the non-profit American Type Culture Collection and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control sold or sent ...
Clostridium, Clostridium Botulinum, Gene, Gene Cluster, Gene Clusters, Strain, Botulism, Infant, Infant Botulism, Genes, Botulinum Toxin, Infant Formula, Spores, Clostridium Botulinum Type F, Gene Arrangement, Is Element, Time, Chromosome, Identification, Plasmid
SOG System Kits for Motorhomes or Caravans Type F (25328) by SOG - SOG Toilet Kits for Motorhomes Caravans Type F This SOGKit is for a Thetford C250 Series Toilet Cassette System NoteThe image above shows a SOGType F...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
building on 2 sides on 4 levels composed of commercial premises on the ground floor as well as a garage and a cellar + 3 apartments type f3 to renovate living space including 1 (4 separate lots). total living area of 317m . More details › ...
were collected during the day. Conventional PCR and semi-nested PCR assays were optimised. The detection limit of the technique for purified W. bancrofti DNA extracted from adult worms was 10 fg for the internal systems (WbF/Wb2) and 0.1 fg by using semi-nested PCR. The specificity of the primers was confirmed experimentally by amplification of 1 ng of purified genomic DNA from other species of parasites. Evaluation of the paired urine and serum samples by the semi-nested PCR technique indicated only two of the 20 tested individuals were positive, whereas the simple internal PCR system (WbF/Wb2), which has highly promising performance, revealed that all the patients were positive using both samples. This study successfully demonstrated the possibility of using the PCR technique on urine for the diagnosis of W. bancrofti infection ...
AC FLANGED PANEL MOUNT OUTLET TYPE F SOCKET EUROPEAN SCHUKO LOCKING (*) 16 AMPERE-250 VOLT CEE7/4 (EU1-16R) TYPE E, F, IP66 / IP68 WATERTIGHT OUTLET, PANEL / WALL BOX MOUNT,
Rob Gibson ,[email protected], wrote: Here is the next revision... What do you all think? #!/bin/bash # Initialize command substitutions LS=/bin/ls WC=/usr/bin/wc PING=/bin/ping ECHO=/bin/echo BR=/usr/bin/br SLEEP=/bin/sleep RM=/bin/rm DATE=/bin/date MKTEMP=/bin/mktemp FIND=/usr/bin/find # Initialize Paths and Ports LOGFILE=/var/log/x10.log TMPPATH=/var/tmp/x10 TEMPLATE=failure X10PORT=/dev/ttyS0 X10DEVICE=G15 ${PING} -c 5 www.google.com &, /dev/null ,, ${MKTEMP} -p ${TMPPATH} ${TEMPLATE}XXXXXXXXXX &, /dev/null if [ $(${FIND} ${TMPPATH} -type f -name ${TEMPLATE}* -print , ${WC} -l) -gt 2 ] ###if [ $(${LS} -1 ${TMPPATH}/${TEMPLATE}* , ${WC} -l) -gt 2 ] then ${BR} -x ${X10PORT} ${X10DEVICE} OFF ${SLEEP} 5 ${BR} -x ${X10PORT} ${X10DEVICE} ON for file in $(${FIND} ${TMPPATH} -type f -name ${TEMPLATE}* -print) do ${RM} ${file} done ${ECHO} -ne Network Failure: ,, ${LOGFILE} ${ECHO} $(${DATE} +%Y-%m-%d-%M%S) ,, ${LOGFILE} fi On Dec 15, 2007 11:35 PM, Mike wrote: , Rob Gibson wrote: , , Since ...
Polymer concrete Linear Drainage Channel ULMA, type F200K: External width 262mm; Internal width 200mm; Available with overall heights between 263mm and 363mm. Suitable for cascaded type slope to collect rain water in 1 metre long units. Safe locking system consists of eight bolts per LM; Integrated galvanized steel edges for lateral protection.. ...
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and their conformational transitions play an important role in neurotransmitter release at the neuronal synapse. Here, the SNARE proteins are essential by forming the SNARE complex that drives vesicular membrane fusion. While it is widely accepted that the SNARE proteins are intrinsically disordered in their monomeric prefusion form, important mechanistic aspects of this prefusion conformation and its lipid interactions, before forming the SNARE complex, are not fully understood at the molecular level and remain controversial. Here, by a combination of NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy methods, we find that vesicular synaptobrevin-2 (syb-2) in its monomeric prefusion conformation shows high flexibility, characteristic for an IDP, but also a high dynamic range and increasing rigidity from the N to C terminus. The gradual increase in rigidity correlates with an increase in lipid binding affinity from the N to C terminus. It could also explain the increased ...
: detection limit for semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Line 1:molecular weight marker of 100 bp; 2-9: 10-fold dilution curve, 1 ng-0.1 fg;10: negati
β Lyrae has long been known to show emission lines in its complicated spectrum (Struve, 1958), yet another indication of activity in the system. Although the spectrum of β Lyrae is quite complicated, consisting of at least six distinct sources (Bisikalo, et al. 1999), one easily recognized source does stand out: the absorption lines of a star with a spectral type of B6II to B8II. This star is the one eclipsed at primary minimum in the optical light curves and I will refer to it as the primary star. The primary is, therefore, a giant with an effective temperature of about 12,000 K. The nature of the primary star is the subject of little dispute.. The nature of the secondary object is, on the other hand, still the subject of some debate. Astronomers had struggled without success for decades to explain the secondary component as a star of approximately spectral type F. In 1963, however, came the critical piece of the puzzle. Huang (1963) proposed that the primary was, in fact, less massive than ...
Although this specimen has bee previously stated as Isotype, this name is a case of nomen nudum, therefore we stated it as Original Specimen but not type [F. Cabezas (W), 2008-11-19].
Research proven purified goat polyclonal VAMP-1 antibody. Involved in neurotransmission including synapse vesicle transport and release. VAMPs also appear to be significantly lowered in Alzheimers Disease. Designed for immunohistochemistry, western blotting, Direct ELISA and related applications. IHC and WB images in product description.
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 3n7l.1. Crystal structure of botulinum neurotoxin serotype D/C VPI 5993 binding domain
A molecular approach was developed to distinguish species of red snappers among commercial salted fish products. The specific fragments of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene, which were about 450bp, were obtained using the semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (semi-nested PCR). Subsequently, PCR arnplicons were sequenced, aiming to select restriction endonucleases that generated species-specific restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) profiles. Discrimination of red snappers Lutjanus sanguineus, Lutjanus erythopterus from Lutjanus argentimaculatus, Lutjanus malabarius and other morphologically similar fishes such as Lethrinus leutjanus and Pinjalo pinjalo was feasible by one restriction digestion reaction with three endonucleases Hae III, Sca I and SnaB I, however, for discrimination of L. sanguineus and L. erythopterus, another restriction digestion reaction with single restriction endonuclease Mae II was needed. The semi-nested PCR-RFLP was demonstrated to be reliable in species ...
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In this study, we determined the effects of incubation temperature and prior heat treatment on the lag-phase kinetics of individual spores of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum Eklund 17B. The times to germination (tgerm), one mature cell (tC₁), and two mature cells (tC₂) were measured for individual unheated spores incubated at 8, 10, 15, or 22°C and used to calculate the tgerm, the outgrowth t ...
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Botulism in the United States: A Clinical and Epidemiologic Review | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of...Botulism in the United States: A Clinical and Epidemiologic Review | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of...

... spore-forming bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botulism in humans is usually caused by toxin types A, B, and E. Since 1973, a ... An Outbreak of Type A Botulism Associated with a Commercial Cheese Sauce Annals of Internal Medicine; 125 (7): 558-563 ... Clostridium difficile Colitis: An Efficient Clinical Approach to Diagnosis Annals of Internal Medicine; 123 (11): 835-840 ... Because clinicians are the first to treat patients in any type of botulism outbreak, they must know how to recognize, diagnose ...
more infohttp://annals.org/aim/article-abstract/711596/botulism-united-states-clinical-epidemiologic-review?volume=129&issue=3&page=221

Emergencies Biological BotulismEmergencies Biological Botulism

The toxin is produced by a bacterium called Clostridium botulinum. Botulism develops if a person ingests the toxin or if the ... How many types of botulism are there? +. There are three main types of botulism, categorized by the way the disease is acquired ... This typically occurs when a stored food item contains Clostridium botulinum spores which begin to grow and produce the toxin ... Although safe for children and adults, honey should not be fed to infants because it may contain Clostridium botulinum spores. ...
more infohttps://www1.nyc.gov/site/doh/health/emergency-preparedness/emergencies-biological-botulism.page

botF - Botulinum neurotoxin type F precursor - Clostridium botulinum - botF gene & proteinbotF - Botulinum neurotoxin type F precursor - Clostridium botulinum - botF gene & protein

Precursor of botulinum neurotoxin F which may have 2 coreceptors; complex polysialylated gangliosides found on neural tissue ... Botulinum toxin causes flaccid paralysis by inhibiting neurotransmitter (acetylcholine) release from the presynaptic membranes ... sp,P30996,BXF_CLOBO Botulinum neurotoxin type F OS=Clostridium botulinum OX=1491 GN=botF PE=1 SV=1 ... Botulinum neurotoxin type F: Botulinum toxin causes flaccid paralysis by inhibiting neurotransmitter (acetylcholine) release ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P30996

eno - Enolase - Clostridium botulinum (strain Eklund 17B / Type B) - eno gene & proteineno - Enolase - Clostridium botulinum (strain Eklund 17B / Type B) - eno gene & protein

Clostridium botulinum (strain Eklund 17B / Type B). Clostridium botulinum. Clostridium botulinum (strain Alaska E43 / Type E3) ... Clostridium botulinum (strain Eklund 17B / Type B). Clostridium botulinum. 431. UniRef100_B2TPW4. Cluster: Enolase. 2. ... Clostridium botulinum (strain Eklund 17B / Type B). ,p>This subsection of the Names and taxonomy section shows the unique ... Clostridium botulinum E1 str. BoNT E Beluga. Clostridium taeniosporum. 431. UniRef90_B2TPW4. Cluster: Enolase. 11. ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/B2TPW4

Grass Sickness and Clostridium Botulinum Type CGrass Sickness and Clostridium Botulinum Type C

... but there seems be a toxicoinfection with the neurotoxin-producing bacterium clostridium botulinum and the disease. ... botulinum type C toxicoinfection. Source: Hunter LC, Miller JK, Poxton IR. (1999): The association of Clostridium botulinum ... Grass sickness and clostridium botulinum type C Grass sickness is an often fatal disease affecting horses especially in the ... Clostridium botulinum was first implicated as a causative agent when it was isolated from the GI tract of a horse with EGS in ...
more infohttp://www.vetcontact.com/en/art.php?a=816&t=

Genetic Variation In Clostridium Botulinum, Types Of Botulism In France | 15109Genetic Variation In Clostridium Botulinum, Types Of Botulism In France | 15109

Clostridium botuinum is a spore-forming bacterium, which produces potent neurotoxins (BoNT) and which is responsible for a ... Genetic variation in Clostridium botulinum, types of botulism in France. International Congress on Bacteriology & Infectious ... According to their immunological properties, BoNTs are divided into 7 types (A to G) and each type is generally synthesized by ... Type B botulism is traditional in our country subsequently to ingestion of contaminated pork meat products. However, in the ...
more infohttps://www.omicsonline.org/proceedings/genetic-variation-in-clostridium-botulinum-types-of-botulism-in-france-15109.html

Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Antikörper (DyLight 755) (ABIN4263961)Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Antikörper (DyLight 755) (ABIN4263961)

anti-Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Antikörper (DyLight 755) Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Antikörper (DyLight 755) ... Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Antikörper (ABIN4263961). ... Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Reaktivität Bakterien. ... C. Botulinum E toxoid. There is no cross-reactivity with A and B toxoids in sandwich ELISA. ...
more infohttps://www.antikoerper-online.de/antibody/4263961/anti-Clostridium+Botulinum+Type+E+Toxoid+antibody+DyLight+755/

Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Antikörper (DyLight 405) (ABIN4263955)Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Antikörper (DyLight 405) (ABIN4263955)

anti-Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Antikörper (DyLight 405) Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Antikörper (DyLight 405) ... Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Antikörper (ABIN4263955). ... Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Reaktivität Bakterien. ... C. Botulinum E toxoid. There is no cross-reactivity with A and B toxoids in sandwich ELISA. ...
more infohttps://www.antikoerper-online.de/antibody/4263955/anti-Clostridium+Botulinum+Type+E+Toxoid+antibody+DyLight+405/

A novel strain of Clostridium botulinum that produces type B and type H botulinum toxins.  - PubMed - NCBIA novel strain of Clostridium botulinum that produces type B and type H botulinum toxins. - PubMed - NCBI

A novel strain of Clostridium botulinum that produces type B and type H botulinum toxins.. Barash JR1, Arnon SS. ... Clostridium botulinum strain IBCA10-7060, isolated from a patient with infant botulism, produced botulinum neurotoxin type B ( ... botulinum type Bh strain to be identified. BoNT/H is the first new botulinum toxin type to be recognized in ,40 years, and its ... Clostridium botulinum toxin statement from the director of the California Department of Public Health. [J Infect Dis. 2014] ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24106296?dopt=Abstract

Clostridium botulinum Type B Neurotoxin polyclonal antibody - (PAB29146) - Products - AbnovaClostridium botulinum Type B Neurotoxin polyclonal antibody - (PAB29146) - Products - Abnova

Native purified Clostridium botulinum Type B Neurotoxin emulsified in Freunds adjuvant. (PAB29146) - Products - Abnova ... Chicken polyclonal antibody raised against Clostridium botulinum Type B Neurotoxin. ... Clostridium botulinum Type B Neurotoxin polyclonal antibody. Clostridium botulinum Type B Neurotoxin polyclonal antibody. * ...
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A severe case of infant botulism caused by Clostridium botulinum type A with concomitant intestinal viral infections.  - PubMed...A severe case of infant botulism caused by Clostridium botulinum type A with concomitant intestinal viral infections. - PubMed...

Publication type, MeSH terms, Substances. Publication type. *Case Reports. MeSH terms. *Botulinum Toxins, Type A/isolation & ... A severe case of infant botulism caused by Clostridium botulinum type A with concomitant intestinal viral infections.. Fenicia ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15170567?dopt=Abstract

Neurotoxin gene profiling of clostridium botulinum types C and D native to different countries within Europe.Neurotoxin gene profiling of clostridium botulinum types C and D native to different countries within Europe.

Clostridium botulinum types C and D, as well as their mosaic variants C-D and D-C, are associated with avian and mammalian ... 0/botulinum toxin type C; 0/botulinum toxin type D; EC 3.4.24.69/Botulinum Toxins ... botulinum types C (n = 12), C-D (n = 29), D (n = 5), and D-C (n = 10), other botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT)-producing Clostridium ... Clostridium botulinum types C and D, as well as their mosaic variants C-D and D-C, are associated with avian and mammalian ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Neurotoxin-gene-profiling-Clostridium-botulinum/22344654.html

Effects of Carbon Dioxide on Neurotoxin Gene Expression in Non-proteolytic Clostridium botulinum type E.Effects of Carbon Dioxide on Neurotoxin Gene Expression in Non-proteolytic Clostridium botulinum type E.

... Artin, Ingrid LU ; ... non-proteolytic Clostridium botulinum type E were studied during the growth cycle. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and ... non-proteolytic Clostridium botulinum type E were studied during the growth cycle. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and ... non-proteolytic Clostridium botulinum type E were studied during the growth cycle. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and ...
more infohttps://lup.lub.lu.se/search/publication/1052920

The relation between toxicity and toxin-related-antigen contents of Clostridium botulinum types C and D cultures as determined...The relation between toxicity and toxin-related-antigen contents of Clostridium botulinum types C and D cultures as determined...

The relation between toxicity and toxin-related-antigen contents of Clostridium botulinum types C and D cultures as determined ... The relation between toxicity and toxin-related-antigen contents of Clostridium botulinum types C and D cultures as determined ...
more infohttps://www.rivm.nl/publicaties/relation-between-toxicity-and-toxin-related-antigen-contents-of-clostridium-botulinum

KAKEN - Research Projects | STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF RECEPTOR FOR CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM TYPE B NEUROTOXIN (KAKENHI-PROJECT...KAKEN - Research Projects | STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF RECEPTOR FOR CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM TYPE B NEUROTOXIN (KAKENHI-PROJECT...

Clostridium botulinum / neurotoxin / receptor. Research Abstract. Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin acts on nerve ending to ... Publications] Nishiki,T. et al.: Identification of protein receptor for clostridium botulinum type B neurotoxin in rat brain ... Publications] Nishiki,T. et al.: The high-affinity binding of clostridium botulinum type B neurotoxin to synaptotagmin II ... Publications] Nishiki T.,et al.: The high-affinity binding of Clostridium botulinum type B neurotoxin to synaptotagmin II ...
more infohttps://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-06660408/

Monoclonal Antibody to Clostridium botulinum Type A Neurotoxin Heavy Chain (amino acids 1177-1195).  - WB, EIA - Buy Now! ...Monoclonal Antibody to Clostridium botulinum Type A Neurotoxin Heavy Chain (amino acids 1177-1195). - WB, EIA - Buy Now! ...

Monoclonal Antibody to Clostridium botulinum Type A Neurotoxin Heavy Chain (amino acids 1177-1195). , validated in WB, EIA ( ... Clostridium botulinum Type A Neurotoxin Heavy Chain (amino acids 1177-1195). Weak cross-reactivity with Type B and Type E ... Monoclonal Antibody to Clostridium botulinum Type A Neurotoxin Heavy Chain (amino acids 1177-1195). is for research use only ... Monoclonal Antibody to Clostridium botulinum Type A Neurotoxin Heavy Chain (amino acids 1177-1195). ...
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Honey sold directly by producers in the Silesian region of Poland as a source of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and F |...Honey sold directly by producers in the Silesian region of Poland as a source of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and F |...

Honey sold directly by producers in the Silesian region of Poland as a source of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and F , ... Honey sold directly by producers in the Silesian region of Poland as a source of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and F ... NEVAS M, LINDSTROM M, HAUTAMAKI K, PUOSKARI S, KORKEALA H (2005): Prevalence and diversity of Clostridium botulinum types A, B ... The major serotypes detected were type A - in two (5.1%) and type B - in two (5.1%) honey samples, respectively. Types E and F ...
more infohttps://www.agriculturejournals.cz/web/cjfs.htm?type=article&id=376_2016-CJFS

Recombination and insertion events involving the botulinum neurotoxin complex genes in Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and...Recombination and insertion events involving the botulinum neurotoxin complex genes in Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and...

In C. botulinum type E and C. butyricum type E strains the location of the bont/e gene cluster appears to be the result of ... Chromosome and plasmid sequences of several C. botulinum strains representing A, B, E and F serotypes and a C. butyricum type E ... botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs, A-G). The four species have been classified as C. botulinum Groups I-IV. The presence of bont ... have led to the lineages observed today within the neurotoxin-producing clostridia. ...
more infohttps://bmcbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1741-7007-7-66

Activation of Some Clostridium botulinum Type D Toxin by Trypsin | Microbiology SocietyActivation of Some Clostridium botulinum Type D Toxin by Trypsin | Microbiology Society

... botulinum types C and D, the toxicity of C2 toxin, which is a minor toxin produced by both types C and D, is increased when the ... The present communication suggests that some strains of C. botulinum type D produce their major toxin in a form that may be ... Toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and F may be activated by exposure to trypsin (Duff et al., 1956; ... Activation of Some Clostridium botulinum Type D Toxin by Trypsin * A. Nakane, K. Oguma and H. Iida ...
more infohttps://www.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-111-2-429

Finished Whole-Genome Sequences of Two Clostridium botulinum Type A(B) Isolates.  - PubMed - NCBIFinished Whole-Genome Sequences of Two Clostridium botulinum Type A(B) Isolates. - PubMed - NCBI

Finished Whole-Genome Sequences of Two Clostridium botulinum Type A(B) Isolates.. Halpin JL1, Hill K2, Johnson SL2, Bruce DC2, ... Clostridium botulinum secretes a potent neurotoxin that causes devastating effects when ingested, including paralysis and death ... In the United States, some clinically significant strains produce toxin type A while also harboring a silent B gene. These are ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=cdcpub&id=3856

Distinguishing highly-related outbreak-associated Clostridium botulinum type A(B) strains | BMC Microbiology | Full TextDistinguishing highly-related outbreak-associated Clostridium botulinum type A(B) strains | BMC Microbiology | Full Text

These strains are designated type A(B). The most common pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern in the C. botulinum ... The genome sequences of type A(B) strains evaluated in this study are closely related and cluster together compared to other ... This study confirms that type A(B) strains that share the same PFGE pattern also share closely-related genome sequences. The ... In silico multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis (7-loci) was unable to differentiate any of the type A(B) strains isolated ...
more infohttps://0-bmcmicrobiol-biomedcentral-com.brum.beds.ac.uk/articles/10.1186/1471-2180-14-192

Dysport 500 I.U: Dysport 500 I.U Injection | Clostridium Botulinum Type A Toxin-Haemagglutinin Injection Reasonable Price @...Dysport 500 I.U: Dysport 500 I.U Injection | Clostridium Botulinum Type A Toxin-Haemagglutinin Injection Reasonable Price @...

Inquire price of Dysport 500 I.U Injection composition of Clostridium botulinum type A toxin-haemagglutinin 500 I.U injection ... Composition : Clostridium botulinum type A toxin-haemagglutinin complex. Manufacturer: Bharat Serums and Vaccines Limited. Form ... Botulinum toxin type A). AbobotulinumtoxinA is made from the bacteria that causes botulism. Botulinum toxin blocks nerve ... You should not receive Dysport injecton if you are allergic to botulinum toxin or if you have an infection, swelling, or muscle ...
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An atypical outbreak of food-borne botulism due to Clostridium botulinum types B and E from ham.  - PubMed - NCBIAn atypical outbreak of food-borne botulism due to Clostridium botulinum types B and E from ham. - PubMed - NCBI

An atypical outbreak of food-borne botulism due to Clostridium botulinum types B and E from ham.. Mazuet C1, Sautereau J1, ... Clostridium botulinum type A/genetics. *Clostridium botulinum type A/isolation & purification*. *Clostridium botulinum type F/ ... An Atypical Outbreak of Food-Borne Botulism Due to Clostridium botulinum Types B and E from Ham ... An Atypical Outbreak of Food-Borne Botulism Due to Clostridium botulinum Types B and E from Ham ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=amd&id=6210

Public Domain Picture | A photomicrograph of Clostridium botulinum type A viewed using a Gram stain technique. | ID:...Public Domain Picture | A photomicrograph of Clostridium botulinum type A viewed using a Gram stain technique. | ID:...

A photomicrograph of Clostridium botulinum type A viewed using a Gram stain technique. , ID: 13519924817737 ... A photomicrograph of Clostridium botulinum type A viewed using a Gram stain technique. ... A photomicrograph of Clostridium botulinum type A viewed using a Gram stain technique. ... Public Domain Picture: A photomicrograph of Clostridium botulinum type A viewed using a Gram stain technique.. ...
more infohttp://www.publicdomainfiles.com/show_file.php?id=13519924817737
  • This study reports on the development of low-density macroarrays based on the GeneDisc cycler platform (Pall-GeneDisc Technologies) applied to the simultaneous detection of the C. botulinum subtypes C, C-D, D, and D-C. The limit of detection of the PCR assays was 38 fg of total DNA, corresponding to 15 genome copies. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To understand the biological mechanisms allowing the adaptation of vegetative cells of C. butyricum type E to oxygen, we compared the proteome and metabolome profiles of the clostridial cultures grown for 5 h under either aerated or anaerobic conditions. (asm.org)
  • Group II is a subset of a more diverse clade that includes other saccharolytic clostridia, such as C. acetobutylicum , C. beijerinckii , and toxic and nontoxic Group V C. baratii and Group VI C. butyricum . (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the present study, the effects of carbon dioxide on growth of, and neurotoxin production by, non-proteolytic Clostridium botulinum type E were studied during the growth cycle. (lu.se)
  • To generate knowledge in this regard and provide a basis for exploring the relationships that exist between PA 3679 and proteolytic strains of C. botulinum , here we present a draft assembly of the genome of PA 3679. (asm.org)
  • BLAST ( 1 ) results of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated 99 to 100% nucleotide similarity between PA 3679 and a number of proteolytic C. botulinum strains, as well as other C. sporogenes strains. (asm.org)
  • p>A type of phylogenetic evidence whereby an aspect of a descendent is inferred through the characterization of an aspect of a ancestral gene. (uniprot.org)
  • In silico multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis (7-loci) was unable to differentiate any of the type A(B) strains isolated from seven different outbreak investigations evaluated in this study. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Botulinum toxin causes flaccid paralysis by inhibiting neurotransmitter (acetylcholine) release from the presynaptic membranes of nerve terminals of the eukaryotic host skeletal and autonomic nervous system, with frequent heart or respiratory failure. (uniprot.org)
  • Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin acts on nerve ending to inhibit neurotransmitter release. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Analysis of culture filtrate by double immunodiffusion yielded a single line of immunoprecipitate with anti-A, anti-B, and anti-F botulinum antitoxins but not with anti-E antitoxin. (nih.gov)
  • 4 ] demonstrated that several type A(B) strains isolated in North America shared a high degree of genomic content. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Our findings indicate that, contrary to current understanding, the growth of neurotoxigenic C. butyricum strains and botulinum neurotoxin type E production can continue upon transfer from anaerobic to aerated conditions and that adaptation of strains to oxygenated environments requires global changes in proteomic and metabolic profiles. (asm.org)