A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type E which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces BOTULINUM TOXINS, TYPE A which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type B which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type F which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type D which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans.
The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
Antiserum given therapeutically in BOTULISM.
A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type C which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans. It causes dissociation of ACTIN FILAMENTS.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type G. Though it has been isolated from soil, no outbreaks involving this type have been recognized.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.
Treatment of food with RADIATION.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Type species of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM, a gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is used as a source of PROBIOTICS.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
A family of anadromous fish comprising SALMON; TROUT; whitefish; and graylings. They are the most important food and game fishes. Their habitat is the northern Atlantic and Pacific, both marine and inland, and the Great Lakes. (Nelson: Fishes of the World, 1976, p97)
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
The family Phocidae, suborder PINNIPEDIA, order CARNIVORA, comprising the true seals. They lack external ears and are unable to use their hind flippers to walk. It includes over 18 species including the harp seal, probably the best known seal species in the world.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.
The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.
Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.
The cause of TETANUS in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin.
Cellulose derivative used in chromatography, as ion-exchange material, and for various industrial applications.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Food that has been prepared and stored in a way to prevent spoilage.
Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders. Most of these act centrally on dopaminergic or cholinergic systems. Among the most important clinically are those used for the treatment of Parkinson disease (ANTIPARKINSON AGENTS) and those for the tardive dyskinesias.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.

Efficient DNA fingerprinting of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E, and F by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis. (1/16)

Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was applied to characterize 33 group I and 37 group II Clostridium botulinum strains. Four restriction enzyme and 30 primer combinations were screened to tailor the AFLP technique for optimal characterization of C. botulinum. The enzyme combination HindIII and HpyCH4IV, with primers having one selective nucleotide apiece (Hind-C and Hpy-A), was selected. AFLP clearly differentiated between C. botulinum groups I and II; group-specific clusters showed <10% similarity between proteolytic and nonproteolytic C. botulinum strains. In addition, group-specific fragments were detected in both groups. All strains studied were typeable by AFLP, and a total of 42 AFLP types were identified. Extensive diversity was observed among strains of C. botulinum type E, whereas group I had lower genetic biodiversity. These results indicate that AFLP is a fast, highly discriminating, and reproducible DNA fingerprinting method with excellent typeability, which, in addition to its suitability for typing at strain level, can be used for C. botulinum group identification.  (+info)

Expression of botulinum neurotoxins A and E, and associated non-toxin genes, during the transition phase and stability at high temperature: analysis by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. (2/16)

Production of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) and associated non-toxic proteins (ANTPs), which include a non-toxic non-haemagglutinin (NTNH/A) as well as haemagglutinins (HAs), was found previously to be dependent upon an RNA polymerase alternative sigma factor (BotR/A). Expression of the botR/A, bont/A and antp genes, monitored by reverse transcription and real-time PCR analysis, occurred concomitantly at the transition between the exponential and stationary growth phases of Clostridium botulinum A. The botR/A expression level was about 100-fold less than those of the bont/A and antp genes. Therefore, BotR/A is an alternative sigma factor controlling the botulinum A locus genes during the transition phase. The highest toxin concentration was released into the culture supernatant 12 h after maximum expression of the botR/A, bont/A and antp genes, without any apparent bacterial lysis. Toxin levels were then stable over 5 days in cultures at 37 degrees C, whereas a dramatic decrease in lethal activity was observed between 24 and 48 h in cultures at 44 degrees C. High temperature did inhibit transcription, since expression levels of the botR/A, bont/A and antp genes were similar in cultures at 37 and 44 degrees C. However, incubation at 44 degrees C triggered a calcium-dependent protease that degraded BoNT/A and NTNH/A, but not HAs. In C. botulinum E, which contains no gene related to botR, the bont/E and p47 genes were also expressed during the transition phase, and no protease activation at 44 degrees C was evident.  (+info)

Comparison of DNA fingerprinting methods for use in investigation of type E botulism outbreaks in the Canadian Arctic. (3/16)

Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, and automated ribotyping were compared for epidemiological typing of Clostridium botulinum type E using clinical and food isolates associated with four botulism outbreaks occurring in the Canadian Arctic. All type E strains previously untypeable by PFGE, even with the use of a formaldehyde fixation step, could be typed by the addition of 50 microM thiourea to the electrophoresis running buffer. Digestion with SmaI or XhoI followed by PFGE was used to link food and clinical isolates from four different type E botulism outbreaks and differentiate them from among 39 group II strains. Strain differentiation was unsuccessful with the automated ribotyping system, producing a single characteristic EcoRI fingerprint common to all group II strains. RAPD analysis of C. botulinum group II strains was not consistently reproducible with primer OPJ-6 or OPJ-13, apparently discriminating between epidemiologically related strains. A modified PFGE protocol was judged to be the most useful method for typing epidemiologically related C. botulinum type E strains, based on its ability to type all strains reproducibly and with an adequate level of discrimination.  (+info)

Outbreak of clinically mild botulism type E illness from home-salted fish in patients presenting with predominantly gastrointestinal symptoms. (4/16)

Five persons consumed home-salted fish and then presented with gastrointestinal symptoms to 3 hospitals; 2 of the patients had minimal cranial nerve palsies. Early serum samples obtained from all patients were negative for botulinum toxin. Remnant fish tested positive for botulinum toxin type E. In patients exposed to low doses of botulinum toxin type E, gastrointestinal symptoms may predominate.  (+info)

First case of type E wound botulism diagnosed using real-time PCR. (5/16)

Wound botulism is a growing problem among injecting drug users. The condition is often difficult to diagnose, with laboratory confirmation in only 50% of the cases. Here we present a real-time PCR-based method for the diagnosis of wound botulism caused by Clostridium botulinum. The assay includes an internal amplification control which is amplified simultaneously with the genes encoding neurotoxin types A, B, and E. This method was used to detect the first case of wound botulism in an injecting drug user in Sweden. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of wound botulism caused by C. botulinum type E.  (+info)

Development of enrichment semi-nested PCR for Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E, and F and its application to Korean environmental samples. (6/16)

An enrichment semi-nested PCR procedure was developed for detection of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E, and F. It was applied to sediment samples to examine the prevalence of C. botulinum in the Korean environment. The first pair of primers for the semi-nested PCR was designed using a region shared by the types A, B, E, and F neurotoxin gene sequences, and the second round employed four nested primers complementary to the BoNT/A, /B, /E, and /F encoding genes for simultaneous detection of the four serotypes. Positive results were obtained from the PCR analysis of five of 44 sediments (11%) collected from Yeong-am Lake in Korea; all were identified as deriving from type B neurotoxin (bontb) genes. Two of the C. botulinum type B organisms were isolated, and their bontb genes sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequences of BoNT/B showed 99.5 and 99.8% identity with the amino acid sequence of accession no. AB084152. Our data suggest that semi-nested PCR is a useful tool for detecting C. botulinum in sediments, and renders it practicable to conduct environmental surveys.  (+info)

Effects of carbon dioxide on neurotoxin gene expression in nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum Type E. (7/16)

 (+info)

SNAP-25 substrate peptide (residues 180-183) binds to but bypasses cleavage by catalytically active Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin E. (8/16)

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'Clostridium botulinum' is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic bacteria that produces one or more neurotoxins known as botulinum toxins. These toxins are among the most potent naturally occurring biological poisons and can cause a severe form of food poisoning called botulism in humans and animals. Botulism is characterized by symmetrical descending flaccid paralysis, which can lead to respiratory and cardiovascular failure, and ultimately death if not treated promptly.

The bacteria are widely distributed in nature, particularly in soil, sediments, and the intestinal tracts of some animals. They can form spores that are highly resistant to heat, chemicals, and other environmental stresses, allowing them to survive for long periods in adverse conditions. The spores can germinate and produce vegetative cells and toxins when they encounter favorable conditions, such as anaerobic environments with appropriate nutrients.

Human botulism can occur through three main routes of exposure: foodborne, wound, and infant botulism. Foodborne botulism results from consuming contaminated food containing preformed toxins, while wound botulism occurs when the bacteria infect a wound and produce toxins in situ. Infant botulism is caused by the ingestion of spores that colonize the intestines and produce toxins, mainly affecting infants under one year of age.

Prevention measures include proper food handling, storage, and preparation practices, such as cooking and canning foods at appropriate temperatures and for sufficient durations. Wound care and prompt medical attention are crucial in preventing wound botulism. Vaccines and antitoxins are available for prophylaxis and treatment of botulism in high-risk individuals or in cases of confirmed exposure.

'Clostridium botulinum type E' is a gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacterium that produces the neurotoxin botulinum toxin type E. This toxin is one of the seven types of botulinum neurotoxins (A-G) produced by various strains of Clostridium botulinum and related species. The botulinum toxin type E causes a form of botulism, a rare but serious illness characterized by muscle paralysis that can lead to respiratory failure and death.

Botulism caused by C. botulinum type E is often associated with the consumption of contaminated fish or marine products in aquatic environments of cold temperature, such as the Baltic and North Seas, and the Great Lakes in North America. The spores of this bacterium are resistant to heat and can survive in improperly processed or preserved food, leading to intoxication when ingested.

Preventive measures include proper handling, storage, and cooking of susceptible foods, as well as prompt medical attention if symptoms of botulism appear, such as double vision, drooping eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, dry mouth, and muscle weakness. Botulinum toxin type E antitoxin is available for the treatment of botulism caused by this strain, but early diagnosis and intervention are crucial for a favorable prognosis.

Botulinum toxins are neurotoxic proteins produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species. They are the most potent naturally occurring toxins, and are responsible for the paralytic illness known as botulism. There are seven distinct botulinum toxin serotypes (A-G), each of which targets specific proteins in the nervous system, leading to inhibition of neurotransmitter release and subsequent muscle paralysis.

In clinical settings, botulinum toxins have been used for therapeutic purposes due to their ability to cause temporary muscle relaxation. Botulinum toxin type A (Botox) is the most commonly used serotype in medical treatments, including management of dystonias, spasticity, migraines, and certain neurological disorders. Additionally, botulinum toxins are widely employed in aesthetic medicine for reducing wrinkles and fine lines by temporarily paralyzing facial muscles.

It is important to note that while botulinum toxins have therapeutic benefits when used appropriately, they can also pose significant health risks if misused or improperly handled. Proper medical training and supervision are essential for safe and effective utilization of these powerful toxins.

Botulism is a rare but serious condition caused by the toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. The neurotoxin causes muscle paralysis, which can lead to respiratory failure and death if not treated promptly. Botulism can occur in three main forms: foodborne, wound, and infant.

Foodborne botulism is caused by consuming contaminated food, usually home-canned or fermented foods with low acid content. Wound botulism occurs when the bacterium infects a wound and produces toxin in the body. Infant botulism affects babies under one year of age who have ingested spores of the bacterium, which then colonize the intestines and produce toxin.

Symptoms of botulism include double vision, drooping eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, dry mouth, muscle weakness, and paralysis that progresses downward from the head to the limbs. Treatment typically involves supportive care such as mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit monitoring, and antitoxin therapy. Prevention measures include proper food handling and canning techniques, prompt wound care, and avoiding consumption of known sources of contaminated food.

Biological toxins are poisonous substances that are produced by living organisms such as bacteria, plants, and animals. They can cause harm to humans, animals, or the environment. Biological toxins can be classified into different categories based on their mode of action, such as neurotoxins (affecting the nervous system), cytotoxins (damaging cells), and enterotoxins (causing intestinal damage).

Examples of biological toxins include botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum bacteria, tetanus toxin produced by Clostridium tetani bacteria, ricin toxin from the castor bean plant, and saxitoxin produced by certain types of marine algae.

Biological toxins can cause a range of symptoms depending on the type and amount of toxin ingested or exposed to, as well as the route of exposure (e.g., inhalation, ingestion, skin contact). They can cause illnesses ranging from mild to severe, and some can be fatal if not treated promptly and effectively.

Prevention and control measures for biological toxins include good hygiene practices, vaccination against certain toxin-producing bacteria, avoidance of contaminated food or water sources, and personal protective equipment (PPE) when handling or working with potential sources of toxins.

Medical definitions of "fish products" generally refer to any food or supplement that is derived from fish or aquatic animals. This can include:

1. Fresh, frozen, or canned fish such as salmon, tuna, cod, and sardines.
2. Fish oils, which are often used as dietary supplements for their omega-3 fatty acid content.
3. Processed fish products like surimi (imitation crab meat), fish sticks, and fish sauce.

It's important to note that the nutritional content and potential health benefits or risks of fish products can vary widely depending on the specific type of fish, how it was caught or farmed, and how it was processed and prepared.

'Clostridium botulinum type A' is a gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium that produces a potent neurotoxin known as botulinum toxin type A. This toxin is one of the most deadly substances known, with a lethal dose estimated to be as low as 1 nanogram per kilogram of body weight. The bacterium and its toxin are the causative agents of botulism, a rare but serious paralytic illness in humans and animals.

The neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum type A works by blocking the release of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that is essential for muscle contraction. This results in flaccid paralysis, which can affect the muscles used for breathing and lead to respiratory failure and death if not treated promptly.

Botulinum toxin type A has also found therapeutic use in the treatment of various medical conditions, including strabismus, blepharospasm, cervical dystonia, and chronic migraine. It is marketed under the brand names Botox, Dysport, and Xeomin, among others. However, it is important to note that these therapeutic uses involve carefully controlled doses administered by trained medical professionals, and should not be attempted outside of a clinical setting.

'Clostridium botulinum type B' is a gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacterium that produces botulinum neurotoxin type B. This toxin is one of the seven types of botulinum neurotoxins (A-G) produced by various strains of Clostridium botulinum and related species. Botulinum neurotoxin type B is responsible for causing botulism, a rare but serious illness that affects the nervous system and can cause paralysis and even be fatal. The bacterium is commonly found in soil and water and can produce spores that are resistant to heat, which allows them to survive in adverse conditions. Botulinum neurotoxin type B is also used in medical treatments for various neurological disorders, such as cervical dystonia, blepharospasm, and chronic migraine, under the brand name Myobloc or NeuroBloc.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Food Packaging" is not a medical term. It is a term used to describe the process and materials used to package food products to protect them from contamination, damage, and to provide information about the product. Medical definitions are typically related to diseases, conditions, treatments, or anatomical terms. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I'd be happy to help with those!

'Clostridium' is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in nature, including in soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. Many species of Clostridium are anaerobic, meaning they can grow and reproduce in environments with little or no oxygen. Some species of Clostridium are capable of producing toxins that can cause serious and sometimes life-threatening illnesses in humans and animals.

Some notable species of Clostridium include:

* Clostridium tetani, which causes tetanus (also known as lockjaw)
* Clostridium botulinum, which produces botulinum toxin, the most potent neurotoxin known and the cause of botulism
* Clostridium difficile, which can cause severe diarrhea and colitis, particularly in people who have recently taken antibiotics
* Clostridium perfringens, which can cause food poisoning and gas gangrene.

It is important to note that not all species of Clostridium are harmful, and some are even beneficial, such as those used in the production of certain fermented foods like sauerkraut and natto. However, due to their ability to produce toxins and cause illness, it is important to handle and dispose of materials contaminated with Clostridium species carefully, especially in healthcare settings.

'Clostridium botulinum type F' is a gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacterium that produces a powerful neurotoxin known as botulinum toxin type F. This toxin is one of the seven types of botulinum toxins (A-G) produced by various strains of Clostridium botulinum and related species. The botulinum toxin type F causes a rare form of botulism, known as foodborne or wound botulism, which can lead to muscle paralysis and respiratory failure if left untreated. This bacterium and its toxin are classified as tier 1 select agents due to their high potential for misuse as bioterrorism agents.

Antitoxins are substances, typically antibodies, that neutralize toxins produced by bacteria or other harmful organisms. They work by binding to the toxin molecules and rendering them inactive, preventing them from causing harm to the body. Antitoxins can be produced naturally by the immune system during an infection, or they can be administered artificially through immunization or passive immunotherapy. In a medical context, antitoxins are often used as a treatment for certain types of bacterial infections, such as diphtheria and botulism, to help counteract the effects of the toxins produced by the bacteria.

Clostridium botulinum type D is a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium that produces a potent neurotoxin known as botulinum toxin type D. This toxin is one of the seven types of botulinum toxins (A-G) produced by various strains of Clostridium botulinum and related species. The bacteria and their toxins are the causative agents of botulism, a rare but serious illness that affects the nervous system and can cause paralysis and death if left untreated.

Botulinum toxin type D is particularly associated with cases of animal botulism, such as those observed in cattle and birds. It has also been studied for its potential therapeutic uses, including its ability to block the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, which can be useful in treating various medical conditions characterized by muscle spasticity or excessive secretion. However, the use of botulinum toxin type D in humans is not widely approved or practiced due to its lower potency and shorter duration of action compared to other types of botulinum toxins.

In the context of medicine, spores are typically discussed in relation to certain types of infections and diseases caused by microorganisms such as bacteria or fungi. Spores are a dormant, resistant form of these microorganisms that can survive under harsh environmental conditions, such as extreme temperatures, lack of nutrients, and exposure to chemicals.

Spores can be highly resistant to heat, radiation, and disinfectants, making them difficult to eliminate from contaminated surfaces or medical equipment. When the conditions are favorable, spores can germinate and grow into mature microorganisms that can cause infection.

Some examples of medically relevant spores include those produced by Clostridioides difficile (C. diff), a bacterium that can cause severe diarrhea and colitis in hospitalized patients, and Aspergillus fumigatus, a fungus that can cause invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals.

It's worth noting that spores are not unique to medical contexts and have broader relevance in fields such as botany, mycology, and biology.

Botulinum antitoxin refers to a medication made from the antibodies that are generated in response to the botulinum toxin, which is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botulinum toxin is a potent neurotoxin that can cause paralysis and other serious medical complications in humans and animals.

The antitoxin works by neutralizing the effects of the toxin in the body, preventing further damage to the nervous system. It is typically used in emergency situations to treat individuals who have been exposed to large amounts of botulinum toxin, such as in a bioterrorism attack or accidental exposure in a laboratory setting.

Botulinum antitoxin is not the same as botulinum toxin type A (Botox), which is a purified form of the toxin that is used for cosmetic and therapeutic purposes. Botox works by temporarily paralyzing muscles, whereas the antitoxin works by neutralizing the toxin in the body.

Botulinum toxins type A are neurotoxins produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species. These toxins act by blocking the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, leading to muscle paralysis. Botulinum toxin type A is used in medical treatments for various conditions characterized by muscle spasticity or excessive muscle activity, such as cervical dystonia, blepharospasm, strabismus, and chronic migraine. It is also used cosmetically to reduce the appearance of wrinkles by temporarily paralyzing the muscles that cause them. The commercial forms of botulinum toxin type A include Botox, Dysport, and Xeomin.

Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms that are present in food, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. This field examines how these microbes interact with food, how they affect its safety and quality, and how they can be controlled during food production, processing, storage, and preparation. Food microbiology also involves the development of methods for detecting and identifying pathogenic microorganisms in food, as well as studying the mechanisms of foodborne illnesses and developing strategies to prevent them. Additionally, it includes research on the beneficial microbes found in certain fermented foods and their potential applications in improving food quality and safety.

'Clostridium botulinum type C' is a gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacterium that produces a potent neurotoxin known as botulinum toxin type C. This toxin is one of the seven types of botulinum toxins (A-G) produced by various strains of Clostridium botulinum and related species. The neurotoxin produced by type C strain inhibits the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, leading to flaccid paralysis.

The bacteria are commonly found in soil and aquatic environments and can cause a rare but severe form of foodborne illness called botulism. The illness is typically associated with consuming contaminated food, such as improperly canned or preserved foods, that contain the preformed neurotoxin. In addition to foodborne botulism, type C botulinum can also cause wound botulism and infant botulism through different modes of infection.

It is essential to distinguish between the various types of Clostridium botulinum and their toxins because they differ in their epidemiology, clinical presentation, and treatment approaches.

I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. Bacteria do not produce spores; instead, it is fungi and other types of microorganisms that produce spores for reproduction and survival purposes. Spores are essentially reproductive cells that are resistant to heat, radiation, and chemicals, allowing them to survive under harsh conditions.

If you meant to ask about endospores, those are produced by some bacteria as a protective mechanism during times of stress or nutrient deprivation. Endospores are highly resistant structures containing bacterial DNA, ribosomes, and some enzymes. They can survive for long periods in extreme environments and germinate into vegetative cells when conditions improve.

Here's the medical definition of endospores:

Endospores (also called bacterial spores) are highly resistant, dormant structures produced by certain bacteria belonging to the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. They contain a core of bacterial DNA, ribosomes, and some enzymes surrounded by a protective layer called the spore coat. Endospores can survive under harsh conditions for extended periods and germinate into vegetative cells when favorable conditions return. Common examples of endospore-forming bacteria include Bacillus species (such as B. anthracis, which causes anthrax) and Clostridium species (such as C. difficile, which can cause severe diarrhea).

Neurotoxins are substances that are poisonous or destructive to nerve cells (neurons) and the nervous system. They can cause damage by destroying neurons, disrupting communication between neurons, or interfering with the normal functioning of the nervous system. Neurotoxins can be produced naturally by certain organisms, such as bacteria, plants, and animals, or they can be synthetic compounds created in a laboratory. Examples of neurotoxins include botulinum toxin (found in botulism), tetrodotoxin (found in pufferfish), and heavy metals like lead and mercury. Neurotoxic effects can range from mild symptoms such as headaches, muscle weakness, and tremors, to more severe symptoms such as paralysis, seizures, and cognitive impairment. Long-term exposure to neurotoxins can lead to chronic neurological conditions and other health problems.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. The term "fishes" is not typically used in a medical context. "Fish" or "fishes" refers to any aquatic organism belonging to the taxonomic class Actinopterygii (bony fish), Chondrichthyes (sharks and rays), or Agnatha (jawless fish).

However, if you are referring to a condition related to fish or consuming fish, there is a medical issue called scombroid fish poisoning. It's a foodborne illness caused by eating spoiled or improperly stored fish from the Scombridae family, which includes tuna, mackerel, and bonito, among others. The bacteria present in these fish can produce histamine, which can cause symptoms like skin flushing, headache, diarrhea, and itchy rash. But again, this is not related to the term "fishes" itself but rather a condition associated with consuming certain types of fish.

Toxoids are inactivated bacterial toxins that have lost their toxicity but retain their antigenicity. They are often used in vaccines to stimulate an immune response and provide protection against certain diseases without causing the harmful effects associated with the active toxin. The process of converting a toxin into a toxoid is called detoxication, which is typically achieved through chemical or heat treatment.

One example of a toxoid-based vaccine is the diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DT) or diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis toxoids (DTaP or TdaP) vaccines. These vaccines contain inactivated forms of the diphtheria and tetanus toxins, as well as inactivated pertussis toxin in the case of DTaP or TdaP vaccines. By exposing the immune system to these toxoids, the body learns to recognize and mount a response against the actual toxins produced by the bacteria, thereby providing immunity and protection against the diseases they cause.

In a medical context, "hot temperature" is not a standard medical term with a specific definition. However, it is often used in relation to fever, which is a common symptom of illness. A fever is typically defined as a body temperature that is higher than normal, usually above 38°C (100.4°F) for adults and above 37.5-38°C (99.5-101.3°F) for children, depending on the source.

Therefore, when a medical professional talks about "hot temperature," they may be referring to a body temperature that is higher than normal due to fever or other causes. It's important to note that a high environmental temperature can also contribute to an elevated body temperature, so it's essential to consider both the body temperature and the environmental temperature when assessing a patient's condition.

Clostridium botulinum type G is a strain of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum that produces a specific type (G) of botulinum neurotoxin. This toxin is one of several that can cause botulism, a rare but serious illness characterized by muscle paralysis. Botulism can occur as a result of foodborne intoxication, wound infection, or infant exposure to the toxin in contaminated dust or soil.

The symptoms of botulism include double vision, drooping eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, dry mouth, and muscle weakness that can progress to paralysis of the arms, legs, and respiratory muscles. If left untreated, botulism can be fatal due to respiratory failure.

Clostridium botulinum type G is less common than other types of Clostridium botulinum, such as types A, B, and E, which are more frequently associated with human illness. However, all strains of Clostridium botulinum produce potent neurotoxins that require medical attention if exposure occurs.

Clostridium infections are caused by bacteria of the genus Clostridium, which are gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming, and often anaerobic organisms. These bacteria can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the human gastrointestinal tract. Some Clostridium species can cause severe and potentially life-threatening infections in humans. Here are some of the most common Clostridium infections with their medical definitions:

1. Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI): An infection caused by the bacterium Clostridioides difficile, previously known as Clostridium difficile. It typically occurs after antibiotic use disrupts the normal gut microbiota, allowing C. difficile to overgrow and produce toxins that cause diarrhea, colitis, and other gastrointestinal symptoms. Severe cases can lead to sepsis, toxic megacolon, or even death.
2. Clostridium tetani infection: Also known as tetanus, this infection is caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. The spores of this bacterium are commonly found in soil and animal feces. They can enter the body through wounds, cuts, or punctures, germinate, and produce a potent exotoxin called tetanospasmin. This toxin causes muscle stiffness and spasms, particularly in the neck and jaw (lockjaw), which can lead to difficulty swallowing, breathing, and potentially fatal complications.
3. Clostridium botulinum infection: This infection is caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and results in botulism, a rare but severe paralytic illness. The bacteria produce neurotoxins (botulinum toxins) that affect the nervous system, causing symptoms such as double vision, drooping eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, dry mouth, and muscle weakness. In severe cases, botulism can lead to respiratory failure and death.
4. Gas gangrene (Clostridium perfringens infection): A rapidly progressing soft tissue infection caused by Clostridium perfringens or other clostridial species. The bacteria produce potent exotoxins that cause tissue destruction, gas production, and widespread necrosis. Gas gangrene is characterized by severe pain, swelling, discoloration, and a foul-smelling discharge. If left untreated, it can lead to sepsis, multi-organ failure, and death.
5. Clostridioides difficile infection (C. difficile infection): Although not caused by a typical clostridial species, C. difficile is a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium that can cause severe diarrhea and colitis, particularly in hospitalized patients or those who have recently taken antibiotics. The bacteria produce toxins A and B, which damage the intestinal lining and contribute to inflammation and diarrhea. C. difficile infection can range from mild to life-threatening, with complications such as sepsis, toxic megacolon, and bowel perforation.

Medical Definition:

Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) is a standard measurement in toxicology that refers to the estimated amount or dose of a substance, which if ingested, injected, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin by either human or animal, would cause death in 50% of the test population. It is expressed as the mass of a substance per unit of body weight (mg/kg, μg/kg, etc.). LD50 values are often used to compare the toxicity of different substances and help determine safe dosage levels.

'Clostridium difficile' (also known as 'C. difficile' or 'C. diff') is a type of Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium that can be found in the environment, including in soil, water, and human and animal feces. It is a common cause of healthcare-associated infections, particularly in individuals who have recently received antibiotics or have other underlying health conditions that weaken their immune system.

C. difficile produces toxins that can cause a range of symptoms, from mild diarrhea to severe colitis (inflammation of the colon) and potentially life-threatening complications such as sepsis and toxic megacolon. The most common toxins produced by C. difficile are called TcdA and TcdB, which damage the lining of the intestine and cause inflammation.

C. difficile infections (CDIs) can be difficult to treat, particularly in severe cases or in patients who have recurrent infections. Treatment typically involves discontinuing any unnecessary antibiotics, if possible, and administering specific antibiotics that are effective against C. difficile, such as metronidazole, vancomycin, or fidaxomicin. In some cases, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may be recommended as a last resort for patients with recurrent or severe CDIs who have not responded to other treatments.

Preventing the spread of C. difficile is critical in healthcare settings, and includes measures such as hand hygiene, contact precautions, environmental cleaning, and antibiotic stewardship programs that promote the appropriate use of antibiotics.

Food preservation, in the context of medical and nutritional sciences, refers to the process of treating, handling, and storing food items to reduce the risk of foodborne illness and to extend their shelf life. The goal is to prevent the growth of pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and mold, as well as to slow down the oxidation process that can lead to spoilage.

Common methods of food preservation include:

1. Refrigeration and freezing: These techniques slow down the growth of microorganisms and enzyme activity that cause food to spoil.
2. Canning: This involves sealing food in airtight containers, then heating them to destroy microorganisms and inactivate enzymes.
3. Dehydration: Removing water from food inhibits the growth of bacteria, yeasts, and molds.
4. Acidification: Adding acidic ingredients like lemon juice or vinegar can lower the pH of food, making it less hospitable to microorganisms.
5. Fermentation: This process involves converting sugars into alcohol or acids using bacteria or yeasts, which can preserve food and also enhance its flavor.
6. Irradiation: Exposing food to small doses of radiation can kill bacteria, parasites, and insects, extending the shelf life of certain foods.
7. Pasteurization: Heating food to a specific temperature for a set period of time can destroy harmful bacteria while preserving the nutritional value and taste.

Proper food preservation is crucial in preventing foodborne illnesses and ensuring the safety and quality of the food supply.

ADP Ribose Transferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of ADP-ribose groups from donor molecules, such as NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), to specific acceptor molecules. This transfer process plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including DNA repair, gene expression regulation, and modulation of protein function.

The reaction catalyzed by ADP Ribose Transferases can be represented as follows:

Donor (NAD+ or NADP+) + Acceptor → Product (NR + ADP-ribosylated acceptor)

There are two main types of ADP Ribose Transferases based on their function and the type of modification they perform:

1. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs): These enzymes add multiple ADP-ribose units to a single acceptor protein, forming long, linear, or branched chains known as poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). PARylation is involved in DNA repair, genomic stability, and cell death pathways.
2. Monomeric ADP-ribosyltransferases: These enzymes transfer a single ADP-ribose unit to an acceptor protein, which is called mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation. This modification can regulate protein function, localization, and stability in various cellular processes, such as signal transduction, inflammation, and stress response.

Dysregulation of ADP Ribose Transferases has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of these enzymes is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to target these conditions.

Food irradiation is a process that uses ionizing radiation to kill bacteria, parasites, and insects in food. It also slows down the ripening and sprouting of foods and eliminates or reduces the need for chemical fumigants and preservatives. The food does not become radioactive as a result of irradiation.

The three types of radiation sources used for food irradiation are gamma rays, electron beams, and X-rays. Gamma rays are produced naturally by the decay of radioisotopes such as cobalt-60 or cesium-137. Electron beams and X-rays are produced artificially.

Food irradiation is regulated in many countries, including the United States, where it is approved for use on a variety of foods, including spices, herbs, seasonings, fruits, vegetables, grains, poultry, red meats, and eggs. The process is considered safe for human consumption and has been endorsed by numerous scientific organizations, including the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Trypsin is a proteolytic enzyme, specifically a serine protease, that is secreted by the pancreas as an inactive precursor, trypsinogen. Trypsinogen is converted into its active form, trypsin, in the small intestine by enterokinase, which is produced by the intestinal mucosa.

Trypsin plays a crucial role in digestion by cleaving proteins into smaller peptides at specific arginine and lysine residues. This enzyme helps to break down dietary proteins into amino acids, allowing for their absorption and utilization by the body. Additionally, trypsin can activate other zymogenic pancreatic enzymes, such as chymotrypsinogen and procarboxypeptidases, thereby contributing to overall protein digestion.

Hemagglutinins are proteins found on the surface of some viruses, including influenza viruses. They have the ability to bind to specific receptors on the surface of red blood cells, causing them to clump together (a process known as hemagglutination). This property is what allows certain viruses to infect host cells and cause disease. Hemagglutinins play a crucial role in the infection process of influenza viruses, as they facilitate the virus's entry into host cells by binding to sialic acid receptors on the surface of respiratory epithelial cells. There are 18 different subtypes of hemagglutinin (H1-H18) found in various influenza A viruses, and they are a major target of the immune response to influenza infection. Vaccines against influenza contain hemagglutinins from the specific strains of virus that are predicted to be most prevalent in a given season, and induce immunity by stimulating the production of antibodies that can neutralize the virus.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Immunodiffusion is a laboratory technique used in immunology to detect and measure the presence of specific antibodies or antigens in a sample. It is based on the principle of diffusion, where molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until they reach equilibrium. In this technique, a sample containing an unknown quantity of antigen or antibody is placed in a gel or agar medium that contains a known quantity of antibody or antigen, respectively.

The two substances then diffuse towards each other and form a visible precipitate at the point where they meet and reach equivalence, which indicates the presence and quantity of the specific antigen or antibody in the sample. There are several types of immunodiffusion techniques, including radial immunodiffusion (RID) and double immunodiffusion (Ouchterlony technique). These techniques are widely used in diagnostic laboratories to identify and measure various antigens and antibodies, such as those found in infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, and allergic reactions.

'Clostridium butyricum' is a gram-positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the environment, including soil and water. It is also part of the normal gut microbiota in humans and animals. This organism produces butyric acid as one of its main fermentation products, hence the name 'butyricum'.

While 'Clostridium butyricum' can sometimes be associated with human diseases, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying gastrointestinal disorders, it is also being investigated for its potential probiotic properties. Some studies suggest that certain strains of this bacterium may help prevent and treat various conditions, such as antibiotic-associated diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. However, more research is needed to confirm these findings and establish the safety and efficacy of 'Clostridium butyricum' as a probiotic.

'Bird diseases' is a broad term that refers to the various medical conditions and infections that can affect avian species. These diseases can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or toxic substances and can affect pet birds, wild birds, and poultry. Some common bird diseases include:

1. Avian influenza (bird flu) - a viral infection that can cause respiratory symptoms, decreased appetite, and sudden death in birds.
2. Psittacosis (parrot fever) - a bacterial infection that can cause respiratory symptoms, fever, and lethargy in birds and humans who come into contact with them.
3. Aspergillosis - a fungal infection that can cause respiratory symptoms and weight loss in birds.
4. Candidiasis (thrush) - a fungal infection that can affect the mouth, crop, and other parts of the digestive system in birds.
5. Newcastle disease - a viral infection that can cause respiratory symptoms, neurological signs, and decreased egg production in birds.
6. Salmonellosis - a bacterial infection that can cause diarrhea, lethargy, and decreased appetite in birds and humans who come into contact with them.
7. Trichomoniasis - a parasitic infection that can affect the mouth, crop, and digestive system in birds.
8. Chlamydiosis (psittacosis) - a bacterial infection that can cause respiratory symptoms, lethargy, and decreased appetite in birds and humans who come into contact with them.
9. Coccidiosis - a parasitic infection that can affect the digestive system in birds.
10. Mycobacteriosis (avian tuberculosis) - a bacterial infection that can cause chronic weight loss, respiratory symptoms, and skin lesions in birds.

It is important to note that some bird diseases can be transmitted to humans and other animals, so it is essential to practice good hygiene when handling birds or their droppings. If you suspect your bird may be sick, it is best to consult with a veterinarian who specializes in avian medicine.

'Animal structures' is a broad term that refers to the various physical parts and organs that make up animals. These structures can include everything from the external features, such as skin, hair, and scales, to the internal organs and systems, such as the heart, lungs, brain, and digestive system.

Animal structures are designed to perform specific functions that enable the animal to survive, grow, and reproduce. For example, the heart pumps blood throughout the body, delivering oxygen and nutrients to the cells, while the lungs facilitate gas exchange between the animal and its environment. The brain serves as the control center of the nervous system, processing sensory information and coordinating motor responses.

Animal structures can be categorized into different systems based on their function, such as the circulatory system, respiratory system, nervous system, digestive system, and reproductive system. Each system is made up of various structures that work together to perform a specific function.

Understanding animal structures and how they function is essential for understanding animal biology and behavior. It also has important implications for human health, as many animals serve as models for studying human disease and developing new treatments.

Bacterial toxins are poisonous substances produced and released by bacteria. They can cause damage to the host organism's cells and tissues, leading to illness or disease. Bacterial toxins can be classified into two main types: exotoxins and endotoxins.

Exotoxins are proteins secreted by bacterial cells that can cause harm to the host. They often target specific cellular components or pathways, leading to tissue damage and inflammation. Some examples of exotoxins include botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum, which causes botulism; diphtheria toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which causes diphtheria; and tetanus toxin produced by Clostridium tetani, which causes tetanus.

Endotoxins, on the other hand, are components of the bacterial cell wall that are released when the bacteria die or divide. They consist of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and can cause a generalized inflammatory response in the host. Endotoxins can be found in gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Bacterial toxins can cause a wide range of symptoms depending on the type of toxin, the dose, and the site of infection. They can lead to serious illnesses or even death if left untreated. Vaccines and antibiotics are often used to prevent or treat bacterial infections and reduce the risk of severe complications from bacterial toxins.

"Salmonidae" is not a medical term. It is a biological term that refers to a family of fish which includes salmon, trout, char, grayling, and whitefish. These fish are often anadromous, meaning they are born in fresh water, migrate to the ocean, then return to fresh water to reproduce. They are important both commercially and recreationally as a source of food and sport fishing.

Ammonium sulfate is a chemical compound with the formula (NH4)2SO4. It is a white crystalline solid that is highly soluble in water and is commonly used in fertilizers due to its high nitrogen content. In a medical context, it can be used as a laxative or for lowering the pH of the gastrointestinal tract in certain medical conditions. It may also be used in the treatment of metabolic alkalosis, a condition characterized by an excessively high pH in the blood. However, its use in medical treatments is less common than its use in agricultural and industrial applications.

Earless seals, also known as true seals or Phocidae, are a family of marine mammals that lack external ears. They have a streamlined body adapted for fast swimming, and their hind limbs are modified into flippers, which they use to move through the water. Earless seals have small ear holes on the sides of their heads, but they do not have an outer ear flap like other mammals. Instead, their middle and inner ears are well-developed for hearing underwater. They are found in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, and there are 18 species of earless seals, including the harbor seal, gray seal, and leopard seal.

Bacteriological techniques refer to the various methods and procedures used in the laboratory for the cultivation, identification, and study of bacteria. These techniques are essential in fields such as medicine, biotechnology, and research. Here are some common bacteriological techniques:

1. **Sterilization**: This is a process that eliminates or kills all forms of life, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. Common sterilization methods include autoclaving (using steam under pressure), dry heat (in an oven), chemical sterilants, and radiation.

2. **Aseptic Technique**: This refers to practices used to prevent contamination of sterile materials or environments with microorganisms. It includes the use of sterile equipment, gloves, and lab coats, as well as techniques such as flaming, alcohol swabbing, and using aseptic transfer devices.

3. **Media Preparation**: This involves the preparation of nutrient-rich substances that support bacterial growth. There are various types of media, including solid (agar), liquid (broth), and semi-solid (e.g., stab agar). The choice of medium depends on the type of bacteria being cultured and the purpose of the investigation.

4. **Inoculation**: This is the process of introducing a bacterial culture into a medium. It can be done using a loop, swab, or needle. The inoculum should be taken from a pure culture to avoid contamination.

5. **Incubation**: After inoculation, the bacteria are allowed to grow under controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, and atmospheric composition. This process is called incubation.

6. **Staining and Microscopy**: Bacteria are too small to be seen with the naked eye. Therefore, they need to be stained and observed under a microscope. Gram staining is a common method used to differentiate between two major groups of bacteria based on their cell wall composition.

7. **Biochemical Tests**: These are tests used to identify specific bacterial species based on their biochemical characteristics, such as their ability to ferment certain sugars, produce particular enzymes, or resist certain antibiotics.

8. **Molecular Techniques**: Advanced techniques like PCR and DNA sequencing can provide more precise identification of bacteria. They can also be used for genetic analysis and epidemiological studies.

Remember, handling microorganisms requires careful attention to biosafety procedures to prevent accidental infection or environmental contamination.

Serotyping is a laboratory technique used to classify microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, based on the specific antigens or proteins present on their surface. It involves treating the microorganism with different types of antibodies and observing which ones bind to its surface. Each distinct set of antigens corresponds to a specific serotype, allowing for precise identification and characterization of the microorganism. This technique is particularly useful in epidemiology, vaccine development, and infection control.

Neuromuscular agents are drugs or substances that affect the function of the neuromuscular junction, which is the site where nerve impulses are transmitted to muscles. These agents can either enhance or inhibit the transmission of signals across the neuromuscular junction, leading to a variety of effects on muscle tone and activity.

Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are a type of neuromuscular agent that is commonly used in anesthesia and critical care settings to induce paralysis during intubation or mechanical ventilation. NMBAs can be classified into two main categories: depolarizing and non-depolarizing agents.

Depolarizing NMBAs, such as succinylcholine, work by activating the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction, causing muscle contraction followed by paralysis. Non-depolarizing NMBAs, such as rocuronium and vecuronium, block the activation of these receptors, preventing muscle contraction and leading to paralysis.

Other types of neuromuscular agents include cholinesterase inhibitors, which increase the levels of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction and can be used to reverse the effects of NMBAs, and botulinum toxin, which is a potent neurotoxin that inhibits the release of acetylcholine from nerve terminals and is used in the treatment of various neurological disorders.

'Clostridium perfringens' is a type of Gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium that is commonly found in the environment, including in soil, decaying vegetation, and the intestines of humans and animals. It is a major cause of foodborne illness worldwide, producing several toxins that can lead to symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting.

The bacterium can contaminate food during preparation or storage, particularly meat and poultry products. When ingested, the spores of C. perfringens can germinate and produce large numbers of toxin-producing cells in the intestines, leading to food poisoning. The most common form of C. perfringens food poisoning is characterized by symptoms that appear within 6 to 24 hours after ingestion and last for less than 24 hours.

In addition to foodborne illness, C. perfringens can also cause other types of infections, such as gas gangrene, a serious condition that can occur when the bacterium infects a wound and produces toxins that damage surrounding tissues. Gas gangrene is a medical emergency that requires prompt treatment with antibiotics and surgical debridement or amputation of affected tissue.

Prevention measures for C. perfringens food poisoning include proper cooking, handling, and storage of food, as well as rapid cooling of cooked foods to prevent the growth of the bacterium.

A biological assay is a method used in biology and biochemistry to measure the concentration or potency of a substance (like a drug, hormone, or enzyme) by observing its effect on living cells or tissues. This type of assay can be performed using various techniques such as:

1. Cell-based assays: These involve measuring changes in cell behavior, growth, or viability after exposure to the substance being tested. Examples include proliferation assays, apoptosis assays, and cytotoxicity assays.
2. Protein-based assays: These focus on measuring the interaction between the substance and specific proteins, such as enzymes or receptors. Examples include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), radioimmunoassays (RIAs), and pull-down assays.
3. Genetic-based assays: These involve analyzing the effects of the substance on gene expression, DNA structure, or protein synthesis. Examples include quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays, reporter gene assays, and northern blotting.

Biological assays are essential tools in research, drug development, and diagnostic applications to understand biological processes and evaluate the potential therapeutic efficacy or toxicity of various substances.

Environmental Microbiology is a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and other microscopic entities, that are found in various environments such as water, soil, air, and organic matter. This field focuses on understanding how these microbes interact with their surroundings, their role in various ecological systems, and their impact on human health and the environment. It also involves studying the genetic and biochemical mechanisms that allow microorganisms to survive and thrive in different environmental conditions, as well as the potential uses of microbes for bioremediation, bioenergy, and other industrial applications.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Food contamination is the presence of harmful microorganisms, chemicals, or foreign substances in food or water that can cause illness or injury to individuals who consume it. This can occur at any stage during production, processing, storage, or preparation of food, and can result from various sources such as:

1. Biological contamination: This includes the presence of harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi that can cause foodborne illnesses. Examples include Salmonella, E. coli, Listeria, and norovirus.

2. Chemical contamination: This involves the introduction of hazardous chemicals into food, which may occur due to poor handling practices, improper storage, or exposure to environmental pollutants. Common sources of chemical contamination include pesticides, cleaning solvents, heavy metals, and natural toxins produced by certain plants or fungi.

3. Physical contamination: This refers to the presence of foreign objects in food, such as glass, plastic, hair, or insects, which can pose a choking hazard or introduce harmful substances into the body.

Preventing food contamination is crucial for ensuring food safety and protecting public health. Proper hygiene practices, temperature control, separation of raw and cooked foods, and regular inspections are essential measures to minimize the risk of food contamination.

Sodium nitrite is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaNO2. Medically, it is used as a vasodilator and an antidote for cyanide poisoning. It is a white to slightly yellowish crystalline powder that is very soluble in water and moderately soluble in alcohol. In solution, it is easily oxidized to sodium nitrate (NaNO3), which is stable and less toxic.

In the food industry, sodium nitrite is used as a preservative and coloring agent in meat and fish products. It helps prevent the growth of harmful bacteria, such as Clostridium botulinum, which can cause botulism. However, under certain conditions, sodium nitrite can react with proteins in food to form potentially carcinogenic compounds, so its use is regulated.

Food preservatives are substances added to foods to prevent or slow down spoilage caused by microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and molds, or to retard quality deterioration due to oxidation or other chemical reactions. They work by inhibiting the growth of microorganisms, preventing enzymatic reactions that cause spoilage, or scavenging oxygen that can lead to food degradation. Examples of commonly used food preservatives include sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, sulfites, and nitrites. It is important to note that while food preservatives play a crucial role in maintaining the safety and quality of our food supply, excessive consumption of certain preservatives may have adverse health effects.

'Clostridium tetani' is a gram-positive, spore-forming, anaerobic bacterium that is the causative agent of tetanus. The bacteria are commonly found in soil, dust, and manure, and can contaminate wounds, leading to the production of a potent neurotoxin called tetanospasmin. This toxin causes muscle spasms and stiffness, particularly in the jaw and neck muscles, as well as autonomic nervous system dysfunction, which can be life-threatening. Tetanus is preventable through vaccination with the tetanus toxoid vaccine.

DEAE-cellulose is a type of ion exchange chromatography material that is commonly used in biochemistry and molecular biology research. DEAE stands for diethylaminoethyl, which is a positively charged functional group that is covalently attached to cellulose, a negatively charged polysaccharide.

The positive charges on the DEAE-cellulose bind to negatively charged molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins, allowing for their separation and purification based on differences in charge and binding affinity. The bound molecules can then be eluted or washed off the column using a buffer with increasing ionic strength or changing pH, which weakens the interaction between the DEAE-cellulose and the target molecule.

DEAE-cellulose is a versatile and widely used chromatography material that has been instrumental in many scientific discoveries and advances in molecular biology.

I apologize, but there seems to be a misunderstanding. "Soil microbiology" is not a medical term; rather, it is a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms in soil. It involves understanding the diversity, ecology, and biochemistry of bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, and other microscopic life forms found in soil. This field has applications in agriculture, environmental science, and waste management but is not directly related to medical definitions or human health.

Chromatography is a technique used in analytical chemistry for the separation, identification, and quantification of the components of a mixture. It is based on the differential distribution of the components of a mixture between a stationary phase and a mobile phase. The stationary phase can be a solid or liquid, while the mobile phase is a gas, liquid, or supercritical fluid that moves through the stationary phase carrying the sample components.

The interaction between the sample components and the stationary and mobile phases determines how quickly each component will move through the system. Components that interact more strongly with the stationary phase will move more slowly than those that interact more strongly with the mobile phase. This difference in migration rates allows for the separation of the components, which can then be detected and quantified.

There are many different types of chromatography, including paper chromatography, thin-layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Each type has its own strengths and weaknesses, and is best suited for specific applications.

In summary, chromatography is a powerful analytical technique used to separate, identify, and quantify the components of a mixture based on their differential distribution between a stationary phase and a mobile phase.

Preserved food, in a medical context, refers to food that has been treated or processed in order to inhibit spoilage and prolong its shelf life. This is typically achieved through methods such as canning, pickling, smoking, drying, or freezing. These processes work by reducing the moisture content, increasing acidity, or introducing chemicals that prevent the growth of bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms that can cause foodborne illness.

While preserved foods can be a valuable source of nutrition, especially in situations where fresh food is not available, it's important to note that some preservation methods can also introduce harmful substances, such as sodium nitrite in cured meats or acrylamide in fried or baked starchy foods. Therefore, preserved foods should be consumed in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

Synaptosomes are subcellular structures that can be isolated from the brain tissue. They are formed during the fractionation process of brain homogenates and consist of intact presynaptic terminals, including the synaptic vesicles, mitochondria, and cytoskeletal elements. Synaptosomes are often used in neuroscience research to study the biochemical properties and functions of neuronal synapses, such as neurotransmitter release, uptake, and metabolism.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Hemagglutination tests are laboratory procedures used to detect the presence of antibodies or antigens in a sample, typically in blood serum. These tests rely on the ability of certain substances, such as viruses or bacteria, to agglutinate (clump together) red blood cells.

In a hemagglutination test, a small amount of the patient's serum is mixed with a known quantity of red blood cells that have been treated with a specific antigen. If the patient has antibodies against that antigen in their serum, they will bind to the antigens on the red blood cells and cause them to agglutinate. This clumping can be observed visually, indicating a positive test result.

Hemagglutination tests are commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases caused by viruses or bacteria that have hemagglutinating properties, such as influenza, parainfluenza, and HIV. They can also be used in blood typing and cross-matching before transfusions.

Anti-dyskinetic agents are a class of medications that are used to treat or manage dyskinesias, which are involuntary movements or abnormal muscle contractions. These medications work by blocking or reducing the activity of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is involved in movement control.

Dyskinetic symptoms can occur as a side effect of long-term use of levodopa therapy in patients with Parkinson's disease. Anti-dyskinetic agents such as amantadine, anticholinergics, and dopamine agonists may be used to manage these symptoms.

Amantadine works by increasing the release of dopamine and blocking its reuptake, which can help reduce dyskinesias. Anticholinergic medications such as trihexyphenidyl and benztropine work by blocking the action of acetylcholine, another neurotransmitter that can contribute to dyskinesias. Dopamine agonists such as pramipexole and ropinirole mimic the effects of dopamine in the brain and can help reduce dyskinesias by reducing the dose of levodopa required for symptom control.

It is important to note that anti-dyskinetic agents may have side effects, and their use should be carefully monitored by a healthcare provider.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

Pseudomembranous enterocolitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the inner lining of the small intestine (enteritis) and large intestine (colitis), resulting in the formation of pseudomembranes – raised, yellowish-white plaques composed of fibrin, mucus, and inflammatory cells. The condition is most commonly caused by a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile), which can overgrow in the gut following disruption of the normal gut microbiota, often after antibiotic use. Symptoms may include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, and dehydration. Severe cases can lead to complications such as sepsis, toxic megacolon, or even death if left untreated. Treatment typically involves discontinuing the offending antibiotic, administering oral metronidazole or vancomycin to eliminate C. difficile, and managing symptoms with supportive care. In some cases, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may be considered as a treatment option.

Botulism (Type A Clostridium botulinum) in Peoria, Illinois. 28 persons were hospitalized, and 20 patients were treated with an ... Out of 324 soup cans, five were found to be contaminated with botulinum toxin, all in the initial batch of vichyssoise that was ... Mann JM, Martin S, Hoffman R, Marrazzo S (March 1981). "Patient recovery from type A botulism: morbidity assessment following a ... Centers for Disease Control Prevention (CDC) (January 17, 2003). "Outbreak of Botulism Type E Associated with Eating a Beached ...
"Clostridium botulinum type F: Seasonal inhibition by Bacillus lichenoformis". Science 1967;155(758): 89-90. "Meet the Founder ...
Bott, Thomas L.; Deffner, Janet S.; McCoy, Elizabeth; Foster, E. M. (1966). "Clostridium botulinum Type E in Fish from the ... Christiansen, Lee N.; Deffner, Janet; Foster, E. M.; Sugiyama, H. (1968). "Survival and Outgrowth of Clostridium botulinum Type ... Christiansen, Lee N.; Foster, E. M. (1965). "Effect of Vacuum Packaging on Growth of Clostridium botulinum and Staphylococcus ... Tanaka, N.; Traisman, E.; Lee, M. H.; Cassens, R. G.; Foster, E. M. (1980). "Inhibition of Botulinum Toxin Formation in Bacon ...
T. L. Bott; J. S. Deffner; E. McCoy; E. M. Foster (1 March 1966). "Clostridium botulinum Type E in Fish from the Great Lakes". ... "A new type of glucose fermentation by clostridium thermoaceticum n.sp". Journal of Bacteriology. 43 (6): 701-715. doi:10.1128/ ... Clostridium is a genus of anaerobic, Gram-positive bacteria. Through more research of acetone/butanol microbial fermentations, ... McCoy's research led to the development of a phage-resistant Clostridium madisonni. In addition to her impactful research to ...
"Natural Clostridium botulinum Type C Toxicosis in a Group of Cats". J Clin Microbiol. 42 (11): 5406-8. doi:10.1128/JCM.42.11. ... The most common type is Coonhound paralysis. This is similar to Guillain-Barré syndrome in humans. Coonhound paralysis seems to ... Hyperchylomicronemia or hyperlipoproteinemia is a type of inherited hyperlipidemia in cats. Polyneuropathy is caused by ...
... of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. C. botulinum can fall into one of 7 different types which are strains A through G. Type ... Yule, Adam; Ian K. Barker; John W. Austin; Richard D. Moccia (2006). "Toxicity of Clostridium Botulinum Type E Neurotoxin to ... Franciosa, G; L. Fenicia; C. Caldiani; P. Aureli (1996). "PCR for detection of Clostridium botulinum type C in avian and ... The Type E strain is also commonly associated with avian outbreaks and is frequently found in fish species which is why most ...
... but the toxin produced from the bacterium Clostridium botulinum type C may be involved. Clostridium botulinum is a soil-borne ... It may cause grass sickness when the spores of C. botulinum type C are ingested and produce their toxin locally within the ... Grass sickness may affect all types of horse, pony and donkey, and has affected some well known horses including the ...
... botulinum types A or B. C. botulinum type A was found to be present in soil samples from mountain areas of Victoria. Type-B ... "Rejection of Clostridium putrificum and conservation of Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium sporogenes-Opinion 69. Judicial ... of Clostridium botulinum type G and some nontoxigenic strains previously identified as Clostridium subterminale or Clostridium ... Austin, J.W. (January 1, 2003). "CLOSTRIDIUM , Occurrence of Clostridium botulinum". CLOSTRIDIUM. Academic Press. pp. 1407-1413 ...
Clostridium botulinum, and Clostridium tetani. Endospore formation is not found among Archaea. The endospore consists of the ... Most types of bacteria cannot change to the endospore form. Examples of bacterial species that can form endospores include ... The main types within the cell are terminal, subterminal, and centrally placed endospores. Terminal endospores are seen at the ... Higher concentrations of bleach are not more effective, and can cause some types of bacteria to aggregate and thus survive. ...
Many pathogenic bacteria, such as food-borne Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium botulinum, secrete toxins into the host to ... Each of these different types of organisms can then be further classified as a pathogen based on its mode of transmission. This ... Each of these three types of antimicrobials can be classified into two subsequent groups: bactericidal and bacteriostatic. ...
"Effects of potassium sorbate and other antibotulinal agents on germination and outgrowth of Clostridium botulinum type E spores ... Sodium nitrite is used to speed up the curing of meat, inhibit the germination of Clostridium botulinum spores, and also impart ... In conjunction with salt and pH levels, sodium nitrite reduces the ability of Clostridium botulinum spores to grow to the point ... "Effects of various concentrations of sodium nitrite and potassium sorbate on Clostridium botulinum toxin production in ...
For example, Clostridium botulinum spoils food such as meat and poultry, and Bacillus cereus, which spoils almost all type of ... Mold is a type of fungus, but the two terms are not reciprocal of each other; they have their own defining features and perform ... The cause of such a process is due to many outside factors as a side-effect of the type of product it is, as well as how the ... Very well known types of mold are Aspergillus and Penicillium, and, like regular fungi, create a fuzz, powder and slime of ...
Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botox is a specific form of botulinum ... botulinum toxin type B) in type A-resistant cervical dystonia". Neurology. 53 (7): 1431-8. doi:10.1212/WNL.53.7.1431. PMID ... Botulinum toxin treats wrinkles by immobilizing the muscles which cause wrinkles. It is not appropriate for the treatment of ... Botulinum toxin Injectable filler Danby, FW (Jul-Aug 2010). "Nutrition and aging skin: sugar and glycation". Clin Dermatol. 4. ...
Tests showed that none were contaminated with botulinum toxin types A, B, E, and F and were free of Clostridium botulinum ... a type of fish sauce usually made from fermented anchovies or sand lances, is used as a crucial ingredient in many types of ... As such, patis usually takes longer to produce than other types of fish sauce as it is reliant on the readiness of bagoong. ... Historically, there were two types of fish sauce made in Thailand: that made with a fresh-water fish, pla soi, and sauce made ...
Several bacteria, such as E. coli, Clostridium botulinum, and Salmonella enterica, are well-known and are targeted for ... This type of storage manipulates the CO2 and O2 levels within airtight stores of containers. Modified atmosphere (MA) storage ... There are five main types of microbial pathogens which contaminate food and water: viruses, bacteria, fungi, pathogenic ... the technologies of modified atmosphere and controlled atmosphere are widely used for the storage and packing of several types ...
Nitrites are added during processing to act as preservatives and as antibacterial agents against clostridium botulinum, the ... The rolled type is typical of northern Italy, while the flattened type is typical of central and southern Italy. While most ... It can also be used in carbonara pasta (although guanciale is generally regarded as more traditional). The two basic types of ... Nitrosamines have also been shown to play a part in Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases, as well as type 1 and 2 ...
"Sporulation of Clostridium botulinum Types A, B and E, Clostridium Perfringens, and putrefactive Anaerobe 3679 in dialysis sacs ... "Comparative Dose-Survival Curves of Representative Clostridium botulinum Type F Spores and Type A and B Spores", Applied and ... "Production of Types A and B Spores of Clostridium botulinum by the Biphasic Method: Effect on Spore Population, Radiation ... "Cryogenic Gamma Irradiation of Prototype Pork and Chicken and Antagonistic Effect between Clostridium botulinum Types A and B ...
Her thesis was entitled "Growth and Toxin production of Clostridium botulinum type F", where she noted the precursors for the ... Her initial research was on botulinum and then expanded to include intestinal and fecal bacteria. She identified a new genus of ... between these two grants, they isolated and defined 150-200 new types of human intestinal bacteria. This study of intestinal ...
Clostridium botulinum- Spore found in foods that have not been canned properly. Clostridium botulinum is sometimes sold as ... Can cause two types of food poisoning: emetic and diarrheal -Bacillus subtilis- Found in soil -Clostridium tetani,- Spore that ... A different type of staining called acid-fast stain will have to be done in order to get further information about this ... Types of endospores that can be identified include free endospores, central endospores( middle of the cell), subterminal( ...
Clostridium botulinum type C toxin has been incriminated as the cause of grass sickness, a condition in horses which occurs in ... by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Clostridium botulinum is a large anaerobic Gram-positive bacillus that forms ... Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic, Gram-positive, spore-forming rod. Botulinum toxin is one of the most powerful known ... However, further studies showed type H to be a chimeric toxin composed of parts of types F and A (FA). Some types produce a ...
"Crystal structures of OrfX2 and P47 from a Botulinum neurotoxin OrfX-type gene cluster". FEBS Letters. 591 (22): 3781-3792. doi ... "The hypothetical protein P47 of Clostridium botulinum E1 strain Beluga has a structural topology similar to bactericidal/ ... "Concerted actions of cholesteryl ester transfer protein and phospholipid transfer protein in type 2 diabetes: effects of ...
Botulinum toxin infusion As an alternative to the deep digital flexor tenotomy, Clostridium botulinum type A toxin has been ... Carter DW, Renfroe JB (July 2009). "A novel approach to the treatment and prevention of laminitis: botulinum toxin type A for ... Trimming Successful treatment for any type of founder must necessarily involve stabilization of the bony column by some means. ...
The seven main types of botulinum toxin are named types A to G (A, B, C1, C2, D, E, F and G). New types are occasionally found ... Botulinum toxin, or botulinum neurotoxin, is a highly potent neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum ... Botulinum toxin type-A is also sold as Lantox and Prosigne on the global market. Neuronox, a botulinum toxin type-A product, ... Botulinum toxin type-A is used to treat cervical dystonia, but it can become ineffective after a time. Botulinum toxin type B ...
The toxins normally produced by the various types are shown in table 1 The alpha-toxin of Clostridium botulinum types C and D, ... closely related to Clostridium botulinum type C and D, instead. The toxins are designated by Greek letters. ... Type strain of Clostridium novyi at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase (Articles with short description, Short ... Moore WB (October 1968). "Solidified media suitable for the cultivation of Clostridium novyi type B". Journal of General ...
"Clostridium argentinense sp. nov.: A Genetically Homogeneous Group Composed of All Strains of Clostridium botulinum Toxin Type ... botulinum toxin group G, respectively. Like Cl. botulinum, Cl. argentinense produces botulin, a neurotoxin that causes botulism ... Clostridium argentinense is an anaerobic, motile, gram-positive bacterium. Some bacilli now identified as Cl. argentinense were ... "Clostridium argentinense". Retrieved 2011-01-21. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, ...
The bacterium Clostridium botulinum for example, produces a powerful exotoxin that cause respiratory paralysis, and Salmonellae ... Two other types of bacterial motion are called twitching motility that relies on a structure called the type IV pilus, and ... There are many types of antibiotics, and each class inhibits a process that is different in the pathogen from that found in the ... Many types of secretion systems are known and these structures are often essential for the virulence of pathogens, so are ...
Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Streptococcus equi subspecies equi, Equine influenza, Equine herpesvirus type 1 ... Eight horses that had received prophylactic botulinum antitoxin and developed subsequent signs of Theiler's disease were ...
Botulinum neurotoxin type A,is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum that temporarily reduces ... Teixeira, Jeffrey (2021). "Botulinum Toxin Type-A for Lip Augmentation: "Lip Flip"". Journal of Craniofacial Surgery. Levitt, ... Lip flip is a cosmetic procedure that modifies the shape of the lips using botulinum neurotoxin type A and occasionally adding ...
Tier 1 BSATs are indicated by an asterisk (*). Botulinum neurotoxin-producing species of Clostridium* Coxiella burnetii ... Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin Conotoxins Ricin Saxitoxin Staphylococcal enterotoxins Tetrodotoxin 2 Type A ... Alcelaphine herpesvirus type 1) Menangle virus Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (contagious caprine ...
"The bacteria of the Clostridium botulinum C and D types". In 1929 he was also director of the Bacterial Vaccine Section at ...
We have determined the crystal structure of M type Progenitor complex of botulinum neurotoxin E [PTC-E(M)], a heterodimer of ... strongly suggests that the progenitor M complexes of all botulinum serotypes may have similar molecular arrangement, although ... Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is released as a progenitor complex, in association with a non-toxic-non-hemagglutinin ... Hatheway, C. L. Clostridium botulinum and other clostridia that produce botulinum neurotoxin. in Clostridium botulinum - ...
It is a type of botulinum toxin type A, which is produced from the Clostridium botulinum bacteria. Dysport works by blocking ... CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM TYPE A TOXIN-HAEMAGGLUTININ COMPLEX) , 650 USD , Dysport is a prescription medicine used to temporarily ...
1967). Use Of Immunofluorescence To Identify Clostridium Botulinum Types A, B, And E. 82(3). Midura, T. F. and Inouye, Y. and ... Title : Use Of Immunofluorescence To Identify Clostridium Botulinum Types A, B, And E Personal Author(s) : Midura, T. F.;Inouye ... "Use Of Immunofluorescence To Identify Clostridium Botulinum Types A, B, And E" vol. 82, no. 3, 1967. Export RIS Citation ... Use Of Immunofluorescence To Identify Clostridium Botulinum Types A, B, And E. ...
In this study the binding domain of type E neurotoxin was isolated byPCR and expressed in a proper expression vector. The ... Botulinum neurotoxins constitute a family of bacterial toxins for botulism syndrome in human. The toxinsbind with high affinity ... "Cloning, expression and purification of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type E binding domain". Iranian Journal of ... Cloning, expression and purification of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type E binding domain. ...
... organized around the three types of contributing factors (contamination, proliferation, and survival). ... This situation is a concern for psychrotrophic pathogenic bacteria (e.g., Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum type E ... Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus). Examples of this type of contributing factor include ... botulinum). Examples of this type of contributing factor include ... Examples of this type of contributing factor include. *A ready- ...
Toxin production by Clostridium botulinum, type E, in vacuumpacked, irradiated fresh fish in relation to changes of the ...
Botulism (Type A Clostridium botulinum) in Peoria, Illinois. 28 persons were hospitalized, and 20 patients were treated with an ... Out of 324 soup cans, five were found to be contaminated with botulinum toxin, all in the initial batch of vichyssoise that was ... Mann JM, Martin S, Hoffman R, Marrazzo S (March 1981). "Patient recovery from type A botulism: morbidity assessment following a ... Centers for Disease Control Prevention (CDC) (January 17, 2003). "Outbreak of Botulism Type E Associated with Eating a Beached ...
Patients receiving botulinum antitoxin on day 4 had decreased ventilator dependency. In addition, for patients with foodborne ... Clostridium botulinum * Disease Outbreaks* * Humans * Respiratory Insufficiency / etiology * Thailand / epidemiology * ... Publication types * Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt * Review MeSH terms * Botulism / epidemiology* ... Mobile teams treated patients with botulinum antitoxin on day 4 or day 6 after exposure in Nan Hospital (Nan, Thailand). ...
Botulism is a broad term encompassing 3 clinical entities caused by botulinum toxin. Propagation of this toxin under different ... 10] Clostridium baratii and Clostridium butyricum also produce botulinum toxin. These organisms produce type E and F toxins. ... There are 7 serotypes of botulinum toxin: A through G. [8] Types A and B are by far the most common types. In the US, Type A is ... A novel multiplex PCR method for Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type A gene cluster typing. Microbiol Immunol. 2010 May. 54(5 ...
Categories: Clostridium botulinum Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Also called: Botulinum toxin type A Summary. Botox is a drug made from a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum ... Botulinum Toxin (Botox) for Facial Wrinkles (American Academy of Ophthalmology) * Botulinum Toxin Injections: A Treatment for ... Botulinum Toxin Therapy: Overview (American Academy of Dermatology) * Counterfeit Version of Botox Found in the United States ( ... Benefits of Botulinum Toxin: Its Not Just for Wrinkles (National Institutes of Health) Also in Spanish ...
Botulinum toxin was not detected in serum or stool samples from the patients. However, Clostridium botulinum type A was ... CDHS Microbial Diseases Laboratory found both C. botulinum type A and botulinum toxin type A in the fermented tofu samples, ... C. botulinum spores exist widely in the environment, but proper food-preparation practices inhibit spore germination and toxin ... CDHS dispatched botulinum antitoxin to the hospital, and it was administered to the couple. Both patients were hospitalized for ...
Clostridium botulinum and processed meat products; Listeria contamination of cutting equipment. Some of the papers will be ... Conference type: Other conference (non-IIR). *Notes: Eur. Union, AIR Programme/Eur. Comm., DG XII/Univ. Bristol Press/Proc. ... Keywords: Poultry; Slaughterhouse; Cutting (action); Contamination; Clostridium; Modified atmosphere; Mince; Microorganism; ... effect of freezing on the survival of pathogens in different meat types; influence of modified-atmosphere packaging on the ...
Avian botulism type C is a naturally occurring soil bacterium, Clostridium botulinum, which produces a powerful neurotoxin. It ... This yellow lab is being trained to sniff out duck carcasses infected by Avian botulism type C at Hanalei National Wildlife ...
The source was a type of fish contaminated with Clostridium botulinum type E. ... Clostridium botulinum type B was detected in three opened tins of pâté collected from the homes of patients. ... Botulinum poisoning is a rare but life-threatening condition, caused by toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum bacteria. It ... Tags: antitoxin, botulism, Clostridium botulinum, Ministry of Health, street food, Vietnam, World Health Organization (WHO) ...
Bacteria Clostridium botulinum - image by vinmec.com. The Three Types of Botulism. There are three major types of botulism: ... Food-borne Botulism: This occurs when a person consumes food contaminated with the botulinum toxin. This type of botulism most ... Botulism is caused by a neurotoxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. The bacteria are anaerobic and heat- ... Wound Botulism: If a wound becomes infected with the C. botulinum, the bacteria will introduce the toxin to the body this way, ...
Medical information for Botulinum Toxin on Pediatric Oncall including Mechanism, Indication, Contraindications, Dosing, Adverse ... Botulinum Toxin. Synonyms : BTX or BoNT, Clostridium Botulinum Type A, Oculinum. Mechanism : Botulinum toxin type A blocks ... When injected intramuscularly at therapeutic doses, botulinum toxin type A produces a partial chemical denervation of the ... The effect of administering different botulinum neurotoxin products at the same time or within several months of each other is ...
GO was found to inhibit toxin production by Clostridium botulinum type A (Jc et al., 1979). Garlic ointment made by mixing GP ... Effect of garlic oil or onion oil on toxin production by clostridium botulinum in meat slurry. J. Food Prot. 42, 222-224. doi: ... Roshan, N., Riley, T. V., and Hammer, K. A. (2017). Antimicrobial activity of natural products against Clostridium difficile in ... standard strains types and clinical isolates), was found to be sensitive to GP and 1,000 μg/ml of GP inactivated H. pylori at 6 ...
Botox is a drug made from a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Its the same toxin that causes a life- ... Botulinum toxin injection - larynx Botulinum toxin (BTX) is a type of nerve blocker. When injected, BTX blocks nerve signals to ... seizure medicines Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) agents Botulinum toxin type A (Botox) injections may also help reduce ... Botox is a drug made from a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Its the same ... blinking Strabismus - ...
Clostridium botulinum Types A, B, E, and F Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Microbiology Laboratory. Bacteria. ... Clostridium difficile. DNA and PCR Testing Laboratory. Bacteria. Clostridium perfringens. Food and Beverage Testing. ... Crystalline silica, single species (Alpha Quartz, Cristobalite, Tridymite) Air Type. Industrial Hygiene (IH) Lab Services. ... Crystalline silica, single species (Alpha Quartz, Cristobalite, Tridymite) Bulk Type. Industrial Hygiene (IH) Lab Services. ...
... is produced by the spore-forming bacteria Clostridium botulinum and other related species. There are 8 distinct toxin types: A ... Eleven (79%) cases were caused by botulinum toxin type B and 3 (21%) by toxin type A; since 2006 all infant cases in Minnesota ... Find up to date information at,, Botulism (Clostridium botulinum) *Full issue,, Annual Summary of Communicable Diseases ... Infant botulism, which is the most common form in the United States, results from the ingestion of C. botulinum spores that ...
They prevent the growth of harmful microbes like Clostridium botulinum. They also help preserve the color of processed meats ... This type of headache has been dubbed a "hot dog headache" (. 34. , 35. ). ...
Clostridium botulinum). Within a species, there may be different types, called strains. Strains differ in genetic makeup and ... They also cause different types of infections, and different types of antibiotics are effective against them. There are many ... This distinction is important because treatment of the two types may require different types of antibiotics. ... life-threatening poisoning caused by toxins produced by the anaerobic bacteria Clostridium botulinum. Botulism toxins, usually ...
Botulinum toxin is a protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. While this microorganism may have its own reasons ... Botulinum toxin types A and B empower doctors to treat various conditions including spasms and dystonias (neuromuscular ...
Botox was originally discovered by scientists who were studying bacteria called Clostridium botulinum in the 1970s. This type ... What Is Botulinum Toxin?. Botox is a brand name for onobotulinumtoxin type A (botulinum toxin), a neurotoxic protein that is ... Its made from Clostridium botulinum toxin and has been used for medical and cosmetic purposes since the 1980s. Botox ... Botox is the brand name for botulinum toxin type A, a muscle relaxer thats been used for decades to treat a variety of medical ...
Botox is a neurotoxin that is produced by the bacterium clostridium botulinum. It is used to treat a number of medical ... The cars are typically disassembled and the parts are sorted and sold based on their condition and type. Auto salvage yards ... There are many different types of pulmonary disorders, and the treatment depends on the specific diagnosis. Since pulmonary ... conditions, including various types of headaches. Botox works by blocking the release of a chemical called acetylcholine from ...
... tomatoes that are less acidic than the traditional types might support the growth and toxin production of Clostridium botulinum ... Clostridium botulinum and its neurotoxins. More than 72 h. Numbness, weakness of legs, spastic paralysis, impairment of vision ... Muscaria-type mushrooms(f). Tingling and numbness, dizziness, pallor, gastroenteritis, hemorrhage, and desquamation of skin, ... the causes epidemiologically associated with the type and condition of the implicated food, and 2) the clinical signs and ...
Botox is a drug made from a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Its the same toxin that causes a life- ...
  • Botox is a drug made from a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Avian botulism type C is a naturally occurring soil bacterium, Clostridium botulinum , which produces a powerful neurotoxin. (fws.gov)
  • Botox is a neurotoxin that is produced by the bacterium clostridium botulinum. (reinholdweber.com)
  • Xeomin contains botulinum toxin type A, a protein purified from the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. (lasereyecenter.com)
  • The soil-dwelling bacterium Clostridium botulinum can contaminate fruits and veggies, and, in warm, oxygen-deprived conditions, produces the neuroparalytic toxin botulinum. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Botulism is a life-threatening paralytic illness caused by neurotoxins produced by an anaerobic, gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium-Clostridium botulinum. (marlerclark.com)
  • Bar Goldberg] Botulism is a rare but potentially lethal disease caused by a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum , a gram-negative, spore-forming anaerobic bacteria. (cdc.gov)
  • botulinum spores to germinate. (cdc.gov)
  • B century, and commercially canned foods caused outbreaks otulism is a paralytic illness caused by neurotoxins of in the 19th and early 20th centuries before standard meth- the anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium, Clostridium ods for inactivating C. botulinum spores in cans were per- botulinum , and rarely, by botulinum toxin-producing fected (6). (cdc.gov)
  • C. botulinum spores exist widely in the environment, but proper food-preparation practices inhibit spore germination and toxin production ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Infant botulism, which is the most common form in the United States, results from the ingestion of C. botulinum spores that germinate into vegetative bacteria that colonize the intestinal tract, producing toxin that is absorbed into the circulation. (mn.us)
  • Babies are more susceptible to botulism, which they can get from eating improperly canned vegetables or honey contaminated with Clostridium botulinum spores. (popsci.com)
  • This product may be contaminated with Clostridium botulinum spores, which can cause Botulism, a serious and potentially fatal food-borne illness. (marlerclark.com)
  • The sale of this type of fish is prohibited under New York State Agriculture and Markets regulations because Clostridium botulinum spores are more likely to be concentrated in the viscera than any other portion of the fish. (marlerclark.com)
  • C. botulinum bacteria and spores are widely distributed in nature because they are indigenous to soils and waters. (marlerclark.com)
  • the subject of our study), also known as 'floppy baby syndrome', results from ingestion of Clostridium botulinum spores with subsequent colonization in the gut and releases botulism toxin, causing acute flaccid descending paralysis. (cdc.gov)
  • And the second type is wound botulism, in which Clostridium botulinum spores get into wounds, especially after a traumatic injury, post-op, or IVDU. (cdc.gov)
  • contains botulinum spores, and that's why it is recommended to avoid honey consumption until one year old. (cdc.gov)
  • 1 C. botulinum spores of fermented food in 2006. (who.int)
  • 1 C. botulinum was found to be the main source of a type A botulism is present in the environment, with type A or B spores outbreak in two elderly people in the United States in being found primarily in terrestrial vegetables and type E 2017. (who.int)
  • Botulinum neurotoxins constitute a family of bacterial toxins for botulism syndrome in human. (ijbiotech.com)
  • Botulinum poisoning is a rare but life-threatening condition, caused by toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum bacteria. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Toxins of all types have the same pharmacologic action. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Botulinum toxins are fascinating, all-natural chemicals-they're made by bacteria-and just last week, a team of scientists discovered a new type of the toxin, as well as a new strain of the bacterium that makes it, Clostridium botulinum . (popsci.com)
  • The Botulinum Toxins cause paralysis by preventing the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine as the nerve cells meet muscle, at the neuromuscular junction. (animalresearch.info)
  • 10 In China, two type A BoNT grow and produce toxins in foods in an anaerobic, non- outbreaks were caused by consumption of smoked ribs by acidic environment with low sugar and salt. (who.int)
  • The similarity of the general architecture between the PTC-E(M) and the previously determined PTC-A(M) strongly suggests that the progenitor M complexes of all botulinum serotypes may have similar molecular arrangement, although the neurotoxins apparently can take very different conformation when they are released from the M complex. (nature.com)
  • Botulinum neurotoxins induce block- of botulism in the continental United States (1,7). (cdc.gov)
  • After their ingestion, botulinum neurotoxins are absorbed primarily in the duodenum and jejunum, pass into the bloodstream, and travel to synapses in the nervous system. (marlerclark.com)
  • Botulinum neurotoxins are unique in the way they cause specific paralysis of skeletal muscles. (animalresearch.info)
  • Botulism is a life-threatening condition caused outbreak of BoNT type E in 1997 was linked to consump- by botulinal neurotoxins (BoNTs). (who.int)
  • Foodborne botulism results from eating foods containing botulinum toxin ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In the case described in this report, the growth of C. botulinum and production of toxin might have been facilitated by several factors: 1) the almost neutral pH of the fermented tofu, 2) boiling the tofu, potentially creating an anaerobic environment, and 3) room temperature (approximately 68 º F--77 º F [20 º C--25 º C]) storage of the product for days during and after preparation. (cdc.gov)
  • Botulism is a rapidly fatal motor paralysis caused by ingestion or in vivo production of the toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum types A-G. The spore-forming anaerobic organism proliferates in decomposing animal tissue and sometimes in plant material. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • 1 BoNTs are produced In Taiwan (China), two outbreaks have been recorded, by Clostridium botulinum , a Gram-positive, rod- one caused by type A botulism in nine patients who con- shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming, motile bacterium. (who.int)
  • Botox is the brand name for botulinum toxin type A, a muscle relaxer that's been used for decades to treat a variety of medical conditions and for cosmetic reasons. (consultingroom.com)
  • Botox injections are made from onobotulinum toxin type A. (consultingroom.com)
  • Botox was originally discovered by scientists who were studying bacteria called Clostridium botulinum in the 1970s. (consultingroom.com)
  • Botox also contains three ingredients: Clostridium botulinum type A neurotoxin complex, Albumin Human, and sodium chloride. (wimgo.com)
  • Botulinum toxin is best known for its use in cosmetic surgery, where it has been used as a 'face-lift in a bottle' under the brand name Botox since 1990. (animalresearch.info)
  • The widespread advertising of Botox as a cosmetic treatment, and its popularity among celebrities have led to Botulinum toxin becoming well-known as a frivolous treatment to help the rich appear youthful. (animalresearch.info)
  • You may not know that Botox® and Dysport® are trade names for botulinum toxin. (cdc.gov)
  • While cosmetic treatments are the best known application of botulinum toxin, the important clinical uses for which it was researched and developed are often overlooked. (animalresearch.info)
  • To present the case of a patient who presented dental-gingival discrepancy and gummy smile, treated by gingival resection surgery and complemented by the application of botulinum toxin. (bvsalud.org)
  • A female patient, 23 years old, presented dental-gingival discrepancy and gummy smile, treated by gingival resection surgery and complemented by the application of botulinum toxin. (bvsalud.org)
  • The gingival resection surgery promoted improvement of dental relationship, caused by increase of dental zenith and the application of botulinum toxin caused uniform dehiscence of the upper lip, increasing the harmony of the smile and improving self-esteem and quality life. (bvsalud.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to report the case of a patient with gummy smile treated by associating gingival resection surgery (gingivectomy) with the application of botulinum toxin. (bvsalud.org)
  • Treatment planning comprised gingival resection surgery (gingivoplasty) followed by the application of botulinum toxin for the correction of the gummy smile. (bvsalud.org)
  • Foodborne botulism is a rare illness caused by eating borne botulism events (episode of one or more related foods contaminated with botulinum toxin. (cdc.gov)
  • Out of 324 soup cans, five were found to be contaminated with botulinum toxin, all in the initial batch of vichyssoise that was recalled. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is released as a progenitor complex, in association with a non-toxic-non-hemagglutinin protein (NTNH) and other associated proteins. (nature.com)
  • We have determined the crystal structure of M type Progenitor complex of botulinum neurotoxin E [PTC-E(M)], a heterodimer of BoNT and NTNH. (nature.com)
  • Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is the most toxic substance known to mankind and no therapeutic intervention is currently available for post-exposure treatment. (nature.com)
  • Molecular Characterization of Clostridium botulinum Harboring the bont/B7 Gene. (cdc.gov)
  • Draft Genome Sequence of a Clostridium botulinum Isolate from Thailand Harboring the Subtype bont /B8 Gene. (cdc.gov)
  • Of the eight types of BoNT (A-H), A, B, E and F are by type B botulism in five cases related to consumption associated with human botulism. (who.int)
  • Cloning, expression and purification of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type E binding domain', Iranian Journal of Biotechnology , 2(3), pp. 183-188. (ijbiotech.com)
  • The catalytic domain of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type F (represented as a molecular surface, gray) bound to an inhibitor molecule (colored ribbon) designed to mimic the nerve-cell protein the toxin cleaves. (bnl.gov)
  • Finished Whole-Genome Sequence of Clostridium argentinense Producing Botulinum Neurotoxin Type G. (cdc.gov)
  • Kaplan-Meier survival analysis identified a shorter period of ventilator dependency among patients receiving botulinum antitoxin on day 4 (P=.02). (nih.gov)
  • Patients receiving botulinum antitoxin on day 4 had decreased ventilator dependency. (nih.gov)
  • Botulinum toxin, a neurotoxin, is produced by the spore-forming bacteria Clostridium botulinum and other related species. (mn.us)
  • Botulism is a rare but potentially deadly illness caused by a toxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum . (cdc.gov)
  • The Botulinum toxin is synthesized by the Gram-positive anaerobe bacteria Clostridium botulinum 3,4,13 and acts by inhibiting the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction preventing muscle contraction. (bvsalud.org)
  • Timely antitoxin administration may arrest the progression botulinum neurotoxin. (cdc.gov)
  • Mobile teams treated patients with botulinum antitoxin on day 4 or day 6 after exposure in Nan Hospital (Nan, Thailand). (nih.gov)
  • CDHS dispatched botulinum antitoxin to the hospital, and it was administered to the couple. (cdc.gov)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) was involved in finding a supply of antitoxin to treat botulinum poisoning, which has now arrived in Vietnam. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Once diagnosed, the botulism is treated with an antitoxin that keeps symptoms from worsening by blocking the effects of botulinum toxin in the bloodstream. (iowalum.com)
  • A Novel Botulinum Toxin, Previously Reported as Serotype H, has a Hybrid Structure of Known Serotypes A and F that is Neutralized with Serotype A Antitoxin. (cdc.gov)
  • Agam Rao] Botulism is treated with management in an intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation when needed, and botulinum antitoxin. (cdc.gov)
  • Botulinum antitoxin is most helpful if administered early during the patient's illness, so it's really important that physicians get that antitoxin as soon as possible when they find out about a patient's illness. (cdc.gov)
  • [ 10 ] Clostridium baratii and Clostridium butyricum also produce botulinum toxin. (medscape.com)
  • Finished Whole-Genome Sequences of Clostridium butyricum Toxin Subtype E4 and Clostridium baratii Toxin Subtype F7 Strains. (cdc.gov)
  • Botulism is an acute neurologic disorder that causes potentially life-threatening paralysis due to a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum or related species ( C baratii and C. butyricum) . (medscape.com)
  • Although classified as a single species, C botulinum is better described as a group of at least 3 (possibly 4) genetically unique organisms. (medscape.com)
  • species= Clostridium botulinum A str. (lbl.gov)
  • Their scientific name is genus followed by species (for example, Clostridium botulinum ). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Within a species, there may be different types, called strains. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Type C botulism has recurred in both North American species of pelicans at the Salton Sea every year since, although the magnitude of mortality is much lower. (unl.edu)
  • Explore this page to review technical definitions for the 30 contributing factors for foodborne illness outbreaks, organized around the three types of contributing factors ( contamination , proliferation , and survival ). (cdc.gov)
  • In horses, the most common type in North America and Europe is type B (>85% of US cases), and in the western US type A has been reported in only two outbreaks, both in humans, known to have been caused by type F. Type G, isolated from soil in Argentina, is not known to have been involved in any outbreak of botulism. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Clostridium, staphylococcus, shigella and campylobacter have also been responsible for many outbreaks. (foodpoisonjournal.com)
  • Pulsotype Diversity of Clostridium botulinum Strains Containing Serotypes A and/or B Genes. (cdc.gov)
  • Botulism is an acute and deadly infection that can result in paralysis, respiratory failure or death if supportive medical care and the anti-botulinum neutralizing antibody aren't provided immediately. (discovermagazine.com)
  • These inhibitors are attractive candidates for anti-botulinum drug development," Swaminathan said. (bnl.gov)
  • The effect of administering different botulinum neurotoxin products at the same time or within several months of each other is unknown. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • When injected intramuscularly at therapeutic doses, botulinum toxin type A produces a partial chemical denervation of the muscle resulting in localized muscle paralysis. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • A Gram stain of Clostridium botulinum type A. The spore-forming, soil-dwelling bacterium produces a nerve toxin, causing the rare, paralytic illness known as botulism. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Two scientists from the California Department of Public Health discovered the new botulinum toxin and bacterium in fecal samples taken from a baby who had botulism, the disease that results from exposure to the toxin. (popsci.com)
  • The California Department of Public Health issued an alert on July 30 advising consumers to not eat VR Green Farms jarred products because of improper production making them susceptible to contamination with Clostridium botulinum . (marlerblog.com)
  • In 1996, over 15,000 birds, including 8,500 American White Pelicans, were estimated to have died from type C botulism at the Salton Sea in California. (unl.edu)
  • Intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin causes local paralysis, as the toxin remains around the site of injection. (animalresearch.info)
  • Which among these types of honey is the sweetest or the healthiest? (mannlakeltd.com)
  • Some types of raw honey even hold a taste that matches the flowers the honey bees foraged from while making that season's honey. (mannlakeltd.com)
  • Usually the source of infant botulism isn't known, but we do know that C. botulinum can be found in honey, and since it's also often in environmental sources like dust, it's easy to see how C. botulinum could be ingested. (cdc.gov)
  • C botulinum was cultured from the wounds of asymptomatic patients as early as 1942, but wound botulism was not described as it is known today until 1951. (medscape.com)
  • Tetanus in Animals Tetanus is caused by the neurotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani , which is found in soil and intestinal tracts and usually introduced into tissues through deep puncture wounds. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • In the US these days, wound botulism most often occurs in injection drug users who introduce the C. botulinum into wounds when they skin-pop black tar heroin. (cdc.gov)
  • But people can also get wound botulism when C. botulinum from soil contaminates other kinds of wounds, like open fractures and wounds from motor vehicle accidents. (cdc.gov)
  • It's made from Clostridium botulinum toxin and has been used for medical and cosmetic purposes since the 1980s. (consultingroom.com)
  • The use of botulinum toxin is currently controversial, because of the method of testng, which is a mouse potency assay, and because it is viewed as a cosmetic treatment. (animalresearch.info)
  • The only types that are currently marketed are Type A and Type B. Currently, these compounds are utilized in both cosmetic and medicinal operations. (snsinsider.com)
  • Botulinum toxin is an additional option in the cosmetic improvement of the smile and gives better results when combined with gingival resection surgery. (bvsalud.org)
  • There are 7 serotypes of botulinum toxin: A through G. (medscape.com)
  • There are seven distinct toxin serotypes (A, B, C1, D, E, F, and G). However, the type A is the most common and powerful subtype used in clinics 13 . (bvsalud.org)
  • The botulinum toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridia botulinum is a neurotoxic protein associated with several types of botulism. (laughyourdickoff.com)
  • C botulinum is a gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobe that naturally inhabits soil, dust, and fresh and cooked agricultural products. (medscape.com)
  • Eating foods in which bacteria such as staphylococcus or clostridium botulinum have lived and produced a poison, or toxin, causes food poisoning. (foodpoisonjournal.com)
  • The C botulinum organism is killed by high temperatures, low pH or the presence of oxygen therefore most cases of food borne poisoning are caused by improperly canned foods. (animalresearch.info)
  • 14 An initial case series from this outbreak, Egypt, a type E botulism outbreak was reported in 1991 which comprised the first six cases in a hospital in Ho in 91 patients, with 19 fatalities, related to consumption Chi Minh City, linked cases to consumption of a tinned of a fermented grey mul et fish (faseikh). (who.int)
  • Wound botulism was the next type to be described. (medscape.com)
  • If a wound becomes infected with the C. botulinum , the bacteria will introduce the toxin to the body this way, resulting in the same symptoms. (iowalum.com)
  • A second way people can develop botulism is when botulinum toxin is produced in a wound that has C. botulinum in it. (cdc.gov)
  • Wound cultures that grow C botulinum suggest the presence of wound botulism. (medscape.com)
  • This type of bacteria occurs naturally in soil and water, which means that if you eat food that contains it without properly cooking it first (like improperly prepared fish or eggs), you could become ill or even die! (consultingroom.com)
  • Botulinum toxin type A blocks neuromuscular conduction by binding to receptor sites on motor nerve terminals, entering the nerve terminals, and inhibiting the release of acetylcholine. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Botulinum toxin was not detected in serum or stool samples from the patients. (cdc.gov)
  • Serum and stool collected from Arielle and Katy did not test positive for C. botulinum . (marlerblog.com)
  • Purification and Characterization of Botulinum Neurotoxin FA from a Genetically Modified Clostridium botulinum Strain. (cdc.gov)
  • And the third type is foodborne botulism, especially in homemade preserved or canned or fermented food that has contained the toxin. (cdc.gov)
  • For one, they are created differently, with Xeomin being made from just one ingredient: botulinum toxin A. this means that it is the most natural form of BoTN. (wimgo.com)
  • only types A, B, E and F cause illness in humans. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Botulinum toxin is an extremely potent neurotoxin with a lethal level in humans of around 1 ng / kg bodyweight (ng = nanogram = 0.000000001 g) and it is therefore vital that material released for clinical use is safe and of the strength stated on the label. (animalresearch.info)
  • CDHS Microbial Diseases Laboratory found both C. botulinum type A and botulinum toxin type A in the fermented tofu samples, which had a pH of 6.8. (cdc.gov)
  • This was collected for laboratory testing for the presence of Clostridium botulinum toxin as was an unopened jar of pesto that Katy had. (marlerblog.com)
  • Also known as Botulinum Toxin Type A. It is produced under controlled laboratory conditions. (moraitisplasticsurgery.com)
  • However, both types may contain small amounts of the bacteria called Clostridium botulinum, which causes a serious gastrointestinal condition in babies, a condition called infant botulism. (mannlakeltd.com)
  • Bar Goldberg] So infant botulism is the most common type of botulism. (cdc.gov)
  • And the common belief is that infant intestinal flora is insufficient to suppress Clostridium botulinum colonization. (cdc.gov)
  • A single gram of the toxin (botulinum toxin) could kill more than a million people. (iowalum.com)
  • This study looked specifically at how the catalytic domain of one type of neurotoxin, neurotoxin F, recognizes and binds to its target nerve-cell protein to perform this final, paralyzing step," said Brookhaven Lab biologist Subramanyam Swaminathan, who led the research team. (bnl.gov)
  • Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors enhance the effects of nitric oxide in smooth muscle relaxation of the corpus cavernosum by inhibiting the degradation of cGMP. (medscape.com)
  • Botulism is a rare but serious paralytic illness caused by a nerve toxin, botulinum. (animalresearch.info)
  • type F cases have home-canned foods have long constituted a major source been reported rarely. (cdc.gov)
  • This type of botulism most commonly comes from improperly home-canned or home-bottled vegetables or other low-acid foods. (iowalum.com)
  • She did not maintain a Processed Food Registration or a Cannery License with CDPH as required to manufacture these types of foods for retail sales. (marlerblog.com)
  • Low-acid foods are foods that are not acidic enough to prevent the growth of botulinum bacteria. (cdc.gov)
  • Clostridium botulinum : ecology and control in foods / edited by Andreas H. W. Hauschild, Karen L. Dodds. (who.int)
  • People who get botulism from food get it from eating foods that contain the actual botulinum toxin. (cdc.gov)
  • C botulinum may be grown on selective media from samples of stool or foods. (medscape.com)
  • However, Clostridium botulinum type A was detected in enrichment cultures of the stool samples of both patients. (cdc.gov)
  • Clostridium botulinum type B was detected in three opened tins of pâté collected from the homes of patients. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Currently, botulinum toxin has been found effective in the treatment of gummy smile, in patients with overactive smiling muscles as well to treat temporomandibular disorders (masseter hypertrophy, bruxism) and myofascial pain 5,8 . (bvsalud.org)
  • It's the same toxin that causes a life-threatening type of food poisoning called botulism . (medlineplus.gov)
  • This occurs when a person consumes food contaminated with the botulinum toxin. (iowalum.com)
  • To decide what treatments, enrichments, or other tests are needed, the microbiologist should evaluate the data in relation to two types of information: l) the causes epidemiologically associated with the type and condition of the implicated food, and 2) the clinical signs and symptoms observed in afflicted individuals. (fda.gov)
  • The construction and implementation of a mathematical framework for the representation of the hazards that arise from Clostridium botulinum growth, and toxin production, in food are described. (uea.ac.uk)
  • The course will provide food practitioners with an understanding of what vacuum packing is, the types of food that can be vacuum packed and the difference between commercial and domestic products. (cieh.org)
  • Understanding the nature of foodborne illness-causing bacteria and the common types of foodborne illness helps consumers and food handlers take preventive measures. (foodpoisonjournal.com)
  • These bacteria can cause two types of food illness - food infection and food poisoning. (foodpoisonjournal.com)
  • Learning how to preserve different types of food is a practical skill you can use to supplement your emergency food supply. (cdc.gov)