Botulinum Toxins: Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.Clostridium botulinum type D: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type D which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans.Clostridium botulinum: A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.Clostridium botulinum type E: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type E which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.Botulism: A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)Clostridium botulinum type A: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces BOTULINUM TOXINS, TYPE A which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.Clostridium botulinum type B: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type B which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.Clostridium botulinum type F: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type F which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Botulinum Antitoxin: Antiserum given therapeutically in BOTULISM.Botulinum Toxins, Type A: A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.Clostridium botulinum type C: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type C which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans. It causes dissociation of ACTIN FILAMENTS.Toxins, Biological: Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.Neurotoxins: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.Spores: The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.Toxoids: Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.Fish Products: Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).Clostridium botulinum type G: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type G. Though it has been isolated from soil, no outbreaks involving this type have been recognized.Clostridium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Clostridium difficile: A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Antitoxins: Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.ADP Ribose Transferases: Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.Food Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.Food Irradiation: Treatment of food with RADIATION.Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Ammonium Sulfate: Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.Clostridium perfringens: The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Neuromuscular Agents: Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Sodium Nitrite: Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Food Preservatives: Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Salmonidae: A family of anadromous fish comprising SALMON; TROUT; whitefish; and graylings. They are the most important food and game fishes. Their habitat is the northern Atlantic and Pacific, both marine and inland, and the Great Lakes. (Nelson: Fishes of the World, 1976, p97)Clostridium tetani: The cause of TETANUS in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin.DEAE-Cellulose: Cellulose derivative used in chromatography, as ion-exchange material, and for various industrial applications.Type D Personality: Behavior pattern characterized by negative emotionality, an inability to express emotions, and social isolation, which has been linked to greater cardiovascular disease and increased mortality. (from International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 2008, p. 217)DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Food, Preserved: Food that has been prepared and stored in a way to prevent spoilage.Synaptosomes: Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Clostridium butyricum: Type species of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM, a gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is used as a source of PROBIOTICS.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Anti-Dyskinesia Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders. Most of these act centrally on dopaminergic or cholinergic systems. Among the most important clinically are those used for the treatment of Parkinson disease (ANTIPARKINSON AGENTS) and those for the tardive dyskinesias.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous: An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Clostridium acetobutylicum: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, used for the industrial production of SOLVENTS.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Tetanus Toxin: Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Clostridium thermocellum: A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.Retroviruses, Simian: Classes of retroviruses for which monkeys or apes are hosts. Those isolated from the West African green monkey and the Asian rhesus macaque monkey are of particular interest because of their similarities to viruses causing cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.rhoB GTP-Binding Protein: A GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating a signal transduction pathway that controls assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Enterotoxemia: Disease caused by the liberation of exotoxins of CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS in the intestines of sheep, goats, cattle, foals, and piglets. Type B enterotoxemia in lambs is lamb dysentery; type C enterotoxemia in mature sheep produces "struck", and in calves, lambs and piglets it produces hemorrhagic enterotoxemia; type D enterotoxemia in sheep and goats is pulpy-kidney disease or overeating disease.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.

Quantitative analysis of levels of serum immunoglobulin G against botulinum neurotoxin type D and association with protection in natural outbreaks of cattle botulism. (1/7)

The recent outbreaks of cattle botulism in vaccinated Israeli dairy cattle prompted us to determine vaccine efficacy and reasons for vaccine failure. Analysis of clinical signs, feeding practice, vaccination history, and epidemic curves enabled us to define a study population in two outbreaks, where high doses of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type D (BoNT/D) were evenly consumed by the affected animal groups. Attack rates among unvaccinated 6- to 24-month-old heifers were 96% (55/57) and 85% (53/62). The attack rates in vaccinated parity 1, 2, and >or=3 cows were 40.4% (21/52), 14.3% (4/28), and 5.6% (3/54), respectively. Vaccine efficacies for these cow groups were 52.5%, 83.2%, and 93.4%, respectively. In younger, unvaccinated 2- to 6-month-old calves, presumably protected by maternal antibodies, the attack rate was 24% (17/71). These differences correlated with significant differences in levels of specific anti-BoNT/D antibody in serum by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The ELISA performance for predicting protection was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic analysis and was found to be highly significant, with an area under the curve of 0.941 (standard error, 0.034; 95% confidence interval, 0.875 to 1.008; P < 0.000). No animals with serum ELISA unit levels above 0.33 were affected in these exposed groups. At this cutoff level, the specificity of the ELISA was 100%, sensitivity was 67%, and accuracy was 92%. We concluded that botulinum toxoids can confer adequate protection against natural exposure to lethal doses of BoNT/D; however, the vaccination protocols should be optimized. Our in-house ELISA system will enable us to optimize vaccination protocols in the animal population.  (+info)

Molecular analysis of an extrachromosomal element containing the C2 toxin gene discovered in Clostridium botulinum type C. (2/7)

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Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the Clostridium botulinum type D nontoxic nonhaemagglutinin. (3/7)

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Phospholipase C produced by Clostridium botulinum types C and D: comparison of gene, enzymatic, and biological activities with those of Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin. (4/7)

Clostridium botulinum type C and D strains recently have been found to produce PLC on egg yolk agar plates. To characterize the gene, enzymatic and biological activities of C. botulinum PLCs (Cb-PLCs), the cb-plc genes from 8 strains were sequenced, and 1 representative gene was cloned and expressed as a recombinant protein. The enzymatic and hemolytic activities of the recombinant Cb-PLC were measured and compared with those of the Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin. Each of the eight cb-plc genes encoded a 399 amino acid residue protein preceded by a 27 residue signal peptide. The protein consists of 2 domains, the N- and C-domains, and the overall amino acid sequence identity between Cb-PLC and alpha-toxin was greater than 50%, suggesting that Cb-PLC is homologous to the alpha-toxin. The key residues in the N-domain were conserved, whereas those in the C-domain which are important in membrane interaction were different than in the alpha-toxin. As expected, Cb-PLC could hydrolyze egg yolk phospholipid, p-nitrophenylphosphorylcholine, and sphingomyelin, and also exhibited hemolytic activity;however, its activities were about 4- to over 200-fold lower than those of alpha-toxin. Although Cb-PLC showed weak enzymatic and biological activities, it is speculated that Cb-PLC might play a role in the pathogenicity of botulism or for bacterial survival.  (+info)

Environmental factors influencing the prevalence of a Clostridium botulinum type C/D mosaic strain in nonpermanent Mediterranean wetlands. (5/7)

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Production and evaluation of a recombinant chimeric vaccine against clostridium botulinum neurotoxin types C and D. (6/7)

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An atypical Clostridium strain related to the Clostridium botulinum group III strain isolated from a human blood culture. (7/7)

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Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , ListBio \ QD Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A Complex from Clostridium botulinum1,3,4 \ 9128B for more molecular products just contact us
Grass sickness is an often fatal disease affecting horses especially in the springtime and leading to different signs of neurotoxicity. The pathogenesis still remains unclear, but there seems be a toxicoinfection with the neurotoxin-producing bacterium clostridium botulinum and the disease.
The staying power of Pitfall! is such that it inspired a fantastic sequel - possibly the best Atari 2600 game ever - Pitfall II: Lost Caverns, the most expansive adventure game that ever graced that platform. Such sequels as Pitfall: Beyond the Jungle and Pitfall: The Mayan Adventure have added to Harrys family tree and kept the quest going through various 3-D iterations.. And in one final historical footnote, Pitfall! was one of those extremely rare games in the 1980s - right up there with Choplifter and Lode Runner - which proved to be so popular that it was translated from a home video/computer game into arcade form.. ...
1st)SBOs; specifically the clostridium strain present in probiotic 3, that I assumed was recommended. It looked liked you took a swipe at it, in a recent post. as in the company trains that strain to be beneficial, not pathogenic;). I know, not your exact words, but I felt like that was the gist of what you were saying. I had high hopes and still do, for that strain. If you have changed your mind, for some reason, could you please clarify why. Maybe any member of the clostridium family is questionable, and I might be paying for a product that is bad for me ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Development of In-Vitro Assays to Assess the Potency of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A (SBIR [R43/R44]) PA-09-179. NINDS
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Development of In-Vitro Assays to Assess the Potency of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A (STTR [R41/R42]) PA-09-178. NINDS
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View Notes - Botulism from BIOL 121 at Mary Washington. Botulism Botulism is a disease caused by the ingestion of a toxin produced by the Clostridium botulinum bacterium. All domestic fowl and most
Sampling frequency. Both rivers were sampled once a month for 42 months (September 2007 to March 2011). The sampling was done on Mondays between 08:00 and 08:30, according to the SANS 5667-6 (SANS, 2006) guideline. The samples were transported on ice and analysed in duplicate.. Microbiological analysis. The aerobic colony count (ACC) was used to give an indication of the size of the microbial population in the water. The aerobic and anaerobic spore formers were used to establish the presence of Bacillus and Clostridium strains. Total coliforms, faecal coliforms, E. coli and intestinal enterococci were used as indicator organisms for faecal contamination (Busta et al., 2003). The index organisms (Staphylococcus, Salmonella and Listeria) were used as indicators of the possible presence of related pathogens, i.e., Clostridium, Campylobacter, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and other Gram-negative species (Busta et al., 2003).. Aerobic colony count. The aerobic colony counts were determined according to ...
Botulism (Type A Clostridium botulinum) in Peoria, Illinois. 28 persons were hospitalized, and 20 patients were treated with an ... "Outbreak of Botulism Type E Associated with Eating a Beached Whale - Western Alaska, July 2002". cdc.gov. Johnson, Annysa ( ... Mann JM, Martin S, Hoffman R, Marrazzo S (March 1981). "Patient recovery from type A botulism: morbidity assessment following a ... http://starpas.azcc.gov/scripts/cgiip.exe/WService=wsbroker1/names-detail.p?name-id=L12696489&type=L.L.C. Fox, Maggie (November ...
"Natural Clostridium botulinum Type C Toxicosis in a Group of Cats". J Clin Microbiol. 42 (11): 5406-8. doi:10.1128/JCM.42.11. ... The most common type is Coonhound paralysis. This is similar to Guillain-Barré syndrome in humans. Coonhound paralysis seems to ... Hyperchylomicronemia or hyperlipoproteinemia is a type of inherited hyperlipidemia in cats. Polyneuropathy is caused by ...
"Clostridium botulinum type F: Seasonal inhibition by Bacillus lichenoformis". Science 1967;155(758): 89-90. "Meet the Founder ...
... of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. C. botulinum can fall into one of 7 different types which are strains A through G. Type ... Yule, Adam; Ian K. Barker; John W. Austin; Richard D. Moccia (2006). "Toxicity of Clostridium Botulinum Type E Neurotoxin to ... Franciosa, G; L. Fenicia; C. Caldiani; P. Aureli (1996). "PCR for detection of Clostridium botulinum type C in avian and ... The Type E strain is also commonly associated with avian outbreaks and is frequently found in fish species which is why most ...
... however the toxin produced from the bacterium Clostridium botulinum type C may be involved. Clostridium botulinum is a soil- ... It may cause grass sickness when the spores of C. botulinum type C are ingested and produce their toxin locally within the ... Grass sickness may affect all types of horse, pony and donkey, and has affected some well known horses including the ...
... is well known for its role in inhibiting the growth of Clostridium botulinum spores in refrigerated meats. The ... Furthermore, the type of bacteria also affects sodium nitrites effectiveness. It is generally agreed upon that sodium nitrite ... for this activity results from the inhibition of iron-sulfur clusters essential to energy metabolism of Clostridium botulinum. ... "Contribution of different vegetable types to exogenous nitrate and nitrite exposure". Food Chemistry. 120 (4): 960-966. doi: ...
Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botox is a specific form of botulinum ... botulinum toxin type B) in type A-resistant cervical dystonia". Neurology. 53 (7): 1431-8. doi:10.1212/WNL.53.7.1431. PMID ... Botulinum toxin treats wrinkles by immobilizing the muscles which cause wrinkles. It is not appropriate for the treatment of ... Botulinum toxin Injectable filler Danby, FW (Jul-Aug 2010). "Nutrition and aging skin: sugar and glycation". Cln Dermatol. 4. ...
Many pathogenic bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureusand Clostridium botulinum are food borne pathogens that secrete toxins ... Each of these different types of organisms can then be further classified as a pathogen based on its mode of transmission. This ... Each of these three types of antimicrobials can be classified into two subsequent groups: bactericidal and bacteriostatic. ...
"Sporulation of Clostridium botulinum Types A, B and E, Clostridium Perfringens, and putrefactive Anaerobe 3679 in dialysis sacs ... "Comparative Dose-Survival Curves of Representative Clostridium botulinum Type F Spores and Type A and B Spores", Applied and ... "Production of Types A and B Spores of Clostridium botulinum by the Biphasic Method: Effect on Spore Population, Radiation ... "Cryogenic Gamma Irradiation of Prototype Pork and Chicken and Antagonistic Effect between Clostridium botulinum Types A and B ...
Botulinum toxin infusion As an alternative to the deep digital flexor tenotomy, Clostridium botulinum type A toxin has been ... Carter, D; Renfroe (2009). "A Novel Approach to the Treatment and Prevention of Laminitis: Botulinum Toxin Type A for the ... Trimming Successful treatment for any type of founder must necessarily involve stabilization of the bony column by some means. ...
Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Streptococcus equi subspecies equi, Equine influenza, Equine herpesvirus type 1 ... Eight horses that had received prophylactic botulinum antitoxin and developed subsequent signs of Theiler's disease were ...
... specifically Clostridium botulinum in an effort to prevent botulism, and helps preserve the color of cured meat. Many also ... There are many types of curing salts often specific to a country or region. One of the most common curing salts. It is also ...
Tier 1 BSATs are indicated by an asterisk (*). Botulinum neurotoxin-producing species of Clostridium* Coxiella burnetii ... Alcelaphine herpesvirus type 1) Menangle virus Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (contagious caprine ... Abrin Botulinum neurotoxins* Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin Conotoxins Ricin Saxitoxin Shiga-like ribosome inactivating ... proteins Shiga toxin Staphylococcal enterotoxins Tetrodotoxin 2 Type A trichothecenes: Diacetoxyscirpenol T-2 toxin Bacillus ...
"The Bacteria of the Clostridium Botulinum C and D types". In 1929 he was also director of the Bacterial Vaccine Section at ...
H7 and Clostridium botulinum, the toxin genes in an integrated phage converted a harmless ancestral bacterium into a lethal ... This environmentally important trait can be found in most bacteria of the metabolic types listed above. Regardless of the type ... There are many types of antibiotics and each class inhibits a process that is different in the pathogen from that found in the ... Many types of secretion systems are known and these structures are often essential for the virulence of pathogens, so are ...
According to further researches, the Clostridium botulinum strains isolated were mainly type A, with several cases of type B. ... FU, Si-Wu; WANG, Chen-Huai (2008). "An Overview of Type E Botulism in China". Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. 21 (4): ... The team also discovered that, the source of the botulinum was a local fermented food called mi song hu hu. They promoted the ... and they were eradicated soon after the identification of them as cases type A botulism. After the liberation of 1949, a ...
Clostridium botulinum type A MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.160.100 --- Clostridium botulinum type B MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.160.150 ... Clostridium botulinum type C MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.160.200 --- Clostridium botulinum type D MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.160.250 ... Clostridium botulinum type E MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.160.300 --- Clostridium botulinum type F MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.160.350 ... Clostridium botulinum type A MeSH B03.510.415.400.200.160.100 --- Clostridium botulinum type B MeSH B03.510.415.400.200.160.150 ...
Botulin is produced by Clostridium botulinum and causes the deadly disease botulism. While patients may sometimes complain of ... which has replaced horse serum-type tetanus antitoxin in most of the developed world. Anatoxin "The Preparation and Testing of ... For example, the tetanus toxoid is derived from the tetanospasmin produced by Clostridium tetani. The latter causes tetanus and ...
... meats serve to reduce the risks of food poisoning from anaerobic bacteria such as species of Clostridium that release botulinum ... when some types begin to go rancid. Unopened oils can have a storage life of up to one year, but some types have a shorter ... Modern techniques of preparing meat for storage vary with the type of meat and special requirements of tenderness, flavour, ...
Some authors include Clostridium haemolyticum as Clostridium novyi type D. C novyi is closely related to Clostridium botulinum ... The toxins normally produced by the various types are shown in table 1 The alpha-toxin of Clostridium botulinum types C and D, ... Type strain of Clostridium novyi at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Biology portal. ... Moore WB (October 1968). "Solidified media suitable for the cultivation of Clostridium novyi type B". Journal of General ...
"Clostridium argentinense sp. nov.: A Genetically Homogeneous Group Composed of All Strains of Clostridium botulinum Toxin Type ... botulinum toxin group G, respectively. Like Cl. botulinum, Cl. argentinense produces botulin, a neurotoxin that causes botulism ... "Clostridium argentinense: Suen et al., 1988". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). "Clostridium argentinense ... Clostridium argentinense is an anaerobic, motile, gram-positive bacterium. Some bacilli now identified as Cl. argentinense were ...
... botulinum types A or B. C. botulinum type A was found to be present in soil samples from mountain areas of Victoria. Type-B ... 1988, Clostridium argentinense sp.nov.: a genetically homogeneous group composed of all strains of Clostridium botulinum type G ... Type A C. botulinum predominates the soil samples from the western regions, while type B is the major type found in eastern ... Clostridium Botulinum type A (most potent type) can be broken down and destroyed for 160 °f for 10 minutes, but they are ...
Clostridium botulinum type C toxin has been incriminated as the cause of grass sickness, a condition in horses which occurs in ... by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Clostridium botulinum is a large anaerobic Gram-positive bacillus that forms ... Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic, Gram positive, spore-forming rod. Botulinum toxin is one of the most powerful known ... However, further studies showed type H to be a chimeric toxin composed of parts of types F and A (FA). Some types produce a ...
The bacterium responsible, Clostridium botulinum, is ubiquitous in the environment, grows in the anaerobic conditions created ... Emulsion-type cooked sausages, such as frankfurters or bologna, use a bowl chopper to make finely ground meat batter that is ... Nitrites are used for all types of sausages and are the most common. Nitrates are used only in the preparation of the cured dry ... Sausages come in two main types: fresh and cured. Cured sausages may be either cooked or dried. Most cured sausages are smoked ...
"Clostridium baratii". Retrieved 2011-01-24. Type strain of Clostridium baratii at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... As opposed to the classic cause of botulism, C. botulinum, its environmental source is unknown. Therefore, it is unclear how to ... "Clostridium baratii: Prévot 1938". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Clostridium baratii at the ... Infant Botulism Caused by Clostridium baratii Type F - Iowa, 2013". MMWR. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved ...
Botulism is a rare disease caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.This microbe is primarily found in the soil or ... According to studies, there is an estimated 60,000 different types of bacteria that reside in the soil. Terrestrial bacteria ...
Clostridia. Clostridium (spore-forming). motile:. *Clostridium difficile *Pseudomembranous colitis. *Clostridium botulinum * ... Type strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase ... The organism also causes many types of pneumococcal infections other than pneumonia. These invasive pneumococcal diseases ... induction of transformation by a desoxyribonucleic acid fraction isolated from pneumococcus type III". J Exp Med. 79 (2): 137- ...
There are eight types of botulinum toxin, named type A-H. Type A and B are capable of causing disease in humans, and are also ... Botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum is the cause of botulism. Humans most commonly ingest the toxin from eating ... Botulinum toxin (BTX) is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species. It prevents ... Types C-G are less common; types E and F can cause disease in humans, while the other types cause disease in other animals. ...
The toxin is produced by a bacterium called Clostridium botulinum. Botulism develops if a person ingests the toxin or if the ... How many types of botulism are there? +. There are three main types of botulism, categorized by the way the disease is acquired ... This typically occurs when a stored food item contains Clostridium botulinum spores which begin to grow and produce the toxin ... Although safe for children and adults, honey should not be fed to infants because it may contain Clostridium botulinum spores. ...
An infant can acquire botulism by ingesting Clostridium botulinum spores, which are found in soil or honey products. The spores ... Polymerase chain reaction for detection of Clostridium botulinum types A, B and E in food, soil and infant faeces. J Appl ... Clostridium botulinum and sudden infant death syndrome: a 10 year prospective study. J Paediatr Child Health. 1992;28:156-7. ... The large intestine as the site of Clostridium botulinum colonization in human infant botulism. J Infect Dis. 1987;156:997-8. ...
... spore-forming bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botulism in humans is usually caused by toxin types A, B, and E. Since 1973, a ... An Outbreak of Type A Botulism Associated with a Commercial Cheese Sauce Annals of Internal Medicine; 125 (7): 558-563 ... Clostridium difficile Colitis: An Efficient Clinical Approach to Diagnosis Annals of Internal Medicine; 123 (11): 835-840 ... Because clinicians are the first to treat patients in any type of botulism outbreak, they must know how to recognize, diagnose ...
Clostridium welchii synonyms, Clostridium welchii pronunciation, Clostridium welchii translation, English dictionary definition ... Noun 1. clostridium perfringens - anaerobic Gram-positive rod bacterium that produces epsilon toxin; can be used as a bioweapon ... Related to Clostridium welchii: Clostridium botulinum, clostridium perfringens, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium tetani ... eubacteria, eubacterium, true bacteria - a large group of bacteria having rigid cell walls; motile types have flagella ...
There is involvement of the cranial nerves, especially in the facial area.Generalized tetanus is the most common type of ... Tetanospasmin is a zinc-dependent metalloproteinase which is similar in structure to botulinum toxin but each toxin have ... Clostridium tetani is an anaerobic bacterium that is found in soil and animal intestinal tracts. C. tetani bacteria are single- ... Clostridium tetani was discovered in 1884 by a German physician Arthur Nicolaier. He found that C.tetani causes tetanus when he ...
tr,Q57236,Q57236_CLOBO Botulinum neurotoxin type F OS=Clostridium botulinum OX=1491 GN=F PE=1 SV=1 ... Botulinum neurotoxin type FImported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ... IPR036248 Clostridium_toxin_transloc. IPR013320 ConA-like_dom_sf. IPR011065 Kunitz_inhibitor_STI-like_sf. IPR013104 Toxin_rcpt- ... IPR036248 Clostridium_toxin_transloc. IPR013320 ConA-like_dom_sf. IPR011065 Kunitz_inhibitor_STI-like_sf. IPR013104 Toxin_rcpt- ...
Precursor of botulinum neurotoxin F which may have 2 coreceptors; complex polysialylated gangliosides found on neural tissue ... Botulinum toxin causes flaccid paralysis by inhibiting neurotransmitter (acetylcholine) release from the presynaptic membranes ... sp,P30996,BXF_CLOBO Botulinum neurotoxin type F OS=Clostridium botulinum OX=1491 GN=botF PE=1 SV=1 ... Botulinum neurotoxin type F: Botulinum toxin causes flaccid paralysis by inhibiting neurotransmitter (acetylcholine) release ...
A novel strain of Clostridium botulinum that produces type B and type H botulinum toxins.. Barash JR1, Arnon SS. ... Clostridium botulinum strain IBCA10-7060, isolated from a patient with infant botulism, produced botulinum neurotoxin type B ( ... botulinum type Bh strain to be identified. BoNT/H is the first new botulinum toxin type to be recognized in ,40 years, and its ... Clostridium botulinum toxin statement from the director of the California Department of Public Health. [J Infect Dis. 2014] ...
Publication type, MeSH terms, Substances. Publication type. *Case Reports. MeSH terms. *Botulinum Toxins, Type A/isolation & ... A severe case of infant botulism caused by Clostridium botulinum type A with concomitant intestinal viral infections.. Fenicia ...
Clostridium botuinum is a spore-forming bacterium, which produces potent neurotoxins (BoNT) and which is responsible for a ... Genetic variation in Clostridium botulinum, types of botulism in France. International Congress on Bacteriology & Infectious ... According to their immunological properties, BoNTs are divided into 7 types (A to G) and each type is generally synthesized by ... Type B botulism is traditional in our country subsequently to ingestion of contaminated pork meat products. However, in the ...
anti-Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Antikörper (DyLight 755) Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Antikörper (DyLight 755) ... Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Antikörper (ABIN4263961). ... Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Reaktivität Bakterien. ... C. Botulinum E toxoid. There is no cross-reactivity with A and B toxoids in sandwich ELISA. ...
... but there seems be a toxicoinfection with the neurotoxin-producing bacterium clostridium botulinum and the disease. ... botulinum type C toxicoinfection. Source: Hunter LC, Miller JK, Poxton IR. (1999): The association of Clostridium botulinum ... Grass sickness and clostridium botulinum type C Grass sickness is an often fatal disease affecting horses especially in the ... Clostridium botulinum was first implicated as a causative agent when it was isolated from the GI tract of a horse with EGS in ...
Clostridium botulinum types C and D, as well as their mosaic variants C-D and D-C, are associated with avian and mammalian ... 0/botulinum toxin type C; 0/botulinum toxin type D; EC 3.4.24.69/Botulinum Toxins ... botulinum types C (n = 12), C-D (n = 29), D (n = 5), and D-C (n = 10), other botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT)-producing Clostridium ... Clostridium botulinum types C and D, as well as their mosaic variants C-D and D-C, are associated with avian and mammalian ...
Native purified Clostridium botulinum Type B Neurotoxin emulsified in Freunds adjuvant. (PAB29146) - Products - Abnova ... Chicken polyclonal antibody raised against Clostridium botulinum Type B Neurotoxin. ... Clostridium botulinum Type B Neurotoxin polyclonal antibody. Clostridium botulinum Type B Neurotoxin polyclonal antibody. * ...
The relation between toxicity and toxin-related-antigen contents of Clostridium botulinum types C and D cultures as determined ... The relation between toxicity and toxin-related-antigen contents of Clostridium botulinum types C and D cultures as determined ...
... Artin, Ingrid LU ; ... non-proteolytic Clostridium botulinum type E were studied during the growth cycle. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and ... non-proteolytic Clostridium botulinum type E were studied during the growth cycle. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and ... non-proteolytic Clostridium botulinum type E were studied during the growth cycle. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and ...
Competitive inhibition of clostridium botulinum Botulinum neurotoxin type A light chain by RP-HPLC analysis. ...
Dysport® (clostridium botulinum type A toxin-haemagglutinin complex) now approved in the UK for symptomatic treatment of upper ... Dysport® is an injectable form of a botulinum neurotoxin type A product, which is a substance derived from Clostridium bacteria ... "Therapeutic options such as botulinum toxin type A are an important part of the multidisciplinary approach for treating ... producing botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) that inhibits the effective transmission of nerve impulses and thereby reduces ...
Monoclonal Antibody to Clostridium botulinum Type A Neurotoxin Heavy Chain (amino acids 1177-1195). , validated in WB, EIA ( ... Clostridium botulinum Type A Neurotoxin Heavy Chain (amino acids 1177-1195). Weak cross-reactivity with Type B and Type E ... Monoclonal Antibody to Clostridium botulinum Type A Neurotoxin Heavy Chain (amino acids 1177-1195). is for research use only ... Monoclonal Antibody to Clostridium botulinum Type A Neurotoxin Heavy Chain (amino acids 1177-1195). ...
Clostridium botulinum / neurotoxin / receptor. Research Abstract. Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin acts on nerve ending to ... Publications] Nishiki,T. et al.: Identification of protein receptor for clostridium botulinum type B neurotoxin in rat brain ... Publications] Nishiki,T. et al.: The high-affinity binding of clostridium botulinum type B neurotoxin to synaptotagmin II ... Publications] Nishiki T.,et al.: The high-affinity binding of Clostridium botulinum type B neurotoxin to synaptotagmin II ...
Honey sold directly by producers in the Silesian region of Poland as a source of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and F , ... Honey sold directly by producers in the Silesian region of Poland as a source of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and F ... NEVAS M, LINDSTROM M, HAUTAMAKI K, PUOSKARI S, KORKEALA H (2005): Prevalence and diversity of Clostridium botulinum types A, B ... The major serotypes detected were type A - in two (5.1%) and type B - in two (5.1%) honey samples, respectively. Types E and F ...
In C. botulinum type E and C. butyricum type E strains the location of the bont/e gene cluster appears to be the result of ... Chromosome and plasmid sequences of several C. botulinum strains representing A, B, E and F serotypes and a C. butyricum type E ... botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs, A-G). The four species have been classified as C. botulinum Groups I-IV. The presence of bont ... have led to the lineages observed today within the neurotoxin-producing clostridia. ...
This is botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A), one the toxins that causes the deadly paralytic illness botulism. ... Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin, molecular model showing secondary structure. ... Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin, molecular model showing secondary structure. This is botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A), ... It is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and is usually ingested in the form of contaminated food. Type A is used ...
QD Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A from Clostridium botulinum1,3,4 \ 9130A for more molecular products just contact us ... QD Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A from Clostridium botulinum1,3,4. Related products : QD Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A from ... QD Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A from Clostridium botulinum1,3,4 / Product Detail : 9130A QD Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A from ... 9130A QD Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A from Clostridium botulinum1,3,4 Ask technical file . ...
Botulinum Neurotoxin Type E, Nicked, from Clostridium botulinum1,3,4 \ 141A for more molecular products just contact us ... Botulinum Neurotoxin Type E, Nicked, from Clostridium botulinum1,3,4. Related products : Botulinum Neurotoxin Type E, Nicked, ... Botulinum Neurotoxin Type E, Nicked, from Clostridium botulinum1,3,4 / Product Detail : 141A Botulinum Neurotoxin Type E, ... Botulinum neurotoxin A light chain; Botulinum neurotoxin A heavy chain]. [botA atx bna] Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) ( ...
  • There are mainly three types of tetanus Local tetanus, Cephalic tetanus and generalised tetanus. (blogspot.com)
  • There is involvement of the cranial nerves , especially in the facial area.Generalized tetanus is the most common type of tetanus representing about 80% of cases. (blogspot.com)
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