Clostridium botulinum: A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.Botulinum Toxins: Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.Botulism: A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)Clostridium botulinum type C: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type C which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans. It causes dissociation of ACTIN FILAMENTS.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Clostridium botulinum type D: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type D which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans.Clostridium botulinum type E: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type E which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Thermus thermophilus: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in hot springs of neutral to alkaline pH, as well as in hot-water heaters.Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Cytochrome b Group: Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) with protoheme (HEME B) as the prosthetic group.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Neurotoxins: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.Toxicity Tests, Acute: Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of one-time, short-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.Tetanus Toxin: Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.Holmium: Holmium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ho, atomic number 67, and atomic weight 164.93.Motor Neuron Disease: Diseases characterized by a selective degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, brainstem, or motor cortex. Clinical subtypes are distinguished by the major site of degeneration. In AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS there is involvement of upper, lower, and brainstem motor neurons. In progressive muscular atrophy and related syndromes (see MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL) the motor neurons in the spinal cord are primarily affected. With progressive bulbar palsy (BULBAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE), the initial degeneration occurs in the brainstem. In primary lateral sclerosis, the cortical neurons are affected in isolation. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)Polyneuropathies: Diseases of multiple peripheral nerves simultaneously. Polyneuropathies usually are characterized by symmetrical, bilateral distal motor and sensory impairment with a graded increase in severity distally. The pathological processes affecting peripheral nerves include degeneration of the axon, myelin or both. The various forms of polyneuropathy are categorized by the type of nerve affected (e.g., sensory, motor, or autonomic), by the distribution of nerve injury (e.g., distal vs. proximal), by nerve component primarily affected (e.g., demyelinating vs. axonal), by etiology, or by pattern of inheritance.Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Toxascariasis: Infections with nematodes of the genus TOXASCARIS.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Veterinarians: Individuals with a degree in veterinary medicine that provides them with training and qualifications to treat diseases and injuries of animals.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.CaliforniaEducation, Veterinary: Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.Tissue and Organ Harvesting: The procedure of removing TISSUES, organs, or specimens from DONORS for reuse, such as TRANSPLANTATION.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Prophages: Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Bacteriocins: Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Bacteriophage lambda: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.Toxins, Biological: Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.Fish Products: Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).Clostridium botulinum type A: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces BOTULINUM TOXINS, TYPE A which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Surgery, Veterinary: A board-certified specialty of VETERINARY MEDICINE, requiring at least four years of special education, training, and practice of veterinary surgery after graduation from veterinary school. In the written, oral, and practical examinations candidates may choose either large or small animal surgery. (From AVMA Directory, 43d ed, p278)Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Heart-Assist Devices: Small pumps, often implantable, designed for temporarily assisting the heart, usually the LEFT VENTRICLE, to pump blood. They consist of a pumping chamber and a power source, which may be partially or totally external to the body and activated by electromagnetic motors.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Lecythidaceae: A plant family of the order Lecythidales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.Peer Review: An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.

Type C botulism due to toxic feed affecting 52,000 farmed foxes and minks in Finland. (1/7)

The largest reported outbreak of type C botulism in fur production animals is described. Epidemiological investigation of 117 out of 157 (response rate, 74.5%) farms revealed that 44,130 animals died or were euthanized, while 8,033 animals with milder symptoms recovered. The overall death rate in all animals at risk was 21.7%. The death rates were significantly higher in blue and shadow foxes (24.2 and 27.8%, respectively) than in silver and blue silver foxes and minks (below 4%). All minks had been immunized against botulinum toxin type C. Deaths were associated with feed manufactured by a local processor, 83 of whose customer farms (70.9%) reported dead or sick animals. Five feedlots out of 19 delivered to the farms on the day preceding the onset of the outbreak (day 2) were associated with a death rate higher than 40%. These feedlots consisted of fresh feed processed on day 2 and feed processed 1 day earlier (day 1). In laboratory analysis, the day 2 feed contained botulinum toxin type C (>600 minimum lethal doses/g), while the day 1 feed did not contain toxin. Toxin was not detected in feed raw-material samples. Clostridium botulinum type C was detected by PCR in some feed components and in feed. However, as the feed temperature was continuously 8 degrees C or below and the pH was continuously 5.6 or below according to the manufacturer, it seems unlikely that spore germination and toxin formation occurred during overnight storage. Hence, the events leading to toxin formation were not determined.  (+info)

Natural Clostridium botulinum type C toxicosis in a group of cats. (2/7)

Clinical signs of botulism were observed in a group of eight cats, four of which died, after being fed pelican carrion. Clostridium botulinum type C was isolated from one cat. The microorganism and its toxin were found in the pelican. This is apparently the first report of natural botulism in cats.  (+info)

Molecular analysis of an extrachromosomal element containing the C2 toxin gene discovered in Clostridium botulinum type C. (3/7)

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Phospholipase C produced by Clostridium botulinum types C and D: comparison of gene, enzymatic, and biological activities with those of Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin. (4/7)

Clostridium botulinum type C and D strains recently have been found to produce PLC on egg yolk agar plates. To characterize the gene, enzymatic and biological activities of C. botulinum PLCs (Cb-PLCs), the cb-plc genes from 8 strains were sequenced, and 1 representative gene was cloned and expressed as a recombinant protein. The enzymatic and hemolytic activities of the recombinant Cb-PLC were measured and compared with those of the Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin. Each of the eight cb-plc genes encoded a 399 amino acid residue protein preceded by a 27 residue signal peptide. The protein consists of 2 domains, the N- and C-domains, and the overall amino acid sequence identity between Cb-PLC and alpha-toxin was greater than 50%, suggesting that Cb-PLC is homologous to the alpha-toxin. The key residues in the N-domain were conserved, whereas those in the C-domain which are important in membrane interaction were different than in the alpha-toxin. As expected, Cb-PLC could hydrolyze egg yolk phospholipid, p-nitrophenylphosphorylcholine, and sphingomyelin, and also exhibited hemolytic activity;however, its activities were about 4- to over 200-fold lower than those of alpha-toxin. Although Cb-PLC showed weak enzymatic and biological activities, it is speculated that Cb-PLC might play a role in the pathogenicity of botulism or for bacterial survival.  (+info)

Environmental factors influencing the prevalence of a Clostridium botulinum type C/D mosaic strain in nonpermanent Mediterranean wetlands. (5/7)

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Production and evaluation of a recombinant chimeric vaccine against clostridium botulinum neurotoxin types C and D. (6/7)

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An atypical Clostridium strain related to the Clostridium botulinum group III strain isolated from a human blood culture. (7/7)

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*List of foodborne illness outbreaks in the United States

Botulism (Type A Clostridium botulinum) in Peoria, Illinois. 28 persons were hospitalized, and 20 patients were treated with an ... "Outbreak of Botulism Type E Associated with Eating a Beached Whale - Western Alaska, July 2002". cdc.gov. Johnson, Annysa ( ... Mann JM, Martin S, Hoffman R, Marrazzo S (March 1981). "Patient recovery from type A botulism: morbidity assessment following a ... http://starpas.azcc.gov/scripts/cgiip.exe/WService=wsbroker1/names-detail.p?name-id=L12696489&type=L.L.C. Fox, Maggie (November ...

*Myron W. Wentz

"Clostridium botulinum type F: Seasonal inhibition by Bacillus lichenoformis". Science 1967;155(758): 89-90. "Meet the Founder ...

*Polyneuropathy in dogs and cats

"Natural Clostridium botulinum Type C Toxicosis in a Group of Cats". J Clin Microbiol. 42 (11): 5406-8. doi:10.1128/JCM.42.11. ... The most common type is Coonhound paralysis. This is similar to Guillain-Barré syndrome in humans. Coonhound paralysis seems to ... Hyperchylomicronemia or hyperlipoproteinemia is a type of inherited hyperlipidemia in cats. Polyneuropathy is caused by ...

*Clostridium botulinum

... botulinum types A or B. C. botulinum type A was found to be present in soil samples from mountain areas of Victoria. Type-B ... 1988, Clostridium argentinense sp.nov.: a genetically homogeneous group composed of all strains of Clostridium botulinum type G ... Type A C. botulinum predominates the soil samples from the western regions, while type B is the major type found in eastern ... Clostridium Botulinum type A (most potent type) can be broken down and destroyed for 160 °f for 10 minutes, but they are ...

*Avian botulism

... of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. C. botulinum can fall into one of 7 different types which are strains A through G. Type ... Yule, Adam; Ian K. Barker; John W. Austin; Richard D. Moccia (2006). "Toxicity of Clostridium Botulinum Type E Neurotoxin to ... Franciosa, G; L. Fenicia; C. Caldiani; P. Aureli (1996). "PCR for detection of Clostridium botulinum type C in avian and ... The Type E strain is also commonly associated with avian outbreaks and is frequently found in fish species which is why most ...

*Grass sickness

... however the toxin produced from the bacterium Clostridium botulinum type C may be involved. Clostridium botulinum is a soil- ... It may cause grass sickness when the spores of C. botulinum type C are ingested and produce their toxin locally within the ... Grass sickness may affect all types of horse, pony and donkey, and has affected some well known horses including the ...

*Abe Anellis

"Sporulation of Clostridium botulinum Types A, B and E, Clostridium Perfringens, and putrefactive Anaerobe 3679 in dialysis sacs ... "Comparative Dose-Survival Curves of Representative Clostridium botulinum Type F Spores and Type A and B Spores", Applied and ... "Production of Types A and B Spores of Clostridium botulinum by the Biphasic Method: Effect on Spore Population, Radiation ... "Cryogenic Gamma Irradiation of Prototype Pork and Chicken and Antagonistic Effect between Clostridium botulinum Types A and B ...

*Laminitis

Botulinum toxin infusion As an alternative to the deep digital flexor tenotomy, Clostridium botulinum type A toxin has been ... Carter, D; Renfroe (2009). "A Novel Approach to the Treatment and Prevention of Laminitis: Botulinum Toxin Type A for the ... Trimming Successful treatment for any type of founder must necessarily involve stabilization of the bony column by some means. ...

*Eric Robinson (veterinarian)

"The Bacteria of the Clostridium Botulinum C and D types". In 1929 he was also director of the Bacterial Vaccine Section at ...

*Qapqal disease

According to further researches, the Clostridium botulinum strains isolated were mainly type A, with several cases of type B. ... FU, Si-Wu; WANG, Chen-Huai (2008). "An Overview of Type E Botulism in China". Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. 21 (4): ... The team also discovered that, the source of the botulinum was a local fermented food called mi song hu hu. They promoted the ... and they were eradicated soon after the identification of them as cases type A botulism. After the liberation of 1949, a ...

*List of MeSH codes (B03)

Clostridium botulinum type A MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.160.100 --- Clostridium botulinum type B MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.160.150 ... Clostridium botulinum type C MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.160.200 --- Clostridium botulinum type D MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.160.250 ... Clostridium botulinum type E MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.160.300 --- Clostridium botulinum type F MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.160.350 ... Clostridium botulinum type A MeSH B03.510.415.400.200.160.100 --- Clostridium botulinum type B MeSH B03.510.415.400.200.160.150 ...

*Botulism

Clostridium botulinum type C toxin has been incriminated as the cause of grass sickness, a condition in horses which occurs in ... by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Clostridium botulinum is a large anaerobic Gram-positive bacillus that forms ... Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic, Gram positive, spore-forming rod. Botulinum toxin is one of the most powerful known ... However, further studies showed type H to be a chimeric toxin composed of parts of types F and A (FA). Some types produce a ...

*Theiler's disease

Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Streptococcus equi subspecies equi, Equine influenza, Equine herpesvirus type 1 ... Eight horses that had received prophylactic botulinum antitoxin and developed subsequent signs of Theiler's disease were ...

*Clostridium novyi

Some authors include Clostridium haemolyticum as Clostridium novyi type D. C novyi is closely related to Clostridium botulinum ... The toxins normally produced by the various types are shown in table 1 The alpha-toxin of Clostridium botulinum types C and D, ... Type strain of Clostridium novyi at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Biology portal. ... Moore WB (October 1968). "Solidified media suitable for the cultivation of Clostridium novyi type B". Journal of General ...

*Clostridium argentinense

"Clostridium argentinense sp. nov.: A Genetically Homogeneous Group Composed of All Strains of Clostridium botulinum Toxin Type ... botulinum toxin group G, respectively. Like Cl. botulinum, Cl. argentinense produces botulin, a neurotoxin that causes botulism ... "Clostridium argentinense: Suen et al., 1988". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). "Clostridium argentinense ... Clostridium argentinense is an anaerobic, motile, gram-positive bacterium. Some bacilli now identified as Cl. argentinense were ...

*Sodium nitrite

... is well known for its role in inhibiting the growth of Clostridium botulinum spores in refrigerated meats. The ... Furthermore, the type of bacteria also affects sodium nitrites effectiveness. It is generally agreed upon that sodium nitrite ... for this activity results from the inhibition of iron-sulfur clusters essential to energy metabolism of Clostridium botulinum. ... "Contribution of different vegetable types to exogenous nitrate and nitrite exposure". Food Chemistry. 120 (4): 960-966. doi: ...

*Host-pathogen interaction

Many pathogenic bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureusand Clostridium botulinum are food borne pathogens that secrete toxins ... Each of these different types of organisms can then be further classified as a pathogen based on its mode of transmission. This ... Each of these three types of antimicrobials can be classified into two subsequent groups: bactericidal and bacteriostatic. ...

*Select agent

Tier 1 BSATs are indicated by an asterisk (*). Botulinum neurotoxin-producing species of Clostridium* Coxiella burnetii ... Alcelaphine herpesvirus type 1) Menangle virus Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (contagious caprine ... Abrin Botulinum neurotoxins* Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin Conotoxins Ricin Saxitoxin Shiga-like ribosome inactivating ... proteins Shiga toxin Staphylococcal enterotoxins Tetrodotoxin 2 Type A trichothecenes: Diacetoxyscirpenol T-2 toxin Bacillus ...

*Bacteria

H7 and Clostridium botulinum, the toxin genes in an integrated phage converted a harmless ancestral bacterium into a lethal ... This environmentally important trait can be found in most bacteria of the metabolic types listed above. Regardless of the type ... There are many types of antibiotics and each class inhibits a process that is different in the pathogen from that found in the ... Many types of secretion systems are known and these structures are often essential for the virulence of pathogens, so are ...

*Wrinkle

Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botox is a specific form of botulinum ... botulinum toxin type B) in type A-resistant cervical dystonia". Neurology. 53 (7): 1431-8. doi:10.1212/WNL.53.7.1431. PMID ... Botulinum toxin treats wrinkles by immobilizing the muscles which cause wrinkles. It is not appropriate for the treatment of ... Botulinum toxin Injectable filler Danby, FW (Jul-Aug 2010). "Nutrition and aging skin: sugar and glycation". Cln Dermatol. 4. ...

*Curing salt

... specifically Clostridium botulinum in an effort to prevent botulism, and helps preserve the color of cured meat. Many also ... There are many types of curing salts often specific to a country or region. One of the most common curing salts. It is also ...

*Toxoid

Botulin is produced by Clostridium botulinum and causes the deadly disease botulism. While patients may sometimes complain of ... which has replaced horse serum-type tetanus antitoxin in most of the developed world. Anatoxin "The Preparation and Testing of ... For example, the tetanus toxoid is derived from the tetanospasmin produced by Clostridium tetani. The latter causes tetanus and ...

*Food storage

... meats serve to reduce the risks of food poisoning from anaerobic bacteria such as species of Clostridium that release botulinum ... when some types begin to go rancid. Unopened oils can have a storage life of up to one year, but some types have a shorter ... Modern techniques of preparing meat for storage vary with the type of meat and special requirements of tenderness, flavour, ...

*Sausage making

The bacterium responsible, Clostridium botulinum, is ubiquitous in the environment, grows in the anaerobic conditions created ... Emulsion-type cooked sausages, such as frankfurters or bologna, use a bowl chopper to make finely ground meat batter that is ... Nitrites are used for all types of sausages and are the most common. Nitrates are used only in the preparation of the cured dry ... Sausages come in two main types: fresh and cured. Cured sausages may be either cooked or dried. Most cured sausages are smoked ...

*Clostridium baratii

"Clostridium baratii". Retrieved 2011-01-24. Type strain of Clostridium baratii at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... As opposed to the classic cause of botulism, C. botulinum, its environmental source is unknown. Therefore, it is unclear how to ... "Clostridium baratii: Prévot 1938". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Clostridium baratii at the ... Infant Botulism Caused by Clostridium baratii Type F - Iowa, 2013". MMWR. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved ...

*Iraqi biological weapons program

Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium perfringens (gas gangrene) and several viruses (including enterovirus 17 [human ... five types of virus, and four toxins. Of these, three-anthrax, botulinum and aflatoxin-had proceeded to weaponization for ... botulinum toxins, and Clostridium perfringens toxins. Post-war inspections by UNSCOM, however, were confounded by ... From the United States, the non-profit American Type Culture Collection and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control sold or sent ...
Grass sickness is an often fatal disease affecting horses especially in the springtime and leading to different signs of neurotoxicity. The pathogenesis still remains unclear, but there seems be a toxicoinfection with the neurotoxin-producing bacterium clostridium botulinum and the disease.
Need to know more about Restless Legs Syndrome? Find expert research & treatment advice from the American Sleep Association - Official Site.

Infant Botulism - American Family PhysicianInfant Botulism - American Family Physician

An infant can acquire botulism by ingesting Clostridium botulinum spores, which are found in soil or honey products. The spores ... Polymerase chain reaction for detection of Clostridium botulinum types A, B and E in food, soil and infant faeces. J Appl ... Clostridium botulinum and sudden infant death syndrome: a 10 year prospective study. J Paediatr Child Health. 1992;28:156-7. ... The large intestine as the site of Clostridium botulinum colonization in human infant botulism. J Infect Dis. 1987;156:997-8. ...
more infohttps://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0401/p1388.html

Botulism in the United States: A Clinical and Epidemiologic Review | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of...Botulism in the United States: A Clinical and Epidemiologic Review | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of...

... spore-forming bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botulism in humans is usually caused by toxin types A, B, and E. Since 1973, a ... An Outbreak of Type A Botulism Associated with a Commercial Cheese Sauce Annals of Internal Medicine; 125 (7): 558-563 ... Clostridium difficile Colitis: An Efficient Clinical Approach to Diagnosis Annals of Internal Medicine; 123 (11): 835-840 ... Because clinicians are the first to treat patients in any type of botulism outbreak, they must know how to recognize, diagnose ...
more infohttp://annals.org/aim/article-abstract/711596/botulism-united-states-clinical-epidemiologic-review?volume=129&issue=3&page=221

Emergencies Biological BotulismEmergencies Biological Botulism

The toxin is produced by a bacterium called Clostridium botulinum. Botulism develops if a person ingests the toxin or if the ... How many types of botulism are there? +. There are three main types of botulism, categorized by the way the disease is acquired ... This typically occurs when a stored food item contains Clostridium botulinum spores which begin to grow and produce the toxin ... Although safe for children and adults, honey should not be fed to infants because it may contain Clostridium botulinum spores. ...
more infohttps://www1.nyc.gov/site/doh/health/emergency-preparedness/emergencies-biological-botulism.page

Infant botulism and botulism immune globulin in the UK: a case series of four infants | Archives of Disease in ChildhoodInfant botulism and botulism immune globulin in the UK: a case series of four infants | Archives of Disease in Childhood

... botulism was raised and confirmed on day 4 of intensive care admission with faecal sample positive for C botulinum toxin type A ... for analysis to the regional Health Protection Laboratory confirmed the presence of toxin A producing Clostridium botulinum on ...
more infohttp://adc.bmj.com/content/97/5/459

botF - Botulinum neurotoxin type F precursor - Clostridium botulinum - botF gene & proteinbotF - Botulinum neurotoxin type F precursor - Clostridium botulinum - botF gene & protein

Precursor of botulinum neurotoxin F which may have 2 coreceptors; complex polysialylated gangliosides found on neural tissue ... Botulinum toxin causes flaccid paralysis by inhibiting neurotransmitter (acetylcholine) release from the presynaptic membranes ... sp,P30996,BXF_CLOBO Botulinum neurotoxin type F OS=Clostridium botulinum OX=1491 GN=botF PE=1 SV=1 ... Botulinum neurotoxin type F: Botulinum toxin causes flaccid paralysis by inhibiting neurotransmitter (acetylcholine) release ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P30996

eno - Enolase - Clostridium botulinum (strain Eklund 17B / Type B) - eno gene & proteineno - Enolase - Clostridium botulinum (strain Eklund 17B / Type B) - eno gene & protein

Clostridium botulinum (strain Eklund 17B / Type B). Clostridium botulinum. Clostridium botulinum (strain Alaska E43 / Type E3) ... Clostridium botulinum (strain Eklund 17B / Type B). Clostridium botulinum. 431. UniRef100_B2TPW4. Cluster: Enolase. 2. ... Clostridium botulinum (strain Eklund 17B / Type B). ,p>This subsection of the Names and taxonomy section shows the unique ... Clostridium botulinum E1 str. BoNT E Beluga. Clostridium taeniosporum. 431. UniRef90_B2TPW4. Cluster: Enolase. 11. ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/B2TPW4

Grass Sickness and Clostridium Botulinum Type CGrass Sickness and Clostridium Botulinum Type C

... but there seems be a toxicoinfection with the neurotoxin-producing bacterium clostridium botulinum and the disease. ... botulinum type C toxicoinfection. Source: Hunter LC, Miller JK, Poxton IR. (1999): The association of Clostridium botulinum ... Grass sickness and clostridium botulinum type C Grass sickness is an often fatal disease affecting horses especially in the ... Clostridium botulinum was first implicated as a causative agent when it was isolated from the GI tract of a horse with EGS in ...
more infohttp://www.vetcontact.com/en/art.php?a=816&t=

Genetic Variation In Clostridium Botulinum, Types Of Botulism In France | 15109Genetic Variation In Clostridium Botulinum, Types Of Botulism In France | 15109

Clostridium botuinum is a spore-forming bacterium, which produces potent neurotoxins (BoNT) and which is responsible for a ... Genetic variation in Clostridium botulinum, types of botulism in France. International Congress on Bacteriology & Infectious ... According to their immunological properties, BoNTs are divided into 7 types (A to G) and each type is generally synthesized by ... Type B botulism is traditional in our country subsequently to ingestion of contaminated pork meat products. However, in the ...
more infohttps://www.omicsonline.org/proceedings/genetic-variation-in-clostridium-botulinum-types-of-botulism-in-france-15109.html

Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Antikörper (DyLight 755) (ABIN4263961)Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Antikörper (DyLight 755) (ABIN4263961)

anti-Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Antikörper (DyLight 755) Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Antikörper (DyLight 755) ... Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Antikörper (ABIN4263961). ... Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Reaktivität Bakterien. ... C. Botulinum E toxoid. There is no cross-reactivity with A and B toxoids in sandwich ELISA. ...
more infohttps://www.antikoerper-online.de/antibody/4263961/anti-Clostridium+Botulinum+Type+E+Toxoid+antibody+DyLight+755/

Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Antikörper (DyLight 405) (ABIN4263955)Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Antikörper (DyLight 405) (ABIN4263955)

anti-Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Antikörper (DyLight 405) Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Antikörper (DyLight 405) ... Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Antikörper (ABIN4263955). ... Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Reaktivität Bakterien. ... C. Botulinum E toxoid. There is no cross-reactivity with A and B toxoids in sandwich ELISA. ...
more infohttps://www.antikoerper-online.de/antibody/4263955/anti-Clostridium+Botulinum+Type+E+Toxoid+antibody+DyLight+405/

A novel strain of Clostridium botulinum that produces type B and type H botulinum toxins.  - PubMed - NCBIA novel strain of Clostridium botulinum that produces type B and type H botulinum toxins. - PubMed - NCBI

A novel strain of Clostridium botulinum that produces type B and type H botulinum toxins.. Barash JR1, Arnon SS. ... Clostridium botulinum strain IBCA10-7060, isolated from a patient with infant botulism, produced botulinum neurotoxin type B ( ... botulinum type Bh strain to be identified. BoNT/H is the first new botulinum toxin type to be recognized in ,40 years, and its ... Clostridium botulinum toxin statement from the director of the California Department of Public Health. [J Infect Dis. 2014] ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24106296?dopt=Abstract

Clostridium botulinum Type B Neurotoxin polyclonal antibody - (PAB29146) - Products - AbnovaClostridium botulinum Type B Neurotoxin polyclonal antibody - (PAB29146) - Products - Abnova

Native purified Clostridium botulinum Type B Neurotoxin emulsified in Freunds adjuvant. (PAB29146) - Products - Abnova ... Chicken polyclonal antibody raised against Clostridium botulinum Type B Neurotoxin. ... Clostridium botulinum Type B Neurotoxin polyclonal antibody. Clostridium botulinum Type B Neurotoxin polyclonal antibody. * ...
more infohttp://www.abnova.com/products/products_detail.asp?catalog_id=PAB29146

A severe case of infant botulism caused by Clostridium botulinum type A with concomitant intestinal viral infections.  - PubMed...A severe case of infant botulism caused by Clostridium botulinum type A with concomitant intestinal viral infections. - PubMed...

Publication type, MeSH terms, Substances. Publication type. *Case Reports. MeSH terms. *Botulinum Toxins, Type A/isolation & ... A severe case of infant botulism caused by Clostridium botulinum type A with concomitant intestinal viral infections.. Fenicia ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15170567?dopt=Abstract

Neurotoxin gene profiling of clostridium botulinum types C and D native to different countries within Europe.Neurotoxin gene profiling of clostridium botulinum types C and D native to different countries within Europe.

Clostridium botulinum types C and D, as well as their mosaic variants C-D and D-C, are associated with avian and mammalian ... 0/botulinum toxin type C; 0/botulinum toxin type D; EC 3.4.24.69/Botulinum Toxins ... botulinum types C (n = 12), C-D (n = 29), D (n = 5), and D-C (n = 10), other botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT)-producing Clostridium ... Clostridium botulinum types C and D, as well as their mosaic variants C-D and D-C, are associated with avian and mammalian ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Neurotoxin-gene-profiling-Clostridium-botulinum/22344654.html

Effects of Carbon Dioxide on Neurotoxin Gene Expression in Non-proteolytic Clostridium botulinum type E.Effects of Carbon Dioxide on Neurotoxin Gene Expression in Non-proteolytic Clostridium botulinum type E.

... Artin, Ingrid LU ; ... non-proteolytic Clostridium botulinum type E were studied during the growth cycle. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and ... non-proteolytic Clostridium botulinum type E were studied during the growth cycle. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and ... non-proteolytic Clostridium botulinum type E were studied during the growth cycle. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and ...
more infohttps://lup.lub.lu.se/search/publication/1052920

The relation between toxicity and toxin-related-antigen contents of Clostridium botulinum types C and D cultures as determined...The relation between toxicity and toxin-related-antigen contents of Clostridium botulinum types C and D cultures as determined...

The relation between toxicity and toxin-related-antigen contents of Clostridium botulinum types C and D cultures as determined ... The relation between toxicity and toxin-related-antigen contents of Clostridium botulinum types C and D cultures as determined ...
more infohttps://www.rivm.nl/publicaties/relation-between-toxicity-and-toxin-related-antigen-contents-of-clostridium-botulinum

KAKEN - Research Projects | STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF RECEPTOR FOR CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM TYPE B NEUROTOXIN (KAKENHI-PROJECT...KAKEN - Research Projects | STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF RECEPTOR FOR CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM TYPE B NEUROTOXIN (KAKENHI-PROJECT...

Clostridium botulinum / neurotoxin / receptor. Research Abstract. Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin acts on nerve ending to ... Publications] Nishiki,T. et al.: Identification of protein receptor for clostridium botulinum type B neurotoxin in rat brain ... Publications] Nishiki,T. et al.: The high-affinity binding of clostridium botulinum type B neurotoxin to synaptotagmin II ... Publications] Nishiki T.,et al.: The high-affinity binding of Clostridium botulinum type B neurotoxin to synaptotagmin II ...
more infohttps://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-06660408/

Monoclonal Antibody to Clostridium botulinum Type A Neurotoxin Heavy Chain (amino acids 1177-1195).  - WB, EIA - Buy Now! ...Monoclonal Antibody to Clostridium botulinum Type A Neurotoxin Heavy Chain (amino acids 1177-1195). - WB, EIA - Buy Now! ...

Monoclonal Antibody to Clostridium botulinum Type A Neurotoxin Heavy Chain (amino acids 1177-1195). , validated in WB, EIA ( ... Clostridium botulinum Type A Neurotoxin Heavy Chain (amino acids 1177-1195). Weak cross-reactivity with Type B and Type E ... Monoclonal Antibody to Clostridium botulinum Type A Neurotoxin Heavy Chain (amino acids 1177-1195). is for research use only ... Monoclonal Antibody to Clostridium botulinum Type A Neurotoxin Heavy Chain (amino acids 1177-1195). ...
more infohttp://www.abgent.com/products/AR10941-Monoclonal-Antibody-to-Clostridium-botulinum-Type-A-Neurotoxin-Heavy-Chain-amino-acids-1177-

Honey sold directly by producers in the Silesian region of Poland as a source of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and F |...Honey sold directly by producers in the Silesian region of Poland as a source of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and F |...

Honey sold directly by producers in the Silesian region of Poland as a source of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and F , ... Honey sold directly by producers in the Silesian region of Poland as a source of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and F ... NEVAS M, LINDSTROM M, HAUTAMAKI K, PUOSKARI S, KORKEALA H (2005): Prevalence and diversity of Clostridium botulinum types A, B ... The major serotypes detected were type A - in two (5.1%) and type B - in two (5.1%) honey samples, respectively. Types E and F ...
more infohttps://www.agriculturejournals.cz/web/cjfs.htm?type=article&id=376_2016-CJFS

Recombination and insertion events involving the botulinum neurotoxin complex genes in Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and...Recombination and insertion events involving the botulinum neurotoxin complex genes in Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and...

In C. botulinum type E and C. butyricum type E strains the location of the bont/e gene cluster appears to be the result of ... Chromosome and plasmid sequences of several C. botulinum strains representing A, B, E and F serotypes and a C. butyricum type E ... botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs, A-G). The four species have been classified as C. botulinum Groups I-IV. The presence of bont ... have led to the lineages observed today within the neurotoxin-producing clostridia. ...
more infohttps://bmcbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1741-7007-7-66

Activation of Some Clostridium botulinum Type D Toxin by Trypsin | Microbiology SocietyActivation of Some Clostridium botulinum Type D Toxin by Trypsin | Microbiology Society

... botulinum types C and D, the toxicity of C2 toxin, which is a minor toxin produced by both types C and D, is increased when the ... The present communication suggests that some strains of C. botulinum type D produce their major toxin in a form that may be ... Toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and F may be activated by exposure to trypsin (Duff et al., 1956; ... Activation of Some Clostridium botulinum Type D Toxin by Trypsin * A. Nakane, K. Oguma and H. Iida ...
more infohttps://www.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-111-2-429

Finished Whole-Genome Sequences of Two Clostridium botulinum Type A(B) Isolates.  - PubMed - NCBIFinished Whole-Genome Sequences of Two Clostridium botulinum Type A(B) Isolates. - PubMed - NCBI

Finished Whole-Genome Sequences of Two Clostridium botulinum Type A(B) Isolates.. Halpin JL1, Hill K2, Johnson SL2, Bruce DC2, ... Clostridium botulinum secretes a potent neurotoxin that causes devastating effects when ingested, including paralysis and death ... In the United States, some clinically significant strains produce toxin type A while also harboring a silent B gene. These are ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=cdcpub&id=3856

Distinguishing highly-related outbreak-associated Clostridium botulinum type A(B) strains | BMC Microbiology | Full TextDistinguishing highly-related outbreak-associated Clostridium botulinum type A(B) strains | BMC Microbiology | Full Text

These strains are designated type A(B). The most common pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern in the C. botulinum ... The genome sequences of type A(B) strains evaluated in this study are closely related and cluster together compared to other ... This study confirms that type A(B) strains that share the same PFGE pattern also share closely-related genome sequences. The ... In silico multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis (7-loci) was unable to differentiate any of the type A(B) strains isolated ...
more infohttps://0-bmcmicrobiol-biomedcentral-com.brum.beds.ac.uk/articles/10.1186/1471-2180-14-192

Dysport 500 I.U: Dysport 500 I.U Injection | Clostridium Botulinum Type A Toxin-Haemagglutinin Injection Reasonable Price @...Dysport 500 I.U: Dysport 500 I.U Injection | Clostridium Botulinum Type A Toxin-Haemagglutinin Injection Reasonable Price @...

Inquire price of Dysport 500 I.U Injection composition of Clostridium botulinum type A toxin-haemagglutinin 500 I.U injection ... Composition : Clostridium botulinum type A toxin-haemagglutinin complex. Manufacturer: Bharat Serums and Vaccines Limited. Form ... Botulinum toxin type A). AbobotulinumtoxinA is made from the bacteria that causes botulism. Botulinum toxin blocks nerve ... You should not receive Dysport injecton if you are allergic to botulinum toxin or if you have an infection, swelling, or muscle ...
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  • This study reports on the development of low-density macroarrays based on the GeneDisc cycler platform (Pall-GeneDisc Technologies) applied to the simultaneous detection of the C. botulinum subtypes C, C-D, D, and D-C. The limit of detection of the PCR assays was 38 fg of total DNA, corresponding to 15 genome copies. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To understand the biological mechanisms allowing the adaptation of vegetative cells of C. butyricum type E to oxygen, we compared the proteome and metabolome profiles of the clostridial cultures grown for 5 h under either aerated or anaerobic conditions. (asm.org)
  • Group II is a subset of a more diverse clade that includes other saccharolytic clostridia, such as C. acetobutylicum , C. beijerinckii , and toxic and nontoxic Group V C. baratii and Group VI C. butyricum . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rrn genes of C. botulinum strains clearly separates them into four Groups (I-IV) and supports this historical classification scheme based upon biochemical and biophysical parameters [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • p>A type of phylogenetic evidence whereby an aspect of a descendent is inferred through the characterization of an aspect of a ancestral gene. (uniprot.org)
  • The toxic action involves the binding to a type-specific receptor via the heavy chain, endocytosis, and translocation of the light chain into cytosol. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Botulinum toxin causes flaccid paralysis by inhibiting neurotransmitter (acetylcholine) release from the presynaptic membranes of nerve terminals of the eukaryotic host skeletal and autonomic nervous system, with frequent heart or respiratory failure. (uniprot.org)
  • Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin acts on nerve ending to inhibit neurotransmitter release. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In silico multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis (7-loci) was unable to differentiate any of the type A(B) strains isolated from seven different outbreak investigations evaluated in this study. (beds.ac.uk)
  • 4 ] demonstrated that several type A(B) strains isolated in North America shared a high degree of genomic content. (beds.ac.uk)