Clostridium botulinum type C
Clostridium botulinum type D
Clostridium botulinum type E
Clostridium botulinum type A
Clostridium botulinum type B
Clostridium botulinum type F
Botulinum Toxins, Type A
Lethal Dose 50
ADP Ribose Transferases
Clostridium botulinum type G
Molecular Sequence Data
Amino Acid Sequence
Niemann-Pick Disease, Type C
Type C botulism due to toxic feed affecting 52,000 farmed foxes and minks in Finland. (1/7)The largest reported outbreak of type C botulism in fur production animals is described. Epidemiological investigation of 117 out of 157 (response rate, 74.5%) farms revealed that 44,130 animals died or were euthanized, while 8,033 animals with milder symptoms recovered. The overall death rate in all animals at risk was 21.7%. The death rates were significantly higher in blue and shadow foxes (24.2 and 27.8%, respectively) than in silver and blue silver foxes and minks (below 4%). All minks had been immunized against botulinum toxin type C. Deaths were associated with feed manufactured by a local processor, 83 of whose customer farms (70.9%) reported dead or sick animals. Five feedlots out of 19 delivered to the farms on the day preceding the onset of the outbreak (day 2) were associated with a death rate higher than 40%. These feedlots consisted of fresh feed processed on day 2 and feed processed 1 day earlier (day 1). In laboratory analysis, the day 2 feed contained botulinum toxin type C (>600 minimum lethal doses/g), while the day 1 feed did not contain toxin. Toxin was not detected in feed raw-material samples. Clostridium botulinum type C was detected by PCR in some feed components and in feed. However, as the feed temperature was continuously 8 degrees C or below and the pH was continuously 5.6 or below according to the manufacturer, it seems unlikely that spore germination and toxin formation occurred during overnight storage. Hence, the events leading to toxin formation were not determined. (+info)
Natural Clostridium botulinum type C toxicosis in a group of cats. (2/7)Clinical signs of botulism were observed in a group of eight cats, four of which died, after being fed pelican carrion. Clostridium botulinum type C was isolated from one cat. The microorganism and its toxin were found in the pelican. This is apparently the first report of natural botulism in cats. (+info)
Molecular analysis of an extrachromosomal element containing the C2 toxin gene discovered in Clostridium botulinum type C. (3/7)(+info)
Phospholipase C produced by Clostridium botulinum types C and D: comparison of gene, enzymatic, and biological activities with those of Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin. (4/7)Clostridium botulinum type C and D strains recently have been found to produce PLC on egg yolk agar plates. To characterize the gene, enzymatic and biological activities of C. botulinum PLCs (Cb-PLCs), the cb-plc genes from 8 strains were sequenced, and 1 representative gene was cloned and expressed as a recombinant protein. The enzymatic and hemolytic activities of the recombinant Cb-PLC were measured and compared with those of the Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin. Each of the eight cb-plc genes encoded a 399 amino acid residue protein preceded by a 27 residue signal peptide. The protein consists of 2 domains, the N- and C-domains, and the overall amino acid sequence identity between Cb-PLC and alpha-toxin was greater than 50%, suggesting that Cb-PLC is homologous to the alpha-toxin. The key residues in the N-domain were conserved, whereas those in the C-domain which are important in membrane interaction were different than in the alpha-toxin. As expected, Cb-PLC could hydrolyze egg yolk phospholipid, p-nitrophenylphosphorylcholine, and sphingomyelin, and also exhibited hemolytic activity;however, its activities were about 4- to over 200-fold lower than those of alpha-toxin. Although Cb-PLC showed weak enzymatic and biological activities, it is speculated that Cb-PLC might play a role in the pathogenicity of botulism or for bacterial survival. (+info)
Environmental factors influencing the prevalence of a Clostridium botulinum type C/D mosaic strain in nonpermanent Mediterranean wetlands. (5/7)(+info)
Production and evaluation of a recombinant chimeric vaccine against clostridium botulinum neurotoxin types C and D. (6/7)(+info)
An atypical Clostridium strain related to the Clostridium botulinum group III strain isolated from a human blood culture. (7/7)(+info)
1. Foodborne botulism: This type of botulism is caused by eating foods that have been contaminated with the bacteria. Symptoms typically begin within 12 to 72 hours after consuming the contaminated food and can include double vision, droopy eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, and muscle weakness.
2. Infant botulism: This type of botulism occurs in infants who are exposed to the bacteria through contact with contaminated soil or object. Symptoms can include constipation, poor feeding, and weak cry.
3. Wound botulism: This type of botulism is caused by the bacteria entering an open wound, usually a deep puncture wound or surgical incision.
Botulism is a rare illness in the United States, but it can be deadly if not treated promptly. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as mechanical ventilation and fluids, as well as antitoxin injections to neutralize the effects of the toxin. Prevention measures include proper food handling and storage, good hygiene practices, and avoiding consumption of improperly canned or preserved foods.
Examples of Bird Diseases:
1. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu): A viral disease that affects birds and can be transmitted to humans, causing respiratory illness and other symptoms.
2. Psittacosis (Parrot Fever): A bacterial infection caused by Chlamydophila psittaci, which can infect a wide range of bird species and can be transmitted to humans.
3. Aspergillosis: A fungal infection that affects birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing respiratory problems and other symptoms.
4. Beak and Feather Disease: A viral disease that affects birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing feather loss and beak deformities.
5. West Nile Virus: A viral disease that can affect birds, as well as humans and other animals, causing a range of symptoms including fever, headache, and muscle weakness.
6. Chlamydophila psittaci: A bacterial infection that can infect birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing respiratory problems and other symptoms.
7. Mycobacteriosis: A bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium avium, which can affect a wide range of bird species, including parrots and other Psittacines.
8. Pacheco's Disease: A viral disease that affects birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing respiratory problems and other symptoms.
9. Polyomavirus: A viral disease that can affect birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing a range of symptoms including respiratory problems and feather loss.
10. Retinoblastoma: A type of cancer that affects the eyes of birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines.
It's important to note that many of these diseases can be prevented or treated with proper care and management, including providing a clean and spacious environment, offering a balanced diet, and ensuring access to fresh water and appropriate medical care.
Some common types of Clostridium infections include:
* Clostridium difficile (C. diff) infection: This is a common type of diarrheal disease that can occur after taking antibiotics, especially in people who are hospitalized or living in long-term care facilities.
* Gas gangrene: This is a severe and potentially life-threatening infection that occurs when Clostridium bacteria infect damaged tissue, causing gas to build up in the affected area.
* Tetanus: This is a serious neurological infection caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani, which can enter the body through open wounds or puncture wounds.
* Botulism: This is a potentially fatal illness caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, which can be contracted through contaminated food or wounds.
Clostridium infections can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, and swelling or redness in the affected area. Treatment depends on the type of infection and may include antibiotics, surgery, or supportive care to manage symptoms.
Prevention measures for Clostridium infections include proper hand hygiene, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and practicing safe food handling practices to prevent the spread of botulism and other clostridial infections. Vaccines are also available for some types of clostridial infections, such as tetanus and botulism.
In summary, Clostridium infections are a diverse group of bacterial infections that can cause a range of illnesses, from mild to severe and life-threatening. Proper prevention and treatment measures are essential to avoid the potential complications of these infections.
Symptoms of NPC typically appear in infancy or childhood and can include:
* Delayed development and intellectual disability
* Loss of motor skills
* Vision loss and blindness
* Hearing loss and deafness
* Increased risk of infections
* Enlargement of the liver and spleen
There is currently no cure for NPC, but various treatments can help manage the symptoms. These may include:
* Medications to control seizures and muscle stiffness
* Physical therapy to maintain muscle strength and mobility
* Occupational therapy to improve daily functioning
* Speech therapy to address communication difficulties
* Liver transplantation in some cases
NPC is usually diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis. It can be challenging to diagnose NPC because the symptoms are similar to those of other disorders, and the genetic mutations responsible for the disease can be difficult to identify.
There is ongoing research into the causes and treatment of NPC, including gene therapy and small molecule therapies. However, more work needs to be done to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and to develop effective treatments.
PSE can be a serious condition, especially in older adults or those with weakened immune systems, as it can lead to life-threatening complications such as inflammation of the bowel wall, perforation of the bowel, and sepsis. PSE is often diagnosed through a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eradicate the infection, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms such as fluid replacement, pain management, and wound care. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged portions of the intestine.
Prevention measures for PSE include proper hand hygiene, isolation precautions, and environmental cleaning to reduce the transmission of C. diff spores. Probiotics, which are live microorganisms that are similar to the beneficial bacteria found in the gut, have also been shown to be effective in preventing PSE recurrence.
List of foodborne illness outbreaks in the United States
Myron W. Wentz
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Polyneuropathy in dogs and cats
Food and biological process engineering
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein
Eric Robinson (veterinarian)
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Soluble NSF attachment protein
Iraqi biological weapons program
Emerging infectious disease
Portable water purification
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Cosmetic medical treatments: Botulinum Toxin
- Botox , or botulinum toxin type A, is an injectable drug produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum , which temporarily weakens or paralyzes the muscles. (healthline.com)
- Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type E which is neurotoxic to humans and animals. (nih.gov)
- Originated from clostridium botulinum, Sotox Botulinum toxin type A is produced by innovative Vacuum Drying process for superior purity. (dermaxmed.com)
- If you are allergic to botulinum toxin type A or any of the other ingredients of this medicine (listed in section 6). (acquafiller.com)
- This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) encourages Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant applications from small business concerns (SBCs) that propose to develop new non-animal-based assays to assess the potency of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) in a Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) commercial environment. (nih.gov)
- Botulinum neurotoxin type C1 Antibody is shipped on ice packs and upon receipt should be stored at -20 or -80 degrees Celsius. (neurobiol.com)
- Botulinum neurotoxin type A is one of the seven serotypes of Botulinum Neurotoxins (BoNTs) produced by various strains of Clostridium botulinum . (mclab.com)
- Chickens were immunized with highly purified Botulinum Neurotoxin Type B (Clostridium botulinum). (exalpha.com)
- Anti-Botulinum Neurotoxin Type B was immunoaffinity purified using the immunogen immobilized on a solid support. (exalpha.com)
- Role of metals in the biological activity of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins. (expasy.org)
- It's the same toxin that causes a life-threatening type of food poisoning called botulism . (nih.gov)
- problems breathing due to botulism -a rare type of food poisoning caused by Clostridium botulinum and sometimes by Clostridium butyricum or Clostridium baratii -and some forms of fish and shellfish poisoning, which affect the nervous system and may paralyze the muscles that control your breathing. (nih.gov)
- Botulism is a neuromuscular disease caused by toxins generated by the anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium botulinum (Figure 3). (medscape.com)
- Things like the deadly Clostridium Botulinum which is the harbinger of botulism. (askaprepper.com)
Produced by the bacterium1
- Botox is a drug made from a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. (nih.gov)
- In this manuscript we describe an outbreak of Clostridium (C.) botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) intoxication in a Saxony-Anhalt dairy cow stock of 286 Holstein-Friesian cows and offspring in spring/summer 2009 and its diagnostic approach. (vetline.de)
- BoNT gene type D was found in several (n = 8) organ samples. (vetline.de)
- The mouse bioassay turned out positive (wasp-waist) in three preselected organ samples and the neutralization test of one sample with type-specific antitoxin confirmed the presence of BoNT type D. We succeeded in isolating a C. botulinum strain from a liver sample which was typed as a D/C mosaic strain by sequence analysis of the toxin gene. (vetline.de)
- Bei 122 Tieren fielen klinische Anzeichen einer Intoxikation mit Clostridium (C.) botulinu m Neurotoxin (BoNT) auf. (vetline.de)
- Der Neutralisationstest einer ausgewählten Probe mit typspezifischen Antitoxinen bestätigte die Anwesenheit von BoNT Typ D. Aus einer Leberprobe gelang die Isolierung eines C. botulinum -Stammes. (vetline.de)
- At present, the number of injected cosmetic treatments (Botox) is increasing, and it is forecast that this type of procedure will duplicate in the future. (barraquer.com)
- Botulinum toxin (Botox) is produced by Clostridium Botulinum -an anaerobic bacteria-and its active mechanism involves inhibiting the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. (barraquer.com)
- Each type of Botox has an unequal duration. (siamclinicphuket.com)
- 2012. Simultaneous and sensitive detection of six serotypes of botulinum neurotoxin using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based protein antibody microarrays. (exalpha.com)
- For direct ELISA, a 1:66,000 dilution detects Botulinum HccB and a 1:42,000 dilutions detects Clostridium botulinum Type B (BTB). (exalpha.com)
- However, anaerobic environments, i.e. those without oxygen, can breed other types of bacteria. (askaprepper.com)
- The effects of all botulinum toxin products, including JEUVEAU, may spread from the area of injection to produce symptoms consistent with botulinum toxin effects. (nih.gov)
- Morrison DA, Mellington FB, Hamada S. Schwartz-Jampel syndrome: surgical management of the myotonia-induced blepharospasm and acquired ptosis after failure with botulinum toxin A injections. (medscape.com)
- Ababneh OH, Cetinkaya A, Kulwin DR. Long-term efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin A injections to treat blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. (medscape.com)
- The biggest risk that red meat It can bring to health, according to experts, is specifically related to bacterial contamination, such as salmonella And Clostridium botulinum responsible for the development of diseases. (catholictranscript.org)
- H. influenzae type b was the leading cause of invasive bacterial disease among children in the United States prior to licensing of Haemophilus b conjugate vaccines in 1987. (freece.com)
- During outbreaks, epidemiological investigators examine suspect foods, recover bacterial isolates and compare those with patient isolates using genetic typing techniques (commonly Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis). (veteriankey.com)
- Previous reports of foodborne types. (cdc.gov)
- Some types of food poisoning during pregnancy can cause complications, such as dehydration, for the pregnant woman or can affect the fetus. (nih.gov)
- Bovine tetanus is a serious infectious disease of the central nervous system caused by the exotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani and is characterized by persistent tension and spasm of the rhabdomyocytes. (bvsalud.org)
- Anticonvulsant drugs may include narrow-spectrum AEDs for specific types of seizures or broad-spectrum AEDs for multiple seizures. (healthline.com)
- Clostridium botulinum : ecology and control in foods / edited by Andreas H. W. Hauschild, Karen L. Dodds. (who.int)
- Depending on the amount and type of microorganisms, a person can develop neurological problems and may die," the Uninassau Professor of Nutrition reports. (catholictranscript.org)
- Subtipo de CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM que produce la toxina botulínica de tipo C, neurotóxica para los ANIMALES, especialmente los BOVINOS, pero no para los seres humanos. (bvsalud.org)
- The five types of pasta sauces are the only products sold at the D. Palmieri bakery that are of concern. (foodsafetynews.com)
- Moreover, scientists are not going to stop exploring new and new applications of botulinum toxin to improve people's health and quality of life. (dermaxmed.com)
- Dysport contains the active substance Clostridium botulinum type A toxin-haemagglutinin complex. (acquafiller.com)
- Botulinum toxin acts by inhibiting neurotransmitter release. (neurobiol.com)
- By default, all articles on GreenMedInfo.com are sorted based on the content type which best reflects the data which most users are searching for. (greenmedinfo.com)