A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type E which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces BOTULINUM TOXINS, TYPE A which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type B which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type F which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type D which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
Antiserum given therapeutically in BOTULISM.
A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type C which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans. It causes dissociation of ACTIN FILAMENTS.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.
Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type G. Though it has been isolated from soil, no outbreaks involving this type have been recognized.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.
Treatment of food with RADIATION.
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
A family of anadromous fish comprising SALMON; TROUT; whitefish; and graylings. They are the most important food and game fishes. Their habitat is the northern Atlantic and Pacific, both marine and inland, and the Great Lakes. (Nelson: Fishes of the World, 1976, p97)
The cause of TETANUS in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin.
Cellulose derivative used in chromatography, as ion-exchange material, and for various industrial applications.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.
Food that has been prepared and stored in a way to prevent spoilage.
Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Type species of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM, a gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is used as a source of PROBIOTICS.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders. Most of these act centrally on dopaminergic or cholinergic systems. Among the most important clinically are those used for the treatment of Parkinson disease (ANTIPARKINSON AGENTS) and those for the tardive dyskinesias.
An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, used for the industrial production of SOLVENTS.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating a signal transduction pathway that controls assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The mechanical process of cooling.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Mold and yeast inhibitor. Used as a fungistatic agent for foods, especially cheeses.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, found in INTESTINES and SOIL.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A ubiquitous target SNARE protein that interacts with SYNTAXIN and SYNAPTOBREVIN. It is a core component of the machinery for intracellular MEMBRANE FUSION. The sequence contains 2 SNARE domains, one is the prototype for the Qb-SNARES, and the other is the prototype for the Qc-SNARES.

Differentiation of the gene clusters encoding botulinum neurotoxin type A complexes in Clostridium botulinum type A, Ab, and A(B) strains. (1/23)

We describe a strategy to identify the clusters of genes encoding components of the botulinum toxin type A (boNT/A) complexes in 57 strains of Clostridium botulinum types A, Ab, and A(B) isolated in Italy and in the United States from different sources. Specifically, we combined the results of PCR for detecting the ha33 and/or p47 genes with those of boNT/A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Three different type A toxin gene clusters were revealed; type A1 was predominant among the strains from the United States, whereas type A2 predominated among the Italian strains, suggesting a geographic distinction between strains. By contrast, no relationship between the toxin gene clusters and the clinical or food source of strains was evident. In two C. botulinum type A isolates from the United States, we recognized a third type A toxin gene cluster (designated type A3) which was similar to that previously described only for C. botulinum type A(B) and Ab strains. Total genomic DNA from the strains was subjected to pulsed-filed gel electrophoresis and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analyses, and the results were consistent with the boNT/A gene clusters obtained.  (+info)

A novel neurotoxoid vaccine prevents mucosal botulism. (2/23)

The threat posed by botulism, classically a food- and waterborne disease with a high morbidity and mortality, has increased exponentially in an age of bioterrorism. Because botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) could be easily disseminated by terrorists using an aerosol or could be used to contaminate the food or water supply, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases has classified it as a category A agent. Although clearly the development of a safe and effective mucosal vaccine against this toxin should be a high priority, essentially no studies to date have assessed mucosal immune responses to this disease. To bridge this gap in our knowledge, we immunized mice weekly for 4 wk with nasal doses of BoNT type A toxoid and a mutant of cholera toxin termed E112K. We found elevated levels of BoNT-specific IgG Abs in plasma and of secretory IgA Abs in external secretions (nasal washes, saliva, and fecal extracts). When mice given nasal BoNT vaccine were challenged with 4 x 10(3) LD50 of BoNT type A (BoNT/A) via the i.p. route, complete protection was seen, while naive mice given the same dosage died within 2 h. To further confirm the efficacy of this nasal BoNT vaccine, an oral LD50 was determined. When mice were given an oral challenge of 5 microg (2 x oral LD50) of progenitor BoNT/A, all immunized mice survived beyond 5 days, while nonimmunized mice did not. The fecal extract samples from nasally vaccinated mice were found to contain neutralizing secretory IgA Abs. Taken together, these results show that nasal BoNT/A vaccine effectively prevents mucosal BoNT intoxication.  (+info)

Efficient DNA fingerprinting of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E, and F by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis. (3/23)

Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was applied to characterize 33 group I and 37 group II Clostridium botulinum strains. Four restriction enzyme and 30 primer combinations were screened to tailor the AFLP technique for optimal characterization of C. botulinum. The enzyme combination HindIII and HpyCH4IV, with primers having one selective nucleotide apiece (Hind-C and Hpy-A), was selected. AFLP clearly differentiated between C. botulinum groups I and II; group-specific clusters showed <10% similarity between proteolytic and nonproteolytic C. botulinum strains. In addition, group-specific fragments were detected in both groups. All strains studied were typeable by AFLP, and a total of 42 AFLP types were identified. Extensive diversity was observed among strains of C. botulinum type E, whereas group I had lower genetic biodiversity. These results indicate that AFLP is a fast, highly discriminating, and reproducible DNA fingerprinting method with excellent typeability, which, in addition to its suitability for typing at strain level, can be used for C. botulinum group identification.  (+info)

Genotyping Clostridium botulinum toxinotype A isolates from patients using amplified rDNA restriction analysis. (4/23)

In this study, the application of amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) for characterizing Clostridium botulinum toxinotype A strains isolated from individuals with botulism was evaluated. Ten restriction enzymes were tested for their suitability in ARDRA as a typing method and HhaI was selected for the best outcome. Analysis of HhaI restriction profiles of the amplified products divided C. botulinum isolates into three clusters. Non-toxigenic Clostridium sporogenes strains showed an ARDRA restriction pattern that was distinct from those observed for C. botulinum. The successful use of ARDRA for subdivision of C. botulinum in this study confirmed that this technique is a powerful method for typing of C. botulinum toxinotype A clonal diversity. In addition, it is rapid, sensitive and simple.  (+info)

Expression of botulinum neurotoxins A and E, and associated non-toxin genes, during the transition phase and stability at high temperature: analysis by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. (5/23)

Production of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) and associated non-toxic proteins (ANTPs), which include a non-toxic non-haemagglutinin (NTNH/A) as well as haemagglutinins (HAs), was found previously to be dependent upon an RNA polymerase alternative sigma factor (BotR/A). Expression of the botR/A, bont/A and antp genes, monitored by reverse transcription and real-time PCR analysis, occurred concomitantly at the transition between the exponential and stationary growth phases of Clostridium botulinum A. The botR/A expression level was about 100-fold less than those of the bont/A and antp genes. Therefore, BotR/A is an alternative sigma factor controlling the botulinum A locus genes during the transition phase. The highest toxin concentration was released into the culture supernatant 12 h after maximum expression of the botR/A, bont/A and antp genes, without any apparent bacterial lysis. Toxin levels were then stable over 5 days in cultures at 37 degrees C, whereas a dramatic decrease in lethal activity was observed between 24 and 48 h in cultures at 44 degrees C. High temperature did inhibit transcription, since expression levels of the botR/A, bont/A and antp genes were similar in cultures at 37 and 44 degrees C. However, incubation at 44 degrees C triggered a calcium-dependent protease that degraded BoNT/A and NTNH/A, but not HAs. In C. botulinum E, which contains no gene related to botR, the bont/E and p47 genes were also expressed during the transition phase, and no protease activation at 44 degrees C was evident.  (+info)

Determination of neurotoxin gene expression in Clostridium botulinum type A by quantitative RT-PCR. (6/23)

Real time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was used to quantify the expression of the botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) gene (cntA) by normalization with the expression of 16S rRNA. The method were confirmed by monitoring the mRNA levels of cntA during growth in five type A strains. In all but one of the strains the expression of cntA mRNA was maximal in the late exponential phase, and approximately 35-fold greater than in the early exponential phase. The concentration of the extracellular BoNT/A complex detected by ELISA was highest in stationary phase. Sodium nitrite and sorbic acid completely inhibited growth at 20 ppm and 4 mg ml-1, respectively. CntA expression became lower in proportion to the concentration of sorbic acid, and this reduction was confirmed by mouse bioassay. Our results show that real time RT-PCR can be used to quantify levels of C. botulinum type A neurotoxin transcripts and to assess the effects of food additives on botulinal risk.  (+info)

SYBR green real-time PCR method to detect Clostridium botulinum type A. (7/23)

Botulinum toxins (BoNTs) are classically produced by Clostridium botulinum but rarely also from neurotoxigenic strains of Clostridium baratii and Clostridium butyricum. BoNT type A (BoNT/A), BoNT/B, BoNT/E, and very rarely BoNT/F are mainly responsible for human botulism. Standard microbiological methods take into consideration only the detection of C. botulinum. The presumptive identification of the toxigenic strains together with the typing of BoNT has to be performed by mouse bioassay. The development of PCR-based methods for the detection and typing of BoNT-producing clostridia would be an ideal alternative to the mouse bioassay. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and robust real-time PCR method for detecting C. botulinum type A. Four different techniques for the extraction and purification of DNA from cultured samples were initially compared. Of the techniques used, Chelex 100, DNeasy tissue kit, InstaGene matrix DNA, and boiling, the boiling technique was significantly less efficient than the other three. These did not give statistically different results, and Chelex 100 was chosen because it was less expensive than the others. In order to eliminate any false-negative results, an internal amplification control was synthesized and included in the amplification mixture according to ISO 22174. The specificity of the method was tested against 75 strains of C. botulinum type A, 4 strains of C. botulinum type Ab, and 101 nontarget strains. The detection limit of the reaction was less than 6 x 10(1) copies of C. botulinum type A DNA. The robustness of the method was confirmed using naturally contaminated stool specimens to evaluate the tolerance of inhibitor substances. SYBR green real-time PCR showed very high specificity for the detection of C. botulinum types A and Ab (inclusivity and exclusivity, 100%).  (+info)

Structures of Clostridium botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A Light Chain complexed with small-molecule inhibitors highlight active-site flexibility. (8/23)

The potential for the use of Clostridial neurotoxins as bioweapons makes the development of small-molecule inhibitors of these deadly toxins a top priority. Recently, screening of a random hydroxamate library identified a small-molecule inhibitor of C. botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A Light Chain (BoNT/A-LC), 4-chlorocinnamic hydroxamate, a derivative of which has been shown to have in vivo efficacy in mice and no toxicity. We describe the X-ray crystal structures of BoNT/A-LC in complexes with two potent small-molecule inhibitors. The structures of the enzyme with 4-chlorocinnamic hydroxamate or 2,4-dichlorocinnamic hydroxamate bound are compared to the structure of the enzyme complexed with L-arginine hydroxamate, an inhibitor with modest affinity. Taken together, this suite of structures provides surprising insights into the BoNT/A-LC active site, including unexpected conformational flexibility at the S1' site that changes the electrostatic environment of the binding pocket. Information gained from these structures will inform the design and optimization of more effective small-molecule inhibitors of BoNT/A-LC.  (+info)

1. Foodborne botulism: This type of botulism is caused by eating foods that have been contaminated with the bacteria. Symptoms typically begin within 12 to 72 hours after consuming the contaminated food and can include double vision, droopy eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, and muscle weakness.
2. Infant botulism: This type of botulism occurs in infants who are exposed to the bacteria through contact with contaminated soil or object. Symptoms can include constipation, poor feeding, and weak cry.
3. Wound botulism: This type of botulism is caused by the bacteria entering an open wound, usually a deep puncture wound or surgical incision.

Botulism is a rare illness in the United States, but it can be deadly if not treated promptly. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as mechanical ventilation and fluids, as well as antitoxin injections to neutralize the effects of the toxin. Prevention measures include proper food handling and storage, good hygiene practices, and avoiding consumption of improperly canned or preserved foods.

Some common types of Clostridium infections include:

* Clostridium difficile (C. diff) infection: This is a common type of diarrheal disease that can occur after taking antibiotics, especially in people who are hospitalized or living in long-term care facilities.
* Gas gangrene: This is a severe and potentially life-threatening infection that occurs when Clostridium bacteria infect damaged tissue, causing gas to build up in the affected area.
* Tetanus: This is a serious neurological infection caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani, which can enter the body through open wounds or puncture wounds.
* Botulism: This is a potentially fatal illness caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, which can be contracted through contaminated food or wounds.

Clostridium infections can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, and swelling or redness in the affected area. Treatment depends on the type of infection and may include antibiotics, surgery, or supportive care to manage symptoms.

Prevention measures for Clostridium infections include proper hand hygiene, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and practicing safe food handling practices to prevent the spread of botulism and other clostridial infections. Vaccines are also available for some types of clostridial infections, such as tetanus and botulism.

In summary, Clostridium infections are a diverse group of bacterial infections that can cause a range of illnesses, from mild to severe and life-threatening. Proper prevention and treatment measures are essential to avoid the potential complications of these infections.

Examples of Bird Diseases:

1. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu): A viral disease that affects birds and can be transmitted to humans, causing respiratory illness and other symptoms.
2. Psittacosis (Parrot Fever): A bacterial infection caused by Chlamydophila psittaci, which can infect a wide range of bird species and can be transmitted to humans.
3. Aspergillosis: A fungal infection that affects birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing respiratory problems and other symptoms.
4. Beak and Feather Disease: A viral disease that affects birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing feather loss and beak deformities.
5. West Nile Virus: A viral disease that can affect birds, as well as humans and other animals, causing a range of symptoms including fever, headache, and muscle weakness.
6. Chlamydophila psittaci: A bacterial infection that can infect birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing respiratory problems and other symptoms.
7. Mycobacteriosis: A bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium avium, which can affect a wide range of bird species, including parrots and other Psittacines.
8. Pacheco's Disease: A viral disease that affects birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing respiratory problems and other symptoms.
9. Polyomavirus: A viral disease that can affect birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing a range of symptoms including respiratory problems and feather loss.
10. Retinoblastoma: A type of cancer that affects the eyes of birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines.

It's important to note that many of these diseases can be prevented or treated with proper care and management, including providing a clean and spacious environment, offering a balanced diet, and ensuring access to fresh water and appropriate medical care.

PSE can be a serious condition, especially in older adults or those with weakened immune systems, as it can lead to life-threatening complications such as inflammation of the bowel wall, perforation of the bowel, and sepsis. PSE is often diagnosed through a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eradicate the infection, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms such as fluid replacement, pain management, and wound care. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged portions of the intestine.

Prevention measures for PSE include proper hand hygiene, isolation precautions, and environmental cleaning to reduce the transmission of C. diff spores. Probiotics, which are live microorganisms that are similar to the beneficial bacteria found in the gut, have also been shown to be effective in preventing PSE recurrence.

Botulism (Type A Clostridium botulinum) in Peoria, Illinois. 28 persons were hospitalized, and 20 patients were treated with an ... Out of 324 soup cans, five of them were found to be contaminated with botulinum toxin, all in the initial batch of vichyssoise ... Mann JM, Martin S, Hoffman R, Marrazzo S (March 1981). "Patient recovery from type A botulism: morbidity assessment following a ... Centers for Disease Control Prevention (CDC) (January 17, 2003). "Outbreak of Botulism Type E Associated with Eating a Beached ...
"Clostridium botulinum type F: Seasonal inhibition by Bacillus lichenoformis". Science 1967;155(758): 89-90. "Meet the Founder ...
Bott, Thomas L.; Deffner, Janet S.; McCoy, Elizabeth; Foster, E. M. (1966). "Clostridium botulinum Type E in Fish from the ... Christiansen, Lee N.; Deffner, Janet; Foster, E. M.; Sugiyama, H. (1968). "Survival and Outgrowth of Clostridium botulinum Type ... Christiansen, Lee N.; Foster, E. M. (1965). "Effect of Vacuum Packaging on Growth of Clostridium botulinum and Staphylococcus ... Tanaka, N.; Traisman, E.; Lee, M. H.; Cassens, R. G.; Foster, E. M. (1980). "Inhibition of Botulinum Toxin Formation in Bacon ...
"Natural Clostridium botulinum Type C Toxicosis in a Group of Cats". J Clin Microbiol. 42 (11): 5406-8. doi:10.1128/JCM.42.11. ... The most common type is Coonhound paralysis. This is similar to Guillain-Barré syndrome in humans. Coonhound paralysis seems to ... Hyperchylomicronemia or hyperlipoproteinemia is a type of inherited hyperlipidemia in cats. Polyneuropathy is caused by ...
... of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. C. botulinum can fall into one of 7 different types which are strains A through G. Type ... Yule, Adam; Ian K. Barker; John W. Austin; Richard D. Moccia (2006). "Toxicity of Clostridium Botulinum Type E Neurotoxin to ... Franciosa, G; L. Fenicia; C. Caldiani; P. Aureli (1996). "PCR for detection of Clostridium botulinum type C in avian and ... The Type E strain is also commonly associated with avian outbreaks and is frequently found in fish species which is why most ...
... but the toxin produced from the bacterium Clostridium botulinum type C may be involved. Clostridium botulinum is a soil-borne ... It may cause grass sickness when the spores of C. botulinum type C are ingested and produce their toxin locally within the ... Grass sickness may affect all types of horse, pony and donkey, and has affected some well known horses including the ...
... botulinum types A or B. C. botulinum type A was found to be present in soil samples from mountain areas of Victoria. Type-B ... "Rejection of Clostridium putrificum and conservation of Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium sporogenes-Opinion 69. Judicial ... of Clostridium botulinum type G and some nontoxigenic strains previously identified as Clostridium subterminale or Clostridium ... Austin, J.W. (January 1, 2003). "CLOSTRIDIUM , Occurrence of Clostridium botulinum". CLOSTRIDIUM. ScienceDirect. Academic Press ...
Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botox is a specific form of botulinum ... botulinum toxin type B) in type A-resistant cervical dystonia". Neurology. 53 (7): 1431-8. doi:10.1212/WNL.53.7.1431. PMID ... Botulinum toxin treats wrinkles by immobilizing the muscles which cause wrinkles. It is not appropriate for the treatment of ... Botulinum toxin Injectable filler Danby, FW (Jul-Aug 2010). "Nutrition and aging skin: sugar and glycation". Clin Dermatol. 4. ...
Clostridium botulinum, and Clostridium tetani. The endospore consists of the bacterium's DNA, ribosomes and large amounts of ... Most types of bacteria cannot change to the endospore form. Examples of bacterial species that can form endospores include ... The main types within the cell are terminal, subterminal, and centrally placed endospores. Terminal endospores are seen at the ... Higher concentrations of bleach are not more effective, and can cause some types of bacteria to aggregate and thus survive. ...
Many pathogenic bacteria, such as food-borne Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium botulinum, secrete toxins into the host to ... Each of these different types of organisms can then be further classified as a pathogen based on its mode of transmission. This ... Each of these three types of antimicrobials can be classified into two subsequent groups: bactericidal and bacteriostatic. ...
"Effects of potassium sorbate and other antibotulinal agents on germination and outgrowth of Clostridium botulinum type E spores ... "Effects of various concentrations of sodium nitrite and potassium sorbate on Clostridium botulinum toxin production in ... The type of bacteria also affects sodium nitrite's effectiveness. It is generally agreed that sodium nitrite is not effective ... The results show that there is no change in levels of inoculated C botulinum over the curing process, which implies that the ...
Tests showed that none were contaminated with botulinum toxin types A, B, E, and F and were free of Clostridium botulinum ... a type of fish sauce usually made from fermented anchovies or sand lances, is used as a crucial ingredient in many types of ... As such, patis usually takes longer to produce than other types of fish sauce as it is reliant on the readiness of bagoong. ... Historically, there were two types of fish sauce made in Thailand: that made with a fresh-water fish, pla soi, and sauce made ...
Several bacteria, such as E. coli, Clostridium botulinum, and Salmonella enterica, are well-known and are targeted for ... This type of storage manipulates the CO2 and O2 levels within airtight stores of containers. Modified atmosphere (MA) storage ... There are five main types of microbial pathogens which contaminate food and water: viruses, bacteria, fungi, pathogenic ... the technologies of modified atmosphere and controlled atmosphere are widely used for the storage and packing of several types ...
The first type is called Clostridium botulinum and targets food such as meat and poultry, and Bacillus cereus, which targets ... Mold is a type of fungus, but the two terms are not reciprocal of each other; they have their own defining features and perform ... The cause of such a process is due to many outside factors as a side-effect of the type of product it is, as well as how the ... Very well known types of mold are Aspergillus and Penicillium, and, like regular fungi, create a fuzz, powder and slime of ...
Nitrites are added during processing to act as preservatives and as antibacterial agents against clostridium botulinum, the ... The rolled type is typical of northern Italy, while the flattened type is typical of central and southern Italy. While most ... It can also be used in carbonara pasta (although guanciale is generally regarded as more traditional). The two basic types of ... Nitrosamines have also been shown to play a part in Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases, as well as type 1 and 2 ...
"Sporulation of Clostridium botulinum Types A, B and E, Clostridium Perfringens, and putrefactive Anaerobe 3679 in dialysis sacs ... "Comparative Dose-Survival Curves of Representative Clostridium botulinum Type F Spores and Type A and B Spores", Applied and ... "Production of Types A and B Spores of Clostridium botulinum by the Biphasic Method: Effect on Spore Population, Radiation ... "Cryogenic Gamma Irradiation of Prototype Pork and Chicken and Antagonistic Effect between Clostridium botulinum Types A and B ...
Clostridium botulinum- Spore found in foods that have not been canned properly. Clostridium botulinum is sometimes sold as ... Can cause two types of food poisoning: emetic and diarrheal -Bacillus subtilis- Found in soil -Clostridium tetani,- Spore that ... A different type of staining called acid-fast stain will have to be done in order to get further information about this ... Types of endospores that can be identified include free endospores, central endospores( middle of the cell), subterminal( ...
The toxins normally produced by the various types are shown in table 1 The alpha-toxin of Clostridium botulinum types C and D, ... closely related to Clostridium botulinum type C and D, instead. The toxins are designated by Greek letters. ... Type strain of Clostridium novyi at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase (Articles with short description, Short ... Moore WB (October 1968). "Solidified media suitable for the cultivation of Clostridium novyi type B". Journal of General ...
"Clostridium argentinense sp. nov.: A Genetically Homogeneous Group Composed of All Strains of Clostridium botulinum Toxin Type ... botulinum toxin group G, respectively. Like Cl. botulinum, Cl. argentinense produces botulin, a neurotoxin that causes botulism ... Clostridium argentinense is an anaerobic, motile, gram-positive bacterium. Some bacilli now identified as Cl. argentinense were ... "Clostridium argentinense". Retrieved 2011-01-21. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, ...
"Crystal structures of OrfX2 and P47 from a Botulinum neurotoxin OrfX-type gene cluster". FEBS Letters. 591 (22): 3781-3792. doi ... "The hypothetical protein P47 of Clostridium botulinum E1 strain Beluga has a structural topology similar to bactericidal/ ... "Concerted actions of cholesteryl ester transfer protein and phospholipid transfer protein in type 2 diabetes: effects of ...
Botulism is a rare disease caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. This microbe is primarily found in the soil or ... According to studies, there is an estimated 60,000 different types of bacteria that reside in the soil. Terrestrial bacteria ...
The seven main types of botulinum toxin are named types A to G (A, B, C1, C2, D, E, F and G). New types are occasionally found ... Botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum is the cause of botulism. Humans most commonly ingest the toxin from eating ... types E and F can cause disease in humans, while the other types cause disease in other animals. Botulinum toxin types A and B ... Botulinum toxin, often shortened to BoNT, is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related ...
Botulinum toxin infusion As an alternative to the deep digital flexor tenotomy, Clostridium botulinum type A toxin has been ... Carter DW, Renfroe JB (July 2009). "A novel approach to the treatment and prevention of laminitis: botulinum toxin type A for ... Trimming Successful treatment for any type of founder must necessarily involve stabilization of the bony column by some means. ...
The bacterium Clostridium botulinum for example, produces a powerful exotoxin that cause respiratory paralysis, and Salmonellae ... Two other types of bacterial motion are called twitching motility that relies on a structure called the type IV pilus, and ... There are many types of antibiotics, and each class inhibits a process that is different in the pathogen from that found in the ... Many types of secretion systems are known and these structures are often essential for the virulence of pathogens, so are ...
Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Streptococcus equi subspecies equi, Equine influenza, Equine herpesvirus type 1 ... Eight horses that had received prophylactic botulinum antitoxin and developed subsequent signs of Theiler's disease were ...
Tier 1 BSATs are indicated by an asterisk (*). Botulinum neurotoxin-producing species of Clostridium* Coxiella burnetii ... Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin Conotoxins Ricin Saxitoxin Staphylococcal enterotoxins Tetrodotoxin 2 Type A ... Alcelaphine herpesvirus type 1) Menangle virus Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (contagious caprine ...
"The bacteria of the Clostridium botulinum C and D types". In 1929 he was also director of the Bacterial Vaccine Section at ...
Clostridium botulinum type A MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.160.100 - Clostridium botulinum type B MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.160.150 ... Clostridium botulinum type C MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.160.200 - Clostridium botulinum type D MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.160.250 ... Clostridium botulinum type E MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.160.300 - Clostridium botulinum type F MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.160.350 ... Clostridium botulinum type A MeSH B03.510.415.400.200.160.100 - Clostridium botulinum type B MeSH B03.510.415.400.200.160.150 ...
The 20S complex is a known target for Clostridium neurotoxins including Botulinum A, C. and E, which block synaptic ... SNAPs associate with the proteins of the SNARE (SNAP REceptor) complex, a class of type II integral membrane protein, as well ... Botulinum toxins do not directly interact with SNAP, but the indirectly impact its ability to assemble into the 20S complex ... Poisoning by botulinum toxin generally occurs through ingestion of material contaminated with the toxin producing bacteria or ...
Type C and D BoNTS have been shown to be encoded by clostridial phages and are produced by Clostridium botulinum strains ... The botulinum toxin, which is primarily produced by Clostridium botulinum and less frequently by other Clostridium species, is ... Botulinum toxins, exotoxins of Clostridium botulinum, are the most toxic naturally occurring substances known to man. Proft T ( ... Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are protein neurotoxins that are produced by the bacteria Clostridium. BoNTs are now largely ...
Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium perfringens (gas gangrene) and several viruses (including enterovirus 17 [human ... five types of virus, and four toxins. Of these, three-anthrax, botulinum and aflatoxin-had proceeded to weaponization for ... botulinum toxins, and Clostridium perfringens toxins. Post-war inspections by UNSCOM, however, were confounded by ... From the United States, the non-profit American Type Culture Collection and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control sold or sent ...
Clostridium baratii, Clostridium botulinum, Fusobacterium mortiferum, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, ... The type specimen - an adult male - was described as having a dark brown head which was conspicuously marked with yellow spots ... Notably, a total of 26 species in the gut and oral cavity were identified as potential human pathogenic bacteria: Clostridium ...
Clostridium botulinum type C toxin has been incriminated as the cause of grass sickness, a condition in horses which occurs in ... by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Clostridium botulinum is a large anaerobic Gram-positive bacillus that forms ... Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic, Gram-positive, spore-forming rod. Botulinum toxin is one of the most powerful known ... However, further studies showed type H to be a chimeric toxin composed of parts of types F and A (FA). Some types produce a ...
Clostridium botulinum toxin (Botox) injections and ultrasound are also sometimes used for cases refractory to medications. In ... Samotus O, Kumar N, Rizek P, Jog M (January 2018). "Botulinum Toxin Type A Injections as Monotherapy for Upper Limb Essential ... "Long-term tremor therapy for Parkinson and essential tremor with sensor-guided botulinum toxin type A injections". PLOS ONE. 12 ... This type of tremor is often referred to as "kinetic tremor". Essential tremor has been known as "benign essential tremor", but ...
Clostridium botulinum, and Salmonella spp.) Viruses and related agents such as viroids. (E.g. HIV, Rhinovirus, Lyssaviruses ... Several broad types of anti-infective drugs exist, depending on the type of organism targeted; they include antibacterial ( ... This type of infection is one that is transmitted from a health care worker to a patient. A nosocomial infection is also one ... "Types of Fungal Diseases". www.cdc.gov. 2019-06-27. Retrieved 2019-12-09. Mada, Pradeep Kumar; Jamil, Radia T.; Alam, Mohammed ...
Clostridium botulinum Clostridium perfringens Bacillus cereus The rare but potentially deadly disease botulism occurs when the ... Some types of microbes stay in the intestine, some produce a toxin that is absorbed into the bloodstream, and some can directly ... Some types of microbes stay in the intestine. For contaminants requiring an incubation period, symptoms may not manifest for ... anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum grows in improperly canned low-acid foods and produces botulin, a powerful paralytic ...
... which may have been contaminated with Clostridium botulinum bacteria. However, these reports never deterred the Egyptians from ... Type of fermented fish dish from Korea's Jeolla province [1] Baheyeldin Dynasty site "Egyptians celebrate Sham El-Nessim in ...
For example, the microorganism Clostridium botulinum (which causes botulism) can only be eliminated at temperatures above the ... "Codex standard for canned sardines and sardine-type products codex stan 94 -1981 REV. 1-1995" (PDF). Codex Alimentarius. FAO/ ...
... secreted by Clostridium tetani and the botulinum toxin secreted by Clostridium botulinum. Exotoxins are also produced by a ... Examples for Yersinia pestis are an altered form of lipopolysaccharide, type three secretion system, and YopE and YopJ ... and Clostridium difficile (causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis). A potent three-protein virulence factor produced by ... range of other bacteria including Escherichia coli; Vibrio cholerae (causative agent of cholera); Clostridium perfringens ( ...
According to the type of pathogens and how risky they are, the intensity of the hurdles can be adjusted individually to meet ... The main target of these hurdles is C. botulinum. Growth of lactic acid bacteria during fermentation results in acid production ... For example, Gram-positive bacteria include some of the more important spoilage bacteria, such as Clostridium, Bacillus and ... The result is a pH hurdle important in controlling growth of C. botulinum." There can be significant synergistic effects ...
Anthrax Clostridium botulinum Tularemia Smallpox and other pox viruses Viral hemorrhagic fevers Arenaviruses: Lymphocytic ... These were classified according to their types. The following table summarizes the major outbreaks since 1998 caused by ... Epsilon toxin of Clostridium perfringens Food-borne and Water-borne Pathogens Bacteria Campylobacter jejuni Diarrheagenic E. ... Anaplasmosis Aspergillus BK virus Bordetella pertussis Borrelia miyamotoi Clostridium difficile Cryptococcus gattii ...
Even when a potential weapon, such as Clostridium botulinum exotoxin (Botox or "botulinus toxin") is discovered, the amounts or ... Some specialized equipment has also been fielded in some unspecified numbers to counter the threat of BW to PLA troops: Type 76 ... An example of this type of instrumentation is the Casella slit-to-agar, a single-stage impactor used in civilian environmental ... or types of energy, that are responsible for pixels or groups of pixels: signatures. When the signatures are then correlated to ...
This process reliably kills all commonly occurring microorganisms (particularly Clostridium botulinum), preventing it from ... A retort pouch or retortable pouch is a type of food packaging made from a laminate of flexible plastic and metal foils. It ...
... -Clostridium Clostridium acetobutylicum Clostridium botulinum Clostridium butyricum Clostridium difficile Clostridium ... Calculating the TmHMM profile, secondary structure and third position GC-Skew are just a few types of analyses users can ... kluyveri Clostridium novyi Clostridium perfringens Clostridium phytofermentans Clostridium tetani Clostridium thermocellum ... Clostridium botulinum, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Clostridium perfringens, and Entamoeba histolytica) ...
against Clostridium botulinum. J Food Prot 2002, 65:806-813. von der Weid I, Alviano DS, Santos AL, Soares RM, Alviano CS, ... IQ Test for Bacteria Type strain of Paenibacillus dendritiformis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase (Articles ... plant pathogenic bacteria and even important anaerobic pathogens as Clostridium botulinium. P. dendritiformis is a social ...
... has been linked to outbreaks of some food-borne illnesses, including Listeria monocytogenes and Clostridium botulinum. ... Leaf types are generally divided between crinkled-leaf, loose-head savoys and smooth-leaf firm-head cabbages, while the color ... Different varieties prefer different soil types, ranging from lighter sand to heavier clay, but all prefer fertile ground with ... pekinensis). Savoy cabbages are usually used in salads, while smooth-leaf types are utilized for both market sales and ...
In the most common type, the spasms begin in the jaw and then progress to the rest of the body. Each spasm usually lasts a few ... Hanif H, Anjum A, Ali N, Jamal A, Imran M, Ahmad B, Ali MI (October 2015). "Isolation and Antibiogram of Clostridium tetani ... Foran P, Shone CC, Dolly JO (December 1994). "Differences in the protease activities of tetanus and botulinum B toxins revealed ... Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is a bacterial infection caused by Clostridium tetani, and is characterized by muscle spasms. ...
Certain pathogens must be heated above boiling (e.g. botulism - Clostridium botulinum requires 118 °C (244 °F), most endospores ... odours from certain type of bacteria, particularly Actinomycetes which produce geosmin, and saltiness from brackish or sea ...
Association determined that legally permitted levels of nitrite have no effect on the growth of the Clostridium botulinum ... There are many types of curing salts often specific to a country or region. One of the most common curing salts. It is also ... The results show that there is no change in levels of inoculated C botulinum over the curing process, which implies that the ... Type of salt-cured pork Charcuterie - Branch of cooking of prepared meat products, primarily from pork Cured fish - Fish ...
Properly cured sauerkraut is sufficiently acidic to prevent a favorable environment for the growth of Clostridium botulinum, ... A homemade type of very mild sauerkraut is available, where white cabbage is pickled with salt in a refrigerator for only three ... In Romania , the local type of sauerkraut ("varza murata" = whole pickled cabbage heads) are used as wrap for the national dish ... see http://www.mariner.org/exploration/index.php?type=webpage&id=55 / What did they eat? which begins "One of Cook's most ...
The incidence rates of C. botulinum type E in shoreline soil along the coast were 0, 50, and 87.5% among samples tested for the ... The distribution and levels of Clostridium botulinum type E were determined from field sites used by Inuit hunters for ... Distribution of Clostridium botulinum type E strains in Nunavik, Northern Quebec, Canada Daniel Leclair 1 , Jeffrey M Farber, ... Distribution of Clostridium botulinum type E strains in Nunavik, Northern Quebec, Canada Daniel Leclair et al. Appl Environ ...
1985)‎. A replacement preparation for the international standard for clostridium botulinum type B antitoxin : report of an ... A replacement preparation for the international standard for clostridium botulinum type B antitoxin : report of an ...
Clostridium botulinum type D/C intoxication in a dairy cow stock in Saxony-Anhalt (Germany) - report on an innovative ... Clostridium botulinum Typ D/C Intoxikation einer Milchviehherde in Sachsen-Anhalt (Deutschland) - Vorstellung einer innovativen ... In this manuscript we describe an outbreak of Clostridium (C.) botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) intoxication in a Saxony-Anhalt ... botulinum strain from a liver sample which was typed as a D/C mosaic strain by sequence analysis of the toxin gene. However, ...
Dive into the research topics of Identification of protein receptor for Clostridium botulinum type B neurotoxin in rat brain ... Identification of protein receptor for Clostridium botulinum type B neurotoxin in rat brain synaptosomes. ...
OnabotulinumtoxinA is one of several toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum. It blocks neuromuscular transmission through a 3 ... The binding domain of the type A molecule appears to be the heavy chain, which is selective for cholinergic nerve terminals. (2 ... Injections of botulinum toxin must be repeated at varying intervals to maintain long-term results. ...
Both raw and regular honey may contain tiny amounts of a bacteria known as Clostridium botulinum. This bacteria can cause ... Common types of honey and their properties are as follows:. *Raw honey - comes straight from the hive and is available in ... Some types of organic honey have labels with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) organic seal. This means that ... It is safe for people to consume both raw and regular honey, though it is a good idea to avoid types of honey that contain ...
Also called: Botulinum toxin type A Summary. Botox is a drug made from a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum ... Botulinum Toxin (Botox) for Facial Wrinkles (American Academy of Ophthalmology) * Botulinum Toxin Injections: A Treatment for ... Article: Prolonged Antipruritic Effect of Botulinum Toxin Type A on Cowhage-induced Itch:... ... Botulinum Toxin Therapy: Overview (American Academy of Dermatology) * Counterfeit Version of Botox Found in the United States ( ...
Clostridium Botulinum Type C Bacterin-Toxoid. 9 CFR 113.110. https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/837330 ...
Also called: Botulinum toxin type A Summary. Botox is a drug made from a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum ... Botulinum Toxin (Botox) for Facial Wrinkles (American Academy of Ophthalmology) * Botulinum Toxin Injections: A Treatment for ... Article: Prolonged Antipruritic Effect of Botulinum Toxin Type A on Cowhage-induced Itch:... ... Botulinum Toxin Therapy: Overview (American Academy of Dermatology) * Counterfeit Version of Botox Found in the United States ( ...
The spontaneous production of botulinum toxin in the infant gut by ingested Clostridium botulinum organisms is the underlying ... Isolation of Clostridium botulinum type G and identification of type G botulinal toxin in humans: report of five sudden ... The spontaneous production of botulinum toxin in the infant gut by ingested Clostridium botulinum organisms is the underlying ... botulinum type A organisms. The 9 S.I.D.S. cases with evidence of C. botulinum infection comprised 4.3% of the 211 S.I.D.S. ...
Categories: Clostridium botulinum Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Botox is a drug made from a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Its the same toxin that causes a life- ... Botulinum toxin injection - larynx Botulinum toxin (BTX) is a type of nerve blocker. When injected, BTX blocks nerve signals to ... seizure medicines Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) agents Botulinum toxin type A (Botox) injections may also help reduce ... Botox is a drug made from a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Its the same ... blinking Strabismus - ...
PrabotulinumtoxinA-xvfs is a 900 kDa botulinum toxin type A, produced from fermentation of Clostridium botulinum. ... BOTULINUM TOXIN TYPE A (UNII: E211KPY694) (BOTULINUM TOXIN TYPE A - UNII:E211KPY694) BOTULINUM TOXIN TYPE A. 100 [USPU]. ... botulinum toxin type A. neurotoxin complex,. human serum albumin (0.5. mg), and sodium chloride (0.9 mg). ... Each vial of JEUVEAU (prabotulinumtoxinA-xvfs) for injection contains 100 Units of botulinum toxin type A neurotoxin complex, ...
5. Botulinum toxin (Botox). Botox, or botulinum toxin type A, is an injectable drug produced by the bacterium Clostridium ... A migraine is a type of headache that causes throbbing pain, often on one side of the head. The pain can be so severe that it ... 2018). Botulinum toxins for the prevention of migraine in adults.. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6513576/. ... Migraine with brainstem aura (previously known as basilar migraine) is a type of migraine that begins in the brainstem. Lets ...
Clostridium botulinum (C. botulinum), is the bacterium which produces the neurotoxin used in Botox injections. Only very small ... Interestingly, this bacterium is commonly associated with botulism (a type of food poisoning) and misshapen or bulging cans due ... Generally, C. botulinum is harmless, it is naturally found in forests, lakes, soil, and intestinal tracts. However, such ... bacteria begin producing botulinum toxin when they transform and when their population increases. ...
Of the eight distinct toxins produced by subtypes of Clostridium botulinum, types B and C are associated with the majority of ... Equine Herpes Virus Type-1 and Equine Herpes Virus Type-4 Infection. EHV-1 and EHV-4 infect the host through the respiratory ... botulinum type B toxoid vaccine [c] is available in North America with the primary indication being the prevention of shaker ... Antibodies against toxin type B do not cross protect against other toxin types. Protection seems to be mediated primarily by ...
Crystal structure of botulinum neurotoxin type B at pH 4.0 ... Botulinum neurotoxin type B: A. SMTL:PDB. SMTL Chain Id:. PDB ... Eswaramoorthy, S. et al., Role of metals in the biological activity of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins. Biochemistry (2004) ... Crystal structure of botulinum neurotoxin type B at pH 4.0 Coordinates. PDB Format Method. X-RAY DIFFRACTION 2.00 Å. Oligo ...
Recent studies in animals suggest that botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) can accelerate nerve regeneration and improve functional ... Xie, S.; Wang, K.; Xu, T.; Guo, X.-S.; Shan, X.-F.; Cai, Z.-G. Efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin type A for treatment of ... Studies dealing with Clostridium botulinum C2 or C3 toxins were excluded since their mechanisms of action differ from those of ... Bach-Rojecky, L.; Relja, M.; Lacković, Z. Botulinum toxin type A in experimental neuropathic pain. J. Neural Transm. 2005, 112 ...
Study Type : Human Study. Additional Links Diseases : Clostridium Infections, Diarrhea, Low Immune Function: Natural Killer ... on Clostridium botulinum.Feb 05, 2013. Click here to read the entire abstract. ... Study Type : Review. Additional Links Diseases : Anemia: Hemolytic, Asthma, Immune Disorders: Low Immune Function, Red Tide ... Study Type : Human: Case Report. Additional Links Diseases : Drug-Induced Toxicity , Encephalomyelitis, Epstein-Barr Virus ...
Species: Clostridium botulinum [TaxId:1491]. Gene: ha70. Database cross-references and differences (RAF-indexed): *Uniprot ... Experiment type: XRAY. Resolution: 2.4 Å. R-factor: N/A. AEROSPACI score: 0.22 (click here for full SPACI score report) Chains ... Species: Clostridium botulinum [TaxId:1491]. Gene: ha17, HA-17. Database cross-references and differences (RAF-indexed): * ... Species: Clostridium botulinum [TaxId:1491]. Gene: ha70. Database cross-references and differences (RAF-indexed): *Uniprot ...
Clostridium [B03.300.390.400.200] * Clostridium botulinum [B03.300.390.400.200.160] * Clostridium botulinum type A [B03.300. ... Clostridium [B03.353.625.375.500] * Clostridium botulinum [B03.353.625.375.500.160] * Clostridium botulinum type A [B03.353. ... Clostridium [B03.510.415.400.200] * Clostridium botulinum [B03.510.415.400.200.160] * Clostridium botulinum type A [B03.510. ... Clostridium botulinum type E Preferred Concept UI. M0460334. Registry Number. txid36830. Scope Note. Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM ...
Development of In-Vitro Assays to Assess the Potency of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A (SBIR [R43/R44]) PA-09-179. NINDS ... Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic bacterium that produces a neurotoxin thought to be the most lethal substance known (on a ... types A and E on SNAP-25; types B, D, F, and G on synaptobrevin; and type C on syntaxin). The botulinum toxin effectively ... Title: Development of In-Vitro Assays to Assess the Potency of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A (SBIR [R43/R44]). Announcement Type ...
In Europe there have been several cases of food poisoning caused by consuming foods contaminated with Clostridium botulinum ... Smoked Whitefish is a type of fish that has been hot smoked, and thus has a shorter shelf life than other types of fish. We ... However, some pathogenic bacteria, such as Clostridium botulinum, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrio ... Smoked salmon is a type of fish that has been cured through smoking. This means that the fish has been exposed to smoke for a ...
Genetic interrelationships of saccharolytic Clostridium botulinum types B, E and F and related clostridia as revealed by small- ... Deoxyribonucleic acid base composition of Corynebacterium diphtheriae and other corynebacteria with cell wall type IV. FEMS ... The type strain is strain DSM 44122 (CCUG 33426). ...
This bacterium causes botulism, the deadliest type of food poisoning. C botulinum doesnt grow in highly acidic foods, making ... Failing to maintain the 240ºF temperature allows the bacteria Clostridium botulinum from the soil to survive the canning ... You still need to use the right type of cooker, stove, containers, and process to safely can different types of food. ... All types of stoves might be used for canning foods depending on the manufacturer and model. Check your manual to see what they ...
Contributor(s): Hauschild, Andreas H. W , Dodds, Karen LMaterial type: TextSeries: Food science and technology ; 54Publication ... Clostridium botulinum : ecology and control in foods / edited by Andreas H. W. Hauschild, Karen L. Dodds. ... details: New York : M. Dekker, 1993. Description: 412 pISBN: 082478748XSubject(s): Botulism , Clostridium botulinum , Food ... Item type. Current library. Call number. Copy number. Status. Date due. Barcode. ...
  • It's the same toxin that causes a life-threatening type of food poisoning called botulism . (nih.gov)
  • The spontaneous production of botulinum toxin in the infant gut by ingested Clostridium botulinum organisms is the underlying cause of infant botulism, recognised as an infectious disease only in late 1976. (nih.gov)
  • Faecal specimens from 160 age-matched healthy infants who served as controls in studies of inpatient infant botulism cases were negative for both C. botulinum organisms and toxin, except for one specimen that contained only C. botulinum type A organisms. (nih.gov)
  • These findings suggest that intestinal production of botulinum toxin by C. botulinum is one cause of S.I.D.S. The strikingly similar age-distribution of 62 inpatient infant botulism cases and the 211 S.I.D.S. cases is also consistent with this concept. (nih.gov)
  • Interestingly, this bacterium is commonly associated with botulism (a type of food poisoning) and misshapen or bulging cans due to the gas produced inside the sealed food container. (differencebetween.net)
  • problems breathing due to botulism -a rare type of food poisoning caused by Clostridium botulinum and sometimes by Clostridium butyricum or Clostridium baratii -and some forms of fish and shellfish poisoning, which affect the nervous system and may paralyze the muscles that control your breathing. (nih.gov)
  • Botulism is a neuromuscular disease caused by toxins generated by the anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium botulinum (Figure 3). (medscape.com)
  • This bacterium causes botulism, the deadliest type of food poisoning. (grangecoop.com)
  • Infant botulism is caused by Clostridium botulinum spores, which are sometimes found in both pasteurized and unpasteurized honey. (canada.ca)
  • Botulism is a toxic disorder resulting from ingestion of the exotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum . (msdvetmanual.com)
  • Botulism is an intoxication that results from ingestion of preformed exotoxin of Clostridium botulinum . (msdvetmanual.com)
  • Ruminants fed poultry manure contaminated with C botulinum spores have developed botulism. (msdvetmanual.com)
  • Botulinum toxins are the most potent naturally occurring protein toxins known, with an estimated amount of 30-100 ng sufficient to cause botulism in humans. (msdvetmanual.com)
  • Botox is a drug made from a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. (nih.gov)
  • Botox , or botulinum toxin type A, is an injectable drug produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum , which temporarily weakens or paralyzes the muscles. (healthline.com)
  • Clostridium botulinum (C. botulinum), is the bacterium which produces the neurotoxin used in Botox injections. (differencebetween.net)
  • E coli A type of bacterium which lives within the digestive system of animals and humans. (medic8.com)
  • Clostridium botulinum is a gram-positive, spore-forming, anaerobic bacterium. (msdvetmanual.com)
  • They contain one common substance, the botulinum toxin (produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum). (glowday.com)
  • Role of metals in the biological activity of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins. (expasy.org)
  • Clinically used botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are natural products of Clostridium botulinum. (bvsalud.org)
  • This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) encourages Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant applications from small business concerns (SBCs) that propose to develop new non-animal-based assays to assess the potency of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) in a Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) commercial environment. (nih.gov)
  • Botulinum neurotoxin type C1 Antibody is shipped on ice packs and upon receipt should be stored at -20 or -80 degrees Celsius. (neurobiol.com)
  • In this manuscript we describe an outbreak of Clostridium (C.) botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) intoxication in a Saxony-Anhalt dairy cow stock of 286 Holstein-Friesian cows and offspring in spring/summer 2009 and its diagnostic approach. (vetline.de)
  • BoNT gene type D was found in several (n = 8) organ samples. (vetline.de)
  • The mouse bioassay turned out positive (wasp-waist) in three preselected organ samples and the neutralization test of one sample with type-specific antitoxin confirmed the presence of BoNT type D. We succeeded in isolating a C. botulinum strain from a liver sample which was typed as a D/C mosaic strain by sequence analysis of the toxin gene. (vetline.de)
  • Bei 122 Tieren fielen klinische Anzeichen einer Intoxikation mit Clostridium (C.) botulinu m Neurotoxin (BoNT) auf. (vetline.de)
  • Der Neutralisationstest einer ausgewählten Probe mit typspezifischen Antitoxinen bestätigte die Anwesenheit von BoNT Typ D. Aus einer Leberprobe gelang die Isolierung eines C. botulinum -Stammes. (vetline.de)
  • Baby Botox' is a term used to describe a treatment using lower doses of botulinum toxin. (glowday.com)
  • At present, the number of injected cosmetic treatments (Botox) is increasing, and it is forecast that this type of procedure will duplicate in the future. (barraquer.com)
  • Botulinum toxin (Botox) is produced by Clostridium Botulinum -an anaerobic bacteria-and its active mechanism involves inhibiting the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. (barraquer.com)
  • By this age, children have developed helpful bacteria in their intestines that protect against Clostridium botulinum spores. (canada.ca)
  • A type of antibody which is designed to destroy toxins released by bacteria and viruses. (medic8.com)
  • Seven immunologically distinct toxins, designated by the letters A to G, are produced by different strains, which are classified into toxinotypes A-G according to the type of toxin produced. (msdvetmanual.com)
  • However, such bacteria begin producing botulinum toxin when they transform and when their population increases. (differencebetween.net)
  • Failing to maintain the 240ºF temperature allows the bacteria Clostridium botulinum from the soil to survive the canning process. (grangecoop.com)
  • This toxin is produced by the clostridium botulinum bacteria. (medic8.com)
  • The effects of all botulinum toxin products, including JEUVEAU, may spread from the area of injection to produce symptoms consistent with botulinum toxin effects. (nih.gov)
  • During an anti-wrinkle injection treatment, botulinum toxin is safely injected into specific muscles, in extremely small therapeutic quantities. (glowday.com)
  • 6. Hemagglutinin gene shuffling among Clostridium botulinum serotypes C and D yields distinct sugar recognition of the botulinum toxin complex. (nih.gov)
  • C. botulinum type E was found in the intestinal contents (4.4%) and skins (1.4%) of seals. (nih.gov)
  • 4. Molecular characterization of binding subcomponents of Clostridium botulinum type C progenitor toxin for intestinal epithelial cells and erythrocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Because of the recognition of the pathophysiology of this disease and because the known potency and action of botulinum toxin can lead to rapid respiratory arrest, it appeared possible that the in-vivo production of botulinum toxin could cause the sudden death of some infants. (nih.gov)
  • 13. Characterization of sugar recognition by the toxin complex produced by the Clostridium botulinum serotype C variant strain Yoichi. (nih.gov)
  • 18. Quantitative detection of gene expression and toxin complex produced by Clostridium botulinum serotype D strain 4947. (nih.gov)
  • The type strain is strain DSM 44122 (CCUG 33426). (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • 1. Toxsta is a product manufactured from original botulinum toxin strain from the European National Institute and complies with the cGMP standards. (yffiller.com)
  • 8. Botulinum Hemagglutinin: Critical Protein for Adhesion and Absorption of Neurotoxin Complex in Host Intestine. (nih.gov)
  • 10. Molecular engineering of a minimal E-cadherin inhibitor protein derived from Clostridium botulinum hemagglutinin. (nih.gov)
  • A high genetic biodiversity of C. botulinum type E isolates was observed among the 21 butchering sites and their surroundings along the Nunavik coastline, with 83% of isolates (44/53) yielding distinct pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotypes. (nih.gov)
  • Genetic interrelationships of saccharolytic Clostridium botulinum types B, E and F and related clostridia as revealed by small-subunit rRNA gene sequences. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The incidence rates of C. botulinum type E in shoreline soil along the coast were 0, 50, and 87.5% among samples tested for the Hudson Strait, Hudson Bay, and Ungava Bay regions, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • 1. Clostridium botulinum type C hemagglutinin affects the morphology and viability of cultured mammalian cells via binding to the ganglioside GM3. (nih.gov)
  • Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type E which is neurotoxic to humans and animals. (nih.gov)
  • Previous reports of foodborne types. (cdc.gov)
  • Anticonvulsant drugs may include narrow-spectrum AEDs for specific types of seizures or broad-spectrum AEDs for multiple seizures. (healthline.com)
  • The 9 S.I.D.S. cases with evidence of C. botulinum infection comprised 4.3% of the 211 S.I.D.S. cases examined over 12 months. (nih.gov)
  • To test this hypothesis, serum, selected tissues, and bowel contents from 280 dead infants were examined for the presence of C. botulinum toxin and/or organsisms. (nih.gov)
  • We found C. botulinum organisms in 10 infants, all of whom died suddenly and unexpectedly. (nih.gov)
  • Do not give any type of honey to infants (babies who are less than one year old). (canada.ca)
  • Concentrations of C. botulinum type E along the Ungava Bay coast were significantly higher than on the coasts of Hudson Strait and Hudson Bay, with the highest concentrations (270 to 1,800/kg of sample) found near butchering sites located along the mouths of large rivers. (nih.gov)
  • The Koksoak River contained high levels of C. botulinum type E, with the highest median concentration (270/kg) found in sediments of the marine portion of the river. (nih.gov)
  • Botulinum toxin (BTX) is a type of nerve blocker. (nih.gov)
  • A rare but serious form of food poisoning caused by the nerve toxin botulinum. (medic8.com)
  • C botulinum doesn't grow in highly acidic foods, making it unnecessary to preserve some foods using the same high temperature. (grangecoop.com)
  • Clostridium botulinum : ecology and control in foods / edited by Andreas H. W. Hauschild, Karen L. Dodds. (who.int)
  • 15. Functional dissection of the Clostridium botulinum type B hemagglutinin complex: identification of the carbohydrate and E-cadherin binding sites. (nih.gov)
  • Some types of food poisoning during pregnancy can cause complications, such as dehydration, for the pregnant woman or can affect the fetus. (nih.gov)
  • Just make sure that your instant pot has the capacity to preserve these types of food. (grangecoop.com)
  • The biggest risk that red meat It can bring to health, according to experts, is specifically related to bacterial contamination, such as salmonella And Clostridium botulinum responsible for the development of diseases. (catholictranscript.org)
  • INTERPRETATION: Normative values and reference charts for muscle fibre types in this age range have been generated to allow comparison of data from patients in pathology laboratories working on neuromuscular diseases. (bvsalud.org)
  • Notable changes in papules and nodules are increased in certain inflammatory cell types, inflammatory products, and neural hyperplasia. (medscape.com)
  • The five types of pasta sauces are the only products sold at the D. Palmieri bakery that are of concern. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Subtipo de CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM que produce la toxina botulínica de tipo C, neurotóxica para los ANIMALES, especialmente los BOVINOS, pero no para los seres humanos. (bvsalud.org)
  • The Rhode Island Department of Health is warning the public that five types of pasta sauces sold under the D. Palmieri Bakery brand name were not properly processed and could pose a risk of Clostridium botulinum poisoning. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Type B: Neurobloc® - this product is not approved for cosmetic use and are rarely used. (glowday.com)
  • Pruno is a type of easy homemade fruit wine that's often made by inmates in prison. (wikihow.com)
  • By default, all articles on GreenMedInfo.com are sorted based on the content type which best reflects the data which most users are searching for. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • There are two forms of diabetes -type 1 and type 2. (medic8.com)
  • 12. Role of C-terminal region of HA-33 component of botulinum toxin in hemagglutination. (nih.gov)