A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type E which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces BOTULINUM TOXINS, TYPE A which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type B which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type F which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type D which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
Antiserum given therapeutically in BOTULISM.
A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type C which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans. It causes dissociation of ACTIN FILAMENTS.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.
Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type G. Though it has been isolated from soil, no outbreaks involving this type have been recognized.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.
Treatment of food with RADIATION.
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
A family of anadromous fish comprising SALMON; TROUT; whitefish; and graylings. They are the most important food and game fishes. Their habitat is the northern Atlantic and Pacific, both marine and inland, and the Great Lakes. (Nelson: Fishes of the World, 1976, p97)
The cause of TETANUS in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin.
Cellulose derivative used in chromatography, as ion-exchange material, and for various industrial applications.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.
Food that has been prepared and stored in a way to prevent spoilage.
Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Type species of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM, a gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is used as a source of PROBIOTICS.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders. Most of these act centrally on dopaminergic or cholinergic systems. Among the most important clinically are those used for the treatment of Parkinson disease (ANTIPARKINSON AGENTS) and those for the tardive dyskinesias.
An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, used for the industrial production of SOLVENTS.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating a signal transduction pathway that controls assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The mechanical process of cooling.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Mold and yeast inhibitor. Used as a fungistatic agent for foods, especially cheeses.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, found in INTESTINES and SOIL.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A ubiquitous target SNARE protein that interacts with SYNTAXIN and SYNAPTOBREVIN. It is a core component of the machinery for intracellular MEMBRANE FUSION. The sequence contains 2 SNARE domains, one is the prototype for the Qb-SNARES, and the other is the prototype for the Qc-SNARES.

Differentiation of the gene clusters encoding botulinum neurotoxin type A complexes in Clostridium botulinum type A, Ab, and A(B) strains. (1/23)

We describe a strategy to identify the clusters of genes encoding components of the botulinum toxin type A (boNT/A) complexes in 57 strains of Clostridium botulinum types A, Ab, and A(B) isolated in Italy and in the United States from different sources. Specifically, we combined the results of PCR for detecting the ha33 and/or p47 genes with those of boNT/A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Three different type A toxin gene clusters were revealed; type A1 was predominant among the strains from the United States, whereas type A2 predominated among the Italian strains, suggesting a geographic distinction between strains. By contrast, no relationship between the toxin gene clusters and the clinical or food source of strains was evident. In two C. botulinum type A isolates from the United States, we recognized a third type A toxin gene cluster (designated type A3) which was similar to that previously described only for C. botulinum type A(B) and Ab strains. Total genomic DNA from the strains was subjected to pulsed-filed gel electrophoresis and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analyses, and the results were consistent with the boNT/A gene clusters obtained.  (+info)

A novel neurotoxoid vaccine prevents mucosal botulism. (2/23)

The threat posed by botulism, classically a food- and waterborne disease with a high morbidity and mortality, has increased exponentially in an age of bioterrorism. Because botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) could be easily disseminated by terrorists using an aerosol or could be used to contaminate the food or water supply, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases has classified it as a category A agent. Although clearly the development of a safe and effective mucosal vaccine against this toxin should be a high priority, essentially no studies to date have assessed mucosal immune responses to this disease. To bridge this gap in our knowledge, we immunized mice weekly for 4 wk with nasal doses of BoNT type A toxoid and a mutant of cholera toxin termed E112K. We found elevated levels of BoNT-specific IgG Abs in plasma and of secretory IgA Abs in external secretions (nasal washes, saliva, and fecal extracts). When mice given nasal BoNT vaccine were challenged with 4 x 10(3) LD50 of BoNT type A (BoNT/A) via the i.p. route, complete protection was seen, while naive mice given the same dosage died within 2 h. To further confirm the efficacy of this nasal BoNT vaccine, an oral LD50 was determined. When mice were given an oral challenge of 5 microg (2 x oral LD50) of progenitor BoNT/A, all immunized mice survived beyond 5 days, while nonimmunized mice did not. The fecal extract samples from nasally vaccinated mice were found to contain neutralizing secretory IgA Abs. Taken together, these results show that nasal BoNT/A vaccine effectively prevents mucosal BoNT intoxication.  (+info)

Efficient DNA fingerprinting of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E, and F by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis. (3/23)

Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was applied to characterize 33 group I and 37 group II Clostridium botulinum strains. Four restriction enzyme and 30 primer combinations were screened to tailor the AFLP technique for optimal characterization of C. botulinum. The enzyme combination HindIII and HpyCH4IV, with primers having one selective nucleotide apiece (Hind-C and Hpy-A), was selected. AFLP clearly differentiated between C. botulinum groups I and II; group-specific clusters showed <10% similarity between proteolytic and nonproteolytic C. botulinum strains. In addition, group-specific fragments were detected in both groups. All strains studied were typeable by AFLP, and a total of 42 AFLP types were identified. Extensive diversity was observed among strains of C. botulinum type E, whereas group I had lower genetic biodiversity. These results indicate that AFLP is a fast, highly discriminating, and reproducible DNA fingerprinting method with excellent typeability, which, in addition to its suitability for typing at strain level, can be used for C. botulinum group identification.  (+info)

Genotyping Clostridium botulinum toxinotype A isolates from patients using amplified rDNA restriction analysis. (4/23)

In this study, the application of amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) for characterizing Clostridium botulinum toxinotype A strains isolated from individuals with botulism was evaluated. Ten restriction enzymes were tested for their suitability in ARDRA as a typing method and HhaI was selected for the best outcome. Analysis of HhaI restriction profiles of the amplified products divided C. botulinum isolates into three clusters. Non-toxigenic Clostridium sporogenes strains showed an ARDRA restriction pattern that was distinct from those observed for C. botulinum. The successful use of ARDRA for subdivision of C. botulinum in this study confirmed that this technique is a powerful method for typing of C. botulinum toxinotype A clonal diversity. In addition, it is rapid, sensitive and simple.  (+info)

Expression of botulinum neurotoxins A and E, and associated non-toxin genes, during the transition phase and stability at high temperature: analysis by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. (5/23)

Production of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) and associated non-toxic proteins (ANTPs), which include a non-toxic non-haemagglutinin (NTNH/A) as well as haemagglutinins (HAs), was found previously to be dependent upon an RNA polymerase alternative sigma factor (BotR/A). Expression of the botR/A, bont/A and antp genes, monitored by reverse transcription and real-time PCR analysis, occurred concomitantly at the transition between the exponential and stationary growth phases of Clostridium botulinum A. The botR/A expression level was about 100-fold less than those of the bont/A and antp genes. Therefore, BotR/A is an alternative sigma factor controlling the botulinum A locus genes during the transition phase. The highest toxin concentration was released into the culture supernatant 12 h after maximum expression of the botR/A, bont/A and antp genes, without any apparent bacterial lysis. Toxin levels were then stable over 5 days in cultures at 37 degrees C, whereas a dramatic decrease in lethal activity was observed between 24 and 48 h in cultures at 44 degrees C. High temperature did inhibit transcription, since expression levels of the botR/A, bont/A and antp genes were similar in cultures at 37 and 44 degrees C. However, incubation at 44 degrees C triggered a calcium-dependent protease that degraded BoNT/A and NTNH/A, but not HAs. In C. botulinum E, which contains no gene related to botR, the bont/E and p47 genes were also expressed during the transition phase, and no protease activation at 44 degrees C was evident.  (+info)

Determination of neurotoxin gene expression in Clostridium botulinum type A by quantitative RT-PCR. (6/23)

Real time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was used to quantify the expression of the botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) gene (cntA) by normalization with the expression of 16S rRNA. The method were confirmed by monitoring the mRNA levels of cntA during growth in five type A strains. In all but one of the strains the expression of cntA mRNA was maximal in the late exponential phase, and approximately 35-fold greater than in the early exponential phase. The concentration of the extracellular BoNT/A complex detected by ELISA was highest in stationary phase. Sodium nitrite and sorbic acid completely inhibited growth at 20 ppm and 4 mg ml-1, respectively. CntA expression became lower in proportion to the concentration of sorbic acid, and this reduction was confirmed by mouse bioassay. Our results show that real time RT-PCR can be used to quantify levels of C. botulinum type A neurotoxin transcripts and to assess the effects of food additives on botulinal risk.  (+info)

SYBR green real-time PCR method to detect Clostridium botulinum type A. (7/23)

Botulinum toxins (BoNTs) are classically produced by Clostridium botulinum but rarely also from neurotoxigenic strains of Clostridium baratii and Clostridium butyricum. BoNT type A (BoNT/A), BoNT/B, BoNT/E, and very rarely BoNT/F are mainly responsible for human botulism. Standard microbiological methods take into consideration only the detection of C. botulinum. The presumptive identification of the toxigenic strains together with the typing of BoNT has to be performed by mouse bioassay. The development of PCR-based methods for the detection and typing of BoNT-producing clostridia would be an ideal alternative to the mouse bioassay. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and robust real-time PCR method for detecting C. botulinum type A. Four different techniques for the extraction and purification of DNA from cultured samples were initially compared. Of the techniques used, Chelex 100, DNeasy tissue kit, InstaGene matrix DNA, and boiling, the boiling technique was significantly less efficient than the other three. These did not give statistically different results, and Chelex 100 was chosen because it was less expensive than the others. In order to eliminate any false-negative results, an internal amplification control was synthesized and included in the amplification mixture according to ISO 22174. The specificity of the method was tested against 75 strains of C. botulinum type A, 4 strains of C. botulinum type Ab, and 101 nontarget strains. The detection limit of the reaction was less than 6 x 10(1) copies of C. botulinum type A DNA. The robustness of the method was confirmed using naturally contaminated stool specimens to evaluate the tolerance of inhibitor substances. SYBR green real-time PCR showed very high specificity for the detection of C. botulinum types A and Ab (inclusivity and exclusivity, 100%).  (+info)

Structures of Clostridium botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A Light Chain complexed with small-molecule inhibitors highlight active-site flexibility. (8/23)

The potential for the use of Clostridial neurotoxins as bioweapons makes the development of small-molecule inhibitors of these deadly toxins a top priority. Recently, screening of a random hydroxamate library identified a small-molecule inhibitor of C. botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A Light Chain (BoNT/A-LC), 4-chlorocinnamic hydroxamate, a derivative of which has been shown to have in vivo efficacy in mice and no toxicity. We describe the X-ray crystal structures of BoNT/A-LC in complexes with two potent small-molecule inhibitors. The structures of the enzyme with 4-chlorocinnamic hydroxamate or 2,4-dichlorocinnamic hydroxamate bound are compared to the structure of the enzyme complexed with L-arginine hydroxamate, an inhibitor with modest affinity. Taken together, this suite of structures provides surprising insights into the BoNT/A-LC active site, including unexpected conformational flexibility at the S1' site that changes the electrostatic environment of the binding pocket. Information gained from these structures will inform the design and optimization of more effective small-molecule inhibitors of BoNT/A-LC.  (+info)

IncobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin), also known as NT 201 or Botulinum toxin type A (150kD), free of complexing proteins (active ingredient:. Clostridium Botulinum neurotoxin Type A free of complexing proteins) powder for solution for injection; dose: one injection session of solution, prepared by reconstitution of powder with 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl); total volume 0.24 mL per side, i.e. 4 x 0.06 mL (4 x 3 units = 12 units); mode of administration: intramuscular injection. ...
Hi Vivek, There are a number of hidden parameters changed in 9i that affected CBO (as compared to 8i CBO). I suggest contacting Oracle Support before changing any hidden parameters. I think this is know problem. If possible, test your application with 9.2.0.6. That seems to a stable version of 9i, so far. Regards, - Kirti --- VIVEK_SHARMA ,[email protected], wrote: , , ISSUE - Getting HIGH Latch Free Wait on the following Latches after moving , from RBO to , CBO. ( ALL Objects been analyzed at 100 %). CPU Usage on DB Server has gone , up by about , 30 %. NOTE - Application has also been migrated to a Higher release along , with the CBO , movement. , , Qs Any init.ora parameters to Tune ? , , Would increasing _shared_pool_reserved_min_alloc to 6140 from the Default of , 4400 Help? , , Setting cursorsharing = FORCE/SIMILAR caused %sys component of CPU Usage to , shoot to , 99 % within minutes of Database startup. Seemed to be hitting some Bug in , 9.2.0.5 (64 , Bit) on Solaris 9. Has ...
When determining the effects on the deficit of a certain legislative action, both revenues and spending have to be accounted for. Indeed, you cant determine
Damage to the gut can be caused by a number of offenders including a bacterial overgrowth, antibiotic usage, stress and more. In order to fully repair the gut it is critical that you both heal and seal its tight junctions. Our CBO Finisher protocol is the perfect solution for anyone who needs to rebuild and restore their gut to optimal health ...
Please visit the link to view course details and registration.. https://www.jwcc.edu/programs/cbo/classes/. This courses meets on the following dates:. 11/3. ...
IncobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin, also known as NT 201 or Botulinum toxin type A (150 kiloDalton), free from complexing proteins) (active ingredient: Clostridium Botulinum neurotoxin Type A free from complexing proteins) powder for solution for injection.. IncobotulinumtoxinA (400 Units): Main period: One injection session of solution, prepared by reconstitution of powder with 0.9 percent (%) Sodium Chloride (NaCl), 400 units, total volume 8.0 milliliter (mL); Mode of administration: intramuscular injection.. IncobotulinumtoxinA (400 Units): Open-Label Extension Period: All subjects receive three injection sessions of solution, prepared by reconstitution of powder with 0.9% NaCl, 400 units, total volume 8.0 mL; Mode of administration: intramuscular injection.. ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Resources on the mental health parity bills from the Congressional Budget Office: CBO score on H.R. 1424 (Commerce), 11-21-07: http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/88xx/doc8837/hr1424e&c.pdf CBO score on H.R. 1424 (Ways & Means), 10-4-07: http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/86xx/doc8679/hr1424w&m.pdf CBO score on H.R. 1424 (Ed & Labor) 9-7-07: http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/86xx/doc8608/hr1424.pdf CBO score on S. 558, 3-20-07 ...
CBO: Extending the Bush tax cuts for two years is (1) good for short term growth, and (2) far superior to a permanent extension for long term growth
WASHINGTON, D.C. -- In response to the Congressional Budget Offices (CBO) report, 2019 Long-Term Budget Outlook, Jason Pye, FreedomWorks Vice President of Legislative Affairs, commented:
Despite being separated by over 7,000 miles, two species of crows that are distinct in appearance and size shed only the species C. jejuni. This was confirmed by using two well-established PCR protocols that targeted different genes. C. jejuni was isolated almost at the same frequency from Kolkata samples (69%) as from samples from the greater Seattle area (61%). Other studies have reported the presence of campylobacters in 21 to 68% of fecal samples from crows (10, 12), and our results are in agreement with those, although Weis et al. also found Campylobacter coli and C. lari isolates, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis (10).. The most unexpected result was that of the CDT gene cluster. In all of the 74 isolates in which the cluster was detected, irrespective of whether their origin was in the United States or Eastern India, PCR amplicons of the same size were obtained, at approximately 1,350 bp instead of the full-length 2,100 bp found in the wild type. The sequencing of 22 ...
The Staphylococcus aureus genome encodes three ferric uptake repressor (Fur) homologues: Fur, PerR, and Zur. To determine the exact role of Fur in S. aureus, we inactivated thefur gene by allelic replacement using a tetracycline resistance cassette, creating strain MJH010 (fur). The mutant had a growth defect in rich medium, and this defect was exacerbated in metal-depleted CL medium. This growth defect was partially suppressed by manganous ion, a metal ion with known antioxidant properties. This suggests that the fur mutation leads to an oxidative stress condition. Indeed, MJH010 (fur) has reduced levels of catalase activity resulting from decreased katA transcription. Using akatA-lacZ fusion we have determined that Fur functions, either directly or indirectly, as an iron-dependent positive regulator of katA expression. Transcription of katA is coregulated by Fur and PerR, since in MJH010 (fur) transcription was still repressed by manganese while transcription in MJH201 (fur perR) was ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for C3KX86 (SCPB_CLOB6), Segregation and condensation protein B. Clostridium botulinum (strain 657 / Type Ba4)
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for C3KTD0 (TGT_CLOB6), Queuine tRNA-ribosyltransferase. Clostridium botulinum (strain 657 / Type Ba4)
CBO SCORES THE STIMULUS BILL….So what does the Congressional Budget Office really think about the stimulus bill currently wending its way through Congress? Answer:CBO anticipates that implementation of H.R. 1 would have a noticeable impact on economic growth and employment…
A CBO aide said the agency will not release its analysis of the revised healthcare bill drafted by Senate Republicans on Monday, following a vote delay.
A CBO aide said the agency will not release its analysis of the revised healthcare bill drafted by Senate Republicans on Monday, following a vote delay.
Growth in real (inflation-adjusted) GDP in calendar year 2013 will be just 0.5 percent, CBO expects-with the economy projected to contract at an annual rate of 1.3 percent in the first half of the year and expand at an annual rate of 2.3 percent in the second half. Given the pattern of past recessions as identified by the National Bureau of Economic Research, such a contraction in output in the first half of 2013 would probably be judged to be a recession. ...
Background: Contemporary technologies and assay methods are being explored continuously for rapid and sensitive detection of biologically active BoNTs in food and environmental samples to facilitate enhanced public health response. Previously, FRET based substrates were used to detect the presence of active BoNTs in samples. However their efficacy to screen food samples and identify serotypes associated with unknown samples is largely limited. In this work, we have evaluated the application of cleavage sensitive monoclonal antibodies (CSM) to detect enzymatically active BoNT Type A using Bio-Layer Interferometry (BLI). CSM are developed to recognize only the neo-epitopes that are generated after the cleavage of target substrates by BoNTs. Methods: BLI platform (Pall Fortebio Octet) was used to evaluate the ability of type-A CSM (CSM-A) to specifically detect the catalytic action of BoNT/A, by measuring its binding to the BoNT/A cleaved fragment of SNAP-25. BLI is a powerful, versatile, rapid and ...
Clostridium botulinum strains that produce botulinum neurotoxin type E (BoNT/E) are most commonly isolated from botulism cases, marine environments, and animals in regions of high latitude in the Northern hemisphere. A strain of C. botulinum type E (CDC66177) was isolated from soil in Chubut, Argentina. Previous studies showed that the amino acid sequences of BoNT/E produced by various strains differ by | 6% and that the type E neurotoxin gene cluster inserts into the rarA operon. Genetic and mass spectral analysis demonstrated that the BoNT/E produced by CDC66177 is a novel toxin subtype (E9). Toxin gene sequencing indicated that BoNT/E9 differed by nearly 11% at the amino acid level compared to BoNT/E1. Mass spectrometric analysis of BoNT/E9 revealed that its endopeptidase substrate cleavage site was identical to other BoNT/E subtypes. Further analysis of this strain demonstrated that its 16S rRNA sequence clustered with other Group II C. botulinum (producing BoNT types B, E, and F) strains. Genomic
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , ListBio \ QD Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A Complex from Clostridium botulinum1,3,4 \ 9128B for more molecular products just contact us
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neurotrophic effects of Botulinum neurotoxin type A in hippocampal neurons involve activation of Rac1 by the non-catalytic heavy chain (HCC/A). AU - Solabre Valois, Luis. AU - Shi, H. AU - Bishop, Paul N. AU - Zhu, Bangfu. AU - Nakamura, Yasuko. AU - Wilkinson, Kevin A. AU - Henley, Jeremy M. N1 - Funding Information: We are grateful to Dina Anderson at Ipsen for championing this study and to Ipsen for funding LSVs PhD. KAW and JMH thank the BBSRC ( BB/R00787X/1 ), the Leverhulme Trust ( RPG-2019-191 ) and a Wellcome Trust Investigatorship to JMH ( 220799/Z/20/Z ) for financial support to the lab. Sophie Duffel, an undergraduate project student, assisted in blotting for ERK activation in NSCs. We thank the Wolfson Bioimaging facility for assistance in the microscopy. Funding Information: We are grateful to Dina Anderson at Ipsen for championing this study and to Ipsen for funding LSVs PhD. KAW and JMH thank the BBSRC (BB/R00787X/1), the Leverhulme Trust (RPG-2019-191) and a ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Development of In-Vitro Assays to Assess the Potency of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A (SBIR [R43/R44]) PA-09-179. NINDS
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Development of In-Vitro Assays to Assess the Potency of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A (STTR [R41/R42]) PA-09-178. NINDS
Background The dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum typically produces paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins, which are known only from cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. While a PSP toxin gene cluster has recently been characterized in cyanobacteria, the genetic background of PSP toxin production in dinoflagellates remains elusive. Results We constructed and analysed an expressed sequence tag (EST) library of A. minutum, which contained 15,703 read sequences yielding a total of 4,320 unique expressed clusters. Of these clusters, 72% combined the forward-and reverse reads of at least one bacterial clone. This sequence resource was then used to construct an oligonucleotide microarray. We analysed the expression of all clusters in three different strains. While the cyanobacterial PSP toxin genes were not found among the A. minutum sequences, 192 genes were differentially expressed between toxic and non-toxic strains. Conclusions Based on this study and on the lack of identified PSP synthesis ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural and biochemical characterization of botulinum neurotoxin subtype b2 binding to its receptors. AU - Davies, Jonathan R.. AU - Masuyer, Geoffrey. AU - Stenmark, Pål. PY - 2020/9/17. Y1 - 2020/9/17. N2 - Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) can be used therapeutically to treat a wide range of neuromuscular and neurological conditions. A collection of natural BoNT variants exists which can be classified into serologically distinct serotypes (BoNT/B), and further divided into subtypes (BoNT/B1, B2,...). BoNT subtypes share a high degree of sequence identity within the same serotype yet can display large variation in toxicity. One such example is BoNT/B2, which was isolated from Clostridium botulinum strain 111 in a clinical case of botulism, and presents a 10-fold lower toxicity than BoNT/B1. In an effort to understand the molecular mechanisms behind this difference in potency, we here present the crystal structures of BoNT/B2 in complex with the ganglioside receptor GD1a, and ...
Catalyzes the attachment of glutamate to tRNA(Glu) in a two-step reaction: glutamate is first activated by ATP to form Glu-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Glu).
The federal government will spend 11% less on the Affordable Care Act over the next decade than previously anticipated, according to updated figures released Monday by the Congressional Budget Office, the Washington Posts Wonkblog reports.. Overall, the ACA is expected to cost $1.2 trillion over the next 10 years. By comparison, CBO in March 2010 estimated the ACA would cost $710 billion from 2015 to 2019. However, CBO now estimates that the law will cost about $506 billion, or about 29% less, during that time period (Ehrenfreund, Wonkblog, Washington Post, 3/9).. According to CBO, the decline in the estimated cost is the result of fewer people enrolling in exchange coverage than the office had anticipated, as well as a slowdown in health care spending growth (Ferris, The Hill, 3/9). In addition, fewer individuals signed up for Medicaid coverage and more individuals were enrolled in employer-sponsored health plans and private coverage than had been expected (Wonkblog, Washington Post, ...
We talk to Lan T. Pham, the famous CBO whistleblower who was fired from her job for telling the truth about systemic fraud and corruption in Americas mortgage market and financial system. Dr. Lan T. Pham, former Principal Analyst and Financial Economist at the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) was beginning to explore the fallout from MERS (Mortgage Electronic Registration Systems) in her work there in 2010, before she was quickly fired. She joins us in a TV exclusive interview to tell her story, and to tell you why Americans should be asking some tough questions about who the CBO and Congress are REALLY serving… ...
Article Discussion on Have any of you geniuses actually read the CBO report? It didnt say that 2 million would LOSE their jobs, but rather that many may voluntarily choose to leave jobs that they are working at only for health benefits they couldnt obtain on their own before Obamacare. Most people would consider that flexibility a good thing. But yall never seem to care about the facts when you can turn something into another attack against the President you hate. CBO: Health-care law to prompt loss of 2 million full-time workers - Article Comments - View topic: Denver Post Community News, Sports, and Photos
I beleive the CBO actually are the honest non-partisan accountants they are presented to be, when they scored the health care bill.. The problem is the traditional one, which also occurs with various computer projections, garbage in garbage out. Any numerical/computer model is only as good as the data and algorithms it is based on.. The CBO is required to generate their projections with the numbers and assumptions they are given. In this case, those assumptions suffer from numerous flaws.. The same problem is evident when examining the various climate change models.. Of course this does not stop leftists from claiming the mantle of scientific respectability, and claiming the right is denying plain numerical facts.. ...
PhaseBio Positions for the Next Stage of Development by Bringing on Board Industry Veteran, Jonathan Mow as CBO MALVERN, PA - PhaseBio Pharmaceuticals, Inc, a privately held, clinical-stage...
Yesterday afternoon, House Speaker John Boehner got word from the Congressional Budget Office that his debt plan didnt reduce the
The Congressional Budget Office (CBO), a non-partisan congressional budget review agency, recently came up with their latest multi-year actual versus forecast for some key economic indicators. While a number of… Read more ». ...
Clostridium botulinum is a spore-forming, strictly anaerobic that means they live and grow in low oxygen environments, and gram-positive bacteria. The Clostridium botulinum bacteria remain dormant in the form of spores when conditions for survival are poor. The spore contains a small amount of all essential components of Clostridium botulinum, and has a thick protective …. ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against Clostridium botulinum D Toxoid. Clostridium botulinum D toxoid (MAB0406) - Products - Abnova
What is Clostridium botulinum? Clostridium botulinum are rod-shaped bacteria (also called C. are anaerobic, meaning they live and grow in low oxygen conditions. The bacteria form protective spores when conditions for survival are poor.
What is Clostridium botulinum? Clostridium botulinum are rod-shaped bacteria (also called C. are anaerobic, meaning they live and grow in low oxygen conditions. The bacteria form protective spores when conditions for survival are poor.
The hemagglutinating protein HA33 from Clostridium botulinum is associated with the large botulinum neurotoxin secreted complexes and is critical in toxin protection, internalization, and possibly activation. We report the crystal structure of serotype A HA33 (HA33/A) at 1.5 A resolution that contains a unique domain organization and a carbohydrate recognition site. In addition, sequence alignments of the other toxin complex components, including the neurotoxin BoNT/A, hemagglutinating protein HA17/A, and non-toxic non-hemagglutinating protein NTNHA/A, suggests that most of the toxin complex consists of a reoccurring beta-trefoil fold ...
A description is given of a food intoxication in 1895 at Ellezelles, a village in Belgium. As a result 3 persons died within a few days and others became seriously ill. A thorough investigation by E. van Ermengem led to the discovery of Clostridium botulinum and botulinum toxin. About 75 years later …
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Domain architecture, protein sequence and external database links and dcGO predictor for ENSP00000161863 from Homo sapiens 76_38.
ID CLBOT1_1_PE1005 STANDARD; PRT; 297 AA. AC CLBOT1_1_PE1005; A5I0L8; A7G2D2; DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 1, Created) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 2, Last sequence update) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 3, Last annotation update) DE SubName: Full=LysR-family transcriptional regulator;SubName: DE Full=Transcriptional regulator, LysR family; (CLBOT1_1.PE1005). GN OrderedLocusNames=CBO1026, CLC_1079; OS CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM A STR. ATCC 3502. OC Bacteria; Firmicutes; Clostridia; Clostridiales; Clostridiaceae; OC Clostridium. OX NCBI_TaxID=413999; RN [0] RP -.; RG -.; RL -.; CC -!- SEQ. DATA ORIGIN: Translated from the HOGENOM CDS CLBOT1_1.PE1005. CC Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 3502, complete genome. CC sequence. CC -!- ANNOTATIONS ORIGIN:A5I0L8_CLOBH CC -!- SIMILARITY: Contains 1 HTH lysR-type DNA-binding domain. CC -!- GENE_FAMILY: HOG000233521 [ FAMILY / ALN / TREE ] DR UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot; A5I0L8; A7G2D2; -. DR EMBL; CP000727; ABS37623.1; -; Genomic_DNA. DR EMBL; AM412317; CAL82579.1; -; Genomic_DNA. DR RefSeq; ...
You said high pressure cooking can destroy the toxin? Does it destroy the toxin? Or just the bacteria? And if it destroys the toxin, can I just cook my bulgey can of food before I eat it?. Reply ...
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De multidisciplinaire richtlijn Angststoornissen is op initiatief en onder auspiciën van de Landelijke Stuurgroep Multidisciplinaire Richtlijnontwikkeling in de GGZ en de daaronder ressorterende Commissie Cliëntenparticipatie tot stand gebracht door de werkgroep Angststoornissen waarin de deelnemende verenigingen en organisaties hebben samengewerkt.. Methodologische en organisatorische ondersteuning en begeleiding werden verzorgd door het Kwaliteitsinstituut voor de Gezondheidszorg CBO en het Trimbos-instituut.. Landelijke Stuurgroep Multidisciplinaire Richtlijnontwikkeling in de GGZ. Voorzitter R.M.W. Smeets, Raad van Bestuur GGZ Friesland. Vice-voorzitter Prof.dr. G. Hutschemaekers, De Gelderse Roos, Arnhem. Secretaris Mw. dr. A. Eland (tot januari 2002) en dr. A.L.C.M. Henkelman, Trimbos-instituut. Leden Ir. T.A. van Barneveld, Kwaliteitsinstituut voor de Gezondheidszorg CBO. Mw. H. Blankman, Federatie Verpleegkunde in de GGZ (FVGGZ). Mw. dr. J.H. Dekker, Nederlands Huisartsen Genootschap ...
Caspi, A., and T. E. Moffitt. Longitudinal cohort research: Sowing, nurturing, waiting, harvesting. Scientists Making a Difference: One Hundred Eminent Behavioral and Brain Scientists Talk about Their Most Important Contributions, 2016, pp. 249-55. Scopus, doi:10.1017/CBO9781316422250.055. Full Text ...
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IN RESEARCH AND TESTING OF ANTIPERSONNEL BIOLOGICALS SUCH AS A NEW CRYSTALLINE TOXIN DERIVED FROM CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM AND ... THEN IN 1969, THESE TYPES OF VIRAL AGENTS WERE SPECIFICALLY REQUESTED BY THE MILITARY TO SERVE AS SYNTHETIC BIOLOGICAL AGENTS ...

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