Clostridium botulinum type E
Clostridium botulinum type A
Clostridium botulinum type B
Clostridium botulinum type F
Clostridium botulinum type D
Botulinum Toxins, Type A
Clostridium botulinum type C
Clostridium botulinum type G
Lethal Dose 50
ADP Ribose Transferases
Molecular Sequence Data
Amino Acid Sequence
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Chromatography, Ion Exchange
rhoB GTP-Binding Protein
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose
Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Synaptosomal-Associated Protein 25
Differentiation of the gene clusters encoding botulinum neurotoxin type A complexes in Clostridium botulinum type A, Ab, and A(B) strains. (1/23)We describe a strategy to identify the clusters of genes encoding components of the botulinum toxin type A (boNT/A) complexes in 57 strains of Clostridium botulinum types A, Ab, and A(B) isolated in Italy and in the United States from different sources. Specifically, we combined the results of PCR for detecting the ha33 and/or p47 genes with those of boNT/A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Three different type A toxin gene clusters were revealed; type A1 was predominant among the strains from the United States, whereas type A2 predominated among the Italian strains, suggesting a geographic distinction between strains. By contrast, no relationship between the toxin gene clusters and the clinical or food source of strains was evident. In two C. botulinum type A isolates from the United States, we recognized a third type A toxin gene cluster (designated type A3) which was similar to that previously described only for C. botulinum type A(B) and Ab strains. Total genomic DNA from the strains was subjected to pulsed-filed gel electrophoresis and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analyses, and the results were consistent with the boNT/A gene clusters obtained. (+info)
A novel neurotoxoid vaccine prevents mucosal botulism. (2/23)The threat posed by botulism, classically a food- and waterborne disease with a high morbidity and mortality, has increased exponentially in an age of bioterrorism. Because botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) could be easily disseminated by terrorists using an aerosol or could be used to contaminate the food or water supply, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases has classified it as a category A agent. Although clearly the development of a safe and effective mucosal vaccine against this toxin should be a high priority, essentially no studies to date have assessed mucosal immune responses to this disease. To bridge this gap in our knowledge, we immunized mice weekly for 4 wk with nasal doses of BoNT type A toxoid and a mutant of cholera toxin termed E112K. We found elevated levels of BoNT-specific IgG Abs in plasma and of secretory IgA Abs in external secretions (nasal washes, saliva, and fecal extracts). When mice given nasal BoNT vaccine were challenged with 4 x 10(3) LD50 of BoNT type A (BoNT/A) via the i.p. route, complete protection was seen, while naive mice given the same dosage died within 2 h. To further confirm the efficacy of this nasal BoNT vaccine, an oral LD50 was determined. When mice were given an oral challenge of 5 microg (2 x oral LD50) of progenitor BoNT/A, all immunized mice survived beyond 5 days, while nonimmunized mice did not. The fecal extract samples from nasally vaccinated mice were found to contain neutralizing secretory IgA Abs. Taken together, these results show that nasal BoNT/A vaccine effectively prevents mucosal BoNT intoxication. (+info)
Efficient DNA fingerprinting of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E, and F by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis. (3/23)Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was applied to characterize 33 group I and 37 group II Clostridium botulinum strains. Four restriction enzyme and 30 primer combinations were screened to tailor the AFLP technique for optimal characterization of C. botulinum. The enzyme combination HindIII and HpyCH4IV, with primers having one selective nucleotide apiece (Hind-C and Hpy-A), was selected. AFLP clearly differentiated between C. botulinum groups I and II; group-specific clusters showed <10% similarity between proteolytic and nonproteolytic C. botulinum strains. In addition, group-specific fragments were detected in both groups. All strains studied were typeable by AFLP, and a total of 42 AFLP types were identified. Extensive diversity was observed among strains of C. botulinum type E, whereas group I had lower genetic biodiversity. These results indicate that AFLP is a fast, highly discriminating, and reproducible DNA fingerprinting method with excellent typeability, which, in addition to its suitability for typing at strain level, can be used for C. botulinum group identification. (+info)
Genotyping Clostridium botulinum toxinotype A isolates from patients using amplified rDNA restriction analysis. (4/23)In this study, the application of amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) for characterizing Clostridium botulinum toxinotype A strains isolated from individuals with botulism was evaluated. Ten restriction enzymes were tested for their suitability in ARDRA as a typing method and HhaI was selected for the best outcome. Analysis of HhaI restriction profiles of the amplified products divided C. botulinum isolates into three clusters. Non-toxigenic Clostridium sporogenes strains showed an ARDRA restriction pattern that was distinct from those observed for C. botulinum. The successful use of ARDRA for subdivision of C. botulinum in this study confirmed that this technique is a powerful method for typing of C. botulinum toxinotype A clonal diversity. In addition, it is rapid, sensitive and simple. (+info)
Expression of botulinum neurotoxins A and E, and associated non-toxin genes, during the transition phase and stability at high temperature: analysis by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. (5/23)Production of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) and associated non-toxic proteins (ANTPs), which include a non-toxic non-haemagglutinin (NTNH/A) as well as haemagglutinins (HAs), was found previously to be dependent upon an RNA polymerase alternative sigma factor (BotR/A). Expression of the botR/A, bont/A and antp genes, monitored by reverse transcription and real-time PCR analysis, occurred concomitantly at the transition between the exponential and stationary growth phases of Clostridium botulinum A. The botR/A expression level was about 100-fold less than those of the bont/A and antp genes. Therefore, BotR/A is an alternative sigma factor controlling the botulinum A locus genes during the transition phase. The highest toxin concentration was released into the culture supernatant 12 h after maximum expression of the botR/A, bont/A and antp genes, without any apparent bacterial lysis. Toxin levels were then stable over 5 days in cultures at 37 degrees C, whereas a dramatic decrease in lethal activity was observed between 24 and 48 h in cultures at 44 degrees C. High temperature did inhibit transcription, since expression levels of the botR/A, bont/A and antp genes were similar in cultures at 37 and 44 degrees C. However, incubation at 44 degrees C triggered a calcium-dependent protease that degraded BoNT/A and NTNH/A, but not HAs. In C. botulinum E, which contains no gene related to botR, the bont/E and p47 genes were also expressed during the transition phase, and no protease activation at 44 degrees C was evident. (+info)
Determination of neurotoxin gene expression in Clostridium botulinum type A by quantitative RT-PCR. (6/23)Real time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was used to quantify the expression of the botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) gene (cntA) by normalization with the expression of 16S rRNA. The method were confirmed by monitoring the mRNA levels of cntA during growth in five type A strains. In all but one of the strains the expression of cntA mRNA was maximal in the late exponential phase, and approximately 35-fold greater than in the early exponential phase. The concentration of the extracellular BoNT/A complex detected by ELISA was highest in stationary phase. Sodium nitrite and sorbic acid completely inhibited growth at 20 ppm and 4 mg ml-1, respectively. CntA expression became lower in proportion to the concentration of sorbic acid, and this reduction was confirmed by mouse bioassay. Our results show that real time RT-PCR can be used to quantify levels of C. botulinum type A neurotoxin transcripts and to assess the effects of food additives on botulinal risk. (+info)
SYBR green real-time PCR method to detect Clostridium botulinum type A. (7/23)Botulinum toxins (BoNTs) are classically produced by Clostridium botulinum but rarely also from neurotoxigenic strains of Clostridium baratii and Clostridium butyricum. BoNT type A (BoNT/A), BoNT/B, BoNT/E, and very rarely BoNT/F are mainly responsible for human botulism. Standard microbiological methods take into consideration only the detection of C. botulinum. The presumptive identification of the toxigenic strains together with the typing of BoNT has to be performed by mouse bioassay. The development of PCR-based methods for the detection and typing of BoNT-producing clostridia would be an ideal alternative to the mouse bioassay. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and robust real-time PCR method for detecting C. botulinum type A. Four different techniques for the extraction and purification of DNA from cultured samples were initially compared. Of the techniques used, Chelex 100, DNeasy tissue kit, InstaGene matrix DNA, and boiling, the boiling technique was significantly less efficient than the other three. These did not give statistically different results, and Chelex 100 was chosen because it was less expensive than the others. In order to eliminate any false-negative results, an internal amplification control was synthesized and included in the amplification mixture according to ISO 22174. The specificity of the method was tested against 75 strains of C. botulinum type A, 4 strains of C. botulinum type Ab, and 101 nontarget strains. The detection limit of the reaction was less than 6 x 10(1) copies of C. botulinum type A DNA. The robustness of the method was confirmed using naturally contaminated stool specimens to evaluate the tolerance of inhibitor substances. SYBR green real-time PCR showed very high specificity for the detection of C. botulinum types A and Ab (inclusivity and exclusivity, 100%). (+info)
Structures of Clostridium botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A Light Chain complexed with small-molecule inhibitors highlight active-site flexibility. (8/23)The potential for the use of Clostridial neurotoxins as bioweapons makes the development of small-molecule inhibitors of these deadly toxins a top priority. Recently, screening of a random hydroxamate library identified a small-molecule inhibitor of C. botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A Light Chain (BoNT/A-LC), 4-chlorocinnamic hydroxamate, a derivative of which has been shown to have in vivo efficacy in mice and no toxicity. We describe the X-ray crystal structures of BoNT/A-LC in complexes with two potent small-molecule inhibitors. The structures of the enzyme with 4-chlorocinnamic hydroxamate or 2,4-dichlorocinnamic hydroxamate bound are compared to the structure of the enzyme complexed with L-arginine hydroxamate, an inhibitor with modest affinity. Taken together, this suite of structures provides surprising insights into the BoNT/A-LC active site, including unexpected conformational flexibility at the S1' site that changes the electrostatic environment of the binding pocket. Information gained from these structures will inform the design and optimization of more effective small-molecule inhibitors of BoNT/A-LC. (+info)
1. Foodborne botulism: This type of botulism is caused by eating foods that have been contaminated with the bacteria. Symptoms typically begin within 12 to 72 hours after consuming the contaminated food and can include double vision, droopy eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, and muscle weakness.
2. Infant botulism: This type of botulism occurs in infants who are exposed to the bacteria through contact with contaminated soil or object. Symptoms can include constipation, poor feeding, and weak cry.
3. Wound botulism: This type of botulism is caused by the bacteria entering an open wound, usually a deep puncture wound or surgical incision.
Botulism is a rare illness in the United States, but it can be deadly if not treated promptly. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as mechanical ventilation and fluids, as well as antitoxin injections to neutralize the effects of the toxin. Prevention measures include proper food handling and storage, good hygiene practices, and avoiding consumption of improperly canned or preserved foods.
Some common types of Clostridium infections include:
* Clostridium difficile (C. diff) infection: This is a common type of diarrheal disease that can occur after taking antibiotics, especially in people who are hospitalized or living in long-term care facilities.
* Gas gangrene: This is a severe and potentially life-threatening infection that occurs when Clostridium bacteria infect damaged tissue, causing gas to build up in the affected area.
* Tetanus: This is a serious neurological infection caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani, which can enter the body through open wounds or puncture wounds.
* Botulism: This is a potentially fatal illness caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, which can be contracted through contaminated food or wounds.
Clostridium infections can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, and swelling or redness in the affected area. Treatment depends on the type of infection and may include antibiotics, surgery, or supportive care to manage symptoms.
Prevention measures for Clostridium infections include proper hand hygiene, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and practicing safe food handling practices to prevent the spread of botulism and other clostridial infections. Vaccines are also available for some types of clostridial infections, such as tetanus and botulism.
In summary, Clostridium infections are a diverse group of bacterial infections that can cause a range of illnesses, from mild to severe and life-threatening. Proper prevention and treatment measures are essential to avoid the potential complications of these infections.
Examples of Bird Diseases:
1. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu): A viral disease that affects birds and can be transmitted to humans, causing respiratory illness and other symptoms.
2. Psittacosis (Parrot Fever): A bacterial infection caused by Chlamydophila psittaci, which can infect a wide range of bird species and can be transmitted to humans.
3. Aspergillosis: A fungal infection that affects birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing respiratory problems and other symptoms.
4. Beak and Feather Disease: A viral disease that affects birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing feather loss and beak deformities.
5. West Nile Virus: A viral disease that can affect birds, as well as humans and other animals, causing a range of symptoms including fever, headache, and muscle weakness.
6. Chlamydophila psittaci: A bacterial infection that can infect birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing respiratory problems and other symptoms.
7. Mycobacteriosis: A bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium avium, which can affect a wide range of bird species, including parrots and other Psittacines.
8. Pacheco's Disease: A viral disease that affects birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing respiratory problems and other symptoms.
9. Polyomavirus: A viral disease that can affect birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing a range of symptoms including respiratory problems and feather loss.
10. Retinoblastoma: A type of cancer that affects the eyes of birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines.
It's important to note that many of these diseases can be prevented or treated with proper care and management, including providing a clean and spacious environment, offering a balanced diet, and ensuring access to fresh water and appropriate medical care.
PSE can be a serious condition, especially in older adults or those with weakened immune systems, as it can lead to life-threatening complications such as inflammation of the bowel wall, perforation of the bowel, and sepsis. PSE is often diagnosed through a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eradicate the infection, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms such as fluid replacement, pain management, and wound care. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged portions of the intestine.
Prevention measures for PSE include proper hand hygiene, isolation precautions, and environmental cleaning to reduce the transmission of C. diff spores. Probiotics, which are live microorganisms that are similar to the beneficial bacteria found in the gut, have also been shown to be effective in preventing PSE recurrence.
List of foodborne illness outbreaks in the United States
Myron W. Wentz
Edwin Michael Foster
Polyneuropathy in dogs and cats
Food and biological process engineering
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein
Eric Robinson (veterinarian)
List of MeSH codes (B03)
Soluble NSF attachment protein
Iraqi biological weapons program
Emerging infectious disease
Portable water purification
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- It's the same toxin that causes a life-threatening type of food poisoning called botulism . (nih.gov)
- The spontaneous production of botulinum toxin in the infant gut by ingested Clostridium botulinum organisms is the underlying cause of infant botulism, recognised as an infectious disease only in late 1976. (nih.gov)
- Faecal specimens from 160 age-matched healthy infants who served as controls in studies of inpatient infant botulism cases were negative for both C. botulinum organisms and toxin, except for one specimen that contained only C. botulinum type A organisms. (nih.gov)
- These findings suggest that intestinal production of botulinum toxin by C. botulinum is one cause of S.I.D.S. The strikingly similar age-distribution of 62 inpatient infant botulism cases and the 211 S.I.D.S. cases is also consistent with this concept. (nih.gov)
- Interestingly, this bacterium is commonly associated with botulism (a type of food poisoning) and misshapen or bulging cans due to the gas produced inside the sealed food container. (differencebetween.net)
- problems breathing due to botulism -a rare type of food poisoning caused by Clostridium botulinum and sometimes by Clostridium butyricum or Clostridium baratii -and some forms of fish and shellfish poisoning, which affect the nervous system and may paralyze the muscles that control your breathing. (nih.gov)
- Botulism is a neuromuscular disease caused by toxins generated by the anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium botulinum (Figure 3). (medscape.com)
- This bacterium causes botulism, the deadliest type of food poisoning. (grangecoop.com)
- Infant botulism is caused by Clostridium botulinum spores, which are sometimes found in both pasteurized and unpasteurized honey. (canada.ca)
- Botulism is a toxic disorder resulting from ingestion of the exotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum . (msdvetmanual.com)
- Botulism is an intoxication that results from ingestion of preformed exotoxin of Clostridium botulinum . (msdvetmanual.com)
- Ruminants fed poultry manure contaminated with C botulinum spores have developed botulism. (msdvetmanual.com)
- Botulinum toxins are the most potent naturally occurring protein toxins known, with an estimated amount of 30-100 ng sufficient to cause botulism in humans. (msdvetmanual.com)
- Botox is a drug made from a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. (nih.gov)
- Botox , or botulinum toxin type A, is an injectable drug produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum , which temporarily weakens or paralyzes the muscles. (healthline.com)
- Clostridium botulinum (C. botulinum), is the bacterium which produces the neurotoxin used in Botox injections. (differencebetween.net)
- E coli A type of bacterium which lives within the digestive system of animals and humans. (medic8.com)
- Clostridium botulinum is a gram-positive, spore-forming, anaerobic bacterium. (msdvetmanual.com)
- They contain one common substance, the botulinum toxin (produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum). (glowday.com)
- This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) encourages Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant applications from small business concerns (SBCs) that propose to develop new non-animal-based assays to assess the potency of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) in a Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) commercial environment. (nih.gov)
- Botulinum neurotoxin type C1 Antibody is shipped on ice packs and upon receipt should be stored at -20 or -80 degrees Celsius. (neurobiol.com)
- In this manuscript we describe an outbreak of Clostridium (C.) botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) intoxication in a Saxony-Anhalt dairy cow stock of 286 Holstein-Friesian cows and offspring in spring/summer 2009 and its diagnostic approach. (vetline.de)
- BoNT gene type D was found in several (n = 8) organ samples. (vetline.de)
- The mouse bioassay turned out positive (wasp-waist) in three preselected organ samples and the neutralization test of one sample with type-specific antitoxin confirmed the presence of BoNT type D. We succeeded in isolating a C. botulinum strain from a liver sample which was typed as a D/C mosaic strain by sequence analysis of the toxin gene. (vetline.de)
- Bei 122 Tieren fielen klinische Anzeichen einer Intoxikation mit Clostridium (C.) botulinu m Neurotoxin (BoNT) auf. (vetline.de)
- Der Neutralisationstest einer ausgewählten Probe mit typspezifischen Antitoxinen bestätigte die Anwesenheit von BoNT Typ D. Aus einer Leberprobe gelang die Isolierung eines C. botulinum -Stammes. (vetline.de)
- Baby Botox' is a term used to describe a treatment using lower doses of botulinum toxin. (glowday.com)
- At present, the number of injected cosmetic treatments (Botox) is increasing, and it is forecast that this type of procedure will duplicate in the future. (barraquer.com)
- Botulinum toxin (Botox) is produced by Clostridium Botulinum -an anaerobic bacteria-and its active mechanism involves inhibiting the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. (barraquer.com)
- By this age, children have developed helpful bacteria in their intestines that protect against Clostridium botulinum spores. (canada.ca)
- A type of antibody which is designed to destroy toxins released by bacteria and viruses. (medic8.com)
- Seven immunologically distinct toxins, designated by the letters A to G, are produced by different strains, which are classified into toxinotypes A-G according to the type of toxin produced. (msdvetmanual.com)
- However, such bacteria begin producing botulinum toxin when they transform and when their population increases. (differencebetween.net)
- Failing to maintain the 240ºF temperature allows the bacteria Clostridium botulinum from the soil to survive the canning process. (grangecoop.com)
- This toxin is produced by the clostridium botulinum bacteria. (medic8.com)
- The effects of all botulinum toxin products, including JEUVEAU, may spread from the area of injection to produce symptoms consistent with botulinum toxin effects. (nih.gov)
- During an anti-wrinkle injection treatment, botulinum toxin is safely injected into specific muscles, in extremely small therapeutic quantities. (glowday.com)
- 6. Hemagglutinin gene shuffling among Clostridium botulinum serotypes C and D yields distinct sugar recognition of the botulinum toxin complex. (nih.gov)
- Because of the recognition of the pathophysiology of this disease and because the known potency and action of botulinum toxin can lead to rapid respiratory arrest, it appeared possible that the in-vivo production of botulinum toxin could cause the sudden death of some infants. (nih.gov)
- 13. Characterization of sugar recognition by the toxin complex produced by the Clostridium botulinum serotype C variant strain Yoichi. (nih.gov)
- 18. Quantitative detection of gene expression and toxin complex produced by Clostridium botulinum serotype D strain 4947. (nih.gov)
- The type strain is strain DSM 44122 (CCUG 33426). (microbiologyresearch.org)
- 1. Toxsta is a product manufactured from original botulinum toxin strain from the European National Institute and complies with the cGMP standards. (yffiller.com)
- Strains of C botulinum can be proteolytic or nonproteolytic. (msdvetmanual.com)
- A high genetic biodiversity of C. botulinum type E isolates was observed among the 21 butchering sites and their surroundings along the Nunavik coastline, with 83% of isolates (44/53) yielding distinct pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotypes. (nih.gov)
- Genetic interrelationships of saccharolytic Clostridium botulinum types B, E and F and related clostridia as revealed by small-subunit rRNA gene sequences. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- The incidence rates of C. botulinum type E in shoreline soil along the coast were 0, 50, and 87.5% among samples tested for the Hudson Strait, Hudson Bay, and Ungava Bay regions, respectively. (nih.gov)
- 1. Clostridium botulinum type C hemagglutinin affects the morphology and viability of cultured mammalian cells via binding to the ganglioside GM3. (nih.gov)
- Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type E which is neurotoxic to humans and animals. (nih.gov)
- Previous reports of foodborne types. (cdc.gov)
- Anticonvulsant drugs may include narrow-spectrum AEDs for specific types of seizures or broad-spectrum AEDs for multiple seizures. (healthline.com)
- The 9 S.I.D.S. cases with evidence of C. botulinum infection comprised 4.3% of the 211 S.I.D.S. cases examined over 12 months. (nih.gov)
- To test this hypothesis, serum, selected tissues, and bowel contents from 280 dead infants were examined for the presence of C. botulinum toxin and/or organsisms. (nih.gov)
- We found C. botulinum organisms in 10 infants, all of whom died suddenly and unexpectedly. (nih.gov)
- Do not give any type of honey to infants (babies who are less than one year old). (canada.ca)
- Concentrations of C. botulinum type E along the Ungava Bay coast were significantly higher than on the coasts of Hudson Strait and Hudson Bay, with the highest concentrations (270 to 1,800/kg of sample) found near butchering sites located along the mouths of large rivers. (nih.gov)
- The Koksoak River contained high levels of C. botulinum type E, with the highest median concentration (270/kg) found in sediments of the marine portion of the river. (nih.gov)
- 15. Functional dissection of the Clostridium botulinum type B hemagglutinin complex: identification of the carbohydrate and E-cadherin binding sites. (nih.gov)
- The biggest risk that red meat It can bring to health, according to experts, is specifically related to bacterial contamination, such as salmonella And Clostridium botulinum responsible for the development of diseases. (catholictranscript.org)
- INTERPRETATION: Normative values and reference charts for muscle fibre types in this age range have been generated to allow comparison of data from patients in pathology laboratories working on neuromuscular diseases. (bvsalud.org)
- Subtipo de CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM que produce la toxina botulínica de tipo C, neurotóxica para los ANIMALES, especialmente los BOVINOS, pero no para los seres humanos. (bvsalud.org)
- The Rhode Island Department of Health is warning the public that five types of pasta sauces sold under the D. Palmieri Bakery brand name were not properly processed and could pose a risk of Clostridium botulinum poisoning. (foodsafetynews.com)
- Type B: Neurobloc® - this product is not approved for cosmetic use and are rarely used. (glowday.com)
- Pruno is a type of easy homemade fruit wine that's often made by inmates in prison. (wikihow.com)
- By default, all articles on GreenMedInfo.com are sorted based on the content type which best reflects the data which most users are searching for. (greenmedinfo.com)
- There are two forms of diabetes -type 1 and type 2. (medic8.com)
- Many of these processed types of honey may contain added sugars. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- 12. Role of C-terminal region of HA-33 component of botulinum toxin in hemagglutination. (nih.gov)