Clostridium botulinum: A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.Botulinum Toxins: Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.Clostridium botulinum type E: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type E which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.Botulism: A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)Clostridium botulinum type A: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces BOTULINUM TOXINS, TYPE A which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.Clostridium botulinum type B: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type B which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.Clostridium botulinum type F: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type F which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.Clostridium botulinum type D: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type D which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Botulinum Antitoxin: Antiserum given therapeutically in BOTULISM.Botulinum Toxins, Type A: A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.Clostridium botulinum type C: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type C which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans. It causes dissociation of ACTIN FILAMENTS.Toxins, Biological: Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.Neurotoxins: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.Spores: The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.Toxoids: Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.Fish Products: Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).Clostridium botulinum type G: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type G. Though it has been isolated from soil, no outbreaks involving this type have been recognized.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Clostridium difficile: A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.Clostridium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Antitoxins: Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.ADP Ribose Transferases: Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.Food Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.Food Irradiation: Treatment of food with RADIATION.Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Ammonium Sulfate: Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Neuromuscular Agents: Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Sodium Nitrite: Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Food Preservatives: Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Salmonidae: A family of anadromous fish comprising SALMON; TROUT; whitefish; and graylings. They are the most important food and game fishes. Their habitat is the northern Atlantic and Pacific, both marine and inland, and the Great Lakes. (Nelson: Fishes of the World, 1976, p97)Clostridium tetani: The cause of TETANUS in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin.DEAE-Cellulose: Cellulose derivative used in chromatography, as ion-exchange material, and for various industrial applications.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Clostridium perfringens: The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.Food, Preserved: Food that has been prepared and stored in a way to prevent spoilage.Synaptosomes: Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Clostridium butyricum: Type species of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM, a gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is used as a source of PROBIOTICS.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Anti-Dyskinesia Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders. Most of these act centrally on dopaminergic or cholinergic systems. Among the most important clinically are those used for the treatment of Parkinson disease (ANTIPARKINSON AGENTS) and those for the tardive dyskinesias.Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous: An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Clostridium acetobutylicum: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, used for the industrial production of SOLVENTS.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Tetanus Toxin: Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Clostridium thermocellum: A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.rhoB GTP-Binding Protein: A GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating a signal transduction pathway that controls assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Refrigeration: The mechanical process of cooling.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Sorbic Acid: Mold and yeast inhibitor. Used as a fungistatic agent for foods, especially cheeses.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Clostridium sordellii: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, found in INTESTINES and SOIL.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Synaptosomal-Associated Protein 25: A ubiquitous target SNARE protein that interacts with SYNTAXIN and SYNAPTOBREVIN. It is a core component of the machinery for intracellular MEMBRANE FUSION. The sequence contains 2 SNARE domains, one is the prototype for the Qb-SNARES, and the other is the prototype for the Qc-SNARES.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Sialorrhea: Increased salivary flow.Salivation: The discharge of saliva from the SALIVARY GLANDS that keeps the mouth tissues moist and aids in digestion.Xerostomia: Decreased salivary flow.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Primary Dysautonomias: Disorders of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM occurring as a primary condition. Manifestations can involve any or all body systems but commonly affect the BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.

Differentiation of the gene clusters encoding botulinum neurotoxin type A complexes in Clostridium botulinum type A, Ab, and A(B) strains. (1/23)

We describe a strategy to identify the clusters of genes encoding components of the botulinum toxin type A (boNT/A) complexes in 57 strains of Clostridium botulinum types A, Ab, and A(B) isolated in Italy and in the United States from different sources. Specifically, we combined the results of PCR for detecting the ha33 and/or p47 genes with those of boNT/A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Three different type A toxin gene clusters were revealed; type A1 was predominant among the strains from the United States, whereas type A2 predominated among the Italian strains, suggesting a geographic distinction between strains. By contrast, no relationship between the toxin gene clusters and the clinical or food source of strains was evident. In two C. botulinum type A isolates from the United States, we recognized a third type A toxin gene cluster (designated type A3) which was similar to that previously described only for C. botulinum type A(B) and Ab strains. Total genomic DNA from the strains was subjected to pulsed-filed gel electrophoresis and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analyses, and the results were consistent with the boNT/A gene clusters obtained.  (+info)

A novel neurotoxoid vaccine prevents mucosal botulism. (2/23)

The threat posed by botulism, classically a food- and waterborne disease with a high morbidity and mortality, has increased exponentially in an age of bioterrorism. Because botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) could be easily disseminated by terrorists using an aerosol or could be used to contaminate the food or water supply, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases has classified it as a category A agent. Although clearly the development of a safe and effective mucosal vaccine against this toxin should be a high priority, essentially no studies to date have assessed mucosal immune responses to this disease. To bridge this gap in our knowledge, we immunized mice weekly for 4 wk with nasal doses of BoNT type A toxoid and a mutant of cholera toxin termed E112K. We found elevated levels of BoNT-specific IgG Abs in plasma and of secretory IgA Abs in external secretions (nasal washes, saliva, and fecal extracts). When mice given nasal BoNT vaccine were challenged with 4 x 10(3) LD50 of BoNT type A (BoNT/A) via the i.p. route, complete protection was seen, while naive mice given the same dosage died within 2 h. To further confirm the efficacy of this nasal BoNT vaccine, an oral LD50 was determined. When mice were given an oral challenge of 5 microg (2 x oral LD50) of progenitor BoNT/A, all immunized mice survived beyond 5 days, while nonimmunized mice did not. The fecal extract samples from nasally vaccinated mice were found to contain neutralizing secretory IgA Abs. Taken together, these results show that nasal BoNT/A vaccine effectively prevents mucosal BoNT intoxication.  (+info)

Efficient DNA fingerprinting of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E, and F by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis. (3/23)

Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was applied to characterize 33 group I and 37 group II Clostridium botulinum strains. Four restriction enzyme and 30 primer combinations were screened to tailor the AFLP technique for optimal characterization of C. botulinum. The enzyme combination HindIII and HpyCH4IV, with primers having one selective nucleotide apiece (Hind-C and Hpy-A), was selected. AFLP clearly differentiated between C. botulinum groups I and II; group-specific clusters showed <10% similarity between proteolytic and nonproteolytic C. botulinum strains. In addition, group-specific fragments were detected in both groups. All strains studied were typeable by AFLP, and a total of 42 AFLP types were identified. Extensive diversity was observed among strains of C. botulinum type E, whereas group I had lower genetic biodiversity. These results indicate that AFLP is a fast, highly discriminating, and reproducible DNA fingerprinting method with excellent typeability, which, in addition to its suitability for typing at strain level, can be used for C. botulinum group identification.  (+info)

Genotyping Clostridium botulinum toxinotype A isolates from patients using amplified rDNA restriction analysis. (4/23)

In this study, the application of amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) for characterizing Clostridium botulinum toxinotype A strains isolated from individuals with botulism was evaluated. Ten restriction enzymes were tested for their suitability in ARDRA as a typing method and HhaI was selected for the best outcome. Analysis of HhaI restriction profiles of the amplified products divided C. botulinum isolates into three clusters. Non-toxigenic Clostridium sporogenes strains showed an ARDRA restriction pattern that was distinct from those observed for C. botulinum. The successful use of ARDRA for subdivision of C. botulinum in this study confirmed that this technique is a powerful method for typing of C. botulinum toxinotype A clonal diversity. In addition, it is rapid, sensitive and simple.  (+info)

Expression of botulinum neurotoxins A and E, and associated non-toxin genes, during the transition phase and stability at high temperature: analysis by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. (5/23)

Production of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) and associated non-toxic proteins (ANTPs), which include a non-toxic non-haemagglutinin (NTNH/A) as well as haemagglutinins (HAs), was found previously to be dependent upon an RNA polymerase alternative sigma factor (BotR/A). Expression of the botR/A, bont/A and antp genes, monitored by reverse transcription and real-time PCR analysis, occurred concomitantly at the transition between the exponential and stationary growth phases of Clostridium botulinum A. The botR/A expression level was about 100-fold less than those of the bont/A and antp genes. Therefore, BotR/A is an alternative sigma factor controlling the botulinum A locus genes during the transition phase. The highest toxin concentration was released into the culture supernatant 12 h after maximum expression of the botR/A, bont/A and antp genes, without any apparent bacterial lysis. Toxin levels were then stable over 5 days in cultures at 37 degrees C, whereas a dramatic decrease in lethal activity was observed between 24 and 48 h in cultures at 44 degrees C. High temperature did inhibit transcription, since expression levels of the botR/A, bont/A and antp genes were similar in cultures at 37 and 44 degrees C. However, incubation at 44 degrees C triggered a calcium-dependent protease that degraded BoNT/A and NTNH/A, but not HAs. In C. botulinum E, which contains no gene related to botR, the bont/E and p47 genes were also expressed during the transition phase, and no protease activation at 44 degrees C was evident.  (+info)

Determination of neurotoxin gene expression in Clostridium botulinum type A by quantitative RT-PCR. (6/23)

Real time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was used to quantify the expression of the botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) gene (cntA) by normalization with the expression of 16S rRNA. The method were confirmed by monitoring the mRNA levels of cntA during growth in five type A strains. In all but one of the strains the expression of cntA mRNA was maximal in the late exponential phase, and approximately 35-fold greater than in the early exponential phase. The concentration of the extracellular BoNT/A complex detected by ELISA was highest in stationary phase. Sodium nitrite and sorbic acid completely inhibited growth at 20 ppm and 4 mg ml-1, respectively. CntA expression became lower in proportion to the concentration of sorbic acid, and this reduction was confirmed by mouse bioassay. Our results show that real time RT-PCR can be used to quantify levels of C. botulinum type A neurotoxin transcripts and to assess the effects of food additives on botulinal risk.  (+info)

SYBR green real-time PCR method to detect Clostridium botulinum type A. (7/23)

Botulinum toxins (BoNTs) are classically produced by Clostridium botulinum but rarely also from neurotoxigenic strains of Clostridium baratii and Clostridium butyricum. BoNT type A (BoNT/A), BoNT/B, BoNT/E, and very rarely BoNT/F are mainly responsible for human botulism. Standard microbiological methods take into consideration only the detection of C. botulinum. The presumptive identification of the toxigenic strains together with the typing of BoNT has to be performed by mouse bioassay. The development of PCR-based methods for the detection and typing of BoNT-producing clostridia would be an ideal alternative to the mouse bioassay. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and robust real-time PCR method for detecting C. botulinum type A. Four different techniques for the extraction and purification of DNA from cultured samples were initially compared. Of the techniques used, Chelex 100, DNeasy tissue kit, InstaGene matrix DNA, and boiling, the boiling technique was significantly less efficient than the other three. These did not give statistically different results, and Chelex 100 was chosen because it was less expensive than the others. In order to eliminate any false-negative results, an internal amplification control was synthesized and included in the amplification mixture according to ISO 22174. The specificity of the method was tested against 75 strains of C. botulinum type A, 4 strains of C. botulinum type Ab, and 101 nontarget strains. The detection limit of the reaction was less than 6 x 10(1) copies of C. botulinum type A DNA. The robustness of the method was confirmed using naturally contaminated stool specimens to evaluate the tolerance of inhibitor substances. SYBR green real-time PCR showed very high specificity for the detection of C. botulinum types A and Ab (inclusivity and exclusivity, 100%).  (+info)

Structures of Clostridium botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A Light Chain complexed with small-molecule inhibitors highlight active-site flexibility. (8/23)

The potential for the use of Clostridial neurotoxins as bioweapons makes the development of small-molecule inhibitors of these deadly toxins a top priority. Recently, screening of a random hydroxamate library identified a small-molecule inhibitor of C. botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A Light Chain (BoNT/A-LC), 4-chlorocinnamic hydroxamate, a derivative of which has been shown to have in vivo efficacy in mice and no toxicity. We describe the X-ray crystal structures of BoNT/A-LC in complexes with two potent small-molecule inhibitors. The structures of the enzyme with 4-chlorocinnamic hydroxamate or 2,4-dichlorocinnamic hydroxamate bound are compared to the structure of the enzyme complexed with L-arginine hydroxamate, an inhibitor with modest affinity. Taken together, this suite of structures provides surprising insights into the BoNT/A-LC active site, including unexpected conformational flexibility at the S1' site that changes the electrostatic environment of the binding pocket. Information gained from these structures will inform the design and optimization of more effective small-molecule inhibitors of BoNT/A-LC.  (+info)

*List of foodborne illness outbreaks in the United States

Botulism (Type A Clostridium botulinum) in Peoria, Illinois. 28 persons were hospitalized, and 20 patients were treated with an ... "Outbreak of Botulism Type E Associated with Eating a Beached Whale - Western Alaska, July 2002". cdc.gov. Johnson, Annysa ( ... Mann JM, Martin S, Hoffman R, Marrazzo S (March 1981). "Patient recovery from type A botulism: morbidity assessment following a ... http://starpas.azcc.gov/scripts/cgiip.exe/WService=wsbroker1/names-detail.p?name-id=L12696489&type=L.L.C. Fox, Maggie (November ...

*Myron W. Wentz

"Clostridium botulinum type F: Seasonal inhibition by Bacillus lichenoformis". Science 1967;155(758): 89-90. "Meet the Founder ...

*Polyneuropathy in dogs and cats

"Natural Clostridium botulinum Type C Toxicosis in a Group of Cats". J Clin Microbiol. 42 (11): 5406-8. doi:10.1128/JCM.42.11. ... The most common type is Coonhound paralysis. This is similar to Guillain-Barré syndrome in humans. Coonhound paralysis seems to ... Hyperchylomicronemia or hyperlipoproteinemia is a type of inherited hyperlipidemia in cats. Polyneuropathy is caused by ...

*Clostridium botulinum

... botulinum types A or B. C. botulinum type A was found to be present in soil samples from mountain areas of Victoria. Type-B ... 1988, Clostridium argentinense sp.nov.: a genetically homogeneous group composed of all strains of Clostridium botulinum type G ... Type A C. botulinum predominates the soil samples from the western regions, while type B is the major type found in eastern ... Clostridium Botulinum type A (most potent type) can be broken down and destroyed for 160 °f for 10 minutes, but they are ...

*Avian botulism

... of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. C. botulinum can fall into one of 7 different types which are strains A through G. Type ... Yule, Adam; Ian K. Barker; John W. Austin; Richard D. Moccia (2006). "Toxicity of Clostridium Botulinum Type E Neurotoxin to ... Franciosa, G; L. Fenicia; C. Caldiani; P. Aureli (1996). "PCR for detection of Clostridium botulinum type C in avian and ... The Type E strain is also commonly associated with avian outbreaks and is frequently found in fish species which is why most ...

*Grass sickness

... however the toxin produced from the bacterium Clostridium botulinum type C may be involved. Clostridium botulinum is a soil- ... It may cause grass sickness when the spores of C. botulinum type C are ingested and produce their toxin locally within the ... Grass sickness may affect all types of horse, pony and donkey, and has affected some well known horses including the ...

*Abe Anellis

"Sporulation of Clostridium botulinum Types A, B and E, Clostridium Perfringens, and putrefactive Anaerobe 3679 in dialysis sacs ... "Comparative Dose-Survival Curves of Representative Clostridium botulinum Type F Spores and Type A and B Spores", Applied and ... "Production of Types A and B Spores of Clostridium botulinum by the Biphasic Method: Effect on Spore Population, Radiation ... "Cryogenic Gamma Irradiation of Prototype Pork and Chicken and Antagonistic Effect between Clostridium botulinum Types A and B ...

*Laminitis

Botulinum toxin infusion As an alternative to the deep digital flexor tenotomy, Clostridium botulinum type A toxin has been ... Carter, D; Renfroe (2009). "A Novel Approach to the Treatment and Prevention of Laminitis: Botulinum Toxin Type A for the ... Trimming Successful treatment for any type of founder must necessarily involve stabilization of the bony column by some means. ...

*Eric Robinson (veterinarian)

"The Bacteria of the Clostridium Botulinum C and D types". In 1929 he was also director of the Bacterial Vaccine Section at ...

*Qapqal disease

According to further researches, the Clostridium botulinum strains isolated were mainly type A, with several cases of type B. ... FU, Si-Wu; WANG, Chen-Huai (2008). "An Overview of Type E Botulism in China". Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. 21 (4): ... The team also discovered that, the source of the botulinum was a local fermented food called mi song hu hu. They promoted the ... and they were eradicated soon after the identification of them as cases type A botulism. After the liberation of 1949, a ...

*List of MeSH codes (B03)

Clostridium botulinum type A MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.160.100 --- Clostridium botulinum type B MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.160.150 ... Clostridium botulinum type C MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.160.200 --- Clostridium botulinum type D MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.160.250 ... Clostridium botulinum type E MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.160.300 --- Clostridium botulinum type F MeSH B03.300.390.400.200.160.350 ... Clostridium botulinum type A MeSH B03.510.415.400.200.160.100 --- Clostridium botulinum type B MeSH B03.510.415.400.200.160.150 ...

*Botulism

Clostridium botulinum type C toxin has been incriminated as the cause of grass sickness, a condition in horses which occurs in ... by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Clostridium botulinum is a large anaerobic Gram-positive bacillus that forms ... Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic, Gram positive, spore-forming rod. Botulinum toxin is one of the most powerful known ... However, further studies showed type H to be a chimeric toxin composed of parts of types F and A (FA). Some types produce a ...

*Theiler's disease

Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Streptococcus equi subspecies equi, Equine influenza, Equine herpesvirus type 1 ... Eight horses that had received prophylactic botulinum antitoxin and developed subsequent signs of Theiler's disease were ...

*Clostridium novyi

Some authors include Clostridium haemolyticum as Clostridium novyi type D. C novyi is closely related to Clostridium botulinum ... The toxins normally produced by the various types are shown in table 1 The alpha-toxin of Clostridium botulinum types C and D, ... Type strain of Clostridium novyi at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Biology portal. ... Moore WB (October 1968). "Solidified media suitable for the cultivation of Clostridium novyi type B". Journal of General ...

*Clostridium argentinense

"Clostridium argentinense sp. nov.: A Genetically Homogeneous Group Composed of All Strains of Clostridium botulinum Toxin Type ... botulinum toxin group G, respectively. Like Cl. botulinum, Cl. argentinense produces botulin, a neurotoxin that causes botulism ... "Clostridium argentinense: Suen et al., 1988". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). "Clostridium argentinense ... Clostridium argentinense is an anaerobic, motile, gram-positive bacterium. Some bacilli now identified as Cl. argentinense were ...

*Sodium nitrite

... is well known for its role in inhibiting the growth of Clostridium botulinum spores in refrigerated meats. The ... Furthermore, the type of bacteria also affects sodium nitrites effectiveness. It is generally agreed upon that sodium nitrite ... for this activity results from the inhibition of iron-sulfur clusters essential to energy metabolism of Clostridium botulinum. ... "Contribution of different vegetable types to exogenous nitrate and nitrite exposure". Food Chemistry. 120 (4): 960-966. doi: ...

*Host-pathogen interaction

Many pathogenic bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureusand Clostridium botulinum are food borne pathogens that secrete toxins ... Each of these different types of organisms can then be further classified as a pathogen based on its mode of transmission. This ... Each of these three types of antimicrobials can be classified into two subsequent groups: bactericidal and bacteriostatic. ...

*Select agent

Tier 1 BSATs are indicated by an asterisk (*). Botulinum neurotoxin-producing species of Clostridium* Coxiella burnetii ... Alcelaphine herpesvirus type 1) Menangle virus Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (contagious caprine ... Abrin Botulinum neurotoxins* Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin Conotoxins Ricin Saxitoxin Shiga-like ribosome inactivating ... proteins Shiga toxin Staphylococcal enterotoxins Tetrodotoxin 2 Type A trichothecenes: Diacetoxyscirpenol T-2 toxin Bacillus ...

*Bacteria

H7 and Clostridium botulinum, the toxin genes in an integrated phage converted a harmless ancestral bacterium into a lethal ... This environmentally important trait can be found in most bacteria of the metabolic types listed above. Regardless of the type ... There are many types of antibiotics and each class inhibits a process that is different in the pathogen from that found in the ... Many types of secretion systems are known and these structures are often essential for the virulence of pathogens, so are ...

*Wrinkle

Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botox is a specific form of botulinum ... botulinum toxin type B) in type A-resistant cervical dystonia". Neurology. 53 (7): 1431-8. doi:10.1212/WNL.53.7.1431. PMID ... Botulinum toxin treats wrinkles by immobilizing the muscles which cause wrinkles. It is not appropriate for the treatment of ... Botulinum toxin Injectable filler Danby, FW (Jul-Aug 2010). "Nutrition and aging skin: sugar and glycation". Cln Dermatol. 4. ...

*Curing salt

... specifically Clostridium botulinum in an effort to prevent botulism, and helps preserve the color of cured meat. Many also ... There are many types of curing salts often specific to a country or region. One of the most common curing salts. It is also ...

*Toxoid

Botulin is produced by Clostridium botulinum and causes the deadly disease botulism. While patients may sometimes complain of ... which has replaced horse serum-type tetanus antitoxin in most of the developed world. Anatoxin "The Preparation and Testing of ... For example, the tetanus toxoid is derived from the tetanospasmin produced by Clostridium tetani. The latter causes tetanus and ...

*Food storage

... meats serve to reduce the risks of food poisoning from anaerobic bacteria such as species of Clostridium that release botulinum ... when some types begin to go rancid. Unopened oils can have a storage life of up to one year, but some types have a shorter ... Modern techniques of preparing meat for storage vary with the type of meat and special requirements of tenderness, flavour, ...

*Sausage making

The bacterium responsible, Clostridium botulinum, is ubiquitous in the environment, grows in the anaerobic conditions created ... Emulsion-type cooked sausages, such as frankfurters or bologna, use a bowl chopper to make finely ground meat batter that is ... Nitrites are used for all types of sausages and are the most common. Nitrates are used only in the preparation of the cured dry ... Sausages come in two main types: fresh and cured. Cured sausages may be either cooked or dried. Most cured sausages are smoked ...

*Clostridium baratii

"Clostridium baratii". Retrieved 2011-01-24. Type strain of Clostridium baratii at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... As opposed to the classic cause of botulism, C. botulinum, its environmental source is unknown. Therefore, it is unclear how to ... "Clostridium baratii: Prévot 1938". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Clostridium baratii at the ... Infant Botulism Caused by Clostridium baratii Type F - Iowa, 2013". MMWR. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved ...

*Iraqi biological weapons program

Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium perfringens (gas gangrene) and several viruses (including enterovirus 17 [human ... five types of virus, and four toxins. Of these, three-anthrax, botulinum and aflatoxin-had proceeded to weaponization for ... botulinum toxins, and Clostridium perfringens toxins. Post-war inspections by UNSCOM, however, were confounded by ... From the United States, the non-profit American Type Culture Collection and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control sold or sent ...
IncobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin), also known as NT 201 or Botulinum toxin type A (150kD), free of complexing proteins (active ingredient:. Clostridium Botulinum neurotoxin Type A free of complexing proteins) powder for solution for injection; dose: one injection session of solution, prepared by reconstitution of powder with 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl); total volume 0.24 mL per side, i.e. 4 x 0.06 mL (4 x 3 units = 12 units); mode of administration: intramuscular injection. ...
Hi Vivek, There are a number of hidden parameters changed in 9i that affected CBO (as compared to 8i CBO). I suggest contacting Oracle Support before changing any hidden parameters. I think this is know problem. If possible, test your application with 9.2.0.6. That seems to a stable version of 9i, so far. Regards, - Kirti --- VIVEK_SHARMA ,[email protected], wrote: , , ISSUE - Getting HIGH Latch Free Wait on the following Latches after moving , from RBO to , CBO. ( ALL Objects been analyzed at 100 %). CPU Usage on DB Server has gone , up by about , 30 %. NOTE - Application has also been migrated to a Higher release along , with the CBO , movement. , , Qs Any init.ora parameters to Tune ? , , Would increasing _shared_pool_reserved_min_alloc to 6140 from the Default of , 4400 Help? , , Setting cursorsharing = FORCE/SIMILAR caused %sys component of CPU Usage to , shoot to , 99 % within minutes of Database startup. Seemed to be hitting some Bug in , 9.2.0.5 (64 , Bit) on Solaris 9. Has ...
When determining the effects on the deficit of a certain legislative action, both revenues and spending have to be accounted for. Indeed, you cant determine
IncobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin, also known as NT 201 or Botulinum toxin type A (150 kiloDalton), free from complexing proteins) (active ingredient: Clostridium Botulinum neurotoxin Type A free from complexing proteins) powder for solution for injection.. IncobotulinumtoxinA (400 Units): Main period: One injection session of solution, prepared by reconstitution of powder with 0.9 percent (%) Sodium Chloride (NaCl), 400 units, total volume 8.0 milliliter (mL); Mode of administration: intramuscular injection.. IncobotulinumtoxinA (400 Units): Open-Label Extension Period: All subjects receive three injection sessions of solution, prepared by reconstitution of powder with 0.9% NaCl, 400 units, total volume 8.0 mL; Mode of administration: intramuscular injection.. ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Resources on the mental health parity bills from the Congressional Budget Office: CBO score on H.R. 1424 (Commerce), 11-21-07: http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/88xx/doc8837/hr1424e&c.pdf CBO score on H.R. 1424 (Ways & Means), 10-4-07: http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/86xx/doc8679/hr1424w&m.pdf CBO score on H.R. 1424 (Ed & Labor) 9-7-07: http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/86xx/doc8608/hr1424.pdf CBO score on S. 558, 3-20-07 ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for C3KX86 (SCPB_CLOB6), Segregation and condensation protein B. Clostridium botulinum (strain 657 / Type Ba4)
A CBO aide said the agency will not release its analysis of the revised healthcare bill drafted by Senate Republicans on Monday, following a vote delay.
A CBO aide said the agency will not release its analysis of the revised healthcare bill drafted by Senate Republicans on Monday, following a vote delay.
Growth in real (inflation-adjusted) GDP in calendar year 2013 will be just 0.5 percent, CBO expects-with the economy projected to contract at an annual rate of 1.3 percent in the first half of the year and expand at an annual rate of 2.3 percent in the second half. Given the pattern of past recessions as identified by the National Bureau of Economic Research, such a contraction in output in the first half of 2013 would probably be judged to be a recession. ...
Background: Contemporary technologies and assay methods are being explored continuously for rapid and sensitive detection of biologically active BoNTs in food and environmental samples to facilitate enhanced public health response. Previously, FRET based substrates were used to detect the presence of active BoNTs in samples. However their efficacy to screen food samples and identify serotypes associated with unknown samples is largely limited. In this work, we have evaluated the application of cleavage sensitive monoclonal antibodies (CSM) to detect enzymatically active BoNT Type A using Bio-Layer Interferometry (BLI). CSM are developed to recognize only the neo-epitopes that are generated after the cleavage of target substrates by BoNTs. Methods: BLI platform (Pall Fortebio Octet) was used to evaluate the ability of type-A CSM (CSM-A) to specifically detect the catalytic action of BoNT/A, by measuring its binding to the BoNT/A cleaved fragment of SNAP-25. BLI is a powerful, versatile, rapid and ...
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NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Development of In-Vitro Assays to Assess the Potency of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A (SBIR [R43/R44]) PA-09-179. NINDS
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Development of In-Vitro Assays to Assess the Potency of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A (STTR [R41/R42]) PA-09-178. NINDS
Background The dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum typically produces paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins, which are known only from cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. While a PSP toxin gene cluster has recently been characterized in cyanobacteria, the genetic background of PSP toxin production in dinoflagellates remains elusive. Results We constructed and analysed an expressed sequence tag (EST) library of A. minutum, which contained 15,703 read sequences yielding a total of 4,320 unique expressed clusters. Of these clusters, 72% combined the forward-and reverse reads of at least one bacterial clone. This sequence resource was then used to construct an oligonucleotide microarray. We analysed the expression of all clusters in three different strains. While the cyanobacterial PSP toxin genes were not found among the A. minutum sequences, 192 genes were differentially expressed between toxic and non-toxic strains. Conclusions Based on this study and on the lack of identified PSP synthesis ...
Catalyzes the attachment of glutamate to tRNA(Glu) in a two-step reaction: glutamate is first activated by ATP to form Glu-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Glu).
The federal government will spend 11% less on the Affordable Care Act over the next decade than previously anticipated, according to updated figures released Monday by the Congressional Budget Office, the Washington Posts "Wonkblog" reports.. Overall, the ACA is expected to cost $1.2 trillion over the next 10 years. By comparison, CBO in March 2010 estimated the ACA would cost $710 billion from 2015 to 2019. However, CBO now estimates that the law will cost about $506 billion, or about 29% less, during that time period (Ehrenfreund, "Wonkblog," Washington Post, 3/9).. According to CBO, the decline in the estimated cost is the result of fewer people enrolling in exchange coverage than the office had anticipated, as well as a slowdown in health care spending growth (Ferris, The Hill, 3/9). In addition, fewer individuals signed up for Medicaid coverage and more individuals were enrolled in employer-sponsored health plans and private coverage than had been expected ("Wonkblog," Washington Post, ...
We talk to Lan T. Pham, the famous CBO whistleblower who was fired from her job for telling the truth about systemic fraud and corruption in Americas mortgage market and financial system. Dr. Lan T. Pham, former Principal Analyst and Financial Economist at the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) was beginning to explore the fallout from MERS (Mortgage Electronic Registration Systems) in her work there in 2010, before she was quickly fired. She joins us in a TV exclusive interview to tell her story, and to tell you why Americans should be asking some tough questions about who the CBO and Congress are REALLY serving… ...
PhaseBio Positions for the Next Stage of Development by Bringing on Board Industry Veteran, Jonathan Mow as CBO MALVERN, PA - PhaseBio Pharmaceuticals, Inc, a privately held, clinical-stage...
Yesterday afternoon, House Speaker John Boehner got word from the Congressional Budget Office that his debt plan didnt reduce the
The Congressional Budget Office (CBO), a non-partisan congressional budget review agency, recently came up with their latest multi-year actual versus forecast for some key economic indicators. While a number of… Read more ». ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against Clostridium botulinum D Toxoid. Clostridium botulinum D toxoid (MAB0406) - Products - Abnova
You said high pressure cooking can destroy the toxin? Does it destroy the toxin? Or just the bacteria? And if it destroys the toxin, can I just cook my bulgey can of food before I eat it?. Reply ...
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This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium ...
Clostridium botulinum is a taxonomic designation for at least four diverse species that are defined by the expression of one (monovalent) or two (bivalent) of seven different C. botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs, A-G). The four species have been classified as C. botulinum Groups I-IV. The presence of bont genes in strains representing the different Groups is probably the result of horizontal transfer of the toxin operons between the species. Chromosome and plasmid sequences of several C. botulinum strains representing A, B, E and F serotypes and a C. butyricum type E strain were compared to examine their genomic organization, or synteny, and the location of the botulinum toxin complex genes. These comparisons identified synteny among proteolytic (Group I) strains or nonproteolytic (Group II) strains but not between the two Groups. The bont complex genes within the strains examined were not randomly located but found within three regions of the chromosome or in two specific sites within plasmids. A
Reaktivität: Bakterien Wirt: Maus Klon: KBE42 Konjugat: DyLight 650 | Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Antikörper (ABIN4264032).
Reaktivität: Bakterien Wirt: Maus Klon: KBE144 Konjugat: DyLight 405 | Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Antikörper (ABIN4264006).
National Wildlife Refuges and State Wildlife Sanctuaries in the subtropical Hawaiian Islands have experienced severe die-off events from avian botulism with increasing frequency. In the wetlands of Hanalei National Wildlife Refuge (Kauai, Hawaii) and elsewhere, avian botulism is fatal and is caused by food poisoning from the bacteria Clostridium botulinum (strain C). The impact of avian botulism may increase globally as the bacteria Clostridium botulinum (strain C) favors warmer water temperatures. Hawaiis non-migratory endemic waterbirds are especially vulnerable to avian botulism (type C) with epizootics causing mortality of thousands of endangered waterbirds in recent years. Migratory waterfowl and shorebirds are also affected. The endangered koloa maoli (Hawaiian duck; Anas wyvilliana) and critically-endangered Laysan duck (Laysan teal; A. laysanensis) have particularly high exposure because of their feeding behavior, limited wetland habitat, and small geographic ranges. Hawaiis endemic ...
Formula Products Contaminated with Clostridium Botulinum - FAQ What is Clostridium botulinum? C. botulinum is an anaerobic, gram-positive, spore-forming rod that commonly found in the soil. Although the toxin is destroyed by boiling for 10 minutes or longer; inactivation of spores requires much higher temperature. What is the cause of botulism? Foodborne botulism results from ingestion of preformed toxin present in contaminated foods. Since C. botulinum can only grow in the absence of oxygen, foodborne botulism occurs in products with low oxygen content (e.g. in airtight packaging) as well as with right combination of storage and preservative parameters. The bacterium will grow and produce toxin in these products which are then eaten without sufficient heating or post-production cooking to inactivate the toxin. This is the case in lightly preserved foods such as fermented, salted, or smoked fish and meat products and in inadequately processed home-canned or home-bottled low acid foods. On the ...
View Notes - Botulism from BIOL 121 at Mary Washington. Botulism Botulism is a disease caused by the ingestion of a toxin produced by the Clostridium botulinum bacterium. All domestic fowl and most
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The carboxy-terminal domain of the heavy chain recognizes a specific binding site, while the nitrogen-terminus transports the lighter chain into the nerve cytosol (Peck et al. 2010). The lighter chain contains metalloproteases that target specific proteins involved in controlling the exocytosis machinery (Verderio et al. 2006). The inhibition of this integral machinery stops the release of acetylcholine and the neuron fails to send an important signal throughout the body. The lighter chain also decreases the stability of the binding complex, further preventing acetylcholine from being able to bind to the synaptic vesicles (Peck et al. 2010). In addition to releasing neurotoxins when exposed to varying environmental conditions, Clostridium botulinum also increases production of proteases that are secreted from the cell to breakdown polypeptides to contribute to contaminating food and therefore increasing its own toxicity. A large proportion of the bacterias genome encodes for several different ...
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are extremely potent toxins that are capable of causing death or respiratory failure leading to long-term intensive care. Treatment includes serotype-specific antitoxins, which must be administered early in the course of the intoxication. Rapidly determining human exposure to BoNT is an important public health goal. In previous work, our laboratory focused on developing Endopep-MS, a mass spectrometry-based endopeptidase method for detecting and differentiating BoNT/A-G serotypes in buffer and BoNT/A, /B, /E, and /F in clinical samples. We have previously reported the effectiveness of antibody-capture to purify and concentrate BoNTs from complex matrices, such as clinical samples. Because some antibodies inhibit or neutralize the activity of BoNT, the choice of antibody with which to extract the toxin is critical. In this work, we evaluated a panel of 16 anti-BoNT/A monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for their ability to inhibit the in vitro activity of BoNT/A1, /A2, and ...
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botulism: Poisoning by a toxin, called botulinum toxin, produced by Clostridium botulinum bacteria. This poisoning results most frequently from the eating of improperly sterilized home-...
Those who say they know the least about the Health Bill are the most against it. Its feels vs thinking. Even those for it know little about it. The CBO is not believed by some, but they say it will reduce the deficit.. Continue reading ...
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) produced by Clostridium botulinum are the most poisonous substances known to humankind. It is essential to have a simple, quick, and sensitive method for the detection and quantification of botulinum toxin in various media, including complex biological matrices. Our laboratory has developed a mass spectrometry-based Endopep-MS assay that is able to rapidly detect and differentiate all types of BoNTs by extracting the toxin with specific antibodies and detecting the unique cleavage products of peptide substrates. Botulinum neurotoxin type E (BoNT/E) is a member of a family of seven distinctive BoNT serotypes (A-G) and is the causative agent of botulism in both humans and animals. To improve the sensitivity of the Endopep-MS assay, we report here the development of novel peptide substrates for the detection of BoNT/E activity through systematic and comprehensive approaches. Our data demonstrate that several optimal peptides could accomplish 500-fold improvement in ...
Botulism is a severe neurological disease caused by the complex family of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT). Based on the different serotypes known today, a classification of serotype variants termed subtypes has been proposed according to sequence diversity and immunological properties. However, the relevance of BoNT subtypes is currently not well understood. Here we describe the isolation of a novel Clostridium botulinum strain from a food-borne botulism outbreak near Chemnitz, Germany. Comparison of its botulinum neurotoxin gene sequence with published sequences identified it to be a novel subtype within the BoNT/A serotype designated BoNT/A8. The neurotoxin gene is located within an ha-orfX+ cluster and showed highest homology to BoNT/A1, A2, A5, and A6. Unexpectedly, we found an arginine insertion located in the HC domain of the heavy chain, which is unique compared to all other BoNT/A subtypes known so far. Functional characterization revealed that the binding characteristics to its main ...
BioAssay record AID 329446 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of Clostridium botulinum recombinant BoNT/A light chain toxin expressed in Escherichia coli by FRET assay.
Food contaminated with Clostridium botulinum toxin may not look or smell spoiled but can still make you sick. Symptoms can include nausea, vomiting, fatigue, dizziness, blurred or double vision, dry mouth, respiratory failure and paralysis. In severe cases of illness, people may die. ...
Background: Two decades ago, botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) type A was introduced to the commercial market. Subsequently, the toxin was approved by the FDA to address several neurological syndromes, involving muscle, nerve, and gland hyperactivity. These syndromes have typically been associated with abnormalities in cholinergic transmission. Despite the multiplicity of botulinal serotypes (designated as types A through G), therapeutic preparations are currently only available for BoNT types A and B. However, other BoNT serotypes are under study for possible clinical use and new clinical indications; Objective: To review the current research on botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A-G, and to analyze potential applications within basic science and clinical settings; Conclusions: The increasing understanding of botulinal neurotoxin pathophysiology, including the neurotoxins effects on specific neuronal populations, will help us in tailoring treatments for specific diagnoses, symptoms and patients. Scientists and
Background: Two decades ago, botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) type A was introduced to the commercial market. Subsequently, the toxin was approved by the FDA to address several neurological syndromes, involving muscle, nerve, and gland hyperactivity. These syndromes have typically been associated with abnormalities in cholinergic transmission. Despite the multiplicity of botulinal serotypes (designated as types A through G), therapeutic preparations are currently only available for BoNT types A and B. However, other BoNT serotypes are under study for possible clinical use and new clinical indications; Objective: To review the current research on botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A-G, and to analyze potential applications within basic science and clinical settings; Conclusions: The increasing understanding of botulinal neurotoxin pathophysiology, including the neurotoxins effects on specific neuronal populations, will help us in tailoring treatments for specific diagnoses, symptoms and patients. Scientists and
Botulism Definition Botulism is an acute, progressive condition caused by botulinum toxin, a natural poison produced by the spore-forming bacteria Clostridium botulinum.
Botulism sera is used in the treatment of botulism.get complete information about botulism sera including usage, side effects, drug interaction, expert advice along with medicines associated with botulism sera at 1mg.com
subtype A4 neurotoxin (BoNT/A4) is naturally expressed in the dual-toxin-producing strain 657Ba in 100 lower titers than BoNT/B. the clostridial appearance system. Comparative analyses of the actions of rBoNT/A4-L260F and rBoNT/A4 I264R demonstrated 1, 000-fold-lower activity than BoNT/A1 in both nonmutated and mutated BoNT/A4. This indicates these mutations usually do not alter the experience of BoNT/A4 holotoxin. In conclusion, a recombinant BoNT from a dual-toxin-producing stress was purified and portrayed within an endogenous clostridial appearance program, allowing analysis of the toxin. Launch Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) will be the most poisonous chemicals known and so are produced by specific types. ...
Botulism is a severe neuroparalytic disease caused by toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum, an anaerobic spore-forming bacillus. Physicians in Norway are required to notify the National Institute of Public Health (NIPH) of cases of botulism immediately
Botulism The topic I chose to talk about today is botulism. Botulism neurotoxin is one of the most lethal substances known to man. Not many people are
Botulism - an easy to understand guide covering causes, diagnosis, symptoms, treatment and prevention plus additional in depth medical information.
The purpose of this study was to compare and test the efficiency of the leading kinds of media being used for the isolation and identification of Clostridium botulinum type E strains, and to develop a more reliable method and media for the differentiation of this organism based on the "pearly layer" characteristic. The production of "pearly layer" around the colonies of the different types of C. botulinum on egg yolk enriched media has been used as an aid in differentiation and isolation of this group of bacteria. In this investigation a comparative study was conducted to test the efficiency of the "pearly layer" formation on liver veal agar egg yolk media (LVA) and trypticase agar egg yolk media (TA). Liver veal agar egg yolk media was not entirely satisfactory in that strains of C. botulinum type E and most non-toxic "type E-like" clostridia did not always give a typical reaction. These organisms in many cases produced a faint "pearly layer" or, in some cases, no "pearly layer" on the LVA egg ...
Grass sickness is an often fatal disease affecting horses especially in the springtime and leading to different signs of neurotoxicity. The pathogenesis still remains unclear, but there seems be a toxicoinfection with the neurotoxin-producing bacterium clostridium botulinum and the disease.
Clostridium, Clostridium Botulinum, Gene, Gene Cluster, Gene Clusters, Strain, Botulism, Infant, Infant Botulism, Genes, Botulinum Toxin, Infant Formula, Spores, Clostridium Botulinum Type F, Gene Arrangement, Is Element, Time, Chromosome, Identification, Plasmid
Clostridium botulinum Toxin A antibody [B364M] for ELISA, ICC/IF, RIA. Anti-Clostridium botulinum Toxin A mAb (GTX44113) is tested in Clostridium botulinum samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
First lets get an overview of what botulism is. Botulism is an illness that causes varying degrees of paralysis in the body from a toxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. C. botulinum is practically everywhere - just about anything thats touched soil will contain spores. So why dont we get sick from it all the time? Most of the time this bacteria is dormant, and its only when conditions are right that it grows and makes this toxin. C. botulinum prefers an anaerobic (oxygen-free) environment thats not too acidic, not too salty, not too crowded with other bacteria, and it does especially well at warm temperatures. A unique characteristic of C. botulinum is its ability to survive high temperatures for relatively long periods of time ...
Botulism is a rare but very serious type of food poisoning caused by toxins produced by bacteria ( Clostridium botulinum ) that are commonly found in soil. Botulism is often caused by food that is not home-canned properly, such as home-canned beans and corn. In children younger than 1 year, botulism may be caused by...
This is a detailed and practical guide to botulinum neurotoxin therapy and the wide range of applications for neurological and pain disorders
Clostridium botulinum -- (n)[S] a Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium that produces several toxins. The best known are its neurotoxins, subdivided in types A-G, that cause the flaccid muscular paralysis seen in botulism. They are also the main paralytic agent in botox. C. botulinum is an anaerobic spore-former, which produces oval, subterminal endospores and is commonly found in soil ...
Clostridium botulinum produces a transcription factor that can aggregate and self-propagate a prion-like form, leading to genome-wide changes in gene expression in E. coli, according to a study.. 1 Comment. ...
Clostridium botulinum produces a transcription factor that can aggregate and self-propagate a prion-like form, leading to genome-wide changes in gene expression in E. coli, according to a study.. 1 Comment. ...
Looking for Botchalism? Find out information about Botchalism. acute poisoning resulting from ingestion of food containing toxins produced by the bacillus Clostridium botulinum. The bacterium can grow only in an... Explanation of Botchalism
At the request of Nancy Pelosi, the Congressional Budget Office has just released a study intended to better understand the potential economic impacts that would result from the cancellation of taxpayer funded Obamacare subsidies (a.k.a. cost-sharing reductions or CSRs). Among other things finds that cutting CSRs would cause a 20% spike in Obamacare premiums in 2018 and result in a $194 billion increase in the deficit from 2017 through 2026.
Recovery of neuronal function is critical for overcoming botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT)-mediated paralysis. Strategies for promoting such recovery have proven near...
WHO fact sheet on botulism: includes key facts, definition, symptoms, exposure, transmission, treatment, prevention, WHO response.
The new healthcare law will cost the nation the equivalent of 2.5 million workers in the next decade, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) estimated in a report released Tuesday.
The objective of the project is the development of in vitro detection methods for the different toxins (A, B, C, D, E and F) of Clostridium botulinum by optimizing both a competitive immuno-PCR test (icqPCR) and a quantitative immuno-PCR (iqPCR) and by comparing one to another with regard to the obtained specificity and sensitivity of detection for each type of botulinum toxin as well as to compare them to the reference method for detection of botulinum toxins being the mice toxicity test ...
The paper addresses the epidemiologic data of the death of pigs during the period of 2002 to 2009 following the ingestion of botulinum neurotoxin type C. This neurotoxin was present in food residues originating from restaurant and hotel kitchens, stored in barrels without shelter from the sun and administered in a collective trough without prior thermal treatment. Animals which died at different ages showed clinical signs of botulism characterized by flaccid paralysis, weight loss, anorexia, weakness, lack of coordination, locomotion difficulties with the evolution of lateral recumbency with involuntary urination and defecation. No alterations were observed at postmortem and histological examination. The bioassay with serum neutralization in mice was carried out on samples of intestinal contents from pigs affected and revealed the presence of large quantities of botulinum toxin type C ...
House Democratic Whip Steny H. Hoyer (MD) and Rep. Mark Pocan (D-WI), along with Rep. Rosa DeLauro (D-CT) and Rep. James McGovern (D-MA), sent the following letter to Congressional Budget Office (CBO) Director Douglas Elmendorf requesting an analysis of the economic impact of House Republicans legislation that cuts nearly $40 billion from the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and denies vital food support for four to six million low-income Americans. The letter asked that the CBO include the impact of these cuts on economic growth and jobs in any analysis of the bill.
The clostridial neurotoxins (CNTs) comprise a family of eight related toxins: tetanus (TeNT) and seven botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT/A-G), which cause the disease...
Background Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) may be the strongest poison recognized to mankind. a style like the separation from the BoNT-A light string through the holotoxin. This medication delivery vehicle could possibly be used to provide BoNT-A antidotes into BoNT-A intoxicated cultured mouse spinal-cord cells. Conclusion A highly effective BoNT-based medication delivery vehicle may be used to straight deliver toxin inhibitors into intoxicated nerve terminal cytosol. This process could possibly be used for targeted medication delivery to buy 315183-21-2 take care of additional neuronal and neuromuscular disorders. This record also provides fresh understanding of endocytosis and exocytosis aswell by BoNT trafficking. History Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are made by the anaerobic em Clostridium botulinum /em varieties of bacteria and so are the reason for botulism, a life-threatening neuroparalytic disease. They are really potent meals poisons, having a mouse LD50 of 0.1 ng/kg for type A [1,2]. ...
Botulinum Neurotoxins (BoNT) are the most toxic naturally occurring substances for humans. After potential intoxication and occurrence of botulism symptoms, urgent detection of causative BoNT is highly desirable for successful medical treatment. The mouse bioassay (MBA) as gold standard requires a large number of mice, takes several days and is not suitable for point-of-care. Here, we developed an automatic in vitro assay to detect BoNT in complex biological matrices. The assay detects specific cleavage of SNARE proteins by BoNTs by fluorescent read out in a centrifugal microfluidic cartridge, termed BoNT LabDisk (BLD). The generic LabDisk comprises two different peptides able to distinguish between BoNT/ACE and BDF, respectively. The BLD prototype system was tested in a trans-European performance study by five naïve laboratories with expertise in BoNT detection to demonstrate practical applicability and performance of the BLD system. Eight blinded samples containing three complex biological ...
1-Chloro-2-hydroxy-3-butene (CHB) is an in vitro metabolite of 1,3-butadiene, a rodent/human carcinogen. To search for an approach detecting CHB in vivo, it is vital to obtain a full understanding of CHB metabolism. Previously, we demonstrated that CHB was bioactivated to 1-chloro-3-buten-2-one (CBO) by alcohol dehydrogenase. However, CHB metabolism by cytochrome P450s has not been reported. Thus, in the present study, CHB metabolism by rat liver microsomes was investigated. The results showed that CHB was converted to 1-chloro-3,4-epoxy-2-butanol (CEB) and CBO. 4-Methylpyrazole, a cytochrome P450 2E1-specific inhibitor, inhibited the formation of both CEB and CBO, while 1-benzylimidazole, a generic cytochrome P450 inhibitor, completely abolished the formation of CEB and CBO, suggesting that CHB metabolism was mediated by cytochrome P450s. Because the molecules have two chiral centers, CEB was detected as two stereoisomers, which were designated D-CEB and M-CEB, and were characterized as ...
What is food-borne botulism? Food-borne botulism is a rare but serious type of food poisoning that can result in paralysis. It is caused by the Clostridium botulinum ( C. botulinum) bacterium. The bacteria produce a nerve toxin that can cause paralysis. Food-borne botulism can be fatal and is considered a medical emergency. What causes food-borne botulism? Food-borne botulism can be caused ...
Botulism Symptoms and Treatments in Dogs - Botulism is a paralytic disease caused by neurotoxins produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum.
Botox (brand name) is botulinum toxin A (protein in nature), which is made from bacteria (clostridium botulinum and clostridia) responsible for botulism.
Botox is a wrinkle treatment derived from the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. Learn how this versatile agent came to be as well as its other uses.
Brian Klepper, whos traitorously now pimping himself out on other blogs, extends the post I wrote the other day on the CBO at Pat Salbers blog The Doctor Weighs In. Its called Mr. Orszags Surprise and its a very good summary of the CBO document.. Also by Brian is his description of his heart surgery five years ago this week. Moral of the story-choose your parents better.. Finally, I have no idea what to believe about the Peak Oil movement, but Dan Berdnarzs piece on the impact of the end of cheap energy on the world and global health is pretty terrifying.. ...

Botulism in the United States: A Clinical and Epidemiologic Review | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of...Botulism in the United States: A Clinical and Epidemiologic Review | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of...

... spore-forming bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botulism in humans is usually caused by toxin types A, B, and E. Since 1973, a ... An Outbreak of Type A Botulism Associated with a Commercial Cheese Sauce Annals of Internal Medicine; 125 (7): 558-563 ... Clostridium difficile Colitis: An Efficient Clinical Approach to Diagnosis Annals of Internal Medicine; 123 (11): 835-840 ... Because clinicians are the first to treat patients in any type of botulism outbreak, they must know how to recognize, diagnose ...
more infohttp://annals.org/aim/article-abstract/711596/botulism-united-states-clinical-epidemiologic-review?volume=129&issue=3&page=221

Emergencies Biological BotulismEmergencies Biological Botulism

The toxin is produced by a bacterium called Clostridium botulinum. Botulism develops if a person ingests the toxin or if the ... How many types of botulism are there? +. There are three main types of botulism, categorized by the way the disease is acquired ... This typically occurs when a stored food item contains Clostridium botulinum spores which begin to grow and produce the toxin ... Although safe for children and adults, honey should not be fed to infants because it may contain Clostridium botulinum spores. ...
more infohttps://www1.nyc.gov/site/doh/health/emergency-preparedness/emergencies-biological-botulism.page

Infant botulism and botulism immune globulin in the UK: a case series of four infants | Archives of Disease in ChildhoodInfant botulism and botulism immune globulin in the UK: a case series of four infants | Archives of Disease in Childhood

... botulism was raised and confirmed on day 4 of intensive care admission with faecal sample positive for C botulinum toxin type A ... for analysis to the regional Health Protection Laboratory confirmed the presence of toxin A producing Clostridium botulinum on ...
more infohttp://adc.bmj.com/content/97/5/459

Engineering Seminar Topics :: Seminar Paper: Detailed Seminar on CLOSTRIDIUM TETANIEngineering Seminar Topics :: Seminar Paper: Detailed Seminar on CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI

There is involvement of the cranial nerves, especially in the facial area.Generalized tetanus is the most common type of ... Tetanospasmin is a zinc-dependent metalloproteinase which is similar in structure to botulinum toxin but each toxin have ... Clostridium tetani is an anaerobic bacterium that is found in soil and animal intestinal tracts. C. tetani bacteria are single- ... Clostridium tetani was discovered in 1884 by a German physician Arthur Nicolaier. He found that C.tetani causes tetanus when he ...
more infohttps://seminarprojects.blogspot.com/2012/01/detailed-seminar-on-clostridium-tetani.html

botF - Botulinum neurotoxin type F precursor - Clostridium botulinum - botF gene & proteinbotF - Botulinum neurotoxin type F precursor - Clostridium botulinum - botF gene & protein

Precursor of botulinum neurotoxin F which may have 2 coreceptors; complex polysialylated gangliosides found on neural tissue ... Botulinum toxin causes flaccid paralysis by inhibiting neurotransmitter (acetylcholine) release from the presynaptic membranes ... sp,P30996,BXF_CLOBO Botulinum neurotoxin type F OS=Clostridium botulinum OX=1491 GN=botF PE=1 SV=1 ... Botulinum neurotoxin type F: Botulinum toxin causes flaccid paralysis by inhibiting neurotransmitter (acetylcholine) release ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P30996

eno - Enolase - Clostridium botulinum (strain Eklund 17B / Type B) - eno gene & proteineno - Enolase - Clostridium botulinum (strain Eklund 17B / Type B) - eno gene & protein

Clostridium botulinum (strain Eklund 17B / Type B). Clostridium botulinum. Clostridium botulinum (strain Alaska E43 / Type E3) ... Clostridium botulinum (strain Eklund 17B / Type B). Clostridium botulinum. 431. UniRef100_B2TPW4. Cluster: Enolase. 2. ... Clostridium botulinum (strain Eklund 17B / Type B). ,p>This subsection of the Names and taxonomy section shows the unique ... Clostridium botulinum E1 str. BoNT E Beluga. Clostridium taeniosporum. 431. UniRef90_B2TPW4. Cluster: Enolase. 11. ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/B2TPW4

Grass Sickness and Clostridium Botulinum Type CGrass Sickness and Clostridium Botulinum Type C

... but there seems be a toxicoinfection with the neurotoxin-producing bacterium clostridium botulinum and the disease. ... botulinum type C toxicoinfection. Source: Hunter LC, Miller JK, Poxton IR. (1999): The association of Clostridium botulinum ... Grass sickness and clostridium botulinum type C Grass sickness is an often fatal disease affecting horses especially in the ... Clostridium botulinum was first implicated as a causative agent when it was isolated from the GI tract of a horse with EGS in ...
more infohttp://www.vetcontact.com/en/art.php?a=816&t=

Genetic Variation In Clostridium Botulinum, Types Of Botulism In France | 15109Genetic Variation In Clostridium Botulinum, Types Of Botulism In France | 15109

Clostridium botuinum is a spore-forming bacterium, which produces potent neurotoxins (BoNT) and which is responsible for a ... Genetic variation in Clostridium botulinum, types of botulism in France. International Congress on Bacteriology & Infectious ... According to their immunological properties, BoNTs are divided into 7 types (A to G) and each type is generally synthesized by ... Type B botulism is traditional in our country subsequently to ingestion of contaminated pork meat products. However, in the ...
more infohttps://www.omicsonline.org/proceedings/genetic-variation-in-clostridium-botulinum-types-of-botulism-in-france-15109.html

Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Antikörper (DyLight 755) (ABIN4263961)Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Antikörper (DyLight 755) (ABIN4263961)

anti-Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Antikörper (DyLight 755) Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Antikörper (DyLight 755) ... Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Antikörper (ABIN4263961). ... Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Reaktivität Bakterien. ... C. Botulinum E toxoid. There is no cross-reactivity with A and B toxoids in sandwich ELISA. ...
more infohttps://www.antikoerper-online.de/antibody/4263961/anti-Clostridium+Botulinum+Type+E+Toxoid+antibody+DyLight+755/

Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Antikörper (DyLight 405) (ABIN4263955)Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Antikörper (DyLight 405) (ABIN4263955)

anti-Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Antikörper (DyLight 405) Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Antikörper (DyLight 405) ... Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Antikörper (ABIN4263955). ... Clostridium Botulinum Type E Toxoid Reaktivität Bakterien. ... C. Botulinum E toxoid. There is no cross-reactivity with A and B toxoids in sandwich ELISA. ...
more infohttps://www.antikoerper-online.de/antibody/4263955/anti-Clostridium+Botulinum+Type+E+Toxoid+antibody+DyLight+405/

A novel strain of Clostridium botulinum that produces type B and type H botulinum toxins.  - PubMed - NCBIA novel strain of Clostridium botulinum that produces type B and type H botulinum toxins. - PubMed - NCBI

A novel strain of Clostridium botulinum that produces type B and type H botulinum toxins.. Barash JR1, Arnon SS. ... Clostridium botulinum strain IBCA10-7060, isolated from a patient with infant botulism, produced botulinum neurotoxin type B ( ... botulinum type Bh strain to be identified. BoNT/H is the first new botulinum toxin type to be recognized in ,40 years, and its ... Clostridium botulinum toxin statement from the director of the California Department of Public Health. [J Infect Dis. 2014] ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24106296?dopt=Abstract

Clostridium botulinum Type B Neurotoxin polyclonal antibody - (PAB29146) - Products - AbnovaClostridium botulinum Type B Neurotoxin polyclonal antibody - (PAB29146) - Products - Abnova

Native purified Clostridium botulinum Type B Neurotoxin emulsified in Freunds adjuvant. (PAB29146) - Products - Abnova ... Chicken polyclonal antibody raised against Clostridium botulinum Type B Neurotoxin. ... Clostridium botulinum Type B Neurotoxin polyclonal antibody. Clostridium botulinum Type B Neurotoxin polyclonal antibody. * ...
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A severe case of infant botulism caused by Clostridium botulinum type A with concomitant intestinal viral infections.  - PubMed...A severe case of infant botulism caused by Clostridium botulinum type A with concomitant intestinal viral infections. - PubMed...

Publication type, MeSH terms, Substances. Publication type. *Case Reports. MeSH terms. *Botulinum Toxins, Type A/isolation & ... A severe case of infant botulism caused by Clostridium botulinum type A with concomitant intestinal viral infections.. Fenicia ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15170567?dopt=Abstract

Neurotoxin gene profiling of clostridium botulinum types C and D native to different countries within Europe.Neurotoxin gene profiling of clostridium botulinum types C and D native to different countries within Europe.

Clostridium botulinum types C and D, as well as their mosaic variants C-D and D-C, are associated with avian and mammalian ... 0/botulinum toxin type C; 0/botulinum toxin type D; EC 3.4.24.69/Botulinum Toxins ... botulinum types C (n = 12), C-D (n = 29), D (n = 5), and D-C (n = 10), other botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT)-producing Clostridium ... Clostridium botulinum types C and D, as well as their mosaic variants C-D and D-C, are associated with avian and mammalian ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Neurotoxin-gene-profiling-Clostridium-botulinum/22344654.html

Effects of Carbon Dioxide on Neurotoxin Gene Expression in Non-proteolytic Clostridium botulinum type E.Effects of Carbon Dioxide on Neurotoxin Gene Expression in Non-proteolytic Clostridium botulinum type E.

... Artin, Ingrid LU ; ... non-proteolytic Clostridium botulinum type E were studied during the growth cycle. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and ... non-proteolytic Clostridium botulinum type E were studied during the growth cycle. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and ... non-proteolytic Clostridium botulinum type E were studied during the growth cycle. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and ...
more infohttps://lup.lub.lu.se/search/publication/1052920

The relation between toxicity and toxin-related-antigen contents of Clostridium botulinum types C and D cultures as determined...The relation between toxicity and toxin-related-antigen contents of Clostridium botulinum types C and D cultures as determined...

The relation between toxicity and toxin-related-antigen contents of Clostridium botulinum types C and D cultures as determined ... The relation between toxicity and toxin-related-antigen contents of Clostridium botulinum types C and D cultures as determined ...
more infohttps://www.rivm.nl/publicaties/relation-between-toxicity-and-toxin-related-antigen-contents-of-clostridium-botulinum

KAKEN - Research Projects | STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF RECEPTOR FOR CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM TYPE B NEUROTOXIN (KAKENHI-PROJECT...KAKEN - Research Projects | STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF RECEPTOR FOR CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM TYPE B NEUROTOXIN (KAKENHI-PROJECT...

Clostridium botulinum / neurotoxin / receptor. Research Abstract. Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin acts on nerve ending to ... Publications] Nishiki,T. et al.: Identification of protein receptor for clostridium botulinum type B neurotoxin in rat brain ... Publications] Nishiki,T. et al.: The high-affinity binding of clostridium botulinum type B neurotoxin to synaptotagmin II ... Publications] Nishiki T.,et al.: The high-affinity binding of Clostridium botulinum type B neurotoxin to synaptotagmin II ...
more infohttps://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-06660408/

Monoclonal Antibody to Clostridium botulinum Type A Neurotoxin Heavy Chain (amino acids 1177-1195).  - WB, EIA - Buy Now! ...Monoclonal Antibody to Clostridium botulinum Type A Neurotoxin Heavy Chain (amino acids 1177-1195). - WB, EIA - Buy Now! ...

Monoclonal Antibody to Clostridium botulinum Type A Neurotoxin Heavy Chain (amino acids 1177-1195). , validated in WB, EIA ( ... Clostridium botulinum Type A Neurotoxin Heavy Chain (amino acids 1177-1195). Weak cross-reactivity with Type B and Type E ... Monoclonal Antibody to Clostridium botulinum Type A Neurotoxin Heavy Chain (amino acids 1177-1195). is for research use only ... Monoclonal Antibody to Clostridium botulinum Type A Neurotoxin Heavy Chain (amino acids 1177-1195). ...
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Honey sold directly by producers in the Silesian region of Poland as a source of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and F |...Honey sold directly by producers in the Silesian region of Poland as a source of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and F |...

Honey sold directly by producers in the Silesian region of Poland as a source of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and F , ... Honey sold directly by producers in the Silesian region of Poland as a source of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and F ... NEVAS M, LINDSTROM M, HAUTAMAKI K, PUOSKARI S, KORKEALA H (2005): Prevalence and diversity of Clostridium botulinum types A, B ... The major serotypes detected were type A - in two (5.1%) and type B - in two (5.1%) honey samples, respectively. Types E and F ...
more infohttps://www.agriculturejournals.cz/web/cjfs.htm?type=article&id=376_2016-CJFS

Recombination and insertion events involving the botulinum neurotoxin complex genes in Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and...Recombination and insertion events involving the botulinum neurotoxin complex genes in Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and...

In C. botulinum type E and C. butyricum type E strains the location of the bont/e gene cluster appears to be the result of ... Chromosome and plasmid sequences of several C. botulinum strains representing A, B, E and F serotypes and a C. butyricum type E ... botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs, A-G). The four species have been classified as C. botulinum Groups I-IV. The presence of bont ... have led to the lineages observed today within the neurotoxin-producing clostridia. ...
more infohttps://bmcbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1741-7007-7-66

Activation of Some Clostridium botulinum Type D Toxin by Trypsin | Microbiology SocietyActivation of Some Clostridium botulinum Type D Toxin by Trypsin | Microbiology Society

... botulinum types C and D, the toxicity of C2 toxin, which is a minor toxin produced by both types C and D, is increased when the ... The present communication suggests that some strains of C. botulinum type D produce their major toxin in a form that may be ... Toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and F may be activated by exposure to trypsin (Duff et al., 1956; ... Activation of Some Clostridium botulinum Type D Toxin by Trypsin * A. Nakane, K. Oguma and H. Iida ...
more infohttps://www.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-111-2-429

Finished Whole-Genome Sequences of Two Clostridium botulinum Type A(B) Isolates.  - PubMed - NCBIFinished Whole-Genome Sequences of Two Clostridium botulinum Type A(B) Isolates. - PubMed - NCBI

Finished Whole-Genome Sequences of Two Clostridium botulinum Type A(B) Isolates.. Halpin JL1, Hill K2, Johnson SL2, Bruce DC2, ... Clostridium botulinum secretes a potent neurotoxin that causes devastating effects when ingested, including paralysis and death ... In the United States, some clinically significant strains produce toxin type A while also harboring a silent B gene. These are ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=cdcpub&id=3856

Distinguishing highly-related outbreak-associated Clostridium botulinum type A(B) strains | BMC Microbiology | Full TextDistinguishing highly-related outbreak-associated Clostridium botulinum type A(B) strains | BMC Microbiology | Full Text

These strains are designated type A(B). The most common pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern in the C. botulinum ... In silico multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis (7-loci) was unable to differentiate any of the type A(B) strains isolated ... The genome sequences of type A(B) strains evaluated in this study are closely related and cluster together compared to other ... This study confirms that type A(B) strains that share the same PFGE pattern also share closely-related genome sequences. The ...
more infohttps://0-bmcmicrobiol-biomedcentral-com.brum.beds.ac.uk/articles/10.1186/1471-2180-14-192

Dysport 500 I.U: Dysport 500 I.U Injection | Clostridium Botulinum Type A Toxin-Haemagglutinin Injection Reasonable Price @...Dysport 500 I.U: Dysport 500 I.U Injection | Clostridium Botulinum Type A Toxin-Haemagglutinin Injection Reasonable Price @...

Inquire price of Dysport 500 I.U Injection composition of Clostridium botulinum type A toxin-haemagglutinin 500 I.U injection ... Composition : Clostridium botulinum type A toxin-haemagglutinin complex. Manufacturer: Bharat Serums and Vaccines Limited. Form ... Botulinum toxin type A). AbobotulinumtoxinA is made from the bacteria that causes botulism. Botulinum toxin blocks nerve ... You should not receive Dysport injecton if you are allergic to botulinum toxin or if you have an infection, swelling, or muscle ...
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  • There are mainly three types of tetanus Local tetanus, Cephalic tetanus and generalised tetanus. (blogspot.com)
  • There is involvement of the cranial nerves , especially in the facial area.Generalized tetanus is the most common type of tetanus representing about 80% of cases. (blogspot.com)
  • This study reports on the development of low-density macroarrays based on the GeneDisc cycler platform (Pall-GeneDisc Technologies) applied to the simultaneous detection of the C. botulinum subtypes C, C-D, D, and D-C. The limit of detection of the PCR assays was 38 fg of total DNA, corresponding to 15 genome copies. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To understand the biological mechanisms allowing the adaptation of vegetative cells of C. butyricum type E to oxygen, we compared the proteome and metabolome profiles of the clostridial cultures grown for 5 h under either aerated or anaerobic conditions. (asm.org)
  • In silico multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis (7-loci) was unable to differentiate any of the type A(B) strains isolated from seven different outbreak investigations evaluated in this study. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Group II is a subset of a more diverse clade that includes other saccharolytic clostridia, such as C. acetobutylicum , C. beijerinckii , and toxic and nontoxic Group V C. baratii and Group VI C. butyricum . (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the present study, the effects of carbon dioxide on growth of, and neurotoxin production by, non-proteolytic Clostridium botulinum type E were studied during the growth cycle. (lu.se)
  • To generate knowledge in this regard and provide a basis for exploring the relationships that exist between PA 3679 and proteolytic strains of C. botulinum , here we present a draft assembly of the genome of PA 3679. (asm.org)
  • BLAST ( 1 ) results of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated 99 to 100% nucleotide similarity between PA 3679 and a number of proteolytic C. botulinum strains, as well as other C. sporogenes strains. (asm.org)
  • p>A type of phylogenetic evidence whereby an aspect of a descendent is inferred through the characterization of an aspect of a ancestral gene. (uniprot.org)
  • Botulinum toxin causes flaccid paralysis by inhibiting neurotransmitter (acetylcholine) release from the presynaptic membranes of nerve terminals of the eukaryotic host skeletal and autonomic nervous system, with frequent heart or respiratory failure. (uniprot.org)
  • Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin acts on nerve ending to inhibit neurotransmitter release. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 4 ] demonstrated that several type A(B) strains isolated in North America shared a high degree of genomic content. (beds.ac.uk)