A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)
A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces BOTULINUM TOXINS, TYPE A which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type E which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type B which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.
Antiserum given therapeutically in BOTULISM.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type D which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type F which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type C which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans. It causes dissociation of ACTIN FILAMENTS.
The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.
The cause of TETANUS in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin.
Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
Treatment of food with RADIATION.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders. Most of these act centrally on dopaminergic or cholinergic systems. Among the most important clinically are those used for the treatment of Parkinson disease (ANTIPARKINSON AGENTS) and those for the tardive dyskinesias.
An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.
Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, used for the industrial production of SOLVENTS.
A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.
Type species of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM, a gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is used as a source of PROBIOTICS.
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type G. Though it has been isolated from soil, no outbreaks involving this type have been recognized.
A GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating a signal transduction pathway that controls assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.
Food that has been prepared and stored in a way to prevent spoilage.
The mechanical process of cooling.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Mold and yeast inhibitor. Used as a fungistatic agent for foods, especially cheeses.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, found in INTESTINES and SOIL.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A ubiquitous target SNARE protein that interacts with SYNTAXIN and SYNAPTOBREVIN. It is a core component of the machinery for intracellular MEMBRANE FUSION. The sequence contains 2 SNARE domains, one is the prototype for the Qb-SNARES, and the other is the prototype for the Qc-SNARES.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.
Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.
Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. Infections have a strong association with malignancies and also with GAS GANGRENE.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Excessive winking; tonic or clonic spasm of the orbicularis oculi muscle.
A plant genus of the family TILIACEAE. Some species in this genus are called Limetree which is nearly the same as the common name for lime (CITRUS AURANTIIFOLIA). Some people are allergic to the POLLEN.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, capable of solventogenesis, and isolated from SOIL, infected WOUNDS, fermenting OLIVES, and spoiled CANDY.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
Organic esters of thioglycolic acid (HS-CH2COOH).
Aquatic invertebrates belonging to the phylum MOLLUSCA or the subphylum CRUSTACEA, and used as food.
RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM analysis of rRNA genes that is used for differentiating between species or strains.
An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve SKELETAL MUSCLE or SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A family of anadromous fish comprising SALMON; TROUT; whitefish; and graylings. They are the most important food and game fishes. Their habitat is the northern Atlantic and Pacific, both marine and inland, and the Great Lakes. (Nelson: Fishes of the World, 1976, p97)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A symptom, not a disease, of a twisted neck. In most instances, the head is tipped toward one side and the chin rotated toward the other. The involuntary muscle contractions in the neck region of patients with torticollis can be due to congenital defects, trauma, inflammation, tumors, and neurological or other factors.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.
A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.
Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is a cellulolytic, mesophilic species isolated from decayed GRASS.

Rejection of Clostridium putrificum and conservation of Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium sporogenes-Opinion 69. Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology. (1/657)

The Judicial Commission rejected the name Clostridium putrificum while conserving Clostridium botulinum for toxigenic strains and conserving Clostridium sporogenes for non-toxigenic strains.  (+info)

Biodiversity of Clostridium botulinum type E strains isolated from fish and fishery products. (2/657)

The genetic biodiversity of Clostridium botulinum type E strains was studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with two macrorestriction enzymes (SmaI-XmaI and XhoI) and by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis with two primers (OPJ 6 and OPJ 13) to characterize 67 Finnish isolates from fresh fish and fishery products, 15 German isolates from farmed fish, and 10 isolates of North American or North Atlantic origin derived mainly from different types of seafood. The effects of fish species, processing, and geographical origin on the epidemiology of the isolates were evaluated. Cluster analysis based on macrorestriction profiles was performed to study the genetic relationships of the isolates. PFGE and RAPD analyses were combined and resulted in the identification of 62 different subtypes among the 92 type E isolates analyzed. High genetic biodiversity among the isolates was observed regardless of their source. Finnish and North American or North Atlantic isolates did not form distinctly discernible clusters, in contrast with the genetically homogeneous group of German isolates. On the other hand, indistinguishable or closely related genetic profiles among epidemiologically unrelated samples were detected. It was concluded that the high genetic variation was probably a result of a lack of strong selection factors that would influence the evolution of type E. The wide genetic biodiversity observed among type E isolates indicates the value of DNA-based typing methods as a tool in contamination studies in the food industry and in investigations of botulism outbreaks.  (+info)

Growth from spores of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum in heat-treated vegetable juice. (3/657)

Unheated spores of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum were able to lead to growth in sterile deoxygenated turnip, spring green, helda bean, broccoli, or potato juice, although the probability of growth was low and the time to growth was longer than the time to growth in culture media. With all five vegetable juices tested, the probability of growth increased when spores were inoculated into the juice and then heated for 2 min in a water bath at 80 degrees C. The probability of growth was greater in bean or broccoli juice than in culture media following 10 min of heat treatment in these media. Growth was prevented by heat treatment of spores in vegetable juices or culture media at 80 degrees C for 100 min. We show for the first time that adding heat-treated vegetable juice to culture media can increase the number of heat-damaged spores of C. botulinum that can lead to colony formation.  (+info)

Inhibition of Rho at different stages of thymocyte development gives different perspectives on Rho function. (4/657)

Development of thymocytes can be staged according to the levels of expression of the cell-surface markers CD4, CD8, CD44, CD25 and CD2. Thymocyte development is regulated by a complex signalling network [1], one component of which is the GTPase Rho. The bacterial enzyme C3 transferase from Clostridium botulinum selectively ADP-ribosylates Rho in its effector-binding domain and thereby abolishes its biological function [2,3]. To explore the function of Rho in thymocyte development, we previously used the proximal promoter of the gene encoding the Src-family kinase p56lck to make transgenic mice that selectively express C3 transferase in the thymus [4,6]. In these mice, which lack Rho function from the earliest thymocyte stages, thymocyte numbers are reduced by approximately 50- to 100-fold. Here, we describe transgenic mice that express C3 transferase under the control of the locus control region (LCR) of the CD2 gene; this regulatory element drives expression at a later stage of thymocyte development than the lck proximal promoter [7]. In these mice, thymocyte numbers were also reduced by 50- to 100-fold, but unlike the lck-C3 mice, in which the reduction predominantly results from defects in cell survival of CD25(+) thymocyte progenitors, the CD2-C3 transgenic mice had a pre-T-cell differentiation block at the CD25(+) stage after rearrangement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) beta chains. Analysis of CD2-C3 mice demonstrated that Rho acts as an intracellular switch for TCR beta selection, the critical thymic-differentiation checkpoint. These results show that Rho-mediated survival signals for CD25(+) pre-T cells are generated by the extracellular signals that act on earlier thymocyte precursors and also that temporal cell-type-specific elimination of Rho can reveal different functions of this GTPase in vivo.  (+info)

In situ detection of the Clostridium botulinum type C1 toxin gene in wetland sediments with a nested PCR assay. (5/657)

A nested PCR was developed for detection of the Clostridium botulinum type C1 toxin gene in sediments collected from wetlands where avian botulism outbreaks had or had not occurred. The C1 toxin gene was detected in 16 of 18 sites, demonstrating both the ubiquitous distribution of C. botulinum type C in wetland sediments and the sensitivity of the detection assay.  (+info)

A predictive model that describes the effect of prolonged heating at 70 to 90 degrees C and subsequent incubation at refrigeration temperatures on growth from spores and toxigenesis by nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum in the presence of lysozyme. (6/657)

Refrigerated processed foods of extended durability such as cook-chill and sous-vide foods rely on a minimal heat treatment at 70 to 95 degrees C and then storage at a refrigeration temperature for safety and preservation. These foods are not sterile and are intended to have an extended shelf life, often up to 42 days. The principal microbiological hazard in foods of this type is growth of and toxin production by nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum. Lysozyme has been shown to increase the measured heat resistance of nonproteolytic C. botulinum spores. However, the heat treatment guidelines for prevention of risk of botulism in these products have not taken into consideration the effect of lysozyme, which can be present in many foods. In order to assess the botulism hazard, the effect of heat treatments at 70, 75, 80, 85, and 90 degrees C combined with refrigerated storage for up to 90 days on growth from 10(6) spores of nonproteolytic C. botulinum (types B, E, and F) in an anaerobic meat medium containing 2,400 U of lysozyme per ml (50 microg per ml) was studied. Provided that the storage temperature was no higher than 8 degrees C, the following heat treatments each prevented growth and toxin production during 90 days; 70 degrees C for >/=2,545 min, 75 degrees C for >/=463 min, 80 degrees C for >/=230 min, 85 degrees C for >/=84 min, and 90 degrees C for >/=33.5 min. A factorial experimental design allowed development of a predictive model that described the incubation time required before the first sample showed growth, as a function of heating temperature (70 to 90 degrees C), period of heat treatment (up to 2,545 min), and incubation temperature (5 to 25 degrees C). Predictions from the model provided a valid description of the data used to generate the model and agreed with observations made previously.  (+info)

Pure botulinum neurotoxin is absorbed from the stomach and small intestine and produces peripheral neuromuscular blockade. (7/657)

Clostridium botulinum serotype A produces a neurotoxin composed of a 100-kDa heavy chain and a 50-kDa light chain linked by a disulfide bond. This neurotoxin is part of a ca. 900-kDa complex, formed by noncovalent association with a single nontoxin, nonhemagglutinin subunit and a family of hemagglutinating proteins. Previous work has suggested, although never conclusively demonstrated, that neurotoxin alone cannot survive passage through the stomach and/or cannot be absorbed from the gut without the involvement of auxiliary proteins in the complex. Therefore, this study compared the relative absorption and toxicity of three preparations of neurotoxin in an in vivo mouse model. Equimolar amounts of serotype A complex with hemagglutinins, complex without hemagglutinins, and purified neurotoxin were surgically introduced into the stomach or into the small intestine. In some experiments, movement of neurotoxin from the site of administration was restricted by ligation of the pylorus. Comparison of relative toxicities demonstrated that at adequate doses, complex with hemagglutinins, complex without hemagglutinins, and pure neurotoxin can be absorbed from the stomach. The potency of neurotoxin in complex was greater than that of pure neurotoxin, but the magnitude of this difference diminished as the dosage of neurotoxin increased. Qualitatively similar results were obtained when complex with hemagglutinins, complex without hemagglutinins, and pure neurotoxin were placed directly into the intestine. This work establishes that pure botulinum neurotoxin serotype A is toxic when administered orally. This means that pure neurotoxin does not require hemagglutinins or other auxiliary proteins for absorption from the gastrointestinal system into the general circulation.  (+info)

Development of an in vitro bioassay for Clostridium botulinum type B neurotoxin in foods that is more sensitive than the mouse bioassay. (8/657)

A novel, in vitro bioassay for detection of the botulinum type B neurotoxin in a range of media was developed. The assay is amplified by the enzymic activity of the neurotoxin's light chain and includes the following three stages: first, a small, monoclonal antibody-based immunoaffinity column captures the toxin; second, a peptide substrate is cleaved by using the endopeptidase activity of the type B neurotoxin; and finally, a modified enzyme-linked immunoassay system detects the peptide cleavage products. The assay is highly specific for type B neurotoxin and is capable of detecting type B toxin at a concentration of 5 pg ml(-1) (0.5 mouse 50% lethal dose ml(-1)) in approximately 5 h. The format of the test was found to be suitable for detecting botulinum type B toxin in a range of foodstuffs with a sensitivity that exceeds the sensitivity of the mouse assay. Using highly specific monoclonal antibodies as the capture phase, we found that the endopeptidase assay was capable of differentiating between the type B neurotoxins produced by proteolytic and nonproteolytic strains of Clostridium botulinum type B.  (+info)

1. Foodborne botulism: This type of botulism is caused by eating foods that have been contaminated with the bacteria. Symptoms typically begin within 12 to 72 hours after consuming the contaminated food and can include double vision, droopy eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, and muscle weakness.
2. Infant botulism: This type of botulism occurs in infants who are exposed to the bacteria through contact with contaminated soil or object. Symptoms can include constipation, poor feeding, and weak cry.
3. Wound botulism: This type of botulism is caused by the bacteria entering an open wound, usually a deep puncture wound or surgical incision.

Botulism is a rare illness in the United States, but it can be deadly if not treated promptly. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as mechanical ventilation and fluids, as well as antitoxin injections to neutralize the effects of the toxin. Prevention measures include proper food handling and storage, good hygiene practices, and avoiding consumption of improperly canned or preserved foods.

Some common types of Clostridium infections include:

* Clostridium difficile (C. diff) infection: This is a common type of diarrheal disease that can occur after taking antibiotics, especially in people who are hospitalized or living in long-term care facilities.
* Gas gangrene: This is a severe and potentially life-threatening infection that occurs when Clostridium bacteria infect damaged tissue, causing gas to build up in the affected area.
* Tetanus: This is a serious neurological infection caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani, which can enter the body through open wounds or puncture wounds.
* Botulism: This is a potentially fatal illness caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, which can be contracted through contaminated food or wounds.

Clostridium infections can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, and swelling or redness in the affected area. Treatment depends on the type of infection and may include antibiotics, surgery, or supportive care to manage symptoms.

Prevention measures for Clostridium infections include proper hand hygiene, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and practicing safe food handling practices to prevent the spread of botulism and other clostridial infections. Vaccines are also available for some types of clostridial infections, such as tetanus and botulism.

In summary, Clostridium infections are a diverse group of bacterial infections that can cause a range of illnesses, from mild to severe and life-threatening. Proper prevention and treatment measures are essential to avoid the potential complications of these infections.

PSE can be a serious condition, especially in older adults or those with weakened immune systems, as it can lead to life-threatening complications such as inflammation of the bowel wall, perforation of the bowel, and sepsis. PSE is often diagnosed through a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eradicate the infection, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms such as fluid replacement, pain management, and wound care. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged portions of the intestine.

Prevention measures for PSE include proper hand hygiene, isolation precautions, and environmental cleaning to reduce the transmission of C. diff spores. Probiotics, which are live microorganisms that are similar to the beneficial bacteria found in the gut, have also been shown to be effective in preventing PSE recurrence.

Blepharospasm is a type of movement disorder that affects the eyelids, causing them to twitch or spasm involuntarily. The condition can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Stress and fatigue: High levels of stress and fatigue can lead to muscle tension in the eyelids, resulting in blepharospasm.
2. Caffeine withdrawal: Suddenly stopping or reducing caffeine intake can cause withdrawal symptoms, including blepharospasm.
3. Medications: Certain medications, such as antidepressants and antipsychotics, can cause blepharospasm as a side effect.
4. Neurological disorders: In some cases, blepharospasm may be a symptom of an underlying neurological disorder, such as dystonia or Parkinson's disease.
5. Other causes: Blepharospasm can also be caused by other factors, such as dry eyes, allergies, or exposure to bright lights.

Treatment options for blepharospasm include:

1. Relaxation techniques: Techniques such as deep breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, and visualization can help reduce stress and muscle tension in the eyelids.
2. Botulinum toxin injections: Injecting botulinum toxin into the eyelid muscles can weaken the muscles and reduce the frequency and severity of blepharospasm.
3. Surgery: In severe cases of blepharospasm, surgery may be necessary to remove part of the affected muscle or to alter the position of the eyelid.
4. Medications: Various medications, such as anticholinergic drugs and benzodiazepines, can help reduce the symptoms of blepharospasm.
5. Glasses or contact lenses: In some cases, wearing glasses or contact lenses may help reduce the symptoms of blepharospasm by reducing glare and improving vision.

It is important to note that the best course of treatment will depend on the underlying cause of the blepharospasm, and a healthcare professional should be consulted to determine the appropriate treatment plan.

Examples of Bird Diseases:

1. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu): A viral disease that affects birds and can be transmitted to humans, causing respiratory illness and other symptoms.
2. Psittacosis (Parrot Fever): A bacterial infection caused by Chlamydophila psittaci, which can infect a wide range of bird species and can be transmitted to humans.
3. Aspergillosis: A fungal infection that affects birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing respiratory problems and other symptoms.
4. Beak and Feather Disease: A viral disease that affects birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing feather loss and beak deformities.
5. West Nile Virus: A viral disease that can affect birds, as well as humans and other animals, causing a range of symptoms including fever, headache, and muscle weakness.
6. Chlamydophila psittaci: A bacterial infection that can infect birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing respiratory problems and other symptoms.
7. Mycobacteriosis: A bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium avium, which can affect a wide range of bird species, including parrots and other Psittacines.
8. Pacheco's Disease: A viral disease that affects birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing respiratory problems and other symptoms.
9. Polyomavirus: A viral disease that can affect birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing a range of symptoms including respiratory problems and feather loss.
10. Retinoblastoma: A type of cancer that affects the eyes of birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines.

It's important to note that many of these diseases can be prevented or treated with proper care and management, including providing a clean and spacious environment, offering a balanced diet, and ensuring access to fresh water and appropriate medical care.

Example sentences:

1. The patient experienced a spasm in their leg while running, causing them to stumble and fall.
2. The doctor diagnosed the patient with muscle spasms caused by dehydration and recommended increased fluids and stretching exercises.
3. The athlete suffered from frequent leg spasms during their training, which affected their performance and required regular massage therapy to relieve the discomfort.

Early diagnosis and treatment of torticollis are crucial to prevent long-term complications and improve quality of life. In children, torticollis can be treated with positioning and exercises, while adults may require more intensive physical therapy and pain management.

Muscle spasticity can cause a range of symptoms, including:

* Increased muscle tone, leading to stiffness and rigidity
* Spasms or sudden contractions of the affected muscles
* Difficulty moving the affected limbs
* Pain or discomfort in the affected area
* Abnormal postures or movements

There are several potential causes of muscle spasticity, including:

* Neurological disorders such as cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, and spinal cord injuries
* Stroke or other brain injuries
* Muscle damage or inflammation
* Infections such as meningitis or encephalitis
* Metabolic disorders such as hypokalemia (low potassium levels) or hyperthyroidism

Treatment options for muscle spasticity include:

* Physical therapy to improve range of motion and strength
* Medications such as baclofen, tizanidine, or dantrolene to reduce muscle spasms
* Injectable medications such as botulinum toxin or phenol to destroy excess nerve fibers
* Surgery to release or sever affected nerve fibers
* Electrical stimulation therapy to improve muscle function and reduce spasticity.

It is important to note that muscle spasticity can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, affecting their ability to perform daily activities, maintain independence, and engage in social and recreational activities. As such, it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms of muscle spasticity are present to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Foodborne diseases, also known as food-borne illnesses or gastrointestinal infections, are conditions caused by eating contaminated or spoiled food. These diseases can be caused by a variety of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites, which can be present in food products at any stage of the food supply chain.

Examples of common foodborne diseases include:

1. Salmonella: Caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica, this disease can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps.
2. E. coli: Caused by the bacterium Escherichia coli, this disease can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, urinary tract infections, and pneumonia.
3. Listeria: Caused by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, this disease can cause symptoms such as fever, headache, and stiffness in the neck.
4. Campylobacter: Caused by the bacterium Campylobacter jejuni, this disease can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps.
5. Norovirus: This highly contagious virus can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach cramps.
6. Botulism: Caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, this disease can cause symptoms such as muscle paralysis, respiratory failure, and difficulty swallowing.

Foodborne diseases can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including stool samples, blood tests, and biopsies. Treatment typically involves antibiotics or other supportive care to manage symptoms. Prevention is key to avoiding foodborne diseases, and this includes proper food handling and preparation practices, as well as ensuring that food products are stored and cooked at safe temperatures.

"Rejection of Clostridium putrificum and conservation of Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium sporogenes-Opinion 69. Judicial ... Austin, J.W. (January 1, 2003). "CLOSTRIDIUM , Occurrence of Clostridium botulinum". CLOSTRIDIUM. ScienceDirect. Academic Press ... 26: 1-8. Erbguth FJ (March 2004). "Historical notes on botulism, Clostridium botulinum, botulinum toxin, and the idea of the ... of Clostridium botulinum type G and some nontoxigenic strains previously identified as Clostridium subterminale or Clostridium ...
Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme is a toxin that causes the addition of one or more ADP-ribose moieties to Rho-like proteins ...
... by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Clostridium botulinum is a large anaerobic Gram-positive bacillus that forms ... Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic, Gram-positive, spore-forming rod. Botulinum toxin is one of the most powerful known ... Clostridium botulinum type C toxin has been incriminated as the cause of grass sickness, a condition in horses which occurs in ... Clostridium botulinum is a ubiquitous soil-dwelling bacterium. Many infant botulism patients have been demonstrated to live ...
against Clostridium botulinum. J Food Prot 2002, 65:806-813. von der Weid I, Alviano DS, Santos AL, Soares RM, Alviano CS, ...
against Clostridium botulinum. J Food Prot 2002, 65:806-813. von der Weid I, Alviano DS, Santos AL, Soares RM, Alviano CS, ... plant pathogenic bacteria and even important anaerobic pathogens as Clostridium botulinium. P. dendritiformis is a social ...
against Clostridium botulinum. J Food Prot 2002, 65:806-813. Piuri M, Sanchez-Rivas C, Ruzal SM: A novel antimicrobial activity ... and even important anaerobic pathogens such as Clostridium botulinum. More specifically, several Paenibacillus species serve as ...
"Clostridium botulinum" (PDF). Retrieved December 13, 2016. "Ingested Nitrates and Nitrites, and Cyanobacterial Peptide Toxins ... Nitrates and nitrites reduce the risk of dangerous botulism during curing by inhibiting the growth of Clostridium botulinum ...
and Clostridium botulinum. In the European Union, listeriosis follows an upward trend that began in 2008, causing 2,161 ...
"Clostridium Botulinum Outbreak FAQs". CDC.gov. July 26, 2007. Retrieved May 10, 2009. Schmit, Julie (June 30, 2008). " ... While regular cooking will destroy botulinum toxin, the botulinum spores can only be killed by cooking at 121 °C for 3 minutes ... resulting in the production of botulinum toxin within the cans. At that time, the Castleberry's plant was owned and operated by ...
Novak, John S., Peck, Micheal W.; Juneja, Vijay K.; Johnson, Eric A. (2005). "Chapter 19: Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium ... Émile Pierre-Marie van Ermengem (1851-1932) was a Belgian bacteriologist who, in 1895, isolated Clostridium botulinum, the ...
Botulism (Type A Clostridium botulinum) in Peoria, Illinois. 28 persons were hospitalized, and 20 patients were treated with an ... Out of 324 soup cans, five of them were found to be contaminated with botulinum toxin, all in the initial batch of vichyssoise ...
Botulinum toxin is the most acutely lethal toxin that is known. It is produced by the bacterium clostridium botulinum. It acts ... Botulinum toxin therapy of strabismus is a medical technique used sometimes in the management of strabismus, in which botulinum ... The toxicity of botulinum toxin varies from one lot to the next; furthermore, the body may show an immunoreaction by which the ... Botulinum toxin is considered as an alternative to surgery in certain clinical situations. A study performed in the 1980s found ...
The Clostridium botulinum bacteria are the cause of botulism. Vegetative cells of C. botulinum may be ingested. Introduction of ... This happens because C. botulinum produces a toxin that blocks the release of acetylcholine. Botulism toxin blocks the ...
"Clostridium botulinum type F: Seasonal inhibition by Bacillus lichenoformis". Science 1967;155(758): 89-90. "Meet the Founder ...
A related bacterium, Clostridium botulinum, produces the botulinum toxin. Various botulinum toxin serotypes exist that each ... Synaptobrevin is degraded by tetanospasmin, a protein derived from the bacterium Clostridium tetani, which causes tetanus. ...
1993). "The use of clostridium botulinum toxin in palatal myclonus. A preliminary report". Journal of Laryngology & Otology. ... A rare case of palatal myoclonus that associated with orofacial buccal dystonia has been treated with Botulinum toxin A ( ...
Bott, Thomas L.; Deffner, Janet S.; McCoy, Elizabeth; Foster, E. M. (1966). "Clostridium botulinum Type E in Fish from the ... Christiansen, Lee N.; Foster, E. M. (1965). "Effect of Vacuum Packaging on Growth of Clostridium botulinum and Staphylococcus ... Christiansen, Lee N.; Deffner, Janet; Foster, E. M.; Sugiyama, H. (1968). "Survival and Outgrowth of Clostridium botulinum Type ... Tanaka, N.; Traisman, E.; Lee, M. H.; Cassens, R. G.; Foster, E. M. (1980). "Inhibition of Botulinum Toxin Formation in Bacon ...
Botulism is a rare disease caused by Clostridium botulinum bacteria. A small number of the bacteria can cause severe poisoning ... On 31 July 2013, tests revealed signs of Clostridium botulinum, leading to the recall. The contamination was blamed on ... A problem was first noticed by Fonterra in March 2013 when testing suggested the possible presence of Clostridium, a sometimes- ... Further testing showed that the bacteria found were Clostridium sporogenes, which do not produce botulism toxins. There was no ...
Spores of Clostridium botulinum can survive cooking at 100 °C (212 °F), and, in the anaerobic neutral pH storage environment, ... Peleg, M.; Cole, M. B. (2000-02-01). "Estimating the survival of Clostridium botulinum spores during heat treatments". Journal ...
Well-known exotoxins include: botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum; Corynebacterium diphtheriae toxin, produced ... The CDCs Streptococcus pneumoniae Pneumolysin, Clostridium perfringens perfringolysin O, and Listeria monocytogenes ... Clostridium tetani and Corynebacterium diphtheriae respectively. Vaccination with the toxoids generates antibodies against the ... during life-threatening symptoms of diphtheria; tetanospasmin produced by Clostridium tetani. The toxic properties of most ...
Unlike Clostridium botulinum, it does not produce the botulinum neurotoxins. In colonized animals, it has a mutualistic rather ... C. sporogenes is often used as a surrogate for C. botulinum when testing the efficacy of commercial sterilisation. Clostridium ... Clostridium sporogenes is a species of Gram-positive bacteria that belongs to the genus Clostridium. Like other strains of ... Clostridium, Gram-positive bacteria, Bacteria described in 1923, All stub articles, Clostridia stubs). ...
Clostridium botulinum, and Salmonella spp.) Viruses and related agents such as viroids. (E.g. HIV, Rhinovirus, Lyssaviruses ... For example, Clostridium tetani releases a toxin that paralyzes muscles, and staphylococcus releases toxins that produce shock ... as in Clostridium difficile colitis) or from the environment as a result of traumatic introduction (as in surgical wound ...
"Natural Clostridium botulinum Type C Toxicosis in a Group of Cats". J Clin Microbiol. 42 (11): 5406-8. doi:10.1128/JCM.42.11. ...
Botulism is a rare disease caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. This microbe is primarily found in the soil or ...
... produced by Clostridium botulinum is the cause of botulism. Humans most commonly ingest the toxin from eating ... Botulinum toxin, often shortened to BoNT, is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related ... Botulinum toxins are closely related to tetanus toxin; the two are collectively known as Clostridium neurotoxins and the light ... In 1917, Bacillus botulinus was renamed Clostridium botulinum, as it was decided that term Bacillus should only refer to a ...
Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botox is a specific form of botulinum ... Botulinum toxin treats wrinkles by immobilizing the muscles which cause wrinkles. It is not appropriate for the treatment of ... Botulinum toxin Injectable filler Danby, FW (Jul-Aug 2010). "Nutrition and aging skin: sugar and glycation". Clin Dermatol. 4. ... In 2010, another form of botulinum toxin, one free of complexing proteins, became available to Americans. Xeomin received FDA ...
His thesis was on the biological and biochemical studies of Clostridium botulinum. He served in the science department of the ...
Botulinum neurotoxins also portray these dichotomous roles. This specific molecule is formed by Clostridium Botulinum, a spore ... May 2018). "A lipid-binding loop of botulinum neurotoxin serotypes B, DC and G is an essential feature to confer their ...
Infants can develop botulism after consuming honey contaminated with Clostridium botulinum endospores. Infantile botulism shows ...
Clostridium botulinum- Spore found in foods that have not been canned properly. Clostridium botulinum is sometimes sold as ... Clostridium difficile- Causes inflammation in the colon, most often from other antibiotics. Symptoms include diarrhea, belly ... and Clostridium (over 160 species). - Bacillus anthraces, which causes anthrax -Bacillus cereus- Can cause two types of food ... poisoning: emetic and diarrheal -Bacillus subtilis- Found in soil -Clostridium tetani,- Spore that causes lock jaw (tetanus) ...
Several bacteria, such as E. coli, Clostridium botulinum, and Salmonella enterica, are well-known and are targeted for ...
Clostridium perfringens, a bacterium that can cause gas gangrene; and ricin, a castor bean derivative which can kill by ... specifically the development of anthrax and botulinum weapons by Saddam Hussein. Moreover, she has been held up as an example ...
Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium perfringens (gas gangrene) and several viruses (including enterovirus 17 [human ... botulinum toxins, and Clostridium perfringens toxins. Post-war inspections by UNSCOM, however, were confounded by ... The Iraqi government had weaponized 6,000 liters of B. anthracis spores and 12,000 liters of botulinum toxin in aerial bombs, ... After Kamel's defection, it became known that in December 1990 the Iraqis had filled 100 R-400 bombs with botulinum toxin, 50 ...
Clostridium baratii, Clostridium botulinum, Fusobacterium mortiferum, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, ... Notably, a total of 26 species in the gut and oral cavity were identified as potential human pathogenic bacteria: Clostridium ...
The first type is called Clostridium botulinum and targets food such as meat and poultry, and Bacillus cereus, which targets ... Some pathogenic bacteria, such as Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus cereus, are capable of causing spoilage. Issues of food ...
Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Streptococcus equi subspecies equi, Equine influenza, Equine herpesvirus type 1 ... Eight horses that had received prophylactic botulinum antitoxin and developed subsequent signs of Theiler's disease were ...
The toxins normally produced by the various types are shown in table 1 The alpha-toxin of Clostridium botulinum types C and D, ... Clostridium novyi (oedematiens) a Gram-positive, endospore- forming, obligate anaerobic bacteria of the class Clostridia. It is ... Gas gangrene: infectious necrotic hepatitis (black disease) Clostridium novyi-NT, an attenuated form of Clostridium novyi-NT ... closely related to Clostridium botulinum type C and D, instead. The toxins are designated by Greek letters. ...
Clostridium botulinum toxin (Botox) injections and ultrasound are also sometimes used for cases refractory to medications. In ... Samotus O, Kumar N, Rizek P, Jog M (January 2018). "Botulinum Toxin Type A Injections as Monotherapy for Upper Limb Essential ... Samotus O, Lee J, Jog M (2017). "Long-term tremor therapy for Parkinson and essential tremor with sensor-guided botulinum toxin ... When medications do not control the tremor or the person does not tolerate medication, C. botulinum toxin, deep brain ...
An important example of this is Clostridium botulinum, which can be present in seafood, and which is killed by the high heat ...
Clostridium botulinum Clostridium perfringens Bacillus cereus The rare but potentially deadly disease botulism occurs when the ... anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum grows in improperly canned low-acid foods and produces botulin, a powerful paralytic ... October 2019). "Phylogenomic analysis of gastroenteritis-associated Clostridium perfringens in England and Wales over a 7-year ... Campylobacter jejuni which can lead to secondary Guillain-Barré syndrome and periodontitis Clostridium perfringens, the " ...
... which may have been contaminated with Clostridium botulinum bacteria. However, these reports never deterred the Egyptians from ...
For example, the microorganism Clostridium botulinum (which causes botulism) can only be eliminated at temperatures above the ...
... secreted by Clostridium tetani and the botulinum toxin secreted by Clostridium botulinum. Exotoxins are also produced by a ... and Clostridium difficile (causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis). A potent three-protein virulence factor produced by ... range of other bacteria including Escherichia coli; Vibrio cholerae (causative agent of cholera); Clostridium perfringens ( ...
Bartlett, John G.; Perl, Trish M. (2005). "The new Clostridium difficile-What does it mean?" (PDF). New England Journal of ... "Botulinum Toxin as a Biological Weapon". JAMA. 285 (8): 1059-1070. doi:10.1001/jama.285.8.1059. PMID 11209178. Dennis, David T ... Furthermore, they were able to isolate Clostridium difficile from the stool of these patients and show that intercaecal ... Viscidi, Raphael; Willey, Sandra; Bartlett, John G. (1981). "Isolation rates and toxigenic potential of Clostridium difficile ...
The main target of these hurdles is C. botulinum. Growth of lactic acid bacteria during fermentation results in acid production ... For example, Gram-positive bacteria include some of the more important spoilage bacteria, such as Clostridium, Bacillus and ... The result is a pH hurdle important in controlling growth of C. botulinum." There can be significant synergistic effects ...
Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium perfringens (which causes gas gangrene) and several viruses (including enterovirus 17 [i. ... It produced large quantities of botulinum toxin and anthrax from 1989 to 1996. The name derives from the common Arabic name or ... e., human conjunctivitis], rotavirus and camel pox). The program also purified biological toxins, including botulinum toxin, ...
Anthrax Clostridium botulinum Tularemia Smallpox and other pox viruses Viral hemorrhagic fevers Arenaviruses: Lymphocytic ... Epsilon toxin of Clostridium perfringens Food-borne and Water-borne Pathogens Bacteria Campylobacter jejuni Diarrheagenic E. ... Anaplasmosis Aspergillus BK virus Bordetella pertussis Borrelia miyamotoi Clostridium difficile Cryptococcus gattii ...
Even when a potential weapon, such as Clostridium botulinum exotoxin (Botox or "botulinus toxin") is discovered, the amounts or ...
This process reliably kills all commonly occurring microorganisms (particularly Clostridium botulinum), preventing it from ...
... -Clostridium Clostridium acetobutylicum Clostridium botulinum Clostridium butyricum Clostridium difficile Clostridium ... kluyveri Clostridium novyi Clostridium perfringens Clostridium phytofermentans Clostridium tetani Clostridium thermocellum ... Clostridium botulinum, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Clostridium perfringens, and Entamoeba histolytica) ...
1985)‎. A replacement preparation for the international standard for clostridium botulinum type B antitoxin : report of an ... A replacement preparation for the international standard for clostridium botulinum type B antitoxin : report of an ...
Clostridium botulinum type D/C intoxication in a dairy cow stock in Saxony-Anhalt (Germany) - report on an innovative ... Clostridium botulinum Typ D/C Intoxikation einer Milchviehherde in Sachsen-Anhalt (Deutschland) - Vorstellung einer innovativen ... In this manuscript we describe an outbreak of Clostridium (C.) botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) intoxication in a Saxony-Anhalt ... Bei 122 Tieren fielen klinische Anzeichen einer Intoxikation mit Clostridium (C.) botulinum Neurotoxin (BoNT) auf. 115 der ...
Clostridium botulinum) case definitions; uniform criteria used to define a disease for public health surveillance. ... Botulism (Clostridium botulinum) , 2011 Case Definition. *Botulism (Clostridium botulinum) , 1996 Case Definition ...
on Clostridium botulinum.Feb 05, 2013. Click here to read the entire abstract. ... Diseases : Clostridium Infections, Diarrhea, Low Immune Function: Natural Killer Cells. Problem Substances : Antacids: ... Patients in hospital who received proton pump inhibitors were at increased risk of Clostridium difficile diarrhea.Jul 06, 2004 ... Proton pump inhibitor use during incident Clostridium difficile infection treatment was associated with a 42% increased risk of ...
Soul Cedar Farm recalls peppers over Clostridium botulinum contamination. Posted in Food News ... is recalling all batches of Zesty Sweet Peppers because of potential contamination from Clostridium botulinum toxins. ... revealed that one batch of Zesty Sweet Peppers had a pH level high enough to support the formation of the Clostridium botulinum ...
... followed by Clostridium botulinum (67%), and paralytic shellfish poisoning outbreaks (67%). Among the 23 deaths, 22 were ... attributed to bacterial etiologies (nine to Listeria monocytogenes, five Salmonella, four STEC O157, three Clostridium ...
Bacillus cereus; C. perfringens; enterotoxigenic E. coli; S. aureus; Streptococcus spp., Group A; Clostridium botulinum; ... Bacillus cereus; Clostridium perfringens; enterotoxigenic E. coli; Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus spp., Group A. United ... Brucella spp.; C. botulinum (foodborne); Trichinella spp.; hepatitis A; G. intestinalis. United States. 2000-2007 (2002-2007 ... enterocolitis due to Clostridium difficile) and A05.1 (botulism)#. United States. 2000-2006. Percentage of acute ...
Botulism (Clostridium botulinum toxin). *Brucella species (brucellocis)plus icon *Laboratory Information. *Surveillance & ...
Clostridium botulinum produces toxins which are among the most poisonous or toxic substances known. ... One milligram of pure Botulinum toxin is enough to kill 1 million guinea pigs. ...
Both raw and regular honey may contain tiny amounts of a bacteria known as Clostridium botulinum. This bacteria can cause ... Grenda, T., et al. (2018). Clostridium botulinum spores in Polish honey samples.. https://synapse.koreamed.org/search.php?where ...
C botulinum bacteria and their spores are ubiquitous. ... Botulinum toxin is the product of Clostridium botulinum. ... Botulinum toxin is the product of Clostridium botulinum. C botulinum bacteria and their spores are ubiquitous. The bacteria are ... Botulinum toxin has beneficial effects only on wrinkles caused by muscular contractions. Botulinum toxin is not an appropriate ... Seven serologically distinct types of botulinum toxin exist: A, B, C1, D, E, F, and G. Botulinum toxin type A (BOTOX®; Allergan ...
Botulism is a rare but serious illness caused by Clostridium botulinum bacteria. The bacteria may enter the body through wounds ... Botulism (Clostridium botulinum). In: Kliegman RM, St. Geme JW, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson Textbook of ... Clostridium botulinum can be found normally in the stool of some infants. Infants develop botulism when the bacteria grow in ... Clostridium botulinum are found in soil and untreated water throughout the world. The bacteria produce protective spores to ...
Johnston, M. A., Pivnick, H., & Samson, J. M. (1969). Inhibition of Clostridium botulinum by Sodium Nitrite in a ... Clostridium botulinum) (Johnston et al., 1969; Sindelar et al., 2011; Majou & Christieans, 2018), particularly in combination ... The usual suspects include Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, and ...
Isolation of Clostridium botulinum from stool Case classification Confirmed: a clinically compatible illness that is laboratory ... Isolation of Clostridium botulinum from wound Case classification Confirmed: a clinically compatible illness that is laboratory ... Isolation of Clostridium botulinum from clinical specimen Case classification Confirmed: an illness clinically compatible with ... Isolation of Clostridium botulinum from stool Case classification Confirmed: a clinically compatible, laboratory-confirmed ...
Exploring genomic diversity in Clostridium botulinum using DNA microarrays. Brian H. Raphael. Vol.2 No.2. 99-108. ... Molecular modelling of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A metalloprotease inhibitors. Bing Li; Norton P. Peet; Terry L. Bowlin. ... Monoclonal antibodies and reagents for botulinum research. Larry H. Stanker; Luisa W. Cheng. Vol.2 No.2. 150-155. ... Detection, differentiation, and subtyping of botulinum toxins A, B, E, and F by mass spectrometry. Suzanne R. Kalb; Wanda I. ...
... is produced by Clostridium botulinum, a gram-positive anaerobic bacterium. The clinical syndrome of botulism can occur ... Botulinum toxin (abbreviated either as BTX or BoNT) ... Botulinum Toxin Use in Dystonia. *Botulinum Toxin Use in ... Botulinum toxin (abbreviated either as BTX or BoNT) is produced by Clostridium botulinum, a gram-positive anaerobic bacterium. ... Edward J Schantz succeeded in purifying BoNT-A in crystalline form-cultured Clostridium botulinum and isolated the toxin. ...
Categories: Clostridium botulinum Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Botulinum toxins are proteins produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum and consist of seven separate but ... Investigational heptavalent botulinum antitoxin (HBAT) to replace licensed botulinum antitoxin AB and investigational botulinum ... Botulinum toxins gained widespread recognition as a result of the introduction of botulinum Type A (Botox) into the field of ... FDA Approves First Botulinum Antitoxin for Use in Neutralizing All Seven Known Botulinum Nerve Toxin Serotypes. Available at ...
Recent studies in animals suggest that botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) can accelerate nerve regeneration and improve functional ... Studies dealing with Clostridium botulinum C2 or C3 toxins were excluded since their mechanisms of action differ from those of ... Welch, M.J.; Purkiss, J.R.; Foster, K.A. Sensitivity of embryonic rat dorsal root ganglia neurons to Clostridium botulinum ... Chellapandi, P.; Prisilla, A. Structure, function and evolution of Clostridium botulinum C2 and C3 toxins: Insight to poultry ...
Clostridium botulinum toxin. Botulism, Bot toxin, C. botulinum 06/30/2022 Requisition Form - Bioterrorism (file) Clostridium ... Clostridium perfringens (Environmental). Enteritis necroticans, foodborne illness, foodborne outbreak 10/14/2022 Requisition ...
Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin derived from the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum. It acts on the presynaptic terminal ... In FH of the upper lip: We divide the upper lip into two halves and apply 1 U botulinum toxin to 3 points in each half at 0.5 ... We prefer to use a dilution of 100 U of botulinum toxin in 1.0 ml of saline solution or 500 U Dysport® in 1.6 ml of saline. ... Use of botulinum toxin is particularly indicated for areas of localized sweating. Administration should be as superficial as ...
Clostridium botulinum. toxin A using a fiber optic-based biosensor. Analytical Biochemistry. 1992; 205(2): 306-312.. ...
NRS 454.217 Authority to inject neuromodulator derived from Clostridium botulinum.. 1. A person shall not inject a ... NRS 454.217 Authority to inject neuromodulator derived from Clostridium botulinum.. NRS 454.221 Furnishing dangerous drug ... neuromodulator that is derived from Clostridium botulinum or is biosimilar to or the bioequivalent of such a neuromodulator:. ( ...
The proper conditions cause the spore to develop into the rod-shaped bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botulin is six million ... a neurotoxin produced by the single-celled bacterium Clostridium botulinum.16 The bacterium that causes it is an extremely ... Low dose botulinum toxin in spasmodic torticollis. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 267(5):646. Return to text. ... Therapeutic uses of botulinum toxin. The New England Journal of Medicine, 324(17):1186-1194. Return to text. ...
... at the Salting critical control point that is not adequate to control Clostridium botulinum. To fully control the hazard, your ... content for your salting critical control point to control Clostridium botulinum. Your salting critical control point lists a ... content to control Clostridium botulinum. Per your HACCP plan, the salting critical control point lists finished product WPS ... your refrigeration critical control point to ensure the temperature remains at or below 38ºF to control Clostridium botulinum. ...
Crystal structure of botulinum neurotoxin type B at pH 4.0 ... of metals in the biological activity of Clostridium botulinum ... Crystal structure of botulinum neurotoxin type B at pH 4.0 Coordinates. PDB Format Method. X-RAY DIFFRACTION 2.00 Å. Oligo ...
Specifically, sodium nitrite helps prevent the growth of Clostridium botulinum, which can cause botulism in humans. Sodium ...
Clostridium botulinum are bacteria that produce the neurotoxin botulinum, which causes the disease botulism. Symptoms often ...
  • Foodborne botulism is a severe neuroparalytic disease caused by consumption of botulinum neurotoxin formed by strains of proteolytic Clostridium botulinum and non-proteolytic C. botulinum during their growth in food. (nih.gov)
  • The spontaneous production of botulinum toxin in the infant gut by ingested Clostridium botulinum organisms is the underlying cause of infant botulism, recognised as an infectious disease only in late 1976. (nih.gov)
  • Faecal specimens from 160 age-matched healthy infants who served as controls in studies of inpatient infant botulism cases were negative for both C. botulinum organisms and toxin, except for one specimen that contained only C. botulinum type A organisms. (nih.gov)
  • These findings suggest that intestinal production of botulinum toxin by C. botulinum is one cause of S.I.D.S. The strikingly similar age-distribution of 62 inpatient infant botulism cases and the 211 S.I.D.S. cases is also consistent with this concept. (nih.gov)
  • The recall was initiated after routine sampling conducted by the Washington State Department of Agriculture revealed that one batch of Zesty Sweet Peppers had a pH level high enough to support the formation of the Clostridium botulinum toxin, which causes botulism poisoning. (sprayandscrap.com)
  • A case of botulism in the Czech Republic and current possibilities for detecting the neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum]. (bvsalud.org)
  • Botulism is a rare but serious illness caused by Clostridium botulinum bacteria. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Infant botulism occurs when a baby eats Clostridium botulinum spores and the bacteria grow in the baby's intestines. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Norton LE, Schleiss MR. Botulism ( Clostridium botulinum ). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Infant botulism is when Clostridium botulinum spores grow in a baby's intestinal tract. (livescience.com)
  • Botulism, which is a potentially fatal form of food poisoning caused by Clostridium botulinum bacteria, has been linked to the Bio Gaudiano branded olives since two people were infected after eating them. (foodnavigator.com)
  • Take Clostridium botulinum - as in botulism - which can't grow in a pH below 4.6 [1]. (nutsvolts.com)
  • Agam Rao] Botulism is treated with management in an intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation when needed, and botulinum antitoxin. (cdc.gov)
  • People who get botulism from food get it from eating foods that contain the actual botulinum toxin. (cdc.gov)
  • A second way people can develop botulism is when botulinum toxin is produced in a wound that has C. botulinum in it. (cdc.gov)
  • In the US these days, wound botulism most often occurs in injection drug users who introduce the C. botulinum into wounds when they skin-pop black tar heroin. (cdc.gov)
  • But people can also get wound botulism when C. botulinum from soil contaminates other kinds of wounds, like open fractures and wounds from motor vehicle accidents. (cdc.gov)
  • A third way to get botulism is when C. botulinum gets into infant's intestines. (cdc.gov)
  • Usually the source of infant botulism isn't known, but we do know that C. botulinum can be found in honey, and since it's also often in environmental sources like dust, it's easy to see how C. botulinum could be ingested. (cdc.gov)
  • And finally, the last way of getting botulism can happen when people get too high a dose of botulinum toxin from medical treatment. (cdc.gov)
  • But because botulinum toxin is injected, people can get botulism if the dose is too high. (cdc.gov)
  • Botulism is an acute neurologic disorder that causes potentially life-threatening paralysis due to a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum or related species ( C baratii and C. butyricum) . (medscape.com)
  • Wound cultures that grow C botulinum suggest the presence of wound botulism. (medscape.com)
  • Botulism is caused by toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum bacteria. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Among the 23 deaths, 22 were attributed to bacterial etiologies (nine to Listeria monocytogenes, five Salmonella , four STEC O157, three Clostridium perfringens, and one Shigella ), and one to norovirus. (cdc.gov)
  • The usual suspects include Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella , Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, and Campylobacter , which we must also manage with commercially produced meat. (ufl.edu)
  • Soul Cedar Farm of Quilcene, WA, is recalling all batches of Zesty Sweet Peppers because of potential contamination from Clostridium botulinum toxins. (sprayandscrap.com)
  • Botulinum toxins affect the body by blocking nerve messages. (livescience.com)
  • This toxin is produced by the clostridium botulinum bacteria. (medic8.com)
  • C botulinum bacteria and their spores are ubiquitous. (medscape.com)
  • The growing bacteria produce the neurotoxin botulinum toxin, which is often referred to as the most poisonous substance known to mankind. (medscape.com)
  • Botox is actually made from a toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum . (livescience.com)
  • Patient samples were analyzed using affinity carriers and MALDI mass spectrometry , a modern highly sensitive technique for detecting the presence of botulinum neurotoxins . (bvsalud.org)
  • In this manuscript we describe an outbreak of Clostridium (C.) botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) intoxication in a Saxony-Anhalt dairy cow stock of 286 Holstein-Friesian cows and offspring in spring/summer 2009 and its diagnostic approach. (vetline.de)
  • The mouse bioassay turned out positive (wasp-waist) in three preselected organ samples and the neutralization test of one sample with type-specific antitoxin confirmed the presence of BoNT type D. We succeeded in isolating a C. botulinum strain from a liver sample which was typed as a D/C mosaic strain by sequence analysis of the toxin gene. (vetline.de)
  • Bei 122 Tieren fielen klinische Anzeichen einer Intoxikation mit Clostridium (C.) botulinu m Neurotoxin (BoNT) auf. (vetline.de)
  • Der Neutralisationstest einer ausgewählten Probe mit typspezifischen Antitoxinen bestätigte die Anwesenheit von BoNT Typ D. Aus einer Leberprobe gelang die Isolierung eines C. botulinum -Stammes. (vetline.de)
  • We found C. botulinum organisms in 10 infants, all of whom died suddenly and unexpectedly. (nih.gov)
  • In 2 of these 10 sudden deaths both C. botulinum organisms and botulinum toxin were identified, and from the spleen of 1, C. botulinum organisms were isolated. (nih.gov)
  • Spore formation and spore germination of anaerobic food spoilage organisms, especially Clostridium botulinum. (nih.gov)
  • Biology and genomic analysis of Clostridium botulinum. (nih.gov)
  • Because of the recognition of the pathophysiology of this disease and because the known potency and action of botulinum toxin can lead to rapid respiratory arrest, it appeared possible that the in-vivo production of botulinum toxin could cause the sudden death of some infants. (nih.gov)
  • In this nomination document, we discuss a number of potential refinement and replacement methods to the mouse LD50 assay for botulinum toxin potency, and we recommend that these methods be assessed and prioritized for prevalidation and validation studies. (nih.gov)
  • The unintended variability in potency of botulinum toxin-based products stemming from the use of the mouse bioassay would be reduced with the use of a more analytical type of assay. (nih.gov)
  • You may not know that Botox® and Dysport® are trade names for botulinum toxin. (cdc.gov)
  • 8. Role of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins in Clostridium botulinum pathology: purification of substrates for Clostridium botulinum C3 ADP-ribosyltransferase with different requirements for GTP and phospholipids. (nih.gov)
  • During the treatment of blepharospasmus with botulinum A exotoxin, the cosmetic appearance of the glabellar frown lines improve. (medscape.com)
  • Thus, the cosmetic effects of botulinum toxin were discovered. (medscape.com)
  • Botulinum toxin (BTX) is a type of nerve blocker. (nih.gov)
  • Botulinum toxin has beneficial effects only on wrinkles caused by muscular contractions. (medscape.com)
  • Botulinum toxin is not an appropriate treatment for wrinkles caused by solar exposure or other degenerative processes of the dermal tissues. (medscape.com)
  • Botulinum toxin is used in dermatology for the treatment of facial wrinkles caused by muscular contractions. (medscape.com)
  • Botulinum toxin is appropriate only for the treatment of wrinkles caused by muscular action. (medscape.com)
  • 4. Differentiation-induced increase in Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of the small GTP-binding protein Rho. (nih.gov)
  • 7. ADP-ribosylation and de-ADP-ribosylation of the rho protein by Clostridium botulinum exoenzyme C3. (nih.gov)
  • 16. [ras oncogene-related small molecular weight GTP-binding protein, rho gene product and botulinum C3 ADP-ribosyltransferase]. (nih.gov)
  • The common mechanism in these disorders is the paralysis of various muscles caused by the botulinum toxin. (medscape.com)
  • Botulinum antitoxin is most helpful if administered early during the patient's illness, so it's really important that physicians get that antitoxin as soon as possible when they find out about a patient's illness. (cdc.gov)
  • The botulinum neurotoxin is the most potent substance known, with as little as 30-100 ng potentially fatal, and consumption of just a few milligrams of neurotoxin-containing food is likely to be sufficient to cause illness and potentially death. (nih.gov)
  • A rare but serious form of food poisoning caused by the nerve toxin botulinum. (medic8.com)
  • Clostridium botulinum are found in soil and untreated water throughout the world. (medlineplus.gov)
  • To better control the botulinum neurotoxin-forming clostridia, it is important to understand spore resistance mechanisms, and the physiological processes involved in germination and lag phase during recovery from this dormant state. (nih.gov)
  • Clostridium botulinum can be found normally in the stool of some infants. (medlineplus.gov)
  • C botulinum may be grown on selective media from samples of stool or foods. (medscape.com)
  • The different types of botulinum toxin have different molecular sizes, degrees of activation, and mechanisms of action. (medscape.com)
  • The 9 S.I.D.S. cases with evidence of C. botulinum infection comprised 4.3% of the 211 S.I.D.S. cases examined over 12 months. (nih.gov)
  • The imported 45 glass jars and 81 cans of the potentially Clostridium botulinum infected product are being collected and consumers are warned not to use the product even if it does not look or smell spoiled. (foodnavigator.com)
  • Botulinum toxin is the product of Clostridium botulinum . (medscape.com)
  • Clostridium botulinum : ecology and control in foods / edited by Andreas H. W. Hauschild, Karen L. Dodds. (who.int)
  • However, one's poison is another's medicine, because botulinum toxin is useful in the treatment of certain diseases. (medscape.com)
  • To test this hypothesis, serum, selected tissues, and bowel contents from 280 dead infants were examined for the presence of C. botulinum toxin and/or organsisms. (nih.gov)
  • Note that the specimens for toxin analysis should be refrigerated, but culture samples of C botulinum should not be refrigerated. (medscape.com)