A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, used for the industrial production of SOLVENTS.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).
A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.
A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of acetylphosphate from acetyl-CoA and inorganic phosphate. Acetylphosphate serves as a high-energy phosphate compound. EC
A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.
Enzymes which transfer coenzyme A moieties from acyl- or acetyl-CoA to various carboxylic acceptors forming a thiol ester. Enzymes in this group are instrumental in ketone body metabolism and utilization of acetoacetate in mitochondria. EC 2.8.3.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, capable of solventogenesis, and isolated from SOIL, infected WOUNDS, fermenting OLIVES, and spoiled CANDY.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A class of enzymes that transfers phosphate groups and has a carboxyl group as an acceptor. EC 2.7.2.
A class of iron-sulfur proteins that contains one iron coordinated to the sulfur atom of four cysteine residues. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
Type species of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM, a gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is used as a source of PROBIOTICS.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.
A non-heme iron protein consisting of eight apparently identical subunits each containing 2 iron atoms. It binds one molecule of oxygen per pair of iron atoms and functions as a respiratory protein.
An enzyme found in bacteria. It catalyzes the reduction of FERREDOXIN and other substances in the presence of molecular hydrogen and is involved in the electron transport of bacterial photosynthesis.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of acetate in the presence of a divalent cation and ATP with the formation of acetylphosphate and ADP. It is important in the glycolysis process. EC
Extracellular structures found in a variety of microorganisms. They contain CELLULASES and play an important role in the digestion of CELLULOSE.
Xylose is a monosaccharide, a type of sugar, that is commonly found in woody plants and fruits, and it is used in medical testing to assess the absorptive capacity of the small intestine.
A product of fermentation. It is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. In mammals it is oxidized to carbon dioxide.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.
An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
A four carbon acid, CH3CH2CH2COOH, with an unpleasant odor that occurs in butter and animal fat as the glycerol ester.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is a cellulolytic, mesophilic species isolated from decayed GRASS.
Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 4.1.1.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
The cause of TETANUS in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, found in INTESTINES and SOIL.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.

Intracellular butyryl phosphate and acetyl phosphate concentrations in Clostridium acetobutylicum and their implications for solvent formation. (1/98)

It has been suggested (L. H. Harris, R. P. Desai, N. E. Welker, and E. T. Papoutsakis, Biotechnol. Bioeng. 67:1-11, 2000) that butyryl phosphate (BuP) is a regulator of solventogenesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum. Here, we determined BuP and acetyl phosphate (AcP) levels in fermentations of C. acetobutylicum wild type (WT), degenerate strain M5, a butyrate kinase (buk) mutant, and a phosphotransacetylase (pta) mutant. A sensitive method was developed to measure BuP and AcP in the same sample. Compared to the WT, the buk mutant had higher levels of BuP and AcP; the BuP levels were high during the early exponential phase, and there was a peak corresponding to solvent production. Consistent with this, solvent formation was initiated significantly earlier and was much stronger in the buk mutant than in all other strains. For all strains, initiation of butanol formation corresponded to a BuP peak concentration that was more than 60 to 70 pmol/g (dry weight), and higher and sustained levels corresponded to higher butanol formation fluxes. The BuP levels never exceeded 40 to 50 pmol/g (dry weight) in strain M5, which produces no solvents. The BuP profiles were bimodal, and there was a second peak midway through solventogenesis that corresponded to carboxylic acid reutilization. AcP showed a delayed single peak during late solventogenesis corresponding to acetate reutilization. As expected, in the pta mutant the AcP levels were very low, yet this strain exhibited strong butanol production. These data suggest that BuP is a regulatory molecule that may act as a phosphodonor of transcriptional factors. DNA array-based transcriptional analysis of the buk and M5 mutants demonstrated that high BuP levels corresponded to downregulation of flagellar genes and upregulation of solvent formation and stress genes.  (+info)

SpoIIE regulates sporulation but does not directly affect solventogenesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. (2/98)

Using gene expression reporter vectors, we examined the activity of the spoIIE promoter in wild-type and spo0A-deleted strains of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. In wild-type cells, the spoIIE promoter is active in a transient manner during late solventogenesis, but in strain SKO1, where the sporulation initiator spo0A is disrupted, no spoIIE promoter activity is detectable at any stage of growth. Strains 824(pMSpo) and 824(pASspo) were created to overexpress spoIIE and to decrease spoIIE expression via antisense RNA targeted against spoIIE, respectively. Some cultures of strains 824(pMSpo) degenerated during fermentations by losing the pSOL1 megaplasmid and hence did not produce the solvents ethanol, acetone, and butanol. The frequent degeneration event was shown to require an intact copy of spoIIE. Nondegenerate cultures of 824(pMSpo) exhibited normal growth and solvent production. Strain 824(pASspo) exhibited prolonged solventogenesis characterized by increased production of ethanol (225%), acetone (43%), and butanol (110%). Sporulation in strains harboring pASspo was significantly delayed, with sporulating cells exhibiting altered morphology. These results suggest that SpoIIE has no direct effect on the control of solventogenesis and that the changes in solvent production in spoIIE-downregulated cells are mediated by effects on the cell during sporulation.  (+info)

Heterologous production, assembly, and secretion of a minicellulosome by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. (3/98)

The gene man5K encoding the mannanase Man5K from Clostridium cellulolyticum was cloned alone or as an operon with the gene cipC1 encoding a truncated scaffoldin (miniCipC1) of the same origin in the solventogenic Clostridium acetobutylicum. The expression of the heterologous gene(s) was under the control of a weakened thiolase promoter Pthl. The recombinant strains of the solventogenic bacterium were both found to secrete active Man5K in the range of milligrams per liter. In the case of the strain expressing only man5K, a large fraction of the recombinant enzyme was truncated and lost the N-terminal dockerin domain, but it remained active towards galactomannan. When man5K was coexpressed with cipC1 in C. acetobutylicum, the recombinant strain secreted almost exclusively full-length mannanase, which bound to the scaffoldin miniCipC1, thus showing that complexation to the scaffoldin stabilized the enzyme. The secreted heterologous complex was found to be functional: it binds to crystalline cellulose via the carbohydrate binding module of the miniscaffoldin, and the complexed mannanase is active towards galactomannan. Taken together, these data show that C. acetobutylicum is a suitable host for the production, assembly, and secretion of heterologous minicellulosomes.  (+info)

Expression of abrB310 and SinR, and effects of decreased abrB310 expression on the transition from acidogenesis to solventogenesis, in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. (4/98)

The transcription factors sinR and abrB are involved in the control of sporulation initiation in Bacillus subtilis. We identified a single homologue to sinR and three highly similar homologues to abrB, designated abrB310, abrB1941, and abrB3647, in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Using reporter vectors, we showed that the promoters of abrB1941 and abrB3647 were not active under the growth conditions tested. The abrB310 promoter was strongly active throughout growth and exhibited a transient elevation of expression at the onset of solventogenesis. Primer extension assays showed that two transcripts of abrB310 and a single, extremely weak transcript for sinR are expressed. Potential -35 and -10 consensus motifs are readily identifiable surrounding the transcription start sites of abrB310 and sinR, with a single putative 0A box present within the promoter of abrB310. In strains of C. acetobutylicum transformed with plasmids to elevate sinR expression or decrease sinR expression, no significant differences in growth or in acid or solvent production were observed compared to the control strains. In C. acetobutylicum strain 824(pAS310), which expressed an antisense RNA construct targeted against abrB310, the acids acetate and butyrate accumulated to approximately twice the normal concentration. This accumulation corresponded to a delay and decrease in acetone and butanol production. It was also found that sporulation in strain 824(pAS310) was delayed but that the morphology of sporulating cells and spores was normal. Based upon these observations, we propose that abrB310 may act as a regulator at the transition between acidogenic and solventogenic growth.  (+info)

Homologous and heterologous overexpression in Clostridium acetobutylicum and characterization of purified clostridial and algal Fe-only hydrogenases with high specific activities. (5/98)

Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was selected for the homologous overexpression of its Fe-only hydrogenase and for the heterologous expressions of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Scenedesmus obliquus HydA1 Fe-only hydrogenases. The three Strep tag II-tagged Fe-only hydrogenases were isolated with high specific activities by two-step column chromatography. The purified algal hydrogenases evolve hydrogen with rates of around 700 micromol H(2) min(-1) mg(-1), while HydA from C. acetobutylicum (HydA(Ca)) shows the highest activity (5,522 micromol H(2) min(-1) mg(-1)) in the direction of hydrogen uptake. Further, kinetic parameters and substrate specificity were reported. An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis of the thionin-oxidized HydA(Ca) protein indicates a characteristic rhombic EPR signal that is typical for the oxidized H cluster of Fe-only hydrogenases.  (+info)

Genomic analysis of the protein secretion systems in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. (6/98)

Consistent information about protein secretion in Gram-positive bacteria is essentially restricted to the model organism Bacillus subtilis. Among genome-sequenced clostridia, Clostridium acetobutylicum has been the most extensively studied from a physiological point of view and is the organism for which the largest variety of molecular biology tools have been developed. Following in silico analyses, both secreted proteins and protein secretion systems were identified. The Tat (Twin arginine translocation; TC #2.A.64) pathway and ABC (ATP binding cassette) protein exporters (TC #3.A.1.) could not be identified, but the Sec (secretion) pathway (TC #3.A.5) appears to be used prevalently. Similarly, a flagella export apparatus (FEA; TC #3.A.6.), holins (TC #1.E.), and an ESAT-6/WXG100 (early secreted antigen target of 6 kDa/proteins with a WXG motif of approximately 100 residues) secretion system were identified. Here, we report for the first time the identification of a fimbrilin protein exporter (FPE; TC #3.A.14) and a Tad (tight adherence) export apparatus in C. acetobutylicum. This investigation highlights the potential use of this saprophytic bacterium in biotechnological and biomedical applications as well as a model organism for studying protein secretion in pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria.  (+info)

Diffusion, mixing, and associated dye effects in DNA-microarray hybridizations. (7/98)

Typical DNA microarrays utilize diffusion of dye-labeled cDNA probes followed by sequence-specific hybridization to immobilized targets. Here we experimentally estimated the distance typical probes travel during static 16-h hybridizations. Probes labeled with Cy3 and Cy5 were individually introduced to opposite sides of a microarray with minimal convective mixing. Oppositely labeled probes diffused across the initial front separating the two solutions, generating a zone with both dyes present. Diffusion-distance estimates for Cy3- and Cy5-labeled cDNAs were 3.8 mm and 2.6 mm, respectively, despite having almost identical molecular masses. In separate 16-h hybridization experiments with oppositely labeled probes premixed, arrays that were continuously mixed had 15-20% higher signal intensities than arrays hybridized statically. However, no change was observed in the Cy3/Cy5 signal intensity ratio between continuously mixed and static hybridizations. This suggests that the observed dye bias in diffusion-distance estimates results from differences in the detection limits of Cy3 and Cy5-labeled cDNA, a potential concern for array data on low-abundance transcripts. Our conservative diffusion-distance estimates indicate that replicate targets >7.6 mm apart will not compete for scarce probes. Also, raising the microarray gap height would delay the onset of diffusion-limited hybridization by increasing the amount of available probe.  (+info)

Transcriptional program of early sporulation and stationary-phase events in Clostridium acetobutylicum. (8/98)

DNA microarray analysis of Clostridium acetobutylicum was used to examine the genomic-scale gene expression changes during the shift from exponential-phase growth and acidogenesis to stationary phase and solventogenesis. Self-organizing maps were used to identify novel expression patterns of functional gene classes, including aromatic and branched-chain amino acid synthesis, ribosomal proteins, cobalt and iron transporters, cobalamin biosynthesis, and lipid biosynthesis. The majority of pSOL1 megaplasmid genes (in addition to the solventogenic genes aad-ctfA-ctfB and adc) had increased expression at the onset of solventogenesis, suggesting that other megaplasmid genes may play a role in stationary-phase phenomena. Analysis of sporulation genes and comparison with published Bacillus subtilis results indicated conserved expression patterns of early sporulation genes, including spo0A, the sigF operon, and putative canonical genes of the sigma(H) and sigma(F) regulons. However, sigE expression could not be detected within 7.5 h of initial spo0A expression, consistent with the observed extended time between the appearance of clostridial forms and endospore formation. The results were compared with microarray comparisons of the wild-type strain and the nonsolventogenic, asporogenous M5 strain, which lacks the pSOL1 megaplasmid. While some results were similar, the expression of primary metabolism genes and heat shock proteins was higher in M5, suggesting a difference in metabolic regulation or a butyrate stress response in M5. The results of this microarray platform and analysis were further validated by comparing gene expression patterns to previously published Northern analyses, reporter assays, and two-dimensional protein electrophoresis data of metabolic genes (including all major solventogenesis genes), sporulation genes, heat shock proteins, and other solventogenesis-induced gene expression.  (+info)

'Clostridium acetobutylicum' is a gram-positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in soil and aquatic environments. It is a species of the genus Clostridium, which includes many bacteria capable of producing industrial chemicals through fermentation.

'Clostridium acetobutylicum' is particularly known for its ability to produce acetic acid and butyric acid, as well as solvents such as acetone and butanol, during the process of anaerobic respiration. This makes it a potential candidate for biotechnological applications in the production of biofuels and other industrial chemicals.

However, like many Clostridium species, 'Clostridium acetobutylicum' can also produce toxins and cause infections in humans and animals under certain circumstances. Therefore, it is important to handle this organism with care and follow appropriate safety protocols when working with it in a laboratory setting.

'Clostridium' is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in nature, including in soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. Many species of Clostridium are anaerobic, meaning they can grow and reproduce in environments with little or no oxygen. Some species of Clostridium are capable of producing toxins that can cause serious and sometimes life-threatening illnesses in humans and animals.

Some notable species of Clostridium include:

* Clostridium tetani, which causes tetanus (also known as lockjaw)
* Clostridium botulinum, which produces botulinum toxin, the most potent neurotoxin known and the cause of botulism
* Clostridium difficile, which can cause severe diarrhea and colitis, particularly in people who have recently taken antibiotics
* Clostridium perfringens, which can cause food poisoning and gas gangrene.

It is important to note that not all species of Clostridium are harmful, and some are even beneficial, such as those used in the production of certain fermented foods like sauerkraut and natto. However, due to their ability to produce toxins and cause illness, it is important to handle and dispose of materials contaminated with Clostridium species carefully, especially in healthcare settings.

Butanols are a family of alcohols with four carbon atoms and a chemical formula of C4H9OH. They are commonly used as solvents, intermediates in chemical synthesis, and fuel additives. The most common butanol is n-butanol (normal butanol), which has a straight chain of four carbon atoms. Other forms include secondary butanols (such as isobutanol) and tertiary butanols (such as tert-butanol). These compounds have different physical and chemical properties due to the differences in their molecular structure, but they all share the common characteristic of being alcohols with four carbon atoms.

Acetone is a colorless, volatile, and flammable liquid organic compound with the chemical formula (CH3)2CO. It is the simplest and smallest ketone, and its molecules consist of a carbonyl group linked to two methyl groups. Acetone occurs naturally in the human body and is produced as a byproduct of normal metabolic processes, particularly during fat burning.

In clinical settings, acetone can be measured in breath or blood to assess metabolic status, such as in cases of diabetic ketoacidosis, where an excess production of acetone and other ketones occurs due to insulin deficiency and high levels of fatty acid breakdown. High concentrations of acetone can lead to a sweet, fruity odor on the breath, often described as "fruity acetone" or "acetone breath."

'Clostridium difficile' (also known as 'C. difficile' or 'C. diff') is a type of Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium that can be found in the environment, including in soil, water, and human and animal feces. It is a common cause of healthcare-associated infections, particularly in individuals who have recently received antibiotics or have other underlying health conditions that weaken their immune system.

C. difficile produces toxins that can cause a range of symptoms, from mild diarrhea to severe colitis (inflammation of the colon) and potentially life-threatening complications such as sepsis and toxic megacolon. The most common toxins produced by C. difficile are called TcdA and TcdB, which damage the lining of the intestine and cause inflammation.

C. difficile infections (CDIs) can be difficult to treat, particularly in severe cases or in patients who have recurrent infections. Treatment typically involves discontinuing any unnecessary antibiotics, if possible, and administering specific antibiotics that are effective against C. difficile, such as metronidazole, vancomycin, or fidaxomicin. In some cases, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may be recommended as a last resort for patients with recurrent or severe CDIs who have not responded to other treatments.

Preventing the spread of C. difficile is critical in healthcare settings, and includes measures such as hand hygiene, contact precautions, environmental cleaning, and antibiotic stewardship programs that promote the appropriate use of antibiotics.

Phosphate Acetyltransferase (PAT) is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of certain amino acids. It catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from acetyl phosphate to a variety of acceptor molecules, including carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur nucleophiles. This reaction plays a crucial role in several biochemical pathways, such as the biosynthesis of certain amino acids, vitamins, and cofactors.

The systematic name for this enzyme is acetylphosphate-protein phosphotransferase. It belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring phosphorus-containing groups. The gene that encodes this enzyme in humans is called PAT1 or CABYR. Defects in this gene have been associated with certain neurological disorders.

1-Butanol, also known as n-butanol or butyl alcohol, is a primary alcohol with a chemical formula of C4H9OH. It is a colorless liquid that is used as a solvent and in the manufacture of other chemicals. 1-Butanol has a wide range of applications including use as a paint thinner, in the production of rubber, and as a fuel additive. It is also found naturally in some foods and beverages.

In medical terms, 1-butanol may be used as an ingredient in topical medications or as a solvent for various pharmaceutical preparations. However, it is not typically used as a therapeutic agent on its own. Exposure to high levels of 1-butanol can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, and prolonged exposure may lead to more serious health effects.

Coenzyme A-transferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of Coenzyme A (CoA) from one molecule to another. CoA is a coenzyme that plays a crucial role in various metabolic processes, including the oxidation of carbohydrates, fatty acids, and amino acids.

Coenzyme A-transferases can be further classified into several subfamilies based on their specific functions and the types of molecules they act upon. For example, some CoA-transferases transfer CoA to acyl groups, forming acyl-CoAs, which are important intermediates in fatty acid metabolism. Other CoA-transferases transfer CoA to pyruvate, forming pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes that play a key role in glucose metabolism.

These enzymes are essential for maintaining the proper functioning of various metabolic pathways and are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including energy production, lipid synthesis, and detoxification. Defects in CoA-transferases can lead to several metabolic disorders, such as fatty acid oxidation disorders and pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency.

'Clostridium beijerinckii' is a species of gram-positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria found in various environments such as soil, aquatic sediments, and the intestinal tracts of animals. It is named after the Dutch microbiologist Martinus Willem Beijerinck.

This bacterium is capable of fermenting a wide range of organic compounds and producing a variety of metabolic end-products, including butanol, acetone, and ethanol. 'Clostridium beijerinckii' has attracted interest in biotechnology due to its potential for the production of biofuels and industrial chemicals through fermentation processes.

However, it is also known to cause food spoilage and, under certain circumstances, can produce harmful metabolites that may pose a risk to human health. Therefore, proper handling and safety precautions are necessary when working with this bacterium in laboratory or industrial settings.

Clostridium infections are caused by bacteria of the genus Clostridium, which are gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming, and often anaerobic organisms. These bacteria can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the human gastrointestinal tract. Some Clostridium species can cause severe and potentially life-threatening infections in humans. Here are some of the most common Clostridium infections with their medical definitions:

1. Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI): An infection caused by the bacterium Clostridioides difficile, previously known as Clostridium difficile. It typically occurs after antibiotic use disrupts the normal gut microbiota, allowing C. difficile to overgrow and produce toxins that cause diarrhea, colitis, and other gastrointestinal symptoms. Severe cases can lead to sepsis, toxic megacolon, or even death.
2. Clostridium tetani infection: Also known as tetanus, this infection is caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. The spores of this bacterium are commonly found in soil and animal feces. They can enter the body through wounds, cuts, or punctures, germinate, and produce a potent exotoxin called tetanospasmin. This toxin causes muscle stiffness and spasms, particularly in the neck and jaw (lockjaw), which can lead to difficulty swallowing, breathing, and potentially fatal complications.
3. Clostridium botulinum infection: This infection is caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and results in botulism, a rare but severe paralytic illness. The bacteria produce neurotoxins (botulinum toxins) that affect the nervous system, causing symptoms such as double vision, drooping eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, dry mouth, and muscle weakness. In severe cases, botulism can lead to respiratory failure and death.
4. Gas gangrene (Clostridium perfringens infection): A rapidly progressing soft tissue infection caused by Clostridium perfringens or other clostridial species. The bacteria produce potent exotoxins that cause tissue destruction, gas production, and widespread necrosis. Gas gangrene is characterized by severe pain, swelling, discoloration, and a foul-smelling discharge. If left untreated, it can lead to sepsis, multi-organ failure, and death.
5. Clostridioides difficile infection (C. difficile infection): Although not caused by a typical clostridial species, C. difficile is a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium that can cause severe diarrhea and colitis, particularly in hospitalized patients or those who have recently taken antibiotics. The bacteria produce toxins A and B, which damage the intestinal lining and contribute to inflammation and diarrhea. C. difficile infection can range from mild to life-threatening, with complications such as sepsis, toxic megacolon, and bowel perforation.

Fermentation is a metabolic process in which an organism converts carbohydrates into alcohol or organic acids using enzymes. In the absence of oxygen, certain bacteria, yeasts, and fungi convert sugars into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and various end products, such as alcohol, lactic acid, or acetic acid. This process is commonly used in food production, such as in making bread, wine, and beer, as well as in industrial applications for the production of biofuels and chemicals.

Rubredoxins are small iron-sulfur proteins that contain a single iron atom bonded to four cysteine residues, forming an iron(II)-sulfur cluster. They play a role in electron transfer reactions in certain bacteria and archaea. The name "rubredoxin" comes from the fact that these proteins can be easily reduced, turning them red in color. They have a molecular weight of around 6,000 daltons and are known for their stability and resistance to chemical changes. Rubredoxins are not commonly found in higher organisms such as plants and animals.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

'Clostridium botulinum' is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic bacteria that produces one or more neurotoxins known as botulinum toxins. These toxins are among the most potent naturally occurring biological poisons and can cause a severe form of food poisoning called botulism in humans and animals. Botulism is characterized by symmetrical descending flaccid paralysis, which can lead to respiratory and cardiovascular failure, and ultimately death if not treated promptly.

The bacteria are widely distributed in nature, particularly in soil, sediments, and the intestinal tracts of some animals. They can form spores that are highly resistant to heat, chemicals, and other environmental stresses, allowing them to survive for long periods in adverse conditions. The spores can germinate and produce vegetative cells and toxins when they encounter favorable conditions, such as anaerobic environments with appropriate nutrients.

Human botulism can occur through three main routes of exposure: foodborne, wound, and infant botulism. Foodborne botulism results from consuming contaminated food containing preformed toxins, while wound botulism occurs when the bacteria infect a wound and produce toxins in situ. Infant botulism is caused by the ingestion of spores that colonize the intestines and produce toxins, mainly affecting infants under one year of age.

Prevention measures include proper food handling, storage, and preparation practices, such as cooking and canning foods at appropriate temperatures and for sufficient durations. Wound care and prompt medical attention are crucial in preventing wound botulism. Vaccines and antitoxins are available for prophylaxis and treatment of botulism in high-risk individuals or in cases of confirmed exposure.

'Clostridium butyricum' is a gram-positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the environment, including soil and water. It is also part of the normal gut microbiota in humans and animals. This organism produces butyric acid as one of its main fermentation products, hence the name 'butyricum'.

While 'Clostridium butyricum' can sometimes be associated with human diseases, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying gastrointestinal disorders, it is also being investigated for its potential probiotic properties. Some studies suggest that certain strains of this bacterium may help prevent and treat various conditions, such as antibiotic-associated diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. However, more research is needed to confirm these findings and establish the safety and efficacy of 'Clostridium butyricum' as a probiotic.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Cellulase is a type of enzyme that breaks down cellulose, which is a complex carbohydrate and the main structural component of plant cell walls. Cellulases are produced by certain bacteria, fungi, and protozoans, and are used in various industrial applications such as biofuel production, food processing, and textile manufacturing. In the human body, there are no known physiological roles for cellulases, as humans do not produce these enzymes and cannot digest cellulose.

Hemerythrin is not typically defined in the context of human medicine, but it is a protein found in some invertebrates that functions as an oxygen transport molecule, similar to hemoglobin in vertebrates. Hemerythrin contains iron and can bind reversibly with oxygen. It is primarily found in marine annelids (polychaetes) and some mollusks. The protein exists as a dimer or hexamer, and it exhibits a characteristic pink-red color when oxygenated.

In a broader biological context, hemerythrin is an example of a respiratory pigment, which is a molecule that can bind and transport gases, such as oxygen or carbon dioxide, within an organism. Hemoglobin, myoglobin, and hemerythrin are all examples of respiratory pigments.

Hydrogenase is not a medical term per se, but a biochemical term. It is used to describe an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion between molecular hydrogen (H2) and protons (H+) or vice versa. These enzymes are found in certain bacteria, algae, and archaea, and they play a crucial role in their energy metabolism, particularly in processes like hydrogen production and consumption.

While not directly related to medical terminology, understanding the function of hydrogenase can be important in fields such as microbiology, molecular biology, and environmental science, which can have implications for human health in areas like infectious diseases, biofuels, and waste management.

I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. Bacteria do not produce spores; instead, it is fungi and other types of microorganisms that produce spores for reproduction and survival purposes. Spores are essentially reproductive cells that are resistant to heat, radiation, and chemicals, allowing them to survive under harsh conditions.

If you meant to ask about endospores, those are produced by some bacteria as a protective mechanism during times of stress or nutrient deprivation. Endospores are highly resistant structures containing bacterial DNA, ribosomes, and some enzymes. They can survive for long periods in extreme environments and germinate into vegetative cells when conditions improve.

Here's the medical definition of endospores:

Endospores (also called bacterial spores) are highly resistant, dormant structures produced by certain bacteria belonging to the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. They contain a core of bacterial DNA, ribosomes, and some enzymes surrounded by a protective layer called the spore coat. Endospores can survive under harsh conditions for extended periods and germinate into vegetative cells when favorable conditions return. Common examples of endospore-forming bacteria include Bacillus species (such as B. anthracis, which causes anthrax) and Clostridium species (such as C. difficile, which can cause severe diarrhea).

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Acetate kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible phosphorylation of acetate to form acetyl phosphate and ADP (adenosine diphosphate) from ATP (adenosine triphosphate). The reaction is as follows:

Acetate + ATP -> Acetyl phosphate + ADP

This enzyme plays a role in the metabolism of certain bacteria and archaea, where it helps to generate energy in the form of ATP. It is not typically found in humans or other mammals.

Cellulosomes are large, complex enzymatic structures produced by certain anaerobic bacteria that allow them to break down and consume cellulose, a major component of plant biomass. These structures are composed of multiple enzymes that work together in a coordinated manner to degrade cellulose into simpler sugars, which the bacteria can then use as a source of energy and carbon.

The individual enzymes in a cellulosome are non-covalently associated with a central scaffoldin protein, forming a multi-enzyme complex. The scaffoldin protein contains cohesin modules that bind to dockerin modules on the enzyme subunits, creating a highly organized and stable structure.

Cellulosomes have been identified in several species of anaerobic bacteria, including members of the genera Clostridium and Ruminococcus. They are thought to play a key role in the global carbon cycle by breaking down plant material and releasing carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere.

Xylose is a type of sugar that is commonly found in plants and wood. In the context of medical definitions, xylose is often used in tests to assess the function of the small intestine. The most common test is called the "xylose absorption test," which measures the ability of the small intestine to absorb this sugar.

In this test, a patient is given a small amount of xylose to drink, and then several blood and/or urine samples are collected over the next few hours. The amount of xylose that appears in these samples is measured and used to determine how well the small intestine is absorbing nutrients.

Abnormal results on a xylose absorption test can indicate various gastrointestinal disorders, such as malabsorption syndromes, celiac disease, or bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine.

Acetoin is a chemical compound that is produced as a metabolic byproduct in certain types of bacteria, including some species of streptococcus and lactobacillus. It is a colorless liquid with a sweet, buttery odor and is used as a flavoring agent in the food industry. In addition to its use as a flavoring, acetoin has been studied for its potential antibacterial properties and its possible role in the development of biofilms. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential uses and implications of this compound.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Solvents, in a medical context, are substances that are capable of dissolving or dispersing other materials, often used in the preparation of medications and solutions. They are commonly organic chemicals that can liquefy various substances, making it possible to administer them in different forms, such as oral solutions, topical creams, or injectable drugs.

However, it is essential to recognize that solvents may pose health risks if mishandled or misused, particularly when they contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Prolonged exposure to these VOCs can lead to adverse health effects, including respiratory issues, neurological damage, and even cancer. Therefore, it is crucial to handle solvents with care and follow safety guidelines to minimize potential health hazards.

Biofuels are defined as fuels derived from organic materials such as plants, algae, and animal waste. These fuels can be produced through various processes, including fermentation, esterification, and transesterification. The most common types of biofuels include biodiesel, ethanol, and biogas.

Biodiesel is a type of fuel that is produced from vegetable oils or animal fats through a process called transesterification. It can be used in diesel engines with little or no modification and can significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions compared to traditional fossil fuels.

Ethanol is a type of alcohol that is produced through the fermentation of sugars found in crops such as corn, sugarcane, and switchgrass. It is typically blended with gasoline to create a fuel known as E85, which contains 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline.

Biogas is a type of fuel that is produced through the anaerobic digestion of organic materials such as food waste, sewage sludge, and agricultural waste. It is composed primarily of methane and carbon dioxide and can be used to generate electricity or heat.

Overall, biofuels offer a renewable and more sustainable alternative to traditional fossil fuels, helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and decrease dependence on non-renewable resources.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Butyrates are a type of fatty acid, specifically called short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), that are produced in the gut through the fermentation of dietary fiber by gut bacteria. The name "butyrate" comes from the Latin word for butter, "butyrum," as butyrate was first isolated from butter.

Butyrates have several important functions in the body. They serve as a primary energy source for colonic cells and play a role in maintaining the health and integrity of the intestinal lining. Additionally, butyrates have been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects, regulate gene expression, and may even help prevent certain types of cancer.

In medical contexts, butyrate supplements are sometimes used to treat conditions such as ulcerative colitis, a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), due to their anti-inflammatory properties and ability to promote gut health. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential therapeutic uses of butyrates and their long-term effects on human health.

Pseudomembranous enterocolitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the inner lining of the small intestine (enteritis) and large intestine (colitis), resulting in the formation of pseudomembranes – raised, yellowish-white plaques composed of fibrin, mucus, and inflammatory cells. The condition is most commonly caused by a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile), which can overgrow in the gut following disruption of the normal gut microbiota, often after antibiotic use. Symptoms may include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, and dehydration. Severe cases can lead to complications such as sepsis, toxic megacolon, or even death if left untreated. Treatment typically involves discontinuing the offending antibiotic, administering oral metronidazole or vancomycin to eliminate C. difficile, and managing symptoms with supportive care. In some cases, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may be considered as a treatment option.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

"Gene knockout techniques" refer to a group of biomedical research methods used in genetics and molecular biology to study the function of specific genes in an organism. These techniques involve introducing a deliberate, controlled genetic modification that results in the inactivation or "knockout" of a particular gene. This is typically achieved through various methods such as homologous recombination, where a modified version of the gene with inserted mutations is introduced into the organism's genome, replacing the original functional gene. The resulting organism, known as a "knockout mouse" or other model organisms, lacks the function of the targeted gene and can be used to study its role in biological processes, disease development, and potential therapeutic interventions.

Aldehyde oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids using NAD+ or FAD as cofactors. They play a crucial role in the detoxification of aldehydes generated from various metabolic processes, such as lipid peroxidation and alcohol metabolism. These enzymes are widely distributed in nature and have been identified in bacteria, yeast, plants, and animals.

The oxidation reaction catalyzed by aldehyde oxidoreductases involves the transfer of electrons from the aldehyde substrate to the cofactor, resulting in the formation of a carboxylic acid and reduced NAD+ or FAD. The enzymes are classified into several families based on their sequence similarity and cofactor specificity.

One of the most well-known members of this family is alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which catalyzes the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones as part of the alcohol metabolism pathway. Another important member is aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), which further oxidizes the aldehydes generated by ADH to carboxylic acids, thereby preventing the accumulation of toxic aldehydes in the body.

Deficiencies in ALDH enzymes have been linked to several human diseases, including alcoholism and certain types of cancer. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of aldehyde oxidoreductases is essential for developing new therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

Butyric acid is a type of short-chain fatty acid that is naturally produced in the human body through the fermentation of dietary fiber in the colon. Its chemical formula is C4H8O2. It has a distinctive, rancid odor and is used in the production of perfumes, flavorings, and certain types of plasticizers. In addition to its natural occurrence in the human body, butyric acid is also found in some foods such as butter, parmesan cheese, and fermented foods like sauerkraut. It has been studied for its potential health benefits, including its role in gut health, immune function, and cancer prevention.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Cellulose is a complex carbohydrate that is the main structural component of the cell walls of green plants, many algae, and some fungi. It is a polysaccharide consisting of long chains of beta-glucose molecules linked together by beta-1,4 glycosidic bonds. Cellulose is insoluble in water and most organic solvents, and it is resistant to digestion by humans and non-ruminant animals due to the lack of cellulase enzymes in their digestive systems. However, ruminants such as cows and sheep can digest cellulose with the help of microbes in their rumen that produce cellulase.

Cellulose has many industrial applications, including the production of paper, textiles, and building materials. It is also used as a source of dietary fiber in human food and animal feed. Cellulose-based materials are being explored for use in biomedical applications such as tissue engineering and drug delivery due to their biocompatibility and mechanical properties.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is a group of enzymes responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones, and reducing equivalents such as NAD+ to NADH. In humans, ADH plays a crucial role in the metabolism of ethanol, converting it into acetaldehyde, which is then further metabolized by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) into acetate. This process helps to detoxify and eliminate ethanol from the body. Additionally, ADH enzymes are also involved in the metabolism of other alcohols, such as methanol and ethylene glycol, which can be toxic if allowed to accumulate in the body.

Acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase (also known as acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase or just thiolase) is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of fatty acids and ketone bodies. Specifically, it catalyzes the reaction that converts two molecules of acetyl-CoA into acetoacetyl-CoA, which is a key step in the breakdown of fatty acids through beta-oxidation.

The enzyme works by bringing together two acetyl-CoA molecules and removing a coenzyme A (CoA) group from one of them, forming a carbon-carbon bond between the two molecules to create acetoacetyl-CoA. This reaction is reversible, meaning that the enzyme can also catalyze the breakdown of acetoacetyl-CoA into two molecules of acetyl-CoA.

There are several different isoforms of Acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase found in various tissues throughout the body, with differing roles and regulation. For example, one isoform is highly expressed in the liver and plays a key role in ketone body metabolism, while another isoform is found in mitochondria and is involved in fatty acid synthesis.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

'Clostridium thermocellum' is a type of anaerobic, gram-positive bacterium that is known for its ability to produce cellulases and break down cellulose. It is thermophilic, meaning it grows optimally at higher temperatures, typically between 55-70°C. This organism is of interest in the field of bioenergy because of its potential to convert plant biomass into useful products such as biofuels. However, it's important to note that this bacterium can also produce harmful metabolic byproducts and can be potentially pathogenic to humans.

'Clostridium cellulolyticum' is a species of gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic bacteria found in soil and aquatic environments. It is known for its ability to break down complex carbohydrates such as cellulose and hemicellulose into simple sugars through the process of fermentation. This makes it a potential candidate for biofuel production from plant biomass.

The bacterium produces a range of enzymes that can degrade these polysaccharides, including cellulases and xylanases. These enzymes work together in a complex system to break down the cellulose and hemicellulose into monosaccharides, which can then be fermented by the bacterium to produce various end products such as acetate, ethanol, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide.

'Clostridium cellulolyticum' is also known to produce a number of other enzymes and metabolites that have potential applications in industry, including amylases, proteases, and lipases. However, further research is needed to fully understand the biology and potential uses of this organism.

Carboxy-lyases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the removal of a carboxyl group from a substrate, often releasing carbon dioxide in the process. These enzymes play important roles in various metabolic pathways, such as the biosynthesis and degradation of amino acids, sugars, and other organic compounds.

Carboxy-lyases are classified under EC number 4.2 in the Enzyme Commission (EC) system. They can be further divided into several subclasses based on their specific mechanisms and substrates. For example, some carboxy-lyases require a cofactor such as biotin or thiamine pyrophosphate to facilitate the decarboxylation reaction, while others do not.

Examples of carboxy-lyases include:

1. Pyruvate decarboxylase: This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide during fermentation in yeast and other organisms.
2. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO): This enzyme is essential for photosynthesis in plants and some bacteria, as it catalyzes the fixation of carbon dioxide into an organic molecule during the Calvin cycle.
3. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase: Found in plants, algae, and some bacteria, this enzyme plays a role in anaplerotic reactions that replenish intermediates in the citric acid cycle. It catalyzes the conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to oxaloacetate and inorganic phosphate.
4. Aspartate transcarbamylase: This enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of pyrimidines, a class of nucleotides. It catalyzes the transfer of a carboxyl group from carbamoyl aspartate to carbamoyl phosphate, forming cytidine triphosphate (CTP) and fumarate.
5. Urocanase: Found in animals, this enzyme is involved in histidine catabolism. It catalyzes the conversion of urocanate to formiminoglutamate and ammonia.

Restriction mapping is a technique used in molecular biology to identify the location and arrangement of specific restriction endonuclease recognition sites within a DNA molecule. Restriction endonucleases are enzymes that cut double-stranded DNA at specific sequences, producing fragments of various lengths. By digesting the DNA with different combinations of these enzymes and analyzing the resulting fragment sizes through techniques such as agarose gel electrophoresis, researchers can generate a restriction map - a visual representation of the locations and distances between recognition sites on the DNA molecule. This information is crucial for various applications, including cloning, genome analysis, and genetic engineering.

Antisense RNA is a type of RNA molecule that is complementary to another RNA called sense RNA. In the context of gene expression, sense RNA is the RNA transcribed from a protein-coding gene, which serves as a template for translation into a protein. Antisense RNA, on the other hand, is transcribed from the opposite strand of the DNA and is complementary to the sense RNA.

Antisense RNA can bind to its complementary sense RNA through base-pairing, forming a double-stranded RNA structure. This interaction can prevent the sense RNA from being translated into protein or can target it for degradation by cellular machinery, thereby reducing the amount of protein produced from the gene. Antisense RNA can be used as a tool in molecular biology to study gene function or as a therapeutic strategy to silence disease-causing genes.

'Clostridium tetani' is a gram-positive, spore-forming, anaerobic bacterium that is the causative agent of tetanus. The bacteria are commonly found in soil, dust, and manure, and can contaminate wounds, leading to the production of a potent neurotoxin called tetanospasmin. This toxin causes muscle spasms and stiffness, particularly in the jaw and neck muscles, as well as autonomic nervous system dysfunction, which can be life-threatening. Tetanus is preventable through vaccination with the tetanus toxoid vaccine.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

Alcohol oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones, while reducing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to NADH. These enzymes play an important role in the metabolism of alcohols and other organic compounds in living organisms.

The most well-known example of an alcohol oxidoreductase is alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which is responsible for the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde in the liver during the metabolism of alcoholic beverages. Other examples include aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH).

These enzymes are important targets for the development of drugs used to treat alcohol use disorder, as inhibiting their activity can help to reduce the rate of ethanol metabolism and the severity of its effects on the body.

An operon is a genetic unit in prokaryotic organisms (like bacteria) consisting of a cluster of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule, which then undergoes translation to produce multiple proteins. This genetic organization allows for the coordinated regulation of genes that are involved in the same metabolic pathway or functional process. The unit typically includes promoter and operator regions that control the transcription of the operon, as well as structural genes encoding the proteins. Operons were first discovered in bacteria, but similar genetic organizations have been found in some eukaryotic organisms, such as yeast.

Bacterial RNA refers to the genetic material present in bacteria that is composed of ribonucleic acid (RNA). Unlike higher organisms, bacteria contain a single circular chromosome made up of DNA, along with smaller circular pieces of DNA called plasmids. These bacterial genetic materials contain the information necessary for the growth and reproduction of the organism.

Bacterial RNA can be divided into three main categories: messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and transfer RNA (tRNA). mRNA carries genetic information copied from DNA, which is then translated into proteins by the rRNA and tRNA molecules. rRNA is a structural component of the ribosome, where protein synthesis occurs, while tRNA acts as an adapter that brings amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis.

Bacterial RNA plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including gene expression, protein synthesis, and regulation of metabolic pathways. Understanding the structure and function of bacterial RNA is essential for developing new antibiotics and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Acetates, in a medical context, most commonly refer to compounds that contain the acetate group, which is an functional group consisting of a carbon atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms and an oxygen atom (-COO-). An example of an acetate is sodium acetate (CH3COONa), which is a salt formed from acetic acid (CH3COOH) and is often used as a buffering agent in medical solutions.

Acetates can also refer to a group of medications that contain acetate as an active ingredient, such as magnesium acetate, which is used as a laxative, or calcium acetate, which is used to treat high levels of phosphate in the blood.

In addition, acetates can also refer to a process called acetylation, which is the addition of an acetyl group (-COCH3) to a molecule. This process can be important in the metabolism and regulation of various substances within the body.

Metabolic networks and pathways refer to the complex interconnected series of biochemical reactions that occur within cells to maintain life. These reactions are catalyzed by enzymes and are responsible for the conversion of nutrients into energy, as well as the synthesis and breakdown of various molecules required for cellular function.

A metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions that occur in a specific order, with each reaction being catalyzed by a different enzyme. These pathways are often interconnected, forming a larger network of interactions known as a metabolic network.

Metabolic networks can be represented as complex diagrams or models, which show the relationships between different pathways and the flow of matter and energy through the system. These networks can help researchers to understand how cells regulate their metabolism in response to changes in their environment, and how disruptions to these networks can lead to disease.

Some common examples of metabolic pathways include glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), and the pentose phosphate pathway. Each of these pathways plays a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and providing energy for cellular functions.

A bacterial genome is the complete set of genetic material, including both DNA and RNA, found within a single bacterium. It contains all the hereditary information necessary for the bacterium to grow, reproduce, and survive in its environment. The bacterial genome typically includes circular chromosomes, as well as plasmids, which are smaller, circular DNA molecules that can carry additional genes. These genes encode various functional elements such as enzymes, structural proteins, and regulatory sequences that determine the bacterium's characteristics and behavior.

Bacterial genomes vary widely in size, ranging from around 130 kilobases (kb) in Mycoplasma genitalium to over 14 megabases (Mb) in Sorangium cellulosum. The complete sequencing and analysis of bacterial genomes have provided valuable insights into the biology, evolution, and pathogenicity of bacteria, enabling researchers to better understand their roles in various diseases and potential applications in biotechnology.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

Botulinum toxins are neurotoxic proteins produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species. They are the most potent naturally occurring toxins, and are responsible for the paralytic illness known as botulism. There are seven distinct botulinum toxin serotypes (A-G), each of which targets specific proteins in the nervous system, leading to inhibition of neurotransmitter release and subsequent muscle paralysis.

In clinical settings, botulinum toxins have been used for therapeutic purposes due to their ability to cause temporary muscle relaxation. Botulinum toxin type A (Botox) is the most commonly used serotype in medical treatments, including management of dystonias, spasticity, migraines, and certain neurological disorders. Additionally, botulinum toxins are widely employed in aesthetic medicine for reducing wrinkles and fine lines by temporarily paralyzing facial muscles.

It is important to note that while botulinum toxins have therapeutic benefits when used appropriately, they can also pose significant health risks if misused or improperly handled. Proper medical training and supervision are essential for safe and effective utilization of these powerful toxins.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

'Clostridium sordellii' is a gram-positive, spore-forming, anaerobic rod-shaped bacterium. It is part of the normal microbiota found in the human and animal gastrointestinal tract. However, it can cause severe and potentially fatal infections in humans, such as sepsis, myonecrosis (gas gangrene), and soft tissue infections. These infections are more commonly associated with contaminated wounds, surgical sites, or drug use (particularly black tar heroin). The bacterium produces powerful toxins that contribute to its virulence and can lead to rapid progression of the infection. Immediate medical attention is required for proper diagnosis and treatment, which typically involves antibiotics, surgical debridement, and supportive care.

Ethanol is the medical term for pure alcohol, which is a colorless, clear, volatile, flammable liquid with a characteristic odor and burning taste. It is the type of alcohol that is found in alcoholic beverages and is produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts.

In the medical field, ethanol is used as an antiseptic and disinfectant, and it is also used as a solvent for various medicinal preparations. It has central nervous system depressant properties and is sometimes used as a sedative or to induce sleep. However, excessive consumption of ethanol can lead to alcohol intoxication, which can cause a range of negative health effects, including impaired judgment, coordination, and memory, as well as an increased risk of accidents, injuries, and chronic diseases such as liver disease and addiction.

Bacterial toxins are poisonous substances produced and released by bacteria. They can cause damage to the host organism's cells and tissues, leading to illness or disease. Bacterial toxins can be classified into two main types: exotoxins and endotoxins.

Exotoxins are proteins secreted by bacterial cells that can cause harm to the host. They often target specific cellular components or pathways, leading to tissue damage and inflammation. Some examples of exotoxins include botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum, which causes botulism; diphtheria toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which causes diphtheria; and tetanus toxin produced by Clostridium tetani, which causes tetanus.

Endotoxins, on the other hand, are components of the bacterial cell wall that are released when the bacteria die or divide. They consist of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and can cause a generalized inflammatory response in the host. Endotoxins can be found in gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Bacterial toxins can cause a wide range of symptoms depending on the type of toxin, the dose, and the site of infection. They can lead to serious illnesses or even death if left untreated. Vaccines and antibiotics are often used to prevent or treat bacterial infections and reduce the risk of severe complications from bacterial toxins.

Genetic engineering, also known as genetic modification, is a scientific process where the DNA or genetic material of an organism is manipulated to bring about a change in its characteristics. This is typically done by inserting specific genes into the organism's genome using various molecular biology techniques. These new genes may come from the same species (cisgenesis) or a different species (transgenesis). The goal is to produce a desired trait, such as resistance to pests, improved nutritional content, or increased productivity. It's widely used in research, medicine, and agriculture. However, it's important to note that the use of genetically engineered organisms can raise ethical, environmental, and health concerns.

Substrate specificity in the context of medical biochemistry and enzymology refers to the ability of an enzyme to selectively bind and catalyze a chemical reaction with a particular substrate (or a group of similar substrates) while discriminating against other molecules that are not substrates. This specificity arises from the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, which has evolved to match the shape, charge distribution, and functional groups of its physiological substrate(s).

Substrate specificity is a fundamental property of enzymes that enables them to carry out highly selective chemical transformations in the complex cellular environment. The active site of an enzyme, where the catalysis takes place, has a unique conformation that complements the shape and charge distribution of its substrate(s). This ensures efficient recognition, binding, and conversion of the substrate into the desired product while minimizing unwanted side reactions with other molecules.

Substrate specificity can be categorized as:

1. Absolute specificity: An enzyme that can only act on a single substrate or a very narrow group of structurally related substrates, showing no activity towards any other molecule.
2. Group specificity: An enzyme that prefers to act on a particular functional group or class of compounds but can still accommodate minor structural variations within the substrate.
3. Broad or promiscuous specificity: An enzyme that can act on a wide range of structurally diverse substrates, albeit with varying catalytic efficiencies.

Understanding substrate specificity is crucial for elucidating enzymatic mechanisms, designing drugs that target specific enzymes or pathways, and developing biotechnological applications that rely on the controlled manipulation of enzyme activities.

EPA Clostridium acetobutylicum Final Risk Assessment Genetic Engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum for Enhanced Production ... Pathema-Clostridium Resource Chaim Weizmann Type strain of Clostridium acetobutylicum at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... One of the crucial enzymes - a fatty acyl-CoA reductase - came from Clostridium acetobutylicum. ABE Acetone Butanol Clostridium ... Zappe H, Jones WA, Jones DT, Woods DR (May 1988). "Structure of an endo-beta-1,4-glucanase gene from Clostridium acetobutylicum ...
Hartmanis MG (January 1987). "Butyrate kinase from Clostridium acetobutylicum". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 262 (2): ... Wiesenborn DP, Rudolph FB, Papoutsakis ET (February 1989). "Phosphotransbutyrylase from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 and ... "Sequence and arrangement of two genes of the butyrate-synthesis pathway of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824". Gene. 134 (1 ... "The central metabolic pathway from acetyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA in Clostridium acetobutylicum". FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 17 (3 ...
Amylase French D, Knapp DW (December 1950). "The maltase of Clostridium acetobutylicum; its specificity range and mode of ...
It usually uses a strain of bacteria from the Class Clostridia (Family Clostridiaceae). Clostridium acetobutylicum is the most ... The ABE fermentation via Clostridium beijerinckii or Clostridium acetobutylicum for instance is characterized by product ... Although less effective, Clostridium beijerinckii and Clostridium saccharobutylicum bacterial strains have shown good results ... with Chaim Weizmann's isolation of Clostridium acetobutylicum, as described in U.S. patent 1315585. The Weizmann process was ...
Clostridium acetobutylicum) currently used to perform these conversions produces an extremely unpleasant smell, and this must ... "Enhanced butanol production by optimization of medium parameters using Clostridium acetobutylicum YM1". Saudi Journal of ...
He used the bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum (the Weizmann organism) to produce acetone. Acetone was used in the ...
"Isolation and properties of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotiderubredoxin oxidoreductase of Clostridium acetobutylicum". ...
A coupled two-stage continuous fermentation for solvent production by Clostridium acetobutylicum. Enzyme and Microbial ...
2001). "Genome sequence and comparative analysis of the solvent-producing bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum". J Bacteriol. ... 2003). "The genome sequence of Clostridium tetani, the causative agent of tetanus disease". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100 ( ... 2002). "Complete genome sequence of Clostridium perfringens, an anaerobic flesh-eater". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (2): ...
... process using Clostridium acetobutylicum, Clostridium beijerinckii. C. acetobutylicum was once used for the production of ... Anaerobic bacteria such as Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium saccharobutylicum also contain these pathways. Succinate ... A strain of Clostridium can convert nearly any form of cellulose into butanol even in the presence of oxygen. A strain of ... The genes corresponding to these butanol production pathways from Clostridium were cloned to E. coli. Cyanobacteria are a ...
"Purification and properties of the inducible coenzyme A-linked butyraldehyde dehydrogenase from Clostridium acetobutylicum". J ...
Prior to the 1950s, Clostridium acetobutylicum was used in industrial fermentation to produce butanol. Research in the past few ... It is produced in small quantities in nearly all fermentations (see fusel oil). Clostridium produces much higher yields of ...
Börner RA, Zaushitsyna O, Berillo D, Scaccia N, Mattiasson B, Kirsebom H (2014). "Immobilization of Clostridium acetobutylicum ...
He used the bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum (the so-called Weizmann organism) to produce acetone. Weizmann transferred the ...
"Immobilization of Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 792 as macroporous aggregates through cryogelation for butanol production". ...
"Emended descriptions of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium beijerinckii, and descriptions of Clostridium ... "Clostridium saccharobutylicum" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Clostridium saccharobutylicum at BacDive - the ... Keis S, Sullivan JT, Jones DT (2001). "Physical and genetic map of the Clostridium saccharobutylicum (formerly Clostridium ... Clostridium saccharobutylicum is an indole and notably acetone, butanol and ethanol-producing bacterium, with type strain DSM ...
"Emended descriptions of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium beijerinckii, and descriptions of Clostridium ... "Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum ... Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum is an indole and notably butanol-producing bacterium, with the type strain N1-4 (HMT ... and Clostridium saccharobutylicum sp. nov". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 51 (6): 2095- ...
"Metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum for the industrial production of 1,3-propanediol from glycerol". Metabolic ...
Prior to the 1950s, Clostridium acetobutylicum was used in industrial fermentation to produce n-butanol. A.B.E. process Algal ...
... from Clostridium acetobutylicum catalyzes the decarboxylation of acetoacetate to yield acetone and ... In 1916, biochemist and future first president of Israel Chaim Weizmann was the first to isolate Clostridium acetobutylicum, a ... Acetoacetate decarboxylase has been found and studied in the following bacteria in addition to Clostridium acetobutylicum: ... In 2009, a crystal structure of acetoacetate decarboxylase from Clostridium acetobutylicum was solved, allowing Westheimer et ...
Treuner-Lange A, Kuhn A, Dürre P (Jul 1997). "The kdp system of Clostridium acetobutylicum: cloning, sequencing, and ... coli and Clostridium acetobutylicum. The N-terminal domain of this protein forms part of the cytoplasmic region of the protein ...
... end processing A riboswitch in Clostridium acetobutylicum regulates an adjacent gene that is not part of the same mRNA ... "S-box and T-box riboswitches and antisense RNA control a sulfur metabolic operon of Clostridium acetobutylicum". Nucleic Acids ...
... is produced and excreted by acetic acid bacteria, notably the genus Acetobacter and Clostridium acetobutylicum. ... However, Clostridium bacteria are less acid-tolerant than Acetobacter. Even the most acid-tolerant Clostridium strains can ... Species of anaerobic bacteria, including members of the genus Clostridium or Acetobacterium can convert sugars to acetic acid ... Sim, Jia Huey; Kamaruddin, Azlina Harun; Long, Wei Sing; Najafpour, Ghasem (2007). "Clostridium aceticum-A potential organism ...
"Cloning and sequence analysis of the genes encoding phosphotransbutyrylase and butyrate kinase from Clostridium acetobutylicum ...
... for biofuels production of a functional cell wall anchored minicellulosome by recombinant Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. ... 156, 828-36 (1983). Bayer, E. A., Kenig, R. & Lamed, R. Adherence of Clostridium thermocellum to cellulose. J. Bacteriol. 156, ... cellulase-containing complex in Clostridium thermocellum. J. Bacteriol. ...
Croux C, García JL (July 1991). "Sequence of the lyc gene encoding the autolytic lysozyme of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC824 ...
Huang K, Rudolph FB, Bennett GN (July 1999). "Characterization of methylglyoxal synthase from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC ...
It is typically a product of the fermentation of biomass by the bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum (also known as the ...
One example is the production of 1-butanol in Synechococcus elongatus using enzymes from Clostridium acetobutylicum, ...
His first job involved taking bacterial samples of Clostridium acetobutylicum from 40,000-gallon (roughly 150,000-liter) ...
EPA Clostridium acetobutylicum Final Risk Assessment Genetic Engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum for Enhanced Production ... Pathema-Clostridium Resource Chaim Weizmann Type strain of Clostridium acetobutylicum at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... One of the crucial enzymes - a fatty acyl-CoA reductase - came from Clostridium acetobutylicum. ABE Acetone Butanol Clostridium ... Zappe H, Jones WA, Jones DT, Woods DR (May 1988). "Structure of an endo-beta-1,4-glucanase gene from Clostridium acetobutylicum ...
Dive into the research topics of The [FeFe]-hydrogenase maturase HydF from Clostridium acetobutylicum contains a CO and CN- ... The [FeFe]-hydrogenase maturase HydF from Clostridium acetobutylicum contains a CO and CN- ligated iron cofactor. ...
This rRNA sequence is 117 nucleotides long and is found in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Annotated by 3 databases ( ... Clostridium acetobutylicum 5S rRNA. *Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 1731 5Sf ribosomal RNA. *Clostridium acetobutylicum EA 2018 ...
Genome sequence and comparative analysis of the solvent-producing bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum. J Bacteriol 2001,183(16 ...
Clostridium species (. C. butyricum, C. acetobutylicum, C. beijerinckii, Clostridium sp.) were the dominant hydrogen producers ... Clostridium. cultures, including C. acetobutylicum. , C. bifermentans. , C. butyricum. , C. kluyveri. , C. lentocellum. , C. ... Clostridium butyricum and two strains of C. acetobutylicum with Lactobacillus paracasei and Enterococcus durans. . Inhibition ... Clostridium acetobutylicum. strain P262 and Butyribacterium methylotrophicum. utilized lactate and acetate and converted them ...
2012). Metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 for isopropanol-butanol-ethanol fermentation. Appl. Environ ... including spore-forming Clostridia species Clostridium cellulovorans (Yang et al., 2015), C. thermocellum (Knutson et al., 1999 ... Yang, X., Xu, M., and Yang, S. T. (2015). Metabolic and process engineering of Clostridium cellulovorans for biofuel production ... or C. acetobutylicum (Lee et al., 2012).. Whether it is with B. megaterium SR7 or an alternative species, reactor incubations ...
Un riboswitch da bacteria Clostridium acetobutylicum regula un xene adxacente que non é parte do mesmo transcrito de ARNm. ... "S-box and T-box riboswitches and antisense RNA control a sulfur metabolic operon of Clostridium acetobutylicum". Nucleic Acids ...
Hope, Ryan (2022) Metabolic engineering for butanol yield enhancement in Clostridium acetobutylicum. PhD thesis, University of ...
The process involves an odd little bacterium called Clostridium acetobutylicum, which once upon a time was used to manufacture ...
RRNPP-type quorum sensing affects solvent formation and sporulation in Clostridium acetobutylicum. Kotte, Ann-Kathrin; Severn, ... Engineering of vitamin prototrophy in Clostridium ljungdahlii and Clostridium autoethanogenum. Annan, Florence J; Al-Sinawi, ... Required Gene Set for Autotrophic Growth of Clostridium autoethanogenum. Woods, Craig; Humphreys, Christopher M; Tomi-Andrino, ... CRISPR-Cas9D10A nickase-assisted base editing in the solvent producer Clostridium beijerinckii. Li, Qi; Seys, François M; ...
dash; Clostridium acetobutylicum *‐ Clostridium aerotolerans *‐ Clostridium aldenense *‐ Clostridium ...
Clostridium acetobutylicum. FabD. 38.1%. 68.7%. No. Mycoplasma pneumoniae. No significant homolog. No significant homolog. ...
Clostridium acetobutylicum. Locus tag:. CAC3332 Aliases: None (NCBI) , CAC3332 (MicrobesOnline) Gene Name:. CAC3332 Regulation ... cac motif 7371 Clostridium acetobutylicum 8x4 POSITION A C G T 1 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 2 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 3 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 4 0.5 0.0 ... cac motif 6953 Clostridium acetobutylicum 23x4 POSITION A C G T 1 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 2 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 4 0.0 0.0 ... cac motif 6952 Clostridium acetobutylicum 8x4 POSITION A C G T 1 0.0 0.0 0.72 0.28 2 0.0 0.0 0.88 0.12 3 0.84 0.0 0.12 0.04 4 ...
Systems Biology of Clostridium acetobutylicum - a possible answer to dwindling crude oil reserves ...
Proposed topology of the glucitol permeases of Escherichia coli and Clostridium acetobutylicum. Curr. Microbiol. 33 (1996) 331- ...
Clostridium acetobutylicum); NP_460338 (Salmonella typhimurium LT2); CAE14992 (Photorhabdus luminescens); Viridiplantae. XP_ ...
Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824, complete genome. Predicted hydrolase of PHP superfamily. 2e-14. 79.7. ... Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824, complete genome. PHP superfamily hydrolase, YABD ortholog. 1e-53. 209. ... Clostridium acetobutylicum EA 2018 chromosome, complete genome. PHP superfamily hydrolase. 1e-53. 209. ... Clostridium cellulolyticum H10, complete genome. hydrolase, TatD family. 3e-54. 211. NC_003030:3112931:3126129. 3126129. ...
Once set loose on almost any substratum, Clostridium acetobutylicum will produce significant amounts of butanol. Anything used ... The key is a bacterial strain called Clostridium acetobutylicum, also named the Weizmann organism for pioneering biological ... In 2011, scientists at Tulane University announced they had discovered a new strain of Clostridium that can convert almost any ...
Senger RS, Papoutsakis ET: Genome-scale model for Clostridium acetobutylicum: Part I. Metabolic network resolution and analysis ...
Gottwald M, Gottschalk G: The internal pH of Clostridium acetobutylicum and its effect on the shift from acid to solvent ... Bahl H, Müller H, Behrens S, Joseph H, Narberhaus F: Expression of heat shock genes in Clostridium acetobutylicum . FEMS ... Bowles LK, Ellefson WL: Effects of butanol on Clostridium acetobutylicum . Appl Environ Microbiol 1985, 50:1165-1170. ... Zeng AP, Ross A, Biebl H, Tag C, Günzel B, Deckwer WD: Multiple product inhibition and growth modeling of Clostridium butyricum ...
... the effect of potassium ions and increasing concentrations of glucose and xylose on the growth of a strain of Clostridium ... Obrien RW, Morris JG (1971) Oxygen and growth and metabolism of Clostridium-acetobutylicum. J Gen Microbiol 68:307 ... Effect of in situ acids removal on mixed glucose and xylose fermentation by Clostridium tyrobutyricum *George Nabin Baroi1, ... Clostridium tyrobutyricum has been extensively studied and it is characterized by high yields and selectivity for butyric acid ...
Enhanced organic acid production using Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 4259 with improved process economics (poster). ... Optimization of conditions for complete substrate utilization by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 4259 (oral). Bioprocessing ... Hiral S, Abhishek M, Aruna GA, Annamma AO and Arvind Lali November, 2017 Enhanced acidogenesis by degenerated Clostridium sp. ... Hiral S, Abhishek M, Aruna GA, Annamma AO and Arvind Lali November, 2012 Fermentative butyric acid production by Clostridium ...
Furthermore some that can be obtained by genetic modifications as for example Clostridium acetobutylicum [120]. From all these ... González-Pajuelo M, Andrade J C, Vasconcelos I Production of 1,3-propanediol by Clostridium butyricum VPI 3266 using a ... The product concentration and productivity of 1,3-propanediol by Clostridium Butyricum was far below the optimum performance on ... Himmi E, Bories A, Barbirato F, Nutrient requirements for glycerol conversion to 1,3propanediol by Clostridium butyricum. ...
Bermejo LL, Welker NE, Papoutsakis ET (1998). Expression of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 genes in Escherichia coli for ...
... fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824, with riboflavin as a by-product. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 114(12 ... A quantitative metabolomics study of high sodium response in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) ...
Species Clostridium acetobutylicum [TaxId:1488] [118280] (1 PDB entry). Uniprot Q97F65. *. Species Human (Homo sapiens) [TaxId: ...
... gineering for biobutanol production by Clostridium acetobutyli- cum. Biotechnol. Adv. 35, 310-322. ...
A variety of prokaryotic proteins: ibpA and ibpB from Escherichia coli, hsp18 from Clostridium acetobutylicum, spore protein ...
  • Clostridium acetobutylicum, ATCC 824, is a commercially valuable bacterium sometimes called the "Weizmann Organism", after Jewish Russian-born biochemist Chaim Weizmann. (wikipedia.org)
  • ATCC reference organism 824 C.Acetobutylicum. (wikipedia.org)
  • A dynamic metabolic flux analysis of ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824, with riboflavin as a by-product. (polymtl.ca)
  • A quantitative metabolomics study of high sodium response in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. (polymtl.ca)
  • Unlike yeast, which can digest only some sugars into alcohol and carbon dioxide, C. acetobutylicum and other Clostridia can digest whey, sugar, starch, cellulose and perhaps certain types of lignin, yielding n-butanol, propionic acid, ether, and glycerin. (wikipedia.org)
  • ABE Acetone Butanol Clostridium beijerinckii Ethanol M. Goho, Alexandra (2008-01-16). (wikipedia.org)
  • Once set loose on almost any substratum, Clostridium acetobutylicum will produce significant amounts of butanol. (fuelfreedom.org)
  • In 2011, scientists at Tulane University announced they had discovered a new strain of Clostridium that can convert almost any form of cellulose into butanol and is the only known bacterium that can do it in the presence of oxygen. (fuelfreedom.org)
  • The key is a bacterial strain called Clostridium acetobutylicum, also named the Weizmann organism for pioneering biological researcher Chaim Weizmann, who first used it to produce acetone from starch in 1916. (fuelfreedom.org)
  • The process involves an odd little bacterium called Clostridium acetobutylicum, which once upon a time was used to manufacture cordite, an explosive propellant for artillery shells and bullets. (cleantechnica.com)
  • Clostridium botulinum Ba4 str. (up.ac.za)
  • In the present study, the effect of potassium ions and increasing concentrations of glucose and xylose on the growth of a strain of Clostridium tyrobutyricum , adapted to wheat straw hydrolysate, was investigated. (springeropen.com)
  • Clostridium tyrobutyricum has been extensively studied and it is characterized by high yields and selectivity for butyric acid with concurrent production of mainly acetic acid and hydrogen. (springeropen.com)
  • the genes were derived from Clostridium acetobutylicum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Required Gene Set for Autotrophic Growth of Clostridium autoethanogenum . (bvsalud.org)
  • EPA Clostridium acetobutylicum Final Risk Assessment Genetic Engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum for Enhanced Production of Hydrogen Gas: Penn State University. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complexes of CdS nanorods and [FeFe] hydrogenase I from Clostridium acetobutylicum have been shown to photochemically produce H 2 . (nrel.gov)
  • We designed 8 mutations in attempts to interfere with intramolecular diffusion by remodeling this putative route in Clostridium acetobutylicum FeFe hydrogenase, and we observed that none of them has a strong effect on any of the enzyme's kinetic properties. (inrae.fr)
  • Clostridium beijerinckii Donker emend. (atcc.org)
  • Clostridium beijerinckii strain SA-1 is an anaerobic bacterium that was derived from an existing strain. (atcc.org)
  • Especie tipo del género CLOSTRIDIUM, bacteria grampositiva de la familia Clostridiaceae. (bvsalud.org)
  • Type species of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM, a gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. (bvsalud.org)
  • We fused C. thermocellum with C. acetobutylicum and produced and evaluated over 600 chimeras for their potential antibacterial effects. (emerging-researchers.org)
  • BB can be synthesized by using a single Clostridium strain natively producing butanol or butyrate, with exogenously supplemented butyrate or butanol, in the presence of lipase. (springeropen.com)
  • Anaerobic culture on blood agar from surgical swab, which grew a film or swarm of Clostridium septicum within 24 hours. (idimages.org)
  • The method involves fusing protoplasts of two or more closely related species of anaerobic Clostridia that, after fusion, develop stable genetically recombinant chimeras. (emerging-researchers.org)
  • Organisms: Clostridium acetobutylicum (possessing the fastest and highest yielding hexose fermentation pathway to H2 of any microbe yet reported), and a thermophilic cyanobacterium utilizing a nitrogenase-dependent pathway to H2. (rutgers.edu)
  • Gram stain of Clostridium septicum , from culture growth of soft tissue infection. (idimages.org)
  • Clostridium septicum , from culture growth of soft tissue infection. (idimages.org)