Clostridium acetobutylicum: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, used for the industrial production of SOLVENTS.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Butanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).Acetone: A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.Clostridium difficile: A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.Phosphate Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of acetylphosphate from acetyl-CoA and inorganic phosphate. Acetylphosphate serves as a high-energy phosphate compound. EC 2.3.1.8.1-Butanol: A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.Coenzyme A-Transferases: Enzymes which transfer coenzyme A moieties from acyl- or acetyl-CoA to various carboxylic acceptors forming a thiol ester. Enzymes in this group are instrumental in ketone body metabolism and utilization of acetoacetate in mitochondria. EC 2.8.3.Clostridium beijerinckii: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, capable of solventogenesis, and isolated from SOIL, infected WOUNDS, fermenting OLIVES, and spoiled CANDY.Clostridium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Phosphotransferases (Carboxyl Group Acceptor): A class of enzymes that transfers phosphate groups and has a carboxyl group as an acceptor. EC 2.7.2.Rubredoxins: A class of iron-sulfur proteins that contains one iron coordinated to the sulfur atom of four cysteine residues. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Clostridium botulinum: A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.Clostridium butyricum: Type species of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM, a gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is used as a source of PROBIOTICS.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cellulase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.Hemerythrin: A non-heme iron protein consisting of eight apparently identical subunits each containing 2 iron atoms. It binds one molecule of oxygen per pair of iron atoms and functions as a respiratory protein.Hydrogenase: An enzyme found in bacteria. It catalyzes the reduction of FERREDOXIN and other substances in the presence of molecular hydrogen and is involved in the electron transport of bacterial photosynthesis.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Acetate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of acetate in the presence of a divalent cation and ATP with the formation of acetylphosphate and ADP. It is important in the glycolysis process. EC 2.7.2.1.Cellulosomes: Extracellular structures found in a variety of microorganisms. They contain CELLULASES and play an important role in the digestion of CELLULOSE.XyloseAcetoin: A product of fermentation. It is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. In mammals it is oxidized to carbon dioxide.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Butyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous: An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Gene Knockout Techniques: Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.Aldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.Butyric Acid: A four carbon acid, CH3CH2CH2COOH, with an unpleasant odor that occurs in butter and animal fat as the glycerol ester.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Acetyl-CoA C-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Clostridium thermocellum: A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.Clostridium cellulolyticum: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is a cellulolytic, mesophilic species isolated from decayed GRASS.Carboxy-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 4.1.1.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.RNA, Antisense: RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.Clostridium tetani: The cause of TETANUS in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Botulinum Toxins: Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Clostridium sordellii: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, found in INTESTINES and SOIL.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.

Intracellular butyryl phosphate and acetyl phosphate concentrations in Clostridium acetobutylicum and their implications for solvent formation. (1/98)

It has been suggested (L. H. Harris, R. P. Desai, N. E. Welker, and E. T. Papoutsakis, Biotechnol. Bioeng. 67:1-11, 2000) that butyryl phosphate (BuP) is a regulator of solventogenesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum. Here, we determined BuP and acetyl phosphate (AcP) levels in fermentations of C. acetobutylicum wild type (WT), degenerate strain M5, a butyrate kinase (buk) mutant, and a phosphotransacetylase (pta) mutant. A sensitive method was developed to measure BuP and AcP in the same sample. Compared to the WT, the buk mutant had higher levels of BuP and AcP; the BuP levels were high during the early exponential phase, and there was a peak corresponding to solvent production. Consistent with this, solvent formation was initiated significantly earlier and was much stronger in the buk mutant than in all other strains. For all strains, initiation of butanol formation corresponded to a BuP peak concentration that was more than 60 to 70 pmol/g (dry weight), and higher and sustained levels corresponded to higher butanol formation fluxes. The BuP levels never exceeded 40 to 50 pmol/g (dry weight) in strain M5, which produces no solvents. The BuP profiles were bimodal, and there was a second peak midway through solventogenesis that corresponded to carboxylic acid reutilization. AcP showed a delayed single peak during late solventogenesis corresponding to acetate reutilization. As expected, in the pta mutant the AcP levels were very low, yet this strain exhibited strong butanol production. These data suggest that BuP is a regulatory molecule that may act as a phosphodonor of transcriptional factors. DNA array-based transcriptional analysis of the buk and M5 mutants demonstrated that high BuP levels corresponded to downregulation of flagellar genes and upregulation of solvent formation and stress genes.  (+info)

SpoIIE regulates sporulation but does not directly affect solventogenesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. (2/98)

Using gene expression reporter vectors, we examined the activity of the spoIIE promoter in wild-type and spo0A-deleted strains of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. In wild-type cells, the spoIIE promoter is active in a transient manner during late solventogenesis, but in strain SKO1, where the sporulation initiator spo0A is disrupted, no spoIIE promoter activity is detectable at any stage of growth. Strains 824(pMSpo) and 824(pASspo) were created to overexpress spoIIE and to decrease spoIIE expression via antisense RNA targeted against spoIIE, respectively. Some cultures of strains 824(pMSpo) degenerated during fermentations by losing the pSOL1 megaplasmid and hence did not produce the solvents ethanol, acetone, and butanol. The frequent degeneration event was shown to require an intact copy of spoIIE. Nondegenerate cultures of 824(pMSpo) exhibited normal growth and solvent production. Strain 824(pASspo) exhibited prolonged solventogenesis characterized by increased production of ethanol (225%), acetone (43%), and butanol (110%). Sporulation in strains harboring pASspo was significantly delayed, with sporulating cells exhibiting altered morphology. These results suggest that SpoIIE has no direct effect on the control of solventogenesis and that the changes in solvent production in spoIIE-downregulated cells are mediated by effects on the cell during sporulation.  (+info)

Heterologous production, assembly, and secretion of a minicellulosome by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. (3/98)

The gene man5K encoding the mannanase Man5K from Clostridium cellulolyticum was cloned alone or as an operon with the gene cipC1 encoding a truncated scaffoldin (miniCipC1) of the same origin in the solventogenic Clostridium acetobutylicum. The expression of the heterologous gene(s) was under the control of a weakened thiolase promoter Pthl. The recombinant strains of the solventogenic bacterium were both found to secrete active Man5K in the range of milligrams per liter. In the case of the strain expressing only man5K, a large fraction of the recombinant enzyme was truncated and lost the N-terminal dockerin domain, but it remained active towards galactomannan. When man5K was coexpressed with cipC1 in C. acetobutylicum, the recombinant strain secreted almost exclusively full-length mannanase, which bound to the scaffoldin miniCipC1, thus showing that complexation to the scaffoldin stabilized the enzyme. The secreted heterologous complex was found to be functional: it binds to crystalline cellulose via the carbohydrate binding module of the miniscaffoldin, and the complexed mannanase is active towards galactomannan. Taken together, these data show that C. acetobutylicum is a suitable host for the production, assembly, and secretion of heterologous minicellulosomes.  (+info)

Expression of abrB310 and SinR, and effects of decreased abrB310 expression on the transition from acidogenesis to solventogenesis, in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. (4/98)

The transcription factors sinR and abrB are involved in the control of sporulation initiation in Bacillus subtilis. We identified a single homologue to sinR and three highly similar homologues to abrB, designated abrB310, abrB1941, and abrB3647, in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Using reporter vectors, we showed that the promoters of abrB1941 and abrB3647 were not active under the growth conditions tested. The abrB310 promoter was strongly active throughout growth and exhibited a transient elevation of expression at the onset of solventogenesis. Primer extension assays showed that two transcripts of abrB310 and a single, extremely weak transcript for sinR are expressed. Potential -35 and -10 consensus motifs are readily identifiable surrounding the transcription start sites of abrB310 and sinR, with a single putative 0A box present within the promoter of abrB310. In strains of C. acetobutylicum transformed with plasmids to elevate sinR expression or decrease sinR expression, no significant differences in growth or in acid or solvent production were observed compared to the control strains. In C. acetobutylicum strain 824(pAS310), which expressed an antisense RNA construct targeted against abrB310, the acids acetate and butyrate accumulated to approximately twice the normal concentration. This accumulation corresponded to a delay and decrease in acetone and butanol production. It was also found that sporulation in strain 824(pAS310) was delayed but that the morphology of sporulating cells and spores was normal. Based upon these observations, we propose that abrB310 may act as a regulator at the transition between acidogenic and solventogenic growth.  (+info)

Homologous and heterologous overexpression in Clostridium acetobutylicum and characterization of purified clostridial and algal Fe-only hydrogenases with high specific activities. (5/98)

Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was selected for the homologous overexpression of its Fe-only hydrogenase and for the heterologous expressions of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Scenedesmus obliquus HydA1 Fe-only hydrogenases. The three Strep tag II-tagged Fe-only hydrogenases were isolated with high specific activities by two-step column chromatography. The purified algal hydrogenases evolve hydrogen with rates of around 700 micromol H(2) min(-1) mg(-1), while HydA from C. acetobutylicum (HydA(Ca)) shows the highest activity (5,522 micromol H(2) min(-1) mg(-1)) in the direction of hydrogen uptake. Further, kinetic parameters and substrate specificity were reported. An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis of the thionin-oxidized HydA(Ca) protein indicates a characteristic rhombic EPR signal that is typical for the oxidized H cluster of Fe-only hydrogenases.  (+info)

Genomic analysis of the protein secretion systems in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. (6/98)

Consistent information about protein secretion in Gram-positive bacteria is essentially restricted to the model organism Bacillus subtilis. Among genome-sequenced clostridia, Clostridium acetobutylicum has been the most extensively studied from a physiological point of view and is the organism for which the largest variety of molecular biology tools have been developed. Following in silico analyses, both secreted proteins and protein secretion systems were identified. The Tat (Twin arginine translocation; TC #2.A.64) pathway and ABC (ATP binding cassette) protein exporters (TC #3.A.1.) could not be identified, but the Sec (secretion) pathway (TC #3.A.5) appears to be used prevalently. Similarly, a flagella export apparatus (FEA; TC #3.A.6.), holins (TC #1.E.), and an ESAT-6/WXG100 (early secreted antigen target of 6 kDa/proteins with a WXG motif of approximately 100 residues) secretion system were identified. Here, we report for the first time the identification of a fimbrilin protein exporter (FPE; TC #3.A.14) and a Tad (tight adherence) export apparatus in C. acetobutylicum. This investigation highlights the potential use of this saprophytic bacterium in biotechnological and biomedical applications as well as a model organism for studying protein secretion in pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria.  (+info)

Diffusion, mixing, and associated dye effects in DNA-microarray hybridizations. (7/98)

Typical DNA microarrays utilize diffusion of dye-labeled cDNA probes followed by sequence-specific hybridization to immobilized targets. Here we experimentally estimated the distance typical probes travel during static 16-h hybridizations. Probes labeled with Cy3 and Cy5 were individually introduced to opposite sides of a microarray with minimal convective mixing. Oppositely labeled probes diffused across the initial front separating the two solutions, generating a zone with both dyes present. Diffusion-distance estimates for Cy3- and Cy5-labeled cDNAs were 3.8 mm and 2.6 mm, respectively, despite having almost identical molecular masses. In separate 16-h hybridization experiments with oppositely labeled probes premixed, arrays that were continuously mixed had 15-20% higher signal intensities than arrays hybridized statically. However, no change was observed in the Cy3/Cy5 signal intensity ratio between continuously mixed and static hybridizations. This suggests that the observed dye bias in diffusion-distance estimates results from differences in the detection limits of Cy3 and Cy5-labeled cDNA, a potential concern for array data on low-abundance transcripts. Our conservative diffusion-distance estimates indicate that replicate targets >7.6 mm apart will not compete for scarce probes. Also, raising the microarray gap height would delay the onset of diffusion-limited hybridization by increasing the amount of available probe.  (+info)

Transcriptional program of early sporulation and stationary-phase events in Clostridium acetobutylicum. (8/98)

DNA microarray analysis of Clostridium acetobutylicum was used to examine the genomic-scale gene expression changes during the shift from exponential-phase growth and acidogenesis to stationary phase and solventogenesis. Self-organizing maps were used to identify novel expression patterns of functional gene classes, including aromatic and branched-chain amino acid synthesis, ribosomal proteins, cobalt and iron transporters, cobalamin biosynthesis, and lipid biosynthesis. The majority of pSOL1 megaplasmid genes (in addition to the solventogenic genes aad-ctfA-ctfB and adc) had increased expression at the onset of solventogenesis, suggesting that other megaplasmid genes may play a role in stationary-phase phenomena. Analysis of sporulation genes and comparison with published Bacillus subtilis results indicated conserved expression patterns of early sporulation genes, including spo0A, the sigF operon, and putative canonical genes of the sigma(H) and sigma(F) regulons. However, sigE expression could not be detected within 7.5 h of initial spo0A expression, consistent with the observed extended time between the appearance of clostridial forms and endospore formation. The results were compared with microarray comparisons of the wild-type strain and the nonsolventogenic, asporogenous M5 strain, which lacks the pSOL1 megaplasmid. While some results were similar, the expression of primary metabolism genes and heat shock proteins was higher in M5, suggesting a difference in metabolic regulation or a butyrate stress response in M5. The results of this microarray platform and analysis were further validated by comparing gene expression patterns to previously published Northern analyses, reporter assays, and two-dimensional protein electrophoresis data of metabolic genes (including all major solventogenesis genes), sporulation genes, heat shock proteins, and other solventogenesis-induced gene expression.  (+info)

*Clostridium acetobutylicum

EPA Clostridium acetobutylicum Final Risk Assessment Genetic Engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum for Enhanced Production ... Pathema-Clostridium Resource Chaim Weizmann Type strain of Clostridium acetobutylicum at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... One of the crucial enzymes - a fatty acyl-CoA reductase - came from Clostridium acetobutylicum. ABE Acetone Butanol Clostridium ... Zappe H, Jones WA, Jones DT, Woods DR (May 1988). "Structure of an endo-beta-1,4-glucanase gene from Clostridium acetobutylicum ...

*Clostridium beijerinckii

Clostridium acetobutylicum Butanol A.B.E. process Clostridium beijerinckii information from JGI bacterio.net, list of ... "Physical map of the Clostridium beijerinckii (formerly Clostridium acetobutylicum) NCIMB 8052 chromosome". American Society for ... Formerly Clostridium acetobutylicum. Industrially interesting for its ability to produce butanol, acetone and/or isopropanol at ... Clostridium beijerinckii is a gram positive, rod shaped, motile bacterium of the genus Clostridium. It has been isolated from ...

*Butyrate kinase

Hartmanis MG (1987). "Butyrate kinase from Clostridium acetobutylicum". J. Biol. Chem. 262 (2): 617-21. PMID 3027059. Twarog R ... Wiesenborn, DP; Rudolph, FB; Papoutsakis, ET (February 1989). "Phosphotransbutyrylase from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 ... "Sequence and arrangement of two genes of the butyrate-synthesis pathway of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824". Gene. 134 (1 ... "The central metabolic pathway from acetyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA in Clostridium acetobutylicum". FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 17 (3 ...

*Glucan 1,4-a-glucosidase

"The maltase of Clostridium acetobutylicum". J. Biol. Chem. 187: 463-471. PMID 14803428. Illingworth Brown, B.; Brown, D.H. ( ...

*Alcohol dehydrogenase

Walter KA, Bennett GN, Papoutsakis ET (Nov 1992). "Molecular characterization of two Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 ... Clostridium acetobutylicum NADPH- and NADH-dependent butanol dehydrogenases EC 1.1.1.- (genes adh1, bdhA and bdhB), enzymes ... Bacterial glycerol dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.6 (gene gldA or dhaD). Clostridium kluyveri NAD-dependent 4-hydroxybutyrate ...

*Rubredoxin-NAD(+) reductase

"Isolation and properties of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotiderubredoxin oxidoreductase of Clostridium acetobutylicum". ...

*Richard W. Traxler

A coupled two-stage continuous fermentation for solvent production by Clostridium acetobutylicum. Enzyme and Microbial ...

*List of sequenced bacterial genomes

2001). "Genome sequence and comparative analysis of the solvent-producing bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum". J Bacteriol. ... 2003). "The genome sequence of Clostridium tetani, the causative agent of tetanus disease". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100 ( ... 2002). "Complete genome sequence of Clostridium perfringens, an anaerobic flesh-eater". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (2): ...

*Butanol fuel

The process uses the bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum, also known as the Weizmann organism, or Clostridium beijerinckii. It ... Anaerobic bacteria such as Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium saccharobutylicum also contain these pathways. Succinate ... The anaerobic bacteria C. pasteurianum, C. acetobutylicum, and other Clostridium species have metabolic pathways that convert ... The university's researchers have stated that the source of the "TU-103" Clostridium bacteria strain was most likely from the ...

*Butanol

Prior to the 1950s, Clostridium acetobutylicum was used in industrial fermentation to produce butanol. Research in the past few ...

*Butanal dehydrogenase

"Purification and properties of the inducible coenzyme A-linked butyraldehyde dehydrogenase from Clostridium acetobutylicum". J ...

*Immobilized enzyme

"Immobilization of Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 792 as macroporous aggregates through cryogelation for butanol production". ...

*Cordite

He used the bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum (the so-called Weizmann organism) to produce acetone. Weizmann transferred the ...

*Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum

"Emended descriptions of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium beijerinckii, and descriptions of Clostridium ... Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum ... Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum is an indole and notably butanol-producing bacteria, with type strain N1-4 (HMT) (= ATCC ... and Clostridium saccharobutylicum sp. nov". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 51 (6): 2095- ...

*Metabolism

"Metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum for the industrial production of 1,3-propanediol from glycerol". Metab Eng ...

*Acetoacetate decarboxylase

... from Clostridium acetobutylicum catalyzes the decarboxylation of acetoacetate to yield acetone and ... In 1916, biochemist and future first president of Israel Chaim Weizmann was the first to isolate Clostridium acetobutylicum, a ... Acetoacetate decarboxylase has been found and studied in the following bacteria in addition to Clostridium acetobutylicum: ... In 2009, a crystal structure of acetoacetate decarboxylase from Clostridium acetobutylicum was solved, allowing Westheimer et ...

*Two-component regulatory system

Treuner-Lange A, Kuhn A, Dürre P (Jul 1997). "The kdp system of Clostridium acetobutylicum: cloning, sequencing, and ... coli and Clostridium acetobutylicum. The N-terminal domain of this protein forms part of the cytoplasmic region of the protein ...

*Riboswitch

October 2008). "S-box and T-box riboswitches and antisense RNA control a sulfur metabolic operon of Clostridium acetobutylicum ... end processing A riboswitch in Clostridium acetobutylicum regulates an adjacent gene that is not part of the same mRNA ...

*Acetate kinase

"Cloning and sequence analysis of the genes encoding phosphotransbutyrylase and butyrate kinase from Clostridium acetobutylicum ...

*Edward A. Bayer

... for biofuels production of a functional cell wall anchored minicellulosome by recombinant Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. ... 156, 828-36 (1983). Bayer, E. A., Kenig, R. & Lamed, R. Adherence of Clostridium thermocellum to cellulose. J. Bacteriol. 156, ... cellulase-containing complex in Clostridium thermocellum. J. Bacteriol. ...

*Glycoside hydrolase family 25

Croux C, Garcia JL (1991). "Sequence of the lyc gene encoding the autolytic lysozyme of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC824: ...

*Methylglyoxal synthase

Huang, K; Rudolph, F. B.; Bennett, G. N. (1999). "Characterization of methylglyoxal synthase from Clostridium acetobutylicum ...

*Clostridium saccharobutylicum

"Emended descriptions of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium beijerinckii, and descriptions of Clostridium ... Clostridium saccharobutylicum at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Clostridium saccharobutylicum at BacDive - the ... Keis S, Sullivan JT, Jones DT (2001). "Physical and genetic map of the Clostridium saccharobutylicum (formerly Clostridium ... Clostridium saccharobutylicum is an indole and notably acetone, butanol and ethanol-producing bactera, with type strain DSM ...

*Liquid fuel

It is typically a product of the fermentation of biomass by the bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum (also known as the ...

*Solar fuel

One example is the production of 1-butanol in Synechococcus elongatus using enzymes from Clostridium acetobutylicum, ...

*Alcohol fuel

Clostridium acetobutylicum) currently used to perform these conversions produces an extremely unpleasant smell, and this must ...
Thiolase of Clostridium acetobutylicum is an important enzyme involved in both, acid and solvent fermentation. Two thiolase genes (thlA and thlB) have been cloned and sequenced from Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 792, showing high homology to each other and to thiolases of PHA-synthesizing bacteria. The thlA gene is identical to the gene already cloned and sequenced from strain ATCC 824 (Stim- Herndon et al., 1995, Gene 154: 81-85). Using primer extension and S1 nuclease analysis a transcriptional start site was identified 102 bp upstream of the thlA start codon. This site was preceded by a region that exhibits high similarity to the s70 consensus promoter sequences of Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Regulation of thlA and thlB was studied at the transcriptional level to elucidate the specific function of each gene. Non-radioactive primer extension analysis using fluorescein-labelled oligonucleotides and Northern blot analysis revealed high levels of thlA transcripts in acid- and ...
Previously we have developed a butanol tolerant mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum Rh8, from the wild type strain DSM 1731. Strain Rh8 can tolerate up to 19 g/L butanol, with solvent titer improved accordingly, thus exhibiting industrial application potential. To test if strain Rh8 can be used for production of high level mixed alcohols, a single secondary alcohol dehydrogenase from Clostridium beijerinckii NRRL B593 was overexpressed in strain Rh8 under the control of thl promoter. The heterogenous gene sADH was functionally expressed in C. acetobutylicum Rh8. This simple, one-step engineering approach switched the traditional ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) fermentation to IBE (isopropanol-butanol-ethanol) fermentation. The total alcohol titer reached 23.88 g/l (7.6 g/l isopropanol, 15 g/l butanol, and 1.28 g/l ethanol) with a yield to glucose of 31.42%. The acid (butyrate and acetate) assimilation rate in isopropanol producing strain Rh8(psADH) was increased. The improved butanol tolerance and the
CRISPR/Cas-based genetic engineering has revolutionised molecular biology in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Several tools dedicated to the genomic transformation of the Clostridium genus of Gram-positive bacteria have been described in the literature; however, the integration of large DNA fragments still remains relatively limited. In this study, a CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing tool using a two-plasmid strategy was developed for the solventogenic strain Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Codon-optimised cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes was placed under the control of an anhydrotetracycline-inducible promoter on one plasmid, while the gRNA expression cassettes and editing templates were located on a second plasmid. Through the sequential introduction of these vectors into the cell, we achieved highly accurate genome modifications, including nucleotide substitution, gene deletion and cassette insertion up to 3.6 kb. To demonstrate its potential, this genome editing tool was used to generate a marker-free
Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 is a commercially valuable bacterium sometimes called the Weizmann Organism after JewishRussianborn Chaim Weizmann
Iron reduction in Gram-positive bacteria is not well understood yet, even if it has been investigated in some extent for Gram-positive bacteria. The mechanisms involved in the delivery of electrons to a solid terminal electron acceptor like iron oxides have not been defined. Clostridium acetobutylicum is an appropriate Gram-positive bacterium to study those mechanisms as genetic tools have been developed due to its industrial interest, allowing easy targeted and random mutagenesis. In this Masters project, phenotype of two mutants, whose dihydroorotate dehydrogenase 1B (pyrD) or ferredoxin hydrogenase (hydA) gene have been knocked out through ClosTron mutagenesis, have been characterized and no phenotype diverging from the wild strain has been detected. However, evidences of flavin presence in the spent growth medium have been observed during experiment. An attempt to measure their redox state, either by direct measurement or through the addition of AQDS, has been done but results are ...
This model represents a small family of proteins homologous (and likely functionally equivalent to) aconitase 1. Members are found, so far in the anaerobe Clostridium acetobutylicum, in the microaerophilic, early-branching bacterium Aquifex aeolicus, and in the halophilic archaeon Halobacterium sp. NRC-1. No member is experimentally characterized ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
1. Meynial-Salles I., Cervin M. A. and Soucaille P. 2005. New tool for metabolic pathway engineering in E. coli : one step method to modulate the expression of chromosomal genes : Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 71, 2140-2144. (impact Factor 2007 4.004 from J C Rt). 2. Girbal L., Von AbendrothG., WinklerM., BentonP. M. C., Meynial-SallesI., Croux C., PetersJ., Happe T. and Soucaille P. 2005. Homologous/heterologous over-expression in Clostridium acetobutylicum and characterization of purified clostridial and algal Fe-only hydrogenases with high specific activity : Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 71, 2777-2781. (impact Factor 2007 4,004 from J C R). 3. Meynial-Salles I., Gonzalez-Pajuelo M., , Mendes P., Andrade J. C., Vasconcelos I. and Soucaille P. 2005. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum for the industrial production of 1.3 propanediol from glycerol : Met. Eng., 7, 329-336. (impact Factor 2007 3.444 from J C R). 4. Gonzalez-Pajuelo M., Meynial-Salles I., Mendes P., Soucaille P. and ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Task---- I ask Dr. Diego Gonzále Halphen if he could give us clhamydomonas reinhardtii. I ask Jovita Martínez, who take care of the strain collection of CINVESTAV-Mexico, if she could give us clostridium acetobutylicum. ...
Numerous significant hits in gapped BLAST to conserved hypothetical sequences; residues 13-374 are 34% similar to (AF036764) unknown [Clostridium acetobutylicum]; and residues 15-392 are 30% similar to YQEV_BACSU ...
Started in 1979 under license of UOP - USA. It designed to produce hexane (Food Grade) which is used for extraction food oil from plant seeds in addition, it produces many types of important petroleum solvent ...
Sales office :. ALPHADYNAMIC PUMPS (UK) Ltd. Rockleigh House, 37 Burton Road. Ashby De La Zouch - Leicestershire. LE65 2LF - United Kingdom (UK). Tel : +44 1213 680 324, +44 1213 680 472. Email: [email protected]. www.alphadynamicpumps.co.uk. Registered in England and Wales.. Registration No.09706219. Vat No. GB 220393343. ...
The effect of butanol challenge (0, 1.0, 1.5% [vol/vol]) and growth temperature (22, 37, 42°C) on the membrane composition and fluidity of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 and a butanol-tolerant mutant, SA-2, was examined in chemically defined medium. Growth of strain ATCC 824 into the stationary phase coincided with a gradual increase in the percent saturated to percent unsaturated (SU) fatty acid ratio. When challenged with butanol at 22 and 37°C, ATCC 824 demonstrated an immediate (within 30 min) dose-response increase in the SU ratio. This strain showed little additional change over a 48-h fermentation. Compared with ATCC 824, growth of SA-2 into the late stationary phase at 22 or 37°C resulted in an overall greater increase in the SU ratio for both unchallenged and challenged cells. This effect was minimized when SA-2 was challenged at 42°C, probably due to the combination of the membrane fluidizing effect of butanol and the elevated temperature. Growth at 42°C resulted in an ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Single-Amino Acid Modifications Reveal Additional Controls on the Proton Pathway of [FeFe]-Hydrogenase. AU - Cornish, Adam J.. AU - Ginovska, Bojana. AU - Thelen, Adam. AU - Da Silva, Julio C S. AU - Soares, Thereza A.. AU - Raugei, Simone. AU - Dupuis, Michel. AU - Shaw, Wendy J.. AU - Hegg, Eric L.. PY - 2016/6/7. Y1 - 2016/6/7. N2 - The proton pathway of [FeFe]-hydrogenase is essential for enzymatic H2 production and oxidation and is composed of four residues and a water molecule. A computational analysis of this pathway in the [FeFe]-hydrogenase from Clostridium pasteurianum revealed that the solvent-exposed residue of the pathway (Glu282) forms hydrogen bonds to two residues outside of the pathway (Arg286 and Ser320), implying that these residues could function in regulating proton transfer. In this study, we show that substituting Arg286 with leucine eliminates hydrogen bonding with Glu282 and results in an ∼3-fold enhancement of H2 production activity when methyl ...
The fermentation processes to produce propanol and butanol from cellulose are fairly tricky to execute, and the Weizmann organism (Clostridium acetobutylicum) currently used to perform these conversions produces an extremely unpleasant smell, and this must be taken into consideration when designing and locating a fermentation plant. This organism also dies when the butanol content of whatever it is fermenting rises to 7%. For comparison, yeast dies when the ethanol content of its feedstock hits 14%. Specialized strains can tolerate even greater ethanol concentrations - so-called turbo yeast can withstand up to 16% ethanol . However, if ordinary Saccharomyces yeast can be modified to improve its ethanol resistance, scientists may yet one day produce a strain of the Weizmann organism with a butanol resistance higher than the natural boundary of 7%. This would be useful because butanol has a higher energy density than ethanol, and because waste fibre left over from sugar crops used to make ethanol ...
Background Many Firmicutes bacteria, including solvent-producing clostridia such as Clostridium acetobutylicum, are able to utilize xylose, an abundant carbon source in nature. Nevertheless, homology...
ADELPHI, Md. (Feb. 5, 2016) -- Military bases located in remote areas may one day be able to efficiently turn food waste into energy thanks to a collaborative research effort between scientists at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory and the University of Texas at Tyler.. The collaboration, made possible by ARLs Open Campus initiative, specifically focuses on the bacterium known as Clostridium acetobutylicum, which has the ability to convert substances found in food waste to commodity chemicals including butanol, which is useful for fuel cells to produce energy.. "Forward operating bases are remote and often hastily constructed without much infrastructure, making waste disposal a significant burden. It is also a significant logistical and financial challenge to transport fuel for vehicles to these FOBs," said Dr. Joshua Banta, assistant biology professor at UT-Tyler who has been working on this project with ARL researchers since 2014. This research project seeks to take that burden and financial ...
Hydrogenases catalyze the formation of hydrogen. The cofactor (H-cluster) of [FeFe]-hydrogenases consists of a [4Fe-4S] cluster bridged to a unique [2Fe] subcluster whose biosynthesis in vivo requires hydrogenase-specific maturases. Here we show that a chemical mimic of the [2Fe] subcluster can reconstitute apo-hydrogenase to full activity, independent of helper proteins. The assembled H-cluster is virtually indistinguishable from the native cofactor. This procedure will be a powerful tool for developing new artificial H-2-producing catalysts.. ...
Ying Zhang, Ines Thiele, Dana Weekes, Zhanwen Li, Lukasz Jaroszewski, Krzysztof Ginalski, Ashley Deacon, John Wooley, Scott Lesley, Ian Wilson, Bernhard Palsson, Andrei Osterman, Adam Godzik. Three-Dimensional Structural View of the Central Metabolic Network of Thermotoga maritima. Science. 2009 Sep 18;325(5947):1544-9.. Alexey M. Eroshkin, Andrew LeBlanc, Dana Weekes, Kai Post, Zhanwen Li, Akhil Rajput, Sal T. Butera, Dennis R. Burton, Adam Godzik. bNAber: database of broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies. Nucl. Acids Res. 2013; published on November 7, 2013.. Grynberg M, Godzik A. NERD: a DNA processing-related domain present in the anthrax virulence plasmid, pXO1. Trends Biochem Sci. 2004 Mar;29(3):106-10 ...
Lui BH, Cochran JR, Swartz, JR. Discovery of improved EGF agonists using a novel in vitro screening platform. J Mol Biol. 2011 Oct 21;413(2):4 06-15. Epub 2011 Aug 23. PMID 21888916 Yang WC, Welsh JP, Lee J, Cooke JP, Swartz JR. Solubility partner IF2 Domain I enables high yield synthesis of transducible transcription factors in Escherichia coli. Protein Expr Purif. 2011 Nov;80(1):145-51. doi: 10.1016/j.pep.2011.06.017. Epub 2011 Jul 2. PMID 21757009 Kuchenreuther JM, George SJ, Grady-Smith CS, Cramer SP, Swartz JR. Cell-free H-cluster synthesis and [FeFe] hydrogenase activation: all five CO and CN⁻ ligands derive from tyrosine. PLoS One (2011);6(5):e20346. Epub 2011 May 31. PMID 21673792 Bingham AS, Smith PR, Swartz JR. Evolution of an [FeFe] hydrogenase with decreased oxygen sensitivity. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy (2011) doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2011.02.048 Smith PR, Bingham AS, Swartz JR. Generation of hydrogen from NADPH using an [FeFe] hydrogenase. International Journal of ...
Search Hyde County real estate property listings to find homes for sale in Hyde County, NC. Browse houses for sale in Hyde County today!
Genetic information processingProtein fateProtein modification and repair[FeFe] hydrogenase H-cluster maturation GTPase HydF (TIGR03918; HMM-score: 17.7) ...
PRO SUPPS HYDE POWER POTION PRO SUPPS HYDE POWER POTION - DETAILS Carnitine. 350mg of Caffeine. BCAA Amino. CoQ10. Teacrine. Power Potion. 0 Calories per Can. 0g Total Carbs per Can. 0g Sugars. 0g Artificial Colors. Infused With Citruline. Powered By ProSupps- The Makers Of Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde.
You wont be hydeing your body away once you try Pro Supps Mr. Hyde Pre Workout! The energy boost you get will let you sustain your intense workouts for longer!
arr2 , pspC , sapA , qacEdelta1 , pspD , pspF , sul1 , aacA4-CR , ampC , sul1 , ISCR1 , blaOXA-1 , ampR , pspA , sapC , catB3 , pspB , ...
Increasing demand for the production of renewable fuels has recently generated a particular interest in microbial production of butanol. Anaerobic bacteria, such as Clostridium spp., can naturally convert carbohydrates into a variety of primary products, including alcohols like butanol. The genetics of microorganisms like Clostridium acetobutylicum have been well studied and their solvent-producing metabolic pathways characterized. In contrast, less is known about the genetics of Clostridium spp. capable of converting syngas or its individual components into solvents. In this study, the type of strain of a new solventogenic Clostridium species, C. carboxidivorans, was genetically characterized by genome sequencing. C. carboxidivorans strain P7T possessed a complete Wood-Ljungdahl pathway gene cluster, involving CO and CO2 fixation and conversion to acetyl-CoA. Moreover, with the exception of an acetone production pathway, all the genetic determinants of canonical ABE metabolic pathways for acetate,
Curated}} {{Biorealm Genus}} [[Image:clostridium.ipg.jpg,thumb,400px,right,Clostridium. Courtesy of [http://www-instruct.nmu.edu/cls/lriipi/micro/ Northern Michigan University.]]] ==Classification== ===Higher order taxa:=== Bacteria; Firmicutes; Clostridia; Clostridiales; Clostridiaceae; Clostridium ===Species:=== Clostridium tetani, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium acetobutylicum, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium novyi {, , height="10" bgcolor="#FFDF95" , NCBI: [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?mode=Undef&id=1485&lvl=3&keep=1&srchmode=1&unlock Taxonomy] [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=genomeprj&cmd=Search&dopt=DocSum&term=txid1485%5BOrganism:exp%5D Genomes] ,} ==Description and Significance== Clostridia are, spore-forming, Gram-positive, anaerobes (although some species are microaerophilic). They are known to produce a variety of toxins, some of which are fatal. ==Genome Structure== Currently there are 3 ...
To increase the butanol titers and selectivity in ,em,Clostridium acetobutylicum,/em, we replaced the promoter of the alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenase (,em,aad,/em,) gene with the phosphotranbutyrylase (,em,ptb,/em,) promoter and combined this with CoAT downregulation to minimize acetone production. This led to early production of high alcohol (butanol plus ethanol) titers and overall solvent ...
Lease Lab created an E. coli genetic system based on DsrA sRNA to test and retarget these sRNAs to different mRNAs, and succeeded in using it to generate semisynthetic re-targeted sRNAs that simultaneously regulate multiple mRNAs using modular stem-loop antisense regulatory motifs.. Synthetic biology applications of this work include the generation of gene knock-downs in industrially relevant but genetically less-tractable microbes such as Clostridium acetobutylicum, and the fine-tuning of gene expression in fermentation cultures ...
Biosynthesis of the Catalytic H-Cluster of [FeFe] Hydrogenase. Abstract. [FeFe] hydrogenase enzymes rapidly evolve H2 at a 6-Fe catalytic site termed the H-cluster, which consists of a traditional [4Fe-4S] cluster linked via a cysteine bridge to a dinuclear Fe subcluster [2Fe]H that possesses unusual biological ligands: two terminal CN- ligands, two terminal CO ligands, and azadithiolate and CO bridges, all of which are thought to be synthesized and installed by a set of Fe-S proteins denoted HydE, HydF, and HydG. With the James Swartz laboratory (Stanford University) we can generate [FeFe] hydrogenase in high yield using cell free synthesis methods, allowing for specific isotope labelling of its components as needed for definitive spectroscopic studies (1).. The radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzyme HydG lyses free L-tyrosine to produce CO and CN- for the assembly of the H-cluster. We use electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to detect and characterize HydG reaction ...
The light-driven splitting of water into its constituting elements gives access to a valuable fuel from an abundant substrate, using sunlight as the only energy source. Synthetic diiron complexes as functional models of the [FeFe] hydrogenase H(2)ase enzyme active site have moved into the centre of focus as potentially viable catalysts for the reductive side of this process, i.e. the reduction of protons to molecular hydrogen. The active site of the enzyme, as well as its mimics in an artificial system, are required to accumulate two electrons from single electron transfer events and to combine them with two protons to form hydrogen. Whereas in biology this reaction is not coupled to photosynthesis and thus proceeds in the dark, additional aspects need to be considered when designing a functional artificial system for the light-driven reduction of protons. Suitable photosensitizers have to be chosen that not only provide sufficient driving force for the reduction of the synthetic diiron ...
A series of pendant amine-containing [FeFe]-hydrogenase models, [X(CH2S-μ)2{Fe(CO)3}{Fe(CO)(P2 PhN2 Bn)}] (1H, X = CH2; 2Me, C(CH3)2; 3Et, C(CH2CH3)2; and P2 PhN2 Bn = 1,5-dibenzyl-3,7-diphenyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane) with different groups at the bridgehead carbon of the S-to-S linker were synthesized. The oxidations of these complexes as well as the reverse reduction reaction were studied by cyclic voltammetry and in situ IR spectroscopy. Regardless of the bridgehead steric bulk, all three complexes demonstrate intramolecular iron-mediated C(sp3)-H bond heterolytic cleavage with the assistance of the pendant amine base within the chelating diphosphine ligand in the two-electron oxidation process. X-ray crystallographic analysis shows that the doubly oxidized products, [1′H]+, [2′Me]+, and [3′Et]+, all have a rigid FeSC three-membered ring at the open apical site of the rotated iron center. The most noticeable difference in structures of the oxidized complexes is that the ...
Gabriel John Utterson and his cousin Richard Enfield reach the door of a large house on their weekly walk. Enfield tells Utterson that months ago he saw a sinister-looking man named Edward Hyde trample a young girl after accidentally bumping into her. Enfield forced Hyde to pay £100 to avoid a scandal. Hyde brought them to this door and provided a cheque signed by a reputable gentleman (later revealed to be Doctor Henry Jekyll, a friend and client of Utterson). Utterson is disturbed because Jekyll recently changed his will to make Hyde the sole beneficiary. Utterson fears that Hyde is blackmailing Jekyll. When Utterson tries to discuss Hyde with Jekyll, Jekyll turns pale and asks that Hyde be left alone. One night in October, a servant sees Hyde beat Sir Danvers Carew to death, another of Uttersons clients. The police contact Utterson, who leads officers to Hydes apartment. Hyde has vanished, but they find half of a broken cane (the other half having been left at the crime scene). Utterson ...
FeFe]-Hydrogenases (H2ases) are metalloenzymes that can catalyze the reversible reduction of protons to molecular hydrogen as part of the metabolism of certain cyanobacteria and green algae. Due to the low availability of the enzyme, synthetic complexes that mimic the natural active site in structure, function and activity are highly sought after. In this thesis, a number of [FeFe]-H2ases active site model complexes were synthesized to answer open questions of the active site and to develop unprecedented bio-inspired proton reduction catalysts.. The first part describes the synthesis and the protonation properties of a [Fe2(μ-adt)(CO)4(PMe3)2] (adt = azadithiolate) complex which contains two basic sites that are similar to those found in the enzyme active site. Unusual kinetic factors give rise to four discrete protonation states. The twofold protonated state is the first model complex that simultaneously carries a proton at the azadithiolate nitrogen and a bridging hydride at the Fe-Fe ...
The study presents a multiscale methodology consisting in a decision support tool. The selection depends on efficiency, profitability and sustainability of the process. In this model, the process structure consists in the pretreatment, the hydrolysis, the fermentation, the separation and the purification. The Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol fermentations methodology is demonstrated in this study. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. ...
... If youre unhappy with your current pre-workout then you need to checkout Pro Supps Hyde Nitro X. Formulated to be the most extreme and effective pre-workout on the market. Pro Supps Hyde Nitro X gives HUGE Pumps! Available in a number of great tasting flavors. Hyde Nitro X Flavors
WHAT IS MR. HYDE™? MR. HYDE is formulated to be the most extreme and effective pre-workout on the market. Loaded with leucine, proprietary stimulant blends and the novel pump agent agmatine sulfate, MR. HYDE will shatter weight-training plateaus. P...
Search condos for sale in Hyde Park, IL to find that perfect real estate property for your primary residence or second home in Hyde Park, IL.
ProSupps, Mr Hyde V2, Mr Hyde, Pre Workout, Energy, No Crash, Massive Gains, Strength, Power, Creatine, Caffeine, Focus, Workouts, Training, Pump, nutrition warehouse, massivejoes.com, optimum nutrition, jason poston, strong pre workout, muscle gain,
The cost for Mold Removal in New Hyde Park, NY is between $2,553 and $2,975. To get a free detailed quote from a New Hyde Park pro click..
Pro Supps is back again with yet another amazing product in their pre-workout line. Hyde V3 brings you explosive energy and focus to help boost you through your entire workout and improve on all areas of strength training.
Enjoy a day out at the Beautiful RHS Garden Hyde Hall in Chelmsford, Essex. Join in the fun with all year round events. Free to RHS Members.
Metagenomic and PCR-based diversity surveys of [FeFe]-hydrogenases combined with isolation of alkaliphilic hydrogen-producing bacteria from the serpentinite-hosted Prony hydrothermal field, New Caledonia ...
Metagenomic and PCR-based diversity surveys of [FeFe]-hydrogenases combined with isolation of alkaliphilic hydrogen-producing bacteria from the serpentinite-hosted Prony hydrothermal field, New Caledonia ...
OptKnock algorithm was used as part of a study in RobOKoD: microbial strain design for (over)production of target compounds. (http://fairdomhub.org/publications/236). It was used to generate a strain of e.coli for producing butanol, that was then compared to an experimental strain. ...
Background The hydrogenosomes of the anaerobic ciliate Nyctotherus ovalisshow how mitochondria can evolve into hydrogenosomes because they possess a mitochondrial genome and parts of an...
Even so, proportion of spending over sales in South Side neighborhoods is striking. Between 25 to 50% of all dollars spent by Hyde Parkers go outside the neighborhood. And theyre not going to Woodlawn or Oakland. In the ring of community areas around Hyde Park, the proportion of spending to sales is even higher -- 75% or more of local dollars go outside the community. And these shoppers arent spending their dollars in Hyde Park, either. There are a handful of neighborhoods that appear to be in equilibrium, but almost none of them are on the South Side ...
In Trickster Makes This World, Lewis Hyde brings to life the playful and disruptive side of human imagination as it is embodied in trickster mythology. He fi...
Read feedback received for GutterArt, working as Cleaning Services, Roofer in Tameside,Mossley,Glossop,Marple,Stockport,Manchester,Altrincham,Wilmslow,Sale,Oldham,HighPeak,GtrMcr
Learn more about 3-3-dimethyl-2-butanol. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process excellence and our people make it happen.
Authors: Pornsuriya, Chaninun; Soytong, Kasem; Poeaim, Supattar; Kanokmedhakul, Somdej; Khumkomkhet, Primmala; Lin, Fu-Cheng; Wang, Hong Kai; Hyde, Kevin David ...
ASANKA R. BANDARA, SAMANTHA C. KARUNARATHNA, ALAN J.L. PHILLIPS, PETER E. MORTIMER, JIANCHU XU, PATTANA KAKUMYAN, KEVIN D. HYDE ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pervaporative separation and intensification of downstream recovery of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE). AU - van Wyk, S.. AU - van der Ham, A.G.J.. AU - Kersten, S.R.A.. N1 - Elsevier deal. PY - 2018/8/1. Y1 - 2018/8/1. N2 - The feasibility of pervaporative concentration of organic compounds from an ABE mixture to reduce the energy consumption of a downstream recovery unit was investigated. Firstly, an experimental investigation was done, using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane and a model solution of ABE as the feed. Different operating temperatures where investigated, with 40 °C showing the most favourable results. Secondly, the experimental results were utilised as the input for process simulations using Aspen Plus. Two ABE separation schemes were studied, one consisting of only distillation (conventional process) and one with an upstream pervaporation unit followed by an alternative distillation scheme. For the proposed pervaporative scheme, the butanol concentration ...
In this paper, the stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for the cell growth of C. acetobutylicum P262 and Luedeking-Piret equations for solvent production in batch fermentation system is introduced. The parameters values of the mathematical models are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic models numerically. The efficiency of mathematical models is measured by comparing the simulated result and the experimental data of the microbial growth and solvent production in batch system. Low values of Root Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of stochastic models with aftereffect indicate good fits.. ...
Recently, lignocellulosic biomass as the most abundant renewable resource has been widely considered for bioalcohols production. However, the complex structure of lignocelluloses requires a multi-step process which is costly and time consuming. Although, several bioprocessing approaches have been developed for pretreatment, saccharification and fermentation, bioalcohols production from lignocelluloses is still limited because of the economic infeasibility of these technologies. This cost constraint could be overcome by designing and constructing robust cellulolytic and bioalcohols producing microbes and by using them in a consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) system. This paper comprehensively reviews potentials, recent advances and challenges faced in CBP systems for efficient bioalcohols (ethanol and butanol) production from lignocellulosic and starchy biomass. The CBP strategies include using native single strains with cellulytic and alcohol production activities, microbial co-cultures containing both
Growth is a fundamental process of life. Growth requirements are well-characterized experimentally for many microbes; however, we lack a unified model for cellular growth. Such a model must be predictive of events at the molecular scale and capable of explaining the high-level behavior of the cell as a whole. Here, we construct an ME-Model for Escherichia coli-a genome-scale model that seamlessly integrates metabolic and gene product expression pathways. The model computes ∼80% of the functional proteome (by mass), which is used by the cell to support growth under a given condition. Metabolism and gene expression are interdependent processes that affect and constrain each other. We formalize these constraints and apply the principle of growth optimization to enable the accurate prediction of multi-scale phenotypes, ranging from coarse-grained (growth rate, nutrient uptake, by-product secretion) to fine-grained (metabolic fluxes, gene expression levels). Our results unify many existing ...
Peptides Series /Semi-finished Steroid liquids/ Testosterone Raw Powders/ Boldenone Series/ DHEA Series /Drostanolone Series/ Methenolone Series /Nandrolone Series /Oral Steroids /Trenbolone Series/ Sex Enhancement/ Steroid Intermediate /SARMS Series /Pharmaceutical Raw Materials /Safe Organic Solvents /Production Equirement. All the products produced by CHEMBJ TEAM /[email protected] ...
Peptides Series /Semi-finished Steroid liquids/ Testosterone Raw Powders/ Boldenone Series/ DHEA Series /Drostanolone Series/ Methenolone Series /Nandrolone Series /Oral Steroids /Trenbolone Series/ Sex Enhancement/ Steroid Intermediate /SARMS Series /Pharmaceutical Raw Materials /Safe Organic Solvents /Production Equirement. All the products produced by CHEMBJ TEAM /[email protected] ...
95. C. Lambertz, N. Leidel, K. Havelius, P. Chernev, J. Noth, M. Winkler, T. Happe, M. Haumann, O2 reactions at the six-iron active site (H-cluster) of [FeFe]-hydrogenase. J. Biol. Chem. 286, 40614-40623 (2011). 94. N. Planas, L. Vigara, C. Cady, P. Miro, P. Huang, L. Hammarström, S. Styring, N. Leidel, H. Dau, M. Haumann, L. Gagliardi, C. J. Cramer, A. Llobet, Electronic structure of oxidized complexes derived from cis-[RuII(bpy)2(H2O)2]2+ and its photoisomerization mechanism. Inorg. Chem. 50, 11134-11142 (2011). 93. P. P. Samuel, A. Döring, S. Horn, K. Havelius, S. Reschke, L. Leimkühler, M. Haumann, C. Schulzke, A crystallographic and Mo K-edge XAS study of molybdenum-oxo bis-, mono-, and non-dithiolene complexes: first-sphere coordination and non-innocence of ligands. Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 28, 4387-4399 (2011). 92. J. Fritsch, S. Löscher, O. Sanganas, E. Siebert, I. Zebger, M. Ludwig, M. Stein, A. De Lacey, H. Dau, B. Friedrich, O. Lenz, M. Haumann, NiFe and FeS cofactors in ...
Detection of NHE1-induced proton fluxes by oscillating an extracellular pH microelectrode. (A) The cell is held in whole cell configuration with its edge 5 μm
Another question is that since we know endospore formation in a bacteria is triggered by a not-so-good environment, wont a fresh culture means a good nutritional environment hence absence of spores? ...
Hyde Park is one of Chicagos most famous neighborhoods, most certainly so on the South Side, located along the south lakefront. Having played host to the White City, the University of Chicago, President Obama, the setting for Richard Wrights Native Son, and a host of eccentric residents from Saul Bellow to Clarence Darrow to Muhammad Ali, this part of town has more than its fair share of Chicago history.
Bruce Hyde who played Enterprise crew member Lt. Kevin Riley on the original Star Trek TV series has died after battling throat cancer. He was 74.
Choose the experts for after builders cleaning service in W2 Hyde Park. Call our expert cleaning company for domestic or commercial needs.
PINUNASAN NI Devin ang luhang tumulo sa kanyang pisngi habang nakatingin sa papalayong si Hyde. Kasalanan niya, aminado siya roon. Alam niya kung ano ang nararamdaman ni Hyde. Mali siya na pagsabihan ito ng ganoon kahit hindi direktahan. Kailangan ba niyang i-defend ang katangahan na ginawa niya? Huwag na lang. Dahil kung titingnan naman talaga ay siya ang mali. Hindi man lang niya binigyan ng benefit of the doubt si Hyde. Basta lang siya tumalak at sinabing nagseselos siya. Na sa nakita niya, ipinapakita niyon na two timer si Hyde ...
Looking for music events events in Hyde? Whether youre a local, new in town, or just passing through, youll be sure to find something on Eventbrite that piques your interest.
Ethanol gets a lot of attention as the biofuel of choice in America. But BP claims that butanol will provide greater benefits than ethanol and is betting at least some of their chips on it as the gasoline-alternative to watch out for. Butanols advantages over ethanol arise from its gasoline-like properties. A
EZ Car Care. Unit 14, Hyde Point, Dunkirk Lane, Hyde SK14 4NL. Contact Number: 0161 509 5676. eMail: [email protected] ...
This is the maquette for the life-size version at the entrance of the Heard Museum in Phoenix, Arizona. Published in Western Art Collector, August 2009, page 86.
[4-Chloro-1-butanol] [928-51-8] | Buy and find out price and availability, MSDS, properties of TCIs high quality specialty chemicals.
Authors: Zhao, Rui-Lin; Desjardin, Dennis E.; Callac, Philippe; Parra, Luis A.; Guinberteau, Jacques; Soytong, Kasem; Karunarathna, Samantha; Zhang, Ying; Hyde, Kevin D. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recovery of butanol from model solutions and fermentation broth using a silicalite/silicone membrane. AU - Qureshi, N.. AU - Meagher, M. M.. AU - Hutkins, Robert W. PY - 1999/6/1. Y1 - 1999/6/1. N2 - A silcone-silicalite-1 composite membrane was synthesized to recover acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) from model solutions and the Clostridium acetobutylicum (ABE) fermentation broth. The adsorption capacity of the silicalite-1 in the presence of a mixture of acetone, butanol and ethanol were 8-12, 85-90 and ,5mg/g, respectively. There was no apparent difference of absorption rate of butanol at 36°C and 79°C and desorption of butanol occurred efficiently at 78°C and 1-3Torr. The silicalite-1 was characterized by chemical analysis, NMR, electron micrographs, surface area and pore size determination and found to have identical properties to other silicalite-1 reported in the literature. The silicalite-1 was incorporated into a silicone membrane in an effort to enhance butanol ...
mpne, Mycoplasma pneumoniae; mgen, Mycoplasma genitalium; mpul, Mycoplasma pulmonis; mmob, Mycoplasma mobile; mgal, Mycoplasma gallisepticum; uure, Ureaplasma urealyticum; bsub, Bacillus subtilis; cace, Clostridium acetobutylicum; ecoli, Escherichia coli K-12 ...
mype, Mycoplasma penetrans; mgen, Mycoplasma genitalium; mgal, Mycoplasma gallisepticum; uure, Ureaplasma urealyticum; cace, Clostridium acetobutylicum; ecoli, Escherichia coli K-12 ...
Author Summary Positive auto-regulation of a transcriptional activator during cell differentiation or development often allows the rapid and robust deployment of cell- and stage-specific genes and the routing of the differentiating cell down a specific path. Positive auto-regulation however, raises the potential for inappropriate activity of the transcription factor. Here we unravel the role of a previously characterized anti-sigma factor, CsfB, in a negative feedback loop that prevents ectopic expression of the sporulation-specific sigma factor σG of Bacillus subtilis. σG is activated in the forespore, one of the two chambers of the developing cell, at an intermediate stage in spore development. Once active, a positive feedback loop allows the rapid accumulation of σG. Synthesis of both σG and CsfB is under the control of the early forespore regulator σF, and CsfB may help prevent the premature activity of σG in the forespore. However, CsfB is also produced under σG control in non-sporulating
When one visits Mrs. William JENNETTE at her home in Lake Landing, he feels that this frail, white-haired lady has a treasure of wisdom and memories and Hyde County lore. Miss Lutie was born in 1850 in pre-civil Hyde County. When July 14th rolls around this year, she will be 104 years old. Miss Lutie is living presently at her old home in Lake Landing with the family of her granddaughter, Mrs. J.A. WAITS. Mrs. WAITS is one of her 18 grandchildren and her four children are only a few of Miss Luties 27 great-grandchildren. She also has two great-great-grandchildren. Only two of Miss Luties own five children are living, Jones Mann JENNETTE of Lake Landing and Lawrence JENNETTE of Elizabeth City. Both of her daughters, Mrs. S.D. MANN of Middletown and Mrs. Otis FULFORD of Engelhard, died several years ago. Her third son, W.H. JENNETTE of Elizabeth City, with whom she lived before coming to Hyde County this spring, died early this year. With her soft white hair and dressed in a style reminiscent ...
In an important step toward engineering bacteria to produce biofuel, PNNL, UW-Madison, and Burnham Institute scientists developed a global model for the photosynthetic cyanobacterium Cyanothece.
Homo sapiens 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1), nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein, transcript variant 2e, mRNA. (H00004968-R08) - Products - Abnova
Hyde Park Dentistry - 994 Gainsborough Rd London, ON N6H 5L4. See their team of Dentists, read patient reviews, make an appointment online for free 24/7.
Peace Hyde sat with Ebony Life TVs Ade Laoye and she buxom beauty revealed a few things about her that we did not know before now.
Only €92.72 buy best uni-t ut338c 7 en 1 voc testeur détecteur de formaldéhyde pm2.5 de surveillance de la qualité de lair sale online store at wholesale price. US/EU direct. - Banggood Mobile
Connect with Dr. Ronald Greenberg, Gastroenterology, New Hyde Park, NY. Video chat, send a message, ask a text question, or make a virtual appointment on the doctors Virtual Practice on HealthTap.
Ours is the only existing genome-scale model of E. coli," says Palsson. In addition, while many approaches to genetics experiments "knock out" individual genes and track the results, the new model takes a whole-system approach. Changing one aspect of a genetic code could be irrelevant if an organism adapts and evolves, says Palsson. The constraints-based models allow the E. coli to evolve more naturally along several possible paths ...
RiceNet, the first genome-scale model for predicting the functions of genes and gene networks in a grass species has been developed. RiceNet is expected to help speed the development of new crops for the production of advanced biofuels, as well as help boost the production and improve the quality of one of the worlds most important food staples.
Clostridium glycolicum ATCC ® 14880D™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Clostridium glycolicum TypeStrain=True Application:
Visit ChemicalBook To find more (2R,3R)-2-AMINO-3-PHENYLMETHOXY-1-BUTANOL(160841-03-2) information like chemical properties,Structure,melting point,boiling point,density,molecular formula,molecular weight, physical properties,toxicity information,customs codes. You can also browse global suppliers,vendor,prices,Price,manufacturers of (2R,3R)-2-AMINO-3-PHENYLMETHOXY-1-BUTANOL(160841-03-2). At last,(2R,3R)-2-AMINO-3-PHENYLMETHOXY-1-BUTANOL(160841-03-2) safety, risk, hazard and MSDS, CAS,cas number,Use,cas no may also be you need.
ກະລູຊິດ (ຝະລັ່ງ: glucide, ອັງກິດ: carbohydrate) ຫຼື ແມ່ນສານຊີວະໂມເລກູນທີ່ສຳຄັນທີ່ເປັນອົງປະກອບຂອງສິ່ງມີຊີວິດທຸກຊະນິດ.. ຄຳວ່າ carbohydrate ໃນພາສາອັງກິດ ມີເຄົ້າມາຈາກຄຳວ່າ ກາກບົນ (carbone) ແລະຄຳວ່າຮີດະລັດ (hydrate) ອິ່ມໂຕໄປດ້ວຍນ້ຳ ເຊິ່ງລວມກັນກໍໝາຍເຖິ່ງກາກບົນທີ່ອິ່ມໂຕໄປດ້ວຍນ້ຳ ເນື່ອງຈາກສູດເຄມີຢ່າງງ່າຍກໍແມ່ນ (C•H2O) n ເຊິ່ງ n≥3 ໂດຍກະລູຊິດຈັດເປັນສານປະກອບອານເດຮິດ (aldéhyde) ຫຼຶເຊຕົນ (cétone) ທີ່ມີໝູ່ຮີດະລົກຊີນ (hydroxyle ...
I would like to hear some peoples opinion on this theory i have. For the past few weeks i have thought my symptoms were low E2 related. After
This has been a strange season for a lot of people and for a variety of reasons. Jed Lowrie is no exception. The former PawSox standout was penciled in at shortstop for the Boston Red Sox as they began their...
Visit Healthgrades for information on Dr. Natalia Sudakov, MD Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
See what patients have to say about Dr. Francisco Laplaza, MD and compare ratings with nearby Orthopedic Surgery Specialists on Healthgrades.
Alcohols link with health is a bit Dr. Jekyll and a bit Mr. Hyde. Exactly which face it shows depends largely on whos drinking and how much.
Highly Recommended 1920s Cottage. Make this charming cottage in the historic Hyde Park neighborhood - just blocks from the University of Texas campus and m...
Oh good, at least the invisibility is based on the study of Light, rather than something even more... handwavey, kinda like Jeckyll and Hyde, where
Preliminary work has been done on the formulation of a new solventogenic clostridial fermentation medium based on the use of corn steep liquor (CSL). CSL is a by-product of the corn wet-milling industry, and has been used primarily as a feed supplement in the livestock industry. This nutrient-rich medium is an ideal base for use in a bacterial fermentation medium. A medium developed from CSL has been found to support good bacterial growth while allowing a level of solvent production approaching that of complex, more expensive clostridial growth media. When used in combination with C. beijerinckii, BA101, this newly developed medium holds promise to increase the cost-effectiveness of the ABE fermentation. (Abstract shortened by UMI ...
This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I project will develop a costeffective butanol production and purification process. The specific aim of this project is to scaleup a butanol production system from a small, ?laboratory scale? ,2 liter volume, to a 200 liter culture volume in order to determine the feasibility of its utility for production of practical amounts of the valuable biofuel. The broader/commercial impacts of this research are that the process should be configurable for fuel and/or hydrogen production by individuals safely and with negligible environmental impact, and that demonstration of the feasibility of production of fuels by ?microrefineries? could foster growth of a network of ?cottage industries? devoted to local fuel and biochemicals production that could provide increased opportunities for employment in rural areas where carbohydraterich waste streams are available. The growth of the dairy products industry in eastern South Dakota has resulted in the ...
The overall goal of my thesis research is to produce four-carbon alcohols such as 1-butanol and 2,3-butanediol, and isobutanol as advanced biofuels and chemicals from microorganisms through metabolic engineering, systems biology, and synthetic biology approaches. Biobutanol is an attractive renewable biofuel and intermediate chemical that has been produced from the ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) fermentation by solventogenic clostridia such as Clostridium beijerinckii. Although the ABE fermentation is considered as a promising process for butanol production, current drawbacks in the ABE fermentation include low titer, yield, and productivity of solvent production that needs to be improved to achieve an economically viable process. Therefore, the first goal of my thesis study was to improve the ABE fermentation by C. beijerinckii for production of butanol and its derivatives. This first objective involved four approaches. First, optimization of ABE fermentation condition was conducted to maximize ...
B cells that mediate normal, T cell-dependent, humoral immune responses must first pass through germinal centers (GCs) within the cortex of antigenically stimulated lymph nodes. As they move through the dark zone and then the light zone in the GC, B cells are subjected to somatic hypermutation and switch recombination within their rearranged immunoglobulin genes and also participate in a number of other processes that control development into memory cells or cells specialized for antibody secretion. To investigate the molecular mechanisms that contribute to B cell development within GCs, we constructed a recombinant DNA library enriched for cDNAs derived from human genes expressed in B cells at this site. This library was found to contain a cDNA structurally and functionally related to genes in bacteria and yeast for the DNA repair enzyme 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase. Northern blot analysis indicated that the human gene is expressed as two alternatively spliced messenger RNAs within GC B cells at levels
Acetohalobium arabaticum strain DSM 5501 Alkaliphilus metalliredigens strain QYMF Alkaliphilus oremlandii strain OhILAs Anaerococcus prevotii strain ACS-065-V-Col13 Anaerococcus vaginalis strain ATCC 51170 Anaerofustis stercorihominis strain DSM 17244 Anaerostipes caccae strain DSM 14662 Anaerostipes sp. strain 3_2_56FAA Anaerotruncus colihominis strain DSM 17241 Bacteroides capillosus strain ATCC 29799 Bacteroides pectinophilus strain ATCC 43243 Brachyspira hyodysenteriae strain ATCC 49526; WA1 Brachyspira intermedia strain PWS/A Brachyspira pilosicoli strain 95/1000 Candidatus Arthromitus sp. SFB-mouse-Japan Carnobacterium sp. strain 17-4 Clostridium acetobutylicum strain ATCC 824 Clostridium asparagiforme strain DSM 15981 Clostridium bartlettii strain DSM 16795 Clostridium bolteae strain ATCC BAA-613 Clostridium botulinum A2 strain Kyoto Clostridium butyricum strain 5521 Clostridium cellulovorans strain 743B Clostridium cf. saccharolyticum strain K10 Clostridium citroniae strain WAL-17108 ...

Explore our researchExplore our research

Characterisation of a glucose phosphotransferase system in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Tangney, M. & Mitchell, W. J. ( ... Characterisation of class II and III fructose bisphosphatases in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Almohaish, A. A. ... Characterisation of a glucose phosphotransferase system in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Tangney, M. & Mitchell, W. J. ( ... Characterisation of class II and III fructose bisphosphatases in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Almohaish, A. A. ...
more infohttps://www.napier.ac.uk/research-and-innovation/research-search?q=sport+exercise&fv=BE7C946393454607AD2CC3D91E65303F~School+of+Applied+Sciences%7C0A5B8EB533374C4AB2BDA762760EF119~QD+Chemistry&tab=2

Explore our researchExplore our research

Characterisation of a glucose phosphotransferase system in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Tangney, M. & Mitchell, W. J. ( ... Characterisation of class II and III fructose bisphosphatases in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Almohaish, A. A. ... Characterisation of a glucose phosphotransferase system in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Tangney, M. & Mitchell, W. J. ( ... Characterisation of class II and III fructose bisphosphatases in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Almohaish, A. A. ...
more infohttps://www.napier.ac.uk/research-and-innovation/research-search?q=sport+exercise&tab=2&fv=0A5B8EB533374C4AB2BDA762760EF119~QD+Chemistry

Recombination and insertion events involving the botulinum neurotoxin complex genes in Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and...Recombination and insertion events involving the botulinum neurotoxin complex genes in Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and...

... have led to the lineages observed today within the neurotoxin-producing clostridia. ... Clostridium botulinum is a taxonomic designation for at least four diverse species that are defined by the expression of one ( ... Group II is a subset of a more diverse clade that includes other saccharolytic clostridia, such as C. acetobutylicum, C. ... Genetic interrelationships of proteolytic Clostridium botulinum types A, B, and F and other members of the Clostridium ...
more infohttps://bmcbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1741-7007-7-66

Clostridium acetobutylicum - WikipediaClostridium acetobutylicum - Wikipedia

EPA Clostridium acetobutylicum Final Risk Assessment. *Genetic Engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum for Enhanced ... Clostridium acetobutylicum, ATCC 824, is a commercially valuable bacterium sometimes called the "Weizmann Organism", after ... Unlike yeast, which can digest only sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide, C. acetobutylicum and other Clostridia can digest ... One of the crucial enzymes - a fatty acyl-CoA reductase - came from Clostridium acetobutylicum. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clostridium_acetobutylicum

Clostridium acetobutylicum - microbewikiClostridium acetobutylicum - microbewiki

Clostridium difficile, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium tetani, and Clostridium perfringen. In particular, C. botulinum and C ... Clostridium acetobutylicum is a Gram-positive bacillus (1). C. acetobutylicum is most often soil dwelling, although it has been ... "Emended descriptions of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium beijerinckii, and descriptions of Clostridium ... Adaptive responses to oxygen stress in obligatory anaerobes Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium aminovalericum. Appl. ...
more infohttps://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php?title=Clostridium_acetobutylicum&oldid=19440

KEGG GENOME: Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 1731KEGG GENOME: Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 1731

Complete genome sequence of Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 1731, a solvent-producing strain with multireplicon genome ...
more infohttp://www.genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?gn:T01548

KEGG PATHWAY: Streptomycin biosynthesis - Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824KEGG PATHWAY: Streptomycin biosynthesis - Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824

Streptomycin biosynthesis - Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML ...
more infohttps://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/show_pathway?cac00521

Clostridium acetobutylicum McCoy et al. emend. Keis et al. ATCC ®Clostridium acetobutylicum McCoy et al. emend. Keis et al. ATCC ®

Genomic DNA from Clostridium acetobutylicum TypeStrain=True Application: ... Clostridium acetobutylicum McCoy et al. emend. Keis et al. (ATCC® 824D-5™) Strain Designations: Genomic DNA from Clostridium ... Clostridium acetobutylicum McCoy et al. emend. Keis et al. ATCC® 824D-5™ dried At least 5 µg in 1X TE buffer. OD260/OD280: 1.6 ... Genomic DNA from Clostridium acetobutylicum [ATCC® 824™] Biosafety Level 1 Biosafety classification is based on U.S. Public ...
more infohttps://www.atcc.org/Products/All/824D-5.aspx

Integrated, systems metabolic picture of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum | PNASIntegrated, systems metabolic picture of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum | PNAS

2012) New insights into the butyric acid metabolism of Clostridium acetobutylicum. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 96(5):1325-1339. ... 2004) Transcriptional analysis of butanol stress and tolerance in Clostridium acetobutylicum. J Bacteriol 186(7):2006-2018. ... 1994) Host-plasmid interactions in recombinant strains of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. FEMS Microbiol Lett 123(3):335- ... 1984) The relationship between sporulation and solvent production in Clostridium acetobutylicum P262. Biotechnol Lett 6(8):529- ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/112/27/8505.full

Molecular and genomic analyses in Clostridium acetobutylicumMolecular and genomic analyses in Clostridium acetobutylicum

This dissertation presents molecular and genomic analyses in Clostridium acetobutylicum, beginning with an evaluation of Spo0A ... These proteins are novel and essentially limited to C. acetobutylicum; thus, suggesting roles specific to its unique physiology ... "Molecular and genomic analyses in Clostridium acetobutylicum." (2009) Diss., Rice University. https://hdl.handle.net/1911/61756 ...
more infohttps://scholarship.rice.edu/handle/1911/61756

Improvement of butanol production in Clostridium acetobutylicum through enhancement of NAD(P)H availability | SpringerLinkImprovement of butanol production in Clostridium acetobutylicum through enhancement of NAD(P)H availability | SpringerLink

Clostridium acetobutylicumis a natural producer of butanol, butyrate, acetone and ethanol. The pattern of metabolites reflects ... Clostridium acetobutylicum NAD(P)H Redox FdNR Ferredoxin TER Electronic supplementary material. The online version of this ... Clostridium acetobutylicum is a natural producer of butanol, butyrate, acetone and ethanol. The pattern of metabolites reflects ... Cooksley CM, Zhang Y, Wang H, Redl S, Winzer K, Minton NP (2012) Targeted mutagenesis of the Clostridium acetobutylicum acetone ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10295-018-2068-7

Clostridium acetobutylicum (strain ATCC 824 / DSM 792 / JCM 1419 / LMG 5710 / VKM B-1787)Clostridium acetobutylicum (strain ATCC 824 / DSM 792 / JCM 1419 / LMG 5710 / VKM B-1787)

Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 792. › Clostridium acetobutylicum str. ATCC 824. › Clostridium acetobutylicum strain ATCC 824. ... Clostridia. › Clostridiales. › Clostridiaceae. › Clostridium. › Clostridium acetobutylicum. Strains i. › ATCC 824 / DSM 792 / ... Taxonomy - Clostridium acetobutylicum (strain ATCC 824 / DSM 792 / JCM 1419 / LMG 5710 / VKM B-1787) Basket 0 ... Clostridium acetobutylicum (strain ATCC 824 / DSM 792 / JCM 1419 / LMG 5710 / VKM B-1787). ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/taxonomy/272562

The effect of CO on growth and product formation in batch cultures of Clostridium acetobutylicum | SpringerLinkThe effect of CO on growth and product formation in batch cultures of Clostridium acetobutylicum | SpringerLink

... acetobutylicum inhibits the production of H2by the hydrogenase and enhances the production of solvents by making available ... The effect of CO on growth and product formation in batch cultures ofClostridium acetobutylicum. ... Carbon monoxide sparged in batch fermentations ofC. acetobutylicum inhibits the production of H2 by the hydrogenase and ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF01032417

Cloning and sequencing of genes involved in glycolysis from Clostridium acetobutylicumCloning and sequencing of genes involved in glycolysis from Clostridium acetobutylicum

Complementation studies were carried out with a Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 plasmid library and Escherichia coli ... "Cloning and sequencing of genes involved in glycolysis from Clostridium acetobutylicum." (1996) Masters Thesis, Rice ... Phosphofructokinase from C. acetobutylicum has high homology to the phosphofructokinases from Bacillus stearothermophilus, ... The pyruvate kinase/phosphofructokinase operon may act as a "regulatory operon" for glycolysis in C. acetobutylicum. ...
more infohttps://scholarship.rice.edu/handle/1911/14035

RCSB PDB - 3F10: Crystal structure of Clostridium Acetobutylicum 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase in complex with 8-oxoguanosineRCSB PDB - 3F10: Crystal structure of Clostridium Acetobutylicum 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase in complex with 8-oxoguanosine

Clostridium acetobutylicum. Mutation(s): 1 Gene Names: CAC2707, CA_C2707. EC: 3.2.2 (PDB Primary Data), 4.2.99.18 (PDB Primary ... Find proteins for Q97FM4 (Clostridium acetobutylicum (strain ATCC 824 / DSM 792 / JCM 1419 / LMG 5710 / VKM B-1787)) ... Crystal structure of Clostridium Acetobutylicum 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase in complex with 8-oxoguanosine. *DOI: 10.2210/ ... Structural characterization of Clostridium acetobutylicum 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase in its apo form and in complex with 8- ...
more infohttps://www.rcsb.org/structure/3F10

Molecular modulation of pleiotropic regulator CcpA for glucose and xylose coutilization by solvent-producing Clostridium...Molecular modulation of pleiotropic regulator CcpA for glucose and xylose coutilization by solvent-producing Clostridium...

... solvents production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates by Clostridium acetobutylicum, an important industrial microorganism. ... modulation of pleiotropic regulator CcpA for glucose and xylose coutilization by solvent-producing Clostridium acetobutylicum. ... acetobutylicum. When this residue was replaced by asparagine (V302N mutation), CCR could be alleviated and a greatly improved ... acetobutylicum CcpA with alleviated repression on xylose metabolism, yielding a valuable platform host toward ABE solvents ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25637046?dopt=Abstract

Sequence and arrangement of genes encoding enzymes of the acetone-production pathway of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC824.  -...Sequence and arrangement of genes encoding enzymes of the acetone-production pathway of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC824. -...

The nucleotide sequence of three open reading frames in the acetone-production locus of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC824 has ... Sequence and arrangement of genes encoding enzymes of the acetone-production pathway of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC824.. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8423010?dopt=Abstract

Characterization of the cellulolytic complex (cellulosome) of Clostridium acetobutylicum. - Semantic ScholarCharacterization of the cellulolytic complex (cellulosome) of Clostridium acetobutylicum. - Semantic Scholar

As C. acetobutylicum is unable to grow on cellulosic substrates, the existence of a cellulosomal gene cluster in the genome ... Surprisingly, genetic organization of this large cluster is very similar to that of Clostridium cellulolyticum, the model of ... A large cellulosomal gene cluster was identified in the recently sequenced genome of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. ... A large cellulosomal gene cluster was identified in the recently sequenced genome of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Characterization-of-the-cellulolytic-complex-of-Sabath%C3%A9-B%C3%A9la%C3%AFch/ceb2cc0a5894bb8fd2222603a9de000cfbf2e793

Characterization of iron reduction in Clostridium acetobutylicum mutants obtained by targeted and transposon mutagenesisCharacterization of iron reduction in Clostridium acetobutylicum mutants obtained by targeted and transposon mutagenesis

Clostridium acetobutylicum is an appropriate Gram-positive bacterium to study those mechanisms as genetic tools have been ... Characterization of iron reduction in Clostridium acetobutylicum mutants obtained by targeted and transposon mutagenesis. Amos ...
more infohttps://infoscience.epfl.ch/record/227944

Differential regulation of two thiolase genes from Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 792.  -
            Lancaster EPrintsDifferential regulation of two thiolase genes from Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 792. - Lancaster EPrints

Thiolase of Clostridium acetobutylicum is an important enzyme involved in both, acid and solvent fermentation. Two thiolase ... have been cloned and sequenced from Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 792, showing high homology to each other and to thiolases of ... Differential regulation of two thiolase genes from Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 792. Journal of Molecular Microbiology and ...
more infohttps://eprints.lancs.ac.uk/id/eprint/9566/?template=browse

Characterization of the CipA Scaffolding Protein and In Vivo Production of a Minicellulosome in Clostridium acetobutylicum |...Characterization of the CipA Scaffolding Protein and In Vivo Production of a Minicellulosome in Clostridium acetobutylicum |...

Characterization of the CipA Scaffolding Protein and In Vivo Production of a Minicellulosome in Clostridium acetobutylicum. ... Genome sequence and comparative analysis of the solvent-producing bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum. J. Bacteriol. 183:4823- ... The cipA gene encoding the Clostridium acetobutylicum scaffolding protein CipA was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. ... Clostridium acetobutylicum is a gram-positive, sporeforming anaerobic bacterium that converts various sugars and ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/content/185/3/1092?ijkey=d9933744a8904d2061110f847d8788c81549203d&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

RCSB PDB - 6GND: Crystal structure of the complex of a Ferredoxin-Flavin Thioredoxin Reductase and a Thioredoxin from...RCSB PDB - 6GND: Crystal structure of the complex of a Ferredoxin-Flavin Thioredoxin Reductase and a Thioredoxin from...

Crystal structure of the complex of a Ferredoxin-Flavin Thioredoxin Reductase and a Thioredoxin from Clostridium acetobutylicum ... Find proteins for Q97EM8 (Clostridium acetobutylicum (strain ATCC 824 / DSM 792 / JCM 1419 / LMG 5710 / VKM B-1787)) ... Find proteins for Q97EM7 (Clostridium acetobutylicum (strain ATCC 824 / DSM 792 / JCM 1419 / LMG 5710 / VKM B-1787)) ... Clostridium acetobutylicum (strain ATCC 824 / DSM 792 / JCM 1419 / LMG 5710 / VKM B-1787). Mutation(s): 1 ...
more infohttps://www.rcsb.org/structure/6GND

The genes for butanol and acetone formation in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 reside on a large plasmid whose loss leads...The genes for butanol and acetone formation in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 reside on a large plasmid whose loss leads...

The genes for butanol and acetone formation in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 reside on a large plasmid whose loss leads ... The genes for butanol and acetone formation in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 reside on a large plasmid whose loss leads ... The genes for butanol and acetone formation in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 reside on a large plasmid whose loss leads ... The genes for butanol and acetone formation in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 reside on a large plasmid whose loss leads ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/content/179/17/5442/article-info

CA C2763 - Membrane assosiated methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein with HAMP domain - Clostridium acetobutylicum (strain ATCC...CA C2763 - Membrane assosiated methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein with HAMP domain - Clostridium acetobutylicum (strain ATCC...

Clostridium roseum. Clostridium felsineum DSM 794. Clostridium aurantibutyricum. Clostridium acetobutylicum. Clostridium. ... Clostridium acetobutylicum (strain ATCC 824 / DSM 792 / JCM 1419 / LMG 5710 / VKM B-1787)Imported. ,p>Information which has ... Clostridium acetobutylicum (strain ATCC 824 / DSM 792 / JCM 1419 / LMG 5710 / VKM B-1787). 571. UniRef50_A0A1S8LZ74. Cluster: ... Clostridium acetobutylicum (strain ATCC 824 / DSM 792 / JCM 1419 / LMG 5710 / VKM B-1787) ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q97FH5
  • these events, in addition to recombination among the toxin complex genes, have led to the lineages observed today within the neurotoxin-producing clostridia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The nucleotide sequence of three open reading frames in the acetone-production locus of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC824 has been established. (nih.gov)
  • Clostridium acetobutylicum is an appropriate Gram-positive bacterium to study those mechanisms as genetic tools have been developed due to its industrial interest, allowing easy targeted and random mutagenesis. (epfl.ch)
  • Clostridium acetobutylicum is a gram-positive, sporeforming anaerobic bacterium that converts various sugars and polysaccharides into acids and solvents ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • Bennett GN, Rudolph FB (1995) The central metabolic pathway from acetyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA in Clostridium acetobutylicum . (springer.com)
  • Molecular modulation of pleiotropic regulator CcpA for glucose and xylose coutilization by solvent-producing Clostridium acetobutylicum. (nih.gov)
  • In a previous work, we demonstrated that C. acetobutylicum produced an inactive cellulosome with an apparent molecular mass of 665 kDa ( 14 ). (asm.org)
  • A mini-CipA polypeptide consisting of a CBD3a and two cohesin domains was overexpressed in C. acetobutylicum , yielding the in vivo formation of a minicellulosome. (asm.org)
  • Biochemical and Western analysis revealed that the C. acetobutylicum cellulosome comprised four major subunits, including the scaffolding protein CipA and the cellobiohydrolases Cel48A, Cel9X, and Cel9C or Cel9E. (asm.org)
  • The CipA scaffolding protein of C. acetobutylicum has never been purified, and its biochemical properties are unknown. (asm.org)
  • A) Schematic diagram of the CipA scaffolding protein from C. acetobutylicum . (asm.org)
  • As previously demonstrated from the structure of the family 3a cellulosomal CBD, the His61, Tyr70, and Trp123 residues which form a contact with the glucose rings of cellulose by aromatic stacking ( 15 ) are conserved in the C. acetobutylicum CipA CBD. (asm.org)
  • The genomic DNA from C. acetobutylicum GXAS18-1 (deposited in the China Center for Type Culture Collection [CCTCC] [accession number CCTCC M was sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq platform (Illumina, San Diego, CA) with a paired-end library. (asm.org)
  • One of the crucial enzymes - a fatty acyl-CoA reductase - came from Clostridium acetobutylicum . (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression of groESL in Clostridium acetobutylicum results in increased solvent production and tolerance, prolonged metabolism, and changes in the cell's transcriptional program. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Transcriptional regulation of solventogenesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Carbon monoxide sparged in batch fermentations of C. acetobutylicum inhibits the production of H 2 by the hydrogenase and enhances the production of solvents by making available larger amounts of NAD(P)H 2 to the cells. (springer.com)
  • Thiolase of Clostridium acetobutylicum is an important enzyme involved in both, acid and solvent fermentation. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • The relationship between solventogenesis, heat shock, and DNA topology in Clostridium acetobutylicum was investigated by inhibiting DNA gyrase in vivo by high concentrations of novobiocin. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The purification and isolation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Clostridium acetobutylicum was accomplished by sequential ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration and anion-exchange chromatography. (readabstracts.com)
  • While Clostridium acetobutylicum Ogg (CacOgg) DNA glycosylase can specifically recognize and remove 8-oxoG, it displays little preference for the base opposite the lesion, which is unusual for a member of the Ogg1 family. (rcsb.org)
  • Through CcpA mutagenesis and screening, an amino acid residue, valine 302, was shown to be essential for CcpA-dependent CCR in C. acetobutylicum. (nih.gov)
  • C. acetobutylicum is most often soil dwelling, although it has been found in a number of different environments. (kenyon.edu)