A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.
A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, used for the industrial production of SOLVENTS.
A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.
The cause of TETANUS in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, found in INTESTINES and SOIL.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Type species of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM, a gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is used as a source of PROBIOTICS.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. Infections have a strong association with malignancies and also with GAS GANGRENE.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, capable of solventogenesis, and isolated from SOIL, infected WOUNDS, fermenting OLIVES, and spoiled CANDY.
A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)
RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM analysis of rRNA genes that is used for differentiating between species or strains.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces BOTULINUM TOXINS, TYPE A which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is a cellulolytic, mesophilic species isolated from decayed GRASS.
A species of gram-positive, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It produces CELLULOSOMES which are involved in plant CELL WALL degradation.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae isolated from infected CATTLE; SHEEP; and other animals. It causes blackleg in cattle and sheep and is transmitted through soil-borne spores.
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A severe condition resulting from bacteria invading healthy muscle from adjacent traumatized muscle or soft tissue. The infection originates in a wound contaminated with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM. C. perfringens accounts for the majority of cases (over eighty percent), while C. noyvi, C. septicum, and C. histolyticum cause most of the other cases.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type E which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is distinctive for its ability to ferment ETHANOL to caproic acid.
A species of gram-positive, strongly proteolytic bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It contains several forms of COLLAGENASE whose action can lead to GAS GANGRENE in humans and HORSES.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
'Anaerobic Bacteria' are types of bacteria that do not require oxygen for growth and can often cause diseases in humans, including dental caries, gas gangrene, and tetanus, among others.
Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.
Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type B which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
Extracellular structures found in a variety of microorganisms. They contain CELLULASES and play an important role in the digestion of CELLULOSE.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae responsible for spoilage of some CHEESE via FERMENTATION of BUTYRIC ACID.
Disease caused by the liberation of exotoxins of CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS in the intestines of sheep, goats, cattle, foals, and piglets. Type B enterotoxemia in lambs is lamb dysentery; type C enterotoxemia in mature sheep produces "struck", and in calves, lambs and piglets it produces hemorrhagic enterotoxemia; type D enterotoxemia in sheep and goats is pulpy-kidney disease or overeating disease.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type D which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type F which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).
A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.
Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A class of iron-sulfur proteins that contains one iron coordinated to the sulfur atom of four cysteine residues. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.
A species of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae frequently used for the study of ENZYMES.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.
Antiserum given therapeutically in BOTULISM.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type C which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans. It causes dissociation of ACTIN FILAMENTS.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, causing BACTEREMIA in humans and ANIMALS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that ferments both CARBOHYDRATES and AMINO ACIDS.
A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.
Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha- or beta-xylosidic linkages. EC 3.2.1.8 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.32 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.37 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans; and EC 3.2.1.72 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans. Other xylosidases have been identified that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-xylosidic bonds.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. Its GLUTAMATE DEHYDROGENASE is commonly used in research.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of the mouth, upper respiratory tract, and large intestine in humans. Its organisms cause infections of soft tissues and bacteremias.
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
Glycoside Hydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds, resulting in the breakdown of complex carbohydrates and oligosaccharides into simpler sugars.
A claudin subtype that takes part in maintaining the barrier-forming property of TIGHT JUNCTIONS. Claudin-4 is found associated with CLAUDIN-8 in the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT where it may play a role in paracellular chloride ion reabsorption.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE and cellotetraose. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing ends of beta-D-glucosides with release of CELLOBIOSE.
Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.
Enzymes which transfer coenzyme A moieties from acyl- or acetyl-CoA to various carboxylic acceptors forming a thiol ester. Enzymes in this group are instrumental in ketone body metabolism and utilization of acetoacetate in mitochondria. EC 2.8.3.
Inflammation of the MUCOSA of both the SMALL INTESTINE and the LARGE INTESTINE. Etiology includes ISCHEMIA, infections, allergic, and immune responses.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
A ubiquitously-expressed claudin subtype that acts as a general barrier-forming protein in TIGHT JUNCTIONS. Elevated expression of claudin-3 is found in a variety of tumor cell types, suggesting its role as a therapeutic target for specific ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
Dextrins are a group of partially degraded and digestible starches, formed through the hydrolysis of starch by heat, acids, or enzymes, consisting of shorter chain polymers of D-glucose units linked mainly by α-(1→4) and α-(1→6) glycosidic bonds.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
A xylosidase that catalyses the random hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-xylans.
A GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating a signal transduction pathway that controls assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.
Aerobic bacteria are types of microbes that require oxygen to grow and reproduce, and use it in the process of respiration to break down organic matter and produce energy, often found in environments where oxygen is readily available such as the human body's skin, mouth, and intestines.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of acetylphosphate from acetyl-CoA and inorganic phosphate. Acetylphosphate serves as a high-energy phosphate compound. EC 2.3.1.8.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.4.1.2.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.

Synergistic activation of JNK/SAPK by interleukin-1 and platelet-derived growth factor is independent of Rac and Cdc42. (1/2206)

The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are activated strongly by inflammatory cytokines and environmental stresses, but only weakly by growth factors. Here we show that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) strongly potentiates activation of JNK by interleukin 1 (IL-1) in human fibroblasts and a pig aortic endothelial (PAE) cell line. This synergistic activation of JNK by IL-1 and PDGF was unaffected by bacterial toxins that inactivate Rho proteins and Ras. Since Rho proteins have been implicated in JNK activation, their possible involvement was investigated further using stably expressed, inducible N17 or V12 mutants in PAE cell lines. N17 Rac non-selectively reduced JNK activity by 30% in resting or stimulated cells (IL-1 alone, or with PDGF). N17 Cdc42 had no effect. V12 Rac weakly activated JNK and synergized with IL-1, but not with PDGF. V12 Cdc42 weakly activated JNK, but synergized with PDGF and not IL-1. Our results imply that Rho GTPases are not directly involved in mediating IL-1-induced JNK activation, or in the potentiation of this activation by PDGF.  (+info)

Rejection of Clostridium putrificum and conservation of Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium sporogenes-Opinion 69. Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology. (2/2206)

The Judicial Commission rejected the name Clostridium putrificum while conserving Clostridium botulinum for toxigenic strains and conserving Clostridium sporogenes for non-toxigenic strains.  (+info)

Characteristics of a strain of Clostridium carnis causing septicaemia in a young infant. (3/2206)

Clostridium carnis is a species which is only rarely isolated from man or animals and is occasionally found in the soil. This paper is an account of a single isolate found in blood cultures obtained from an 8-week-old boy who was suffering from gastroenteritis.  (+info)

The influence of a diet rich in wheat fibre on the human faecal flora. (4/2206)

The effect on the faecal flora of adding wheat fibre to a controlled diet in four healthy volunteers for a 3-week period has been observed. No change in the concentration of the bacteria in the bacterial groups counted was found, although there was a slight increase in total output associated with increased faecal weight. The predominant organisms in all subjects were non-sporing anaerobes, but the dominant species in each subject was different and was unaffected by changing the diet. Similarly, the concentration of faecal beta-glucuronidase detected in two subjects was unaltered and the concentration of clostridia able to dehydrogenate the steroid nucleus found in one subject was unaltered. It is suggested that the faecal microflora is not primarily controlled by the presence of undigested food residues in the large bowel.  (+info)

Nitrate-dependent regulation of acetate biosynthesis and nitrate respiration by Clostridium thermoaceticum. (5/2206)

Nitrate has been shown to shunt the electron flow in Clostridium thermoaceticum from CO2 to nitrate, but it did not influence the levels of enzymes involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (J. M. Frostl, C. Seifritz, and H. L. Drake, J. Bacteriol. 178:4597-4603, 1996). Here we show that under some growth conditions, nitrate does in fact repress proteins involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. The CO oxidation activity in crude extracts of nitrate (30 mM)-supplemented cultures was fivefold less than that of nitrate-free cultures, while the H2 oxidation activity was six- to sevenfold lower. The decrease in CO oxidation activity paralleled a decrease in CO dehydrogenase (CODH) protein level, as confirmed by Western blot analysis. Protein levels of CODH in nitrate-supplemented cultures were 50% lower than those in nitrate-free cultures. Western blots analyses showed that nitrate also decreased the levels of the corrinoid iron-sulfur protein (60%) and methyltransferase (70%). Surprisingly, the decrease in activity and protein levels upon nitrate supplementation was observed only when cultures were continuously sparged. Northern blot analysis indicates that the regulation of the proteins involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway by nitrate is at the transcriptional level. At least a 10-fold decrease in levels of cytochrome b was observed with nitrate supplementation whether the cultures were sparged or stoppered. We also detected nitrate-inducible nitrate reductase activity (2 to 39 nmol min-1 mg-1) in crude extracts of C. thermoaceticum. Our results indicate that nitrate coordinately represses genes encoding enzymes and electron transport proteins in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and activates transcription of nitrate respiratory proteins. CO2 also appears to induce expression of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway genes and repress nitrate reductase activity.  (+info)

Antisense RNA strategies for metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum. (6/2206)

We examined the effectiveness of antisense RNA (as RNA) strategies for metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) was developed to produce a 102-nucleotide asRNA with 87% complementarity to the butyrate kinase (BK) gene. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) exhibited 85 to 90% lower BK and acetate kinase specific activities than the control strain. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) also exhibited 45 to 50% lower phosphotransbutyrylase (PTB) and phosphotransacetylase specific activities than the control strain. This strain exhibited earlier induction of solventogenesis, which resulted in 50 and 35% higher final concentrations of acetone and butanol, respectively, than the concentrations in the control. Strain ATCC 824(pRD1) was developed to putatively produce a 698-nucleotide asRNA with 96% complementarity to the PTB gene. Strain ATCC 824(pRD1) exhibited 70 and 80% lower PTB and BK activities, respectively, than the control exhibited. It also exhibited 300% higher levels of a lactate dehydrogenase activity than the control exhibited. The growth yields of ATCC 824(pRD1) were 28% less than the growth yields of the control. While the levels of acids were not affected in ATCC 824(pRD1) fermentations, the acetone and butanol concentrations were 96 and 75% lower, respectively, than the concentrations in the control fermentations. The lower level of solvent production by ATCC 824(pRD1) was compensated for by approximately 100-fold higher levels of lactate production. The lack of any significant impact on butyrate formation fluxes by the lower PTB and BK levels suggests that butyrate formation fluxes are not controlled by the levels of the butyrate formation enzymes.  (+info)

Sequence analysis of scaffolding protein CipC and ORFXp, a new cohesin-containing protein in Clostridium cellulolyticum: comparison of various cohesin domains and subcellular localization of ORFXp. (7/2206)

The gene encoding the scaffolding protein of the cellulosome from Clostridium cellulolyticum, whose partial sequence was published earlier (S. Pages, A. Belaich, C. Tardif, C. Reverbel-Leroy, C. Gaudin, and J.-P. Belaich, J. Bacteriol. 178:2279-2286, 1996; C. Reverbel-Leroy, A. Belaich, A. Bernadac, C. Gaudin, J. P. Belaich, and C. Tardif, Microbiology 142:1013-1023, 1996), was completely sequenced. The corresponding protein, CipC, is composed of a cellulose binding domain at the N terminus followed by one hydrophilic domain (HD1), seven highly homologous cohesin domains (cohesin domains 1 to 7), a second hydrophilic domain, and a final cohesin domain (cohesin domain 8) which is only 57 to 60% identical to the seven other cohesin domains. In addition, a second gene located 8.89 kb downstream of cipC was found to encode a three-domain protein, called ORFXp, which includes a cohesin domain. By using antiserum raised against the latter, it was observed that ORFXp is associated with the membrane of C. cellulolyticum and is not detected in the cellulosome fraction. Western blot and BIAcore experiments indicate that cohesin domains 1 and 8 from CipC recognize the same dockerins and have similar affinity for CelA (Ka = 4.8 x 10(9) M-1) whereas the cohesin from ORFXp, although it is also able to bind all cellulosome components containing a dockerin, has a 19-fold lower Ka for CelA (2.6 x 10(8) M-1). Taken together, these data suggest that ORFXp may play a role in cellulosome assembly.  (+info)

Segmented filamentous bacteria are potent stimuli of a physiologically normal state of the murine gut mucosal immune system. (8/2206)

Segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) are autochthonous bacteria inhabiting the intestinal tracts of many species, including humans. We studied the effect of SFB on the mucosal immune system by monoassociating formerly germfree C3H/HeN mice with SFB. At various time points during 190 days of colonization, fragment cultures of small intestine and Peyer's patches (PP) were analyzed for total immunoglobulin A (IgA) and SFB-specific IgA production. Also, phenotypic changes indicating germinal center reactions (GCRs) and the activation of CD4(+) T cells in PP were determined by using fluorescence-activated cell sorter analyses. A second group of SFB-monoassociated mice was colonized with a gram-negative commensal, Morganella morganii, to determine if the mucosal immune system was again stimulated and to evaluate the effect of prior colonization with SFB on the ability of M. morganii to translocate to the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. We found that SFB stimulated GCRs in PP from day 6 after monoassociation, that GCRs only gradually waned over the entire length of colonization, that natural IgA production was increased to levels 24 to 63% of that of conventionally reared mice, and that SFB-specific IgA was produced but accounted for less than 1.4% of total IgA. Also, the proportion of CD4(+), CD45RBlow T cells, indicative of activated cells, gradually increased in the PP to the level found in conventionally reared mice. Secondary colonization with M. morganii was able to stimulate GCRs anew, leading to a specific IgA antibody response. Previous stimulation of mucosal immunity by SFB did not prevent the translocation of M. morganii in the double-colonized mice. Our findings generally indicate that SFB are one of the single most potent microbial stimuli of the gut mucosal immune system.  (+info)

'Clostridium' is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in nature, including in soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. Many species of Clostridium are anaerobic, meaning they can grow and reproduce in environments with little or no oxygen. Some species of Clostridium are capable of producing toxins that can cause serious and sometimes life-threatening illnesses in humans and animals.

Some notable species of Clostridium include:

* Clostridium tetani, which causes tetanus (also known as lockjaw)
* Clostridium botulinum, which produces botulinum toxin, the most potent neurotoxin known and the cause of botulism
* Clostridium difficile, which can cause severe diarrhea and colitis, particularly in people who have recently taken antibiotics
* Clostridium perfringens, which can cause food poisoning and gas gangrene.

It is important to note that not all species of Clostridium are harmful, and some are even beneficial, such as those used in the production of certain fermented foods like sauerkraut and natto. However, due to their ability to produce toxins and cause illness, it is important to handle and dispose of materials contaminated with Clostridium species carefully, especially in healthcare settings.

'Clostridium difficile' (also known as 'C. difficile' or 'C. diff') is a type of Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium that can be found in the environment, including in soil, water, and human and animal feces. It is a common cause of healthcare-associated infections, particularly in individuals who have recently received antibiotics or have other underlying health conditions that weaken their immune system.

C. difficile produces toxins that can cause a range of symptoms, from mild diarrhea to severe colitis (inflammation of the colon) and potentially life-threatening complications such as sepsis and toxic megacolon. The most common toxins produced by C. difficile are called TcdA and TcdB, which damage the lining of the intestine and cause inflammation.

C. difficile infections (CDIs) can be difficult to treat, particularly in severe cases or in patients who have recurrent infections. Treatment typically involves discontinuing any unnecessary antibiotics, if possible, and administering specific antibiotics that are effective against C. difficile, such as metronidazole, vancomycin, or fidaxomicin. In some cases, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may be recommended as a last resort for patients with recurrent or severe CDIs who have not responded to other treatments.

Preventing the spread of C. difficile is critical in healthcare settings, and includes measures such as hand hygiene, contact precautions, environmental cleaning, and antibiotic stewardship programs that promote the appropriate use of antibiotics.

Clostridium infections are caused by bacteria of the genus Clostridium, which are gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming, and often anaerobic organisms. These bacteria can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the human gastrointestinal tract. Some Clostridium species can cause severe and potentially life-threatening infections in humans. Here are some of the most common Clostridium infections with their medical definitions:

1. Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI): An infection caused by the bacterium Clostridioides difficile, previously known as Clostridium difficile. It typically occurs after antibiotic use disrupts the normal gut microbiota, allowing C. difficile to overgrow and produce toxins that cause diarrhea, colitis, and other gastrointestinal symptoms. Severe cases can lead to sepsis, toxic megacolon, or even death.
2. Clostridium tetani infection: Also known as tetanus, this infection is caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. The spores of this bacterium are commonly found in soil and animal feces. They can enter the body through wounds, cuts, or punctures, germinate, and produce a potent exotoxin called tetanospasmin. This toxin causes muscle stiffness and spasms, particularly in the neck and jaw (lockjaw), which can lead to difficulty swallowing, breathing, and potentially fatal complications.
3. Clostridium botulinum infection: This infection is caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and results in botulism, a rare but severe paralytic illness. The bacteria produce neurotoxins (botulinum toxins) that affect the nervous system, causing symptoms such as double vision, drooping eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, dry mouth, and muscle weakness. In severe cases, botulism can lead to respiratory failure and death.
4. Gas gangrene (Clostridium perfringens infection): A rapidly progressing soft tissue infection caused by Clostridium perfringens or other clostridial species. The bacteria produce potent exotoxins that cause tissue destruction, gas production, and widespread necrosis. Gas gangrene is characterized by severe pain, swelling, discoloration, and a foul-smelling discharge. If left untreated, it can lead to sepsis, multi-organ failure, and death.
5. Clostridioides difficile infection (C. difficile infection): Although not caused by a typical clostridial species, C. difficile is a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium that can cause severe diarrhea and colitis, particularly in hospitalized patients or those who have recently taken antibiotics. The bacteria produce toxins A and B, which damage the intestinal lining and contribute to inflammation and diarrhea. C. difficile infection can range from mild to life-threatening, with complications such as sepsis, toxic megacolon, and bowel perforation.

'Clostridium botulinum' is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic bacteria that produces one or more neurotoxins known as botulinum toxins. These toxins are among the most potent naturally occurring biological poisons and can cause a severe form of food poisoning called botulism in humans and animals. Botulism is characterized by symmetrical descending flaccid paralysis, which can lead to respiratory and cardiovascular failure, and ultimately death if not treated promptly.

The bacteria are widely distributed in nature, particularly in soil, sediments, and the intestinal tracts of some animals. They can form spores that are highly resistant to heat, chemicals, and other environmental stresses, allowing them to survive for long periods in adverse conditions. The spores can germinate and produce vegetative cells and toxins when they encounter favorable conditions, such as anaerobic environments with appropriate nutrients.

Human botulism can occur through three main routes of exposure: foodborne, wound, and infant botulism. Foodborne botulism results from consuming contaminated food containing preformed toxins, while wound botulism occurs when the bacteria infect a wound and produce toxins in situ. Infant botulism is caused by the ingestion of spores that colonize the intestines and produce toxins, mainly affecting infants under one year of age.

Prevention measures include proper food handling, storage, and preparation practices, such as cooking and canning foods at appropriate temperatures and for sufficient durations. Wound care and prompt medical attention are crucial in preventing wound botulism. Vaccines and antitoxins are available for prophylaxis and treatment of botulism in high-risk individuals or in cases of confirmed exposure.

Pseudomembranous enterocolitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the inner lining of the small intestine (enteritis) and large intestine (colitis), resulting in the formation of pseudomembranes – raised, yellowish-white plaques composed of fibrin, mucus, and inflammatory cells. The condition is most commonly caused by a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile), which can overgrow in the gut following disruption of the normal gut microbiota, often after antibiotic use. Symptoms may include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, and dehydration. Severe cases can lead to complications such as sepsis, toxic megacolon, or even death if left untreated. Treatment typically involves discontinuing the offending antibiotic, administering oral metronidazole or vancomycin to eliminate C. difficile, and managing symptoms with supportive care. In some cases, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may be considered as a treatment option.

'Clostridium acetobutylicum' is a gram-positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in soil and aquatic environments. It is a species of the genus Clostridium, which includes many bacteria capable of producing industrial chemicals through fermentation.

'Clostridium acetobutylicum' is particularly known for its ability to produce acetic acid and butyric acid, as well as solvents such as acetone and butanol, during the process of anaerobic respiration. This makes it a potential candidate for biotechnological applications in the production of biofuels and other industrial chemicals.

However, like many Clostridium species, 'Clostridium acetobutylicum' can also produce toxins and cause infections in humans and animals under certain circumstances. Therefore, it is important to handle this organism with care and follow appropriate safety protocols when working with it in a laboratory setting.

'Clostridium thermocellum' is a type of anaerobic, gram-positive bacterium that is known for its ability to produce cellulases and break down cellulose. It is thermophilic, meaning it grows optimally at higher temperatures, typically between 55-70°C. This organism is of interest in the field of bioenergy because of its potential to convert plant biomass into useful products such as biofuels. However, it's important to note that this bacterium can also produce harmful metabolic byproducts and can be potentially pathogenic to humans.

'Clostridium tetani' is a gram-positive, spore-forming, anaerobic bacterium that is the causative agent of tetanus. The bacteria are commonly found in soil, dust, and manure, and can contaminate wounds, leading to the production of a potent neurotoxin called tetanospasmin. This toxin causes muscle spasms and stiffness, particularly in the jaw and neck muscles, as well as autonomic nervous system dysfunction, which can be life-threatening. Tetanus is preventable through vaccination with the tetanus toxoid vaccine.

Botulinum toxins are neurotoxic proteins produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species. They are the most potent naturally occurring toxins, and are responsible for the paralytic illness known as botulism. There are seven distinct botulinum toxin serotypes (A-G), each of which targets specific proteins in the nervous system, leading to inhibition of neurotransmitter release and subsequent muscle paralysis.

In clinical settings, botulinum toxins have been used for therapeutic purposes due to their ability to cause temporary muscle relaxation. Botulinum toxin type A (Botox) is the most commonly used serotype in medical treatments, including management of dystonias, spasticity, migraines, and certain neurological disorders. Additionally, botulinum toxins are widely employed in aesthetic medicine for reducing wrinkles and fine lines by temporarily paralyzing facial muscles.

It is important to note that while botulinum toxins have therapeutic benefits when used appropriately, they can also pose significant health risks if misused or improperly handled. Proper medical training and supervision are essential for safe and effective utilization of these powerful toxins.

'Clostridium sordellii' is a gram-positive, spore-forming, anaerobic rod-shaped bacterium. It is part of the normal microbiota found in the human and animal gastrointestinal tract. However, it can cause severe and potentially fatal infections in humans, such as sepsis, myonecrosis (gas gangrene), and soft tissue infections. These infections are more commonly associated with contaminated wounds, surgical sites, or drug use (particularly black tar heroin). The bacterium produces powerful toxins that contribute to its virulence and can lead to rapid progression of the infection. Immediate medical attention is required for proper diagnosis and treatment, which typically involves antibiotics, surgical debridement, and supportive care.

Bacterial toxins are poisonous substances produced and released by bacteria. They can cause damage to the host organism's cells and tissues, leading to illness or disease. Bacterial toxins can be classified into two main types: exotoxins and endotoxins.

Exotoxins are proteins secreted by bacterial cells that can cause harm to the host. They often target specific cellular components or pathways, leading to tissue damage and inflammation. Some examples of exotoxins include botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum, which causes botulism; diphtheria toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which causes diphtheria; and tetanus toxin produced by Clostridium tetani, which causes tetanus.

Endotoxins, on the other hand, are components of the bacterial cell wall that are released when the bacteria die or divide. They consist of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and can cause a generalized inflammatory response in the host. Endotoxins can be found in gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Bacterial toxins can cause a wide range of symptoms depending on the type of toxin, the dose, and the site of infection. They can lead to serious illnesses or even death if left untreated. Vaccines and antibiotics are often used to prevent or treat bacterial infections and reduce the risk of severe complications from bacterial toxins.

'Clostridium butyricum' is a gram-positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the environment, including soil and water. It is also part of the normal gut microbiota in humans and animals. This organism produces butyric acid as one of its main fermentation products, hence the name 'butyricum'.

While 'Clostridium butyricum' can sometimes be associated with human diseases, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying gastrointestinal disorders, it is also being investigated for its potential probiotic properties. Some studies suggest that certain strains of this bacterium may help prevent and treat various conditions, such as antibiotic-associated diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. However, more research is needed to confirm these findings and establish the safety and efficacy of 'Clostridium butyricum' as a probiotic.

'Clostridium septicum' is a gram-positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in soil and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. It is an obligate anaerobe, meaning it grows best in environments with little or no oxygen.

The bacterium can cause a serious infection known as clostridial myonecrosis or gas gangrene, which is characterized by rapidly spreading tissue death and gas formation in muscles. This condition is often associated with traumatic injuries, surgical wounds, or underlying conditions that compromise the immune system, such as cancer or diabetes.

'Clostridium septicum' infection can also lead to sepsis, a life-threatening condition characterized by overwhelming inflammation throughout the body. Symptoms of 'Clostridium septicum' infection may include fever, severe pain, swelling, and discoloration at the site of infection, as well as systemic symptoms such as low blood pressure, rapid heart rate, and confusion.

Treatment typically involves surgical debridement of infected tissue, along with antibiotic therapy targeting 'Clostridium septicum' and other anaerobic bacteria. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent the spread of infection and reduce the risk of serious complications or death.

Enterotoxins are types of toxic substances that are produced by certain microorganisms, such as bacteria. These toxins are specifically designed to target and affect the cells in the intestines, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps. One well-known example of an enterotoxin is the toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, which can cause food poisoning. Another example is the cholera toxin produced by Vibrio cholerae, which can cause severe diarrhea and dehydration. Enterotoxins work by interfering with the normal functioning of intestinal cells, leading to fluid accumulation in the intestines and subsequent symptoms.

'Clostridium beijerinckii' is a species of gram-positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria found in various environments such as soil, aquatic sediments, and the intestinal tracts of animals. It is named after the Dutch microbiologist Martinus Willem Beijerinck.

This bacterium is capable of fermenting a wide range of organic compounds and producing a variety of metabolic end-products, including butanol, acetone, and ethanol. 'Clostridium beijerinckii' has attracted interest in biotechnology due to its potential for the production of biofuels and industrial chemicals through fermentation processes.

However, it is also known to cause food spoilage and, under certain circumstances, can produce harmful metabolites that may pose a risk to human health. Therefore, proper handling and safety precautions are necessary when working with this bacterium in laboratory or industrial settings.

Botulism is a rare but serious condition caused by the toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. The neurotoxin causes muscle paralysis, which can lead to respiratory failure and death if not treated promptly. Botulism can occur in three main forms: foodborne, wound, and infant.

Foodborne botulism is caused by consuming contaminated food, usually home-canned or fermented foods with low acid content. Wound botulism occurs when the bacterium infects a wound and produces toxin in the body. Infant botulism affects babies under one year of age who have ingested spores of the bacterium, which then colonize the intestines and produce toxin.

Symptoms of botulism include double vision, drooping eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, dry mouth, muscle weakness, and paralysis that progresses downward from the head to the limbs. Treatment typically involves supportive care such as mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit monitoring, and antitoxin therapy. Prevention measures include proper food handling and canning techniques, prompt wound care, and avoiding consumption of known sources of contaminated food.

Ribotyping is a molecular technique used in microbiology to identify and differentiate bacterial strains based on their specific PCR-amplified ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. This method involves the use of specific DNA probes or primers to target conserved regions of the rRNA operon, followed by hybridization or sequencing to analyze the resulting patterns. These patterns, known as "ribotypes," are unique to different bacterial species and strains, making ribotyping a valuable tool in epidemiological studies, outbreak investigations, and taxonomic classification of bacteria.

I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. Bacteria do not produce spores; instead, it is fungi and other types of microorganisms that produce spores for reproduction and survival purposes. Spores are essentially reproductive cells that are resistant to heat, radiation, and chemicals, allowing them to survive under harsh conditions.

If you meant to ask about endospores, those are produced by some bacteria as a protective mechanism during times of stress or nutrient deprivation. Endospores are highly resistant structures containing bacterial DNA, ribosomes, and some enzymes. They can survive for long periods in extreme environments and germinate into vegetative cells when conditions improve.

Here's the medical definition of endospores:

Endospores (also called bacterial spores) are highly resistant, dormant structures produced by certain bacteria belonging to the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. They contain a core of bacterial DNA, ribosomes, and some enzymes surrounded by a protective layer called the spore coat. Endospores can survive under harsh conditions for extended periods and germinate into vegetative cells when favorable conditions return. Common examples of endospore-forming bacteria include Bacillus species (such as B. anthracis, which causes anthrax) and Clostridium species (such as C. difficile, which can cause severe diarrhea).

'Clostridium botulinum type A' is a gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium that produces a potent neurotoxin known as botulinum toxin type A. This toxin is one of the most deadly substances known, with a lethal dose estimated to be as low as 1 nanogram per kilogram of body weight. The bacterium and its toxin are the causative agents of botulism, a rare but serious paralytic illness in humans and animals.

The neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum type A works by blocking the release of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that is essential for muscle contraction. This results in flaccid paralysis, which can affect the muscles used for breathing and lead to respiratory failure and death if not treated promptly.

Botulinum toxin type A has also found therapeutic use in the treatment of various medical conditions, including strabismus, blepharospasm, cervical dystonia, and chronic migraine. It is marketed under the brand names Botox, Dysport, and Xeomin, among others. However, it is important to note that these therapeutic uses involve carefully controlled doses administered by trained medical professionals, and should not be attempted outside of a clinical setting.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

'Clostridium cellulolyticum' is a species of gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic bacteria found in soil and aquatic environments. It is known for its ability to break down complex carbohydrates such as cellulose and hemicellulose into simple sugars through the process of fermentation. This makes it a potential candidate for biofuel production from plant biomass.

The bacterium produces a range of enzymes that can degrade these polysaccharides, including cellulases and xylanases. These enzymes work together in a complex system to break down the cellulose and hemicellulose into monosaccharides, which can then be fermented by the bacterium to produce various end products such as acetate, ethanol, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide.

'Clostridium cellulolyticum' is also known to produce a number of other enzymes and metabolites that have potential applications in industry, including amylases, proteases, and lipases. However, further research is needed to fully understand the biology and potential uses of this organism.

'Clostridium cellulovorans' is a species of gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic bacteria that is commonly found in soil and aquatic environments. It is known for its ability to break down complex carbohydrates, such as cellulose and xylan, into simpler sugars, which it then ferments to produce various end products, including acetate, ethanol, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide.

The bacterium is of interest in the field of bioenergy, as its ability to efficiently convert plant biomass into useful chemicals has potential applications in the production of biofuels and other bioproducts. Additionally, 'C. cellulovorans' has been studied for its potential use in bioremediation, as it is capable of degrading a variety of pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides.

It is important to note that while 'C. cellulovorans' is generally considered to be a non-pathogenic bacterium, it can cause infections in individuals with compromised immune systems or underlying medical conditions. As with any potential pathogen, appropriate precautions should be taken when handling this organism in the laboratory setting.

'Clostridium chauvoei' is a species of gram-positive, spore-forming, anaerobic bacteria that causes a disease called blackleg in ruminants such as cattle, sheep, and goats. The bacteria are commonly found in soil and the intestinal tracts of animals. Blackleg is characterized by rapidly progressive gangrene of the muscles, leading to severe lameness, swelling, and fever. In advanced stages, the affected tissue turns black due to the production of a potent exotoxin called alpha-toxin. The disease can be prevented through vaccination.

Cellulase is a type of enzyme that breaks down cellulose, which is a complex carbohydrate and the main structural component of plant cell walls. Cellulases are produced by certain bacteria, fungi, and protozoans, and are used in various industrial applications such as biofuel production, food processing, and textile manufacturing. In the human body, there are no known physiological roles for cellulases, as humans do not produce these enzymes and cannot digest cellulose.

Butanols are a family of alcohols with four carbon atoms and a chemical formula of C4H9OH. They are commonly used as solvents, intermediates in chemical synthesis, and fuel additives. The most common butanol is n-butanol (normal butanol), which has a straight chain of four carbon atoms. Other forms include secondary butanols (such as isobutanol) and tertiary butanols (such as tert-butanol). These compounds have different physical and chemical properties due to the differences in their molecular structure, but they all share the common characteristic of being alcohols with four carbon atoms.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Gas gangrene, also known as clostridial myonecrosis, is a severe and potentially life-threatening infection that can rapidly spread in the muscles and tissues. It is caused by certain types of bacteria, particularly Clostridium perfringens and other Clostridium species, which produce toxins and gases as they multiply within the body's tissues.

The infection often occurs in traumatized or compromised soft tissues, such as those that have been crushed, severely injured, or poorly perfused due to vascular insufficiency. Gas gangrene can also develop following surgical procedures, especially in cases where there is a lack of adequate blood supply or devitalized tissue.

The hallmark symptoms of gas gangrene include severe pain, swelling, discoloration, and a foul-smelling discharge at the infection site. Additionally, crepitus (a crackling or popping sensation) may be present due to the accumulation of gas within the tissues. If left untreated, gas gangrene can lead to sepsis, organ failure, and even death. Immediate medical attention, including surgical debridement, antibiotic therapy, and sometimes hyperbaric oxygen treatment, is crucial for managing this potentially fatal condition.

'Clostridium botulinum type E' is a gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacterium that produces the neurotoxin botulinum toxin type E. This toxin is one of the seven types of botulinum neurotoxins (A-G) produced by various strains of Clostridium botulinum and related species. The botulinum toxin type E causes a form of botulism, a rare but serious illness characterized by muscle paralysis that can lead to respiratory failure and death.

Botulism caused by C. botulinum type E is often associated with the consumption of contaminated fish or marine products in aquatic environments of cold temperature, such as the Baltic and North Seas, and the Great Lakes in North America. The spores of this bacterium are resistant to heat and can survive in improperly processed or preserved food, leading to intoxication when ingested.

Preventive measures include proper handling, storage, and cooking of susceptible foods, as well as prompt medical attention if symptoms of botulism appear, such as double vision, drooping eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, dry mouth, and muscle weakness. Botulinum toxin type E antitoxin is available for the treatment of botulism caused by this strain, but early diagnosis and intervention are crucial for a favorable prognosis.

'Clostridium kluyveri' is a type of anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium that is commonly found in the environment, such as in soil and sewage. It is a gram-positive bacterium that can cause opportunistic infections in humans, particularly in individuals with compromised immune systems.

The bacterium is named after the Dutch microbiologist Albert Jan Kluyver, who made significant contributions to the field of microbiology in the early 20th century. 'Clostridium kluyveri' is known for its ability to ferment a variety of substrates and produce acetate, butyrate, and hydrogen as end products.

Infections caused by 'Clostridium kluyveri' are rare but can include bacteremia, brain abscesses, and soft tissue infections. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics that are active against anaerobic bacteria, such as metronidazole or clindamycin.

'Clostridium histolyticum' is a gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium that is known to produce several exoenzymes, including collagenases and gelatinases. This organism is commonly found in soil and the intestinal tracts of humans and animals. It can cause severe soft tissue infections, including gas gangrene, due to its ability to produce powerful toxins that can cause tissue necrosis. 'Clostridium histolyticum' is also used in medical treatments for conditions such as chronic wounds and urinary tract disorders due to its collagenase production.

Diarrhea is a condition in which an individual experiences loose, watery stools frequently, often exceeding three times a day. It can be acute, lasting for several days, or chronic, persisting for weeks or even months. Diarrhea can result from various factors, including viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections, food intolerances, medications, and underlying medical conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. Dehydration is a potential complication of diarrhea, particularly in severe cases or in vulnerable populations like young children and the elderly.

In the context of medicine, spores are typically discussed in relation to certain types of infections and diseases caused by microorganisms such as bacteria or fungi. Spores are a dormant, resistant form of these microorganisms that can survive under harsh environmental conditions, such as extreme temperatures, lack of nutrients, and exposure to chemicals.

Spores can be highly resistant to heat, radiation, and disinfectants, making them difficult to eliminate from contaminated surfaces or medical equipment. When the conditions are favorable, spores can germinate and grow into mature microorganisms that can cause infection.

Some examples of medically relevant spores include those produced by Clostridioides difficile (C. diff), a bacterium that can cause severe diarrhea and colitis in hospitalized patients, and Aspergillus fumigatus, a fungus that can cause invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals.

It's worth noting that spores are not unique to medical contexts and have broader relevance in fields such as botany, mycology, and biology.

Cellulose is a complex carbohydrate that is the main structural component of the cell walls of green plants, many algae, and some fungi. It is a polysaccharide consisting of long chains of beta-glucose molecules linked together by beta-1,4 glycosidic bonds. Cellulose is insoluble in water and most organic solvents, and it is resistant to digestion by humans and non-ruminant animals due to the lack of cellulase enzymes in their digestive systems. However, ruminants such as cows and sheep can digest cellulose with the help of microbes in their rumen that produce cellulase.

Cellulose has many industrial applications, including the production of paper, textiles, and building materials. It is also used as a source of dietary fiber in human food and animal feed. Cellulose-based materials are being explored for use in biomedical applications such as tissue engineering and drug delivery due to their biocompatibility and mechanical properties.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Anaerobic bacteria are a type of bacteria that do not require oxygen to grow and survive. Instead, they can grow in environments that have little or no oxygen. Some anaerobic bacteria can even be harmed or killed by exposure to oxygen. These bacteria play important roles in many natural processes, such as decomposition and the breakdown of organic matter in the digestive system. However, some anaerobic bacteria can also cause disease in humans and animals, particularly when they infect areas of the body that are normally oxygen-rich. Examples of anaerobic bacterial infections include tetanus, gas gangrene, and dental abscesses.

ADP Ribose Transferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of ADP-ribose groups from donor molecules, such as NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), to specific acceptor molecules. This transfer process plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including DNA repair, gene expression regulation, and modulation of protein function.

The reaction catalyzed by ADP Ribose Transferases can be represented as follows:

Donor (NAD+ or NADP+) + Acceptor → Product (NR + ADP-ribosylated acceptor)

There are two main types of ADP Ribose Transferases based on their function and the type of modification they perform:

1. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs): These enzymes add multiple ADP-ribose units to a single acceptor protein, forming long, linear, or branched chains known as poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). PARylation is involved in DNA repair, genomic stability, and cell death pathways.
2. Monomeric ADP-ribosyltransferases: These enzymes transfer a single ADP-ribose unit to an acceptor protein, which is called mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation. This modification can regulate protein function, localization, and stability in various cellular processes, such as signal transduction, inflammation, and stress response.

Dysregulation of ADP Ribose Transferases has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of these enzymes is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to target these conditions.

Cytotoxins are substances that are toxic to cells. They can cause damage and death to cells by disrupting their membranes, interfering with their metabolism, or triggering programmed cell death (apoptosis). Cytotoxins can be produced by various organisms such as bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals, and they can also be synthesized artificially.

In medicine, cytotoxic drugs are used to treat cancer because they selectively target and kill rapidly dividing cells, including cancer cells. Examples of cytotoxic drugs include chemotherapy agents such as doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and methotrexate. However, these drugs can also damage normal cells, leading to side effects such as nausea, hair loss, and immune suppression.

It's important to note that cytotoxins are not the same as toxins, which are poisonous substances produced by living organisms that can cause harm to other organisms. While all cytotoxins are toxic to cells, not all toxins are cytotoxic. Some toxins may have systemic effects on organs or tissues rather than directly killing cells.

Antitoxins are substances, typically antibodies, that neutralize toxins produced by bacteria or other harmful organisms. They work by binding to the toxin molecules and rendering them inactive, preventing them from causing harm to the body. Antitoxins can be produced naturally by the immune system during an infection, or they can be administered artificially through immunization or passive immunotherapy. In a medical context, antitoxins are often used as a treatment for certain types of bacterial infections, such as diphtheria and botulism, to help counteract the effects of the toxins produced by the bacteria.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

'Clostridium botulinum type B' is a gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacterium that produces botulinum neurotoxin type B. This toxin is one of the seven types of botulinum neurotoxins (A-G) produced by various strains of Clostridium botulinum and related species. Botulinum neurotoxin type B is responsible for causing botulism, a rare but serious illness that affects the nervous system and can cause paralysis and even be fatal. The bacterium is commonly found in soil and water and can produce spores that are resistant to heat, which allows them to survive in adverse conditions. Botulinum neurotoxin type B is also used in medical treatments for various neurological disorders, such as cervical dystonia, blepharospasm, and chronic migraine, under the brand name Myobloc or NeuroBloc.

Biological toxins are poisonous substances that are produced by living organisms such as bacteria, plants, and animals. They can cause harm to humans, animals, or the environment. Biological toxins can be classified into different categories based on their mode of action, such as neurotoxins (affecting the nervous system), cytotoxins (damaging cells), and enterotoxins (causing intestinal damage).

Examples of biological toxins include botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum bacteria, tetanus toxin produced by Clostridium tetani bacteria, ricin toxin from the castor bean plant, and saxitoxin produced by certain types of marine algae.

Biological toxins can cause a range of symptoms depending on the type and amount of toxin ingested or exposed to, as well as the route of exposure (e.g., inhalation, ingestion, skin contact). They can cause illnesses ranging from mild to severe, and some can be fatal if not treated promptly and effectively.

Prevention and control measures for biological toxins include good hygiene practices, vaccination against certain toxin-producing bacteria, avoidance of contaminated food or water sources, and personal protective equipment (PPE) when handling or working with potential sources of toxins.

Cellulosomes are large, complex enzymatic structures produced by certain anaerobic bacteria that allow them to break down and consume cellulose, a major component of plant biomass. These structures are composed of multiple enzymes that work together in a coordinated manner to degrade cellulose into simpler sugars, which the bacteria can then use as a source of energy and carbon.

The individual enzymes in a cellulosome are non-covalently associated with a central scaffoldin protein, forming a multi-enzyme complex. The scaffoldin protein contains cohesin modules that bind to dockerin modules on the enzyme subunits, creating a highly organized and stable structure.

Cellulosomes have been identified in several species of anaerobic bacteria, including members of the genera Clostridium and Ruminococcus. They are thought to play a key role in the global carbon cycle by breaking down plant material and releasing carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere.

'Clostridium tyrobutyricum' is a gram-positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in soil and dairy products. It is a member of the genus Clostridium, which includes several species that are important human and animal pathogens.

'Clostridium tyrobutyricum' is not typically considered a human pathogen, but it can cause spoilage of certain foods, particularly cheese, through the production of large amounts of butyric and acetic acids. These acids can lower the pH of the food and give it an unpleasant odor and taste.

In addition to its role in food spoilage, 'Clostridium tyrobutyricum' has been studied for its potential industrial applications. It is capable of producing a variety of chemicals, including butanol, acetone, and hydrogen, which have potential uses as biofuels or in other industrial processes.

It is important to note that while 'Clostridium tyrobutyricum' is not typically harmful to humans, other species of Clostridium can cause serious illness, so it is always important to handle and store food properly to prevent contamination and spoilage.

Enterotoxemia is a condition characterized by the presence of toxins (specifically, enterotoxins) produced by certain types of bacteria in the intestines. This condition primarily affects ruminant animals such as sheep, goats, and cattle, although it can also occur in other species including humans.

The bacteria responsible for enterotoxemia are often part of the normal gut flora but can cause disease when they overgrow and produce large amounts of toxins. The most common bacterial species associated with enterotoxemia are Clostridium perfringens types C and D, and occasionally type A. These bacteria produce potent enterotoxins that can cause damage to the intestinal lining, leading to inflammation, diarrhea, dehydration, and potentially fatal septicemia.

Enterotoxemia can occur in animals of any age but is most commonly seen in young animals that have not yet fully developed their immune system or have been recently weaned. The condition can be triggered by a variety of factors, including dietary changes, overeating, stress, and viral infections.

Prevention of enterotoxemia typically involves vaccination against the causative bacteria and good management practices to minimize stress and prevent overeating. Treatment may involve supportive care such as fluid therapy, antibiotics, and anti-toxins, but the prognosis is often guarded, especially in severe cases.

Clostridium botulinum type D is a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium that produces a potent neurotoxin known as botulinum toxin type D. This toxin is one of the seven types of botulinum toxins (A-G) produced by various strains of Clostridium botulinum and related species. The bacteria and their toxins are the causative agents of botulism, a rare but serious illness that affects the nervous system and can cause paralysis and death if left untreated.

Botulinum toxin type D is particularly associated with cases of animal botulism, such as those observed in cattle and birds. It has also been studied for its potential therapeutic uses, including its ability to block the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, which can be useful in treating various medical conditions characterized by muscle spasticity or excessive secretion. However, the use of botulinum toxin type D in humans is not widely approved or practiced due to its lower potency and shorter duration of action compared to other types of botulinum toxins.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

'Clostridium botulinum type F' is a gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacterium that produces a powerful neurotoxin known as botulinum toxin type F. This toxin is one of the seven types of botulinum toxins (A-G) produced by various strains of Clostridium botulinum and related species. The botulinum toxin type F causes a rare form of botulism, known as foodborne or wound botulism, which can lead to muscle paralysis and respiratory failure if left untreated. This bacterium and its toxin are classified as tier 1 select agents due to their high potential for misuse as bioterrorism agents.

Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms that are present in food, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. This field examines how these microbes interact with food, how they affect its safety and quality, and how they can be controlled during food production, processing, storage, and preparation. Food microbiology also involves the development of methods for detecting and identifying pathogenic microorganisms in food, as well as studying the mechanisms of foodborne illnesses and developing strategies to prevent them. Additionally, it includes research on the beneficial microbes found in certain fermented foods and their potential applications in improving food quality and safety.

Fermentation is a metabolic process in which an organism converts carbohydrates into alcohol or organic acids using enzymes. In the absence of oxygen, certain bacteria, yeasts, and fungi convert sugars into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and various end products, such as alcohol, lactic acid, or acetic acid. This process is commonly used in food production, such as in making bread, wine, and beer, as well as in industrial applications for the production of biofuels and chemicals.

Anaerobiosis is a state in which an organism or a portion of an organism is able to live and grow in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). In biological contexts, "anaerobe" refers to any organism that does not require oxygen for growth, and "aerobe" refers to an organism that does require oxygen for growth.

There are two types of anaerobes: obligate anaerobes, which cannot tolerate the presence of oxygen and will die if exposed to it; and facultative anaerobes, which can grow with or without oxygen but prefer to grow in its absence. Some organisms are able to switch between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism depending on the availability of oxygen, a process known as "facultative anaerobiosis."

Anaerobic respiration is a type of metabolic process that occurs in the absence of molecular oxygen. In this process, organisms use alternative electron acceptors other than oxygen to generate energy through the transfer of electrons during cellular respiration. Examples of alternative electron acceptors include nitrate, sulfate, and carbon dioxide.

Anaerobic metabolism is less efficient than aerobic metabolism in terms of energy production, but it allows organisms to survive in environments where oxygen is not available or is toxic. Anaerobic bacteria are important decomposers in many ecosystems, breaking down organic matter and releasing nutrients back into the environment. In the human body, anaerobic bacteria can cause infections and other health problems if they proliferate in areas with low oxygen levels, such as the mouth, intestines, or deep tissue wounds.

Metronidazole is an antibiotic and antiprotozoal medication. It is primarily used to treat infections caused by anaerobic bacteria and certain parasites. Metronidazole works by interfering with the DNA of these organisms, which inhibits their ability to grow and multiply.

It is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, creams, and gels, and is often used to treat conditions such as bacterial vaginosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, amebiasis, giardiasis, and pseudomembranous colitis.

Like all antibiotics, metronidazole should be taken only under the direction of a healthcare provider, as misuse can lead to antibiotic resistance and other complications.

Cellobiose is a disaccharide made up of two molecules of glucose joined by a β-1,4-glycosidic bond. It is formed when cellulose or beta-glucans are hydrolyzed, and it can be further broken down into its component glucose molecules by the action of the enzyme beta-glucosidase. Cellobiose has a sweet taste, but it is not as sweet as sucrose (table sugar). It is used in some industrial processes and may have potential applications in the food industry.

Enteritis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the small intestine. The small intestine is responsible for digesting and absorbing nutrients from food, so inflammation in this area can interfere with these processes and lead to symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss.

Enteritis can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacterial or viral infections, parasites, autoimmune disorders, medications, and exposure to toxins. In some cases, the cause of enteritis may be unknown. Treatment for enteritis depends on the underlying cause, but may include antibiotics, antiparasitic drugs, anti-inflammatory medications, or supportive care such as fluid replacement therapy.

Bacteriological techniques refer to the various methods and procedures used in the laboratory for the cultivation, identification, and study of bacteria. These techniques are essential in fields such as medicine, biotechnology, and research. Here are some common bacteriological techniques:

1. **Sterilization**: This is a process that eliminates or kills all forms of life, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. Common sterilization methods include autoclaving (using steam under pressure), dry heat (in an oven), chemical sterilants, and radiation.

2. **Aseptic Technique**: This refers to practices used to prevent contamination of sterile materials or environments with microorganisms. It includes the use of sterile equipment, gloves, and lab coats, as well as techniques such as flaming, alcohol swabbing, and using aseptic transfer devices.

3. **Media Preparation**: This involves the preparation of nutrient-rich substances that support bacterial growth. There are various types of media, including solid (agar), liquid (broth), and semi-solid (e.g., stab agar). The choice of medium depends on the type of bacteria being cultured and the purpose of the investigation.

4. **Inoculation**: This is the process of introducing a bacterial culture into a medium. It can be done using a loop, swab, or needle. The inoculum should be taken from a pure culture to avoid contamination.

5. **Incubation**: After inoculation, the bacteria are allowed to grow under controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, and atmospheric composition. This process is called incubation.

6. **Staining and Microscopy**: Bacteria are too small to be seen with the naked eye. Therefore, they need to be stained and observed under a microscope. Gram staining is a common method used to differentiate between two major groups of bacteria based on their cell wall composition.

7. **Biochemical Tests**: These are tests used to identify specific bacterial species based on their biochemical characteristics, such as their ability to ferment certain sugars, produce particular enzymes, or resist certain antibiotics.

8. **Molecular Techniques**: Advanced techniques like PCR and DNA sequencing can provide more precise identification of bacteria. They can also be used for genetic analysis and epidemiological studies.

Remember, handling microorganisms requires careful attention to biosafety procedures to prevent accidental infection or environmental contamination.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

Food preservation, in the context of medical and nutritional sciences, refers to the process of treating, handling, and storing food items to reduce the risk of foodborne illness and to extend their shelf life. The goal is to prevent the growth of pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and mold, as well as to slow down the oxidation process that can lead to spoilage.

Common methods of food preservation include:

1. Refrigeration and freezing: These techniques slow down the growth of microorganisms and enzyme activity that cause food to spoil.
2. Canning: This involves sealing food in airtight containers, then heating them to destroy microorganisms and inactivate enzymes.
3. Dehydration: Removing water from food inhibits the growth of bacteria, yeasts, and molds.
4. Acidification: Adding acidic ingredients like lemon juice or vinegar can lower the pH of food, making it less hospitable to microorganisms.
5. Fermentation: This process involves converting sugars into alcohol or acids using bacteria or yeasts, which can preserve food and also enhance its flavor.
6. Irradiation: Exposing food to small doses of radiation can kill bacteria, parasites, and insects, extending the shelf life of certain foods.
7. Pasteurization: Heating food to a specific temperature for a set period of time can destroy harmful bacteria while preserving the nutritional value and taste.

Proper food preservation is crucial in preventing foodborne illnesses and ensuring the safety and quality of the food supply.

Ferredoxins are iron-sulfur proteins that play a crucial role in electron transfer reactions in various biological systems, particularly in photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation. They contain one or more clusters of iron and sulfur atoms (known as the iron-sulfur cluster) that facilitate the movement of electrons between different molecules during metabolic processes.

Ferredoxins have a relatively simple structure, consisting of a polypeptide chain that binds to the iron-sulfur cluster. This simple structure allows ferredoxins to participate in a wide range of redox reactions and makes them versatile electron carriers in biological systems. They can accept electrons from various donors and transfer them to different acceptors, depending on the needs of the cell.

In photosynthesis, ferredoxins play a critical role in the light-dependent reactions by accepting electrons from photosystem I and transferring them to NADP+, forming NADPH. This reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) is then used in the Calvin cycle for carbon fixation and the production of glucose.

In nitrogen fixation, ferredoxins help transfer electrons to the nitrogenase enzyme complex, which reduces atmospheric nitrogen gas (N2) into ammonia (NH3), making it available for assimilation by plants and other organisms.

Overall, ferredoxins are essential components of many metabolic pathways, facilitating electron transfer and energy conversion in various biological systems.

Rubredoxins are small iron-sulfur proteins that contain a single iron atom bonded to four cysteine residues, forming an iron(II)-sulfur cluster. They play a role in electron transfer reactions in certain bacteria and archaea. The name "rubredoxin" comes from the fact that these proteins can be easily reduced, turning them red in color. They have a molecular weight of around 6,000 daltons and are known for their stability and resistance to chemical changes. Rubredoxins are not commonly found in higher organisms such as plants and animals.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Toxoids are inactivated bacterial toxins that have lost their toxicity but retain their antigenicity. They are often used in vaccines to stimulate an immune response and provide protection against certain diseases without causing the harmful effects associated with the active toxin. The process of converting a toxin into a toxoid is called detoxication, which is typically achieved through chemical or heat treatment.

One example of a toxoid-based vaccine is the diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DT) or diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis toxoids (DTaP or TdaP) vaccines. These vaccines contain inactivated forms of the diphtheria and tetanus toxins, as well as inactivated pertussis toxin in the case of DTaP or TdaP vaccines. By exposing the immune system to these toxoids, the body learns to recognize and mount a response against the actual toxins produced by the bacteria, thereby providing immunity and protection against the diseases they cause.

'Clostridium sticklandii' is a species of anaerobic, gram-positive bacteria found in various environments such as soil, sediment, and the intestinal tracts of animals. The bacterium is named after Frederick G. S. Stickland, who first described its ability to oxidize amino acids through a process called "Stickland fermentation."

In this process, 'C. sticklandii' can use one amino acid as an electron donor and another amino acid as an electron acceptor, producing energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and acetate or butyrate as end products. This ability to ferment amino acids without the need for carbohydrates makes 'C. sticklandii' unique among anaerobic bacteria.

While 'C. sticklandii' is not typically associated with human diseases, it has been studied in the context of biotechnology and bioenergy production due to its ability to produce hydrogen gas during fermentation. However, under certain circumstances, this bacterium can cause food spoilage or opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Foodborne diseases, also known as foodborne illnesses or food poisoning, are defined as disorders caused by the consumption of contaminated foods or beverages, which contain harmful bacteria, parasites, viruses, toxins, or chemicals. These agents can cause a range of symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and dehydration. The severity of the illness can vary from mild discomfort to severe life-threatening conditions, depending on the type of infectious agent and the individual's immune system and overall health status. Common examples of foodborne diseases include Salmonella, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Listeria, Staphylococcus aureus, and Norovirus infections. Proper food handling, preparation, storage, and cooking can help prevent the occurrence of foodborne diseases.

Botulinum antitoxin refers to a medication made from the antibodies that are generated in response to the botulinum toxin, which is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botulinum toxin is a potent neurotoxin that can cause paralysis and other serious medical complications in humans and animals.

The antitoxin works by neutralizing the effects of the toxin in the body, preventing further damage to the nervous system. It is typically used in emergency situations to treat individuals who have been exposed to large amounts of botulinum toxin, such as in a bioterrorism attack or accidental exposure in a laboratory setting.

Botulinum antitoxin is not the same as botulinum toxin type A (Botox), which is a purified form of the toxin that is used for cosmetic and therapeutic purposes. Botox works by temporarily paralyzing muscles, whereas the antitoxin works by neutralizing the toxin in the body.

Cross infection, also known as cross-contamination, is the transmission of infectious agents or diseases between patients in a healthcare setting. This can occur through various means such as contaminated equipment, surfaces, hands of healthcare workers, or the air. It is an important concern in medical settings and measures are taken to prevent its occurrence, including proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental cleaning and disinfection, and safe injection practices.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Vancomycin is an antibiotic that belongs to the glycopeptide class. It is primarily used to treat severe infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE). Vancomycin works by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls. It is usually administered intravenously in a hospital setting due to its potential nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. The medical definition of 'Vancomycin' can be summarized as:

"A glycopeptide antibiotic used to treat severe infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, particularly those that are resistant to other antibiotics. It inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis and is administered intravenously due to its potential nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity."

"Eubacterium" is a genus of Gram-positive, obligately anaerobic, non-sporeforming bacteria that are commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract. These bacteria are typically rod-shaped and can be either straight or curved. They play an important role in the breakdown of complex carbohydrates and the production of short-chain fatty acids in the gut, which are beneficial for host health. Some species of Eubacterium have also been shown to have probiotic properties and may provide health benefits when consumed in appropriate quantities. However, other species can be opportunistic pathogens and cause infections under certain circumstances.

'Clostridium botulinum type C' is a gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacterium that produces a potent neurotoxin known as botulinum toxin type C. This toxin is one of the seven types of botulinum toxins (A-G) produced by various strains of Clostridium botulinum and related species. The neurotoxin produced by type C strain inhibits the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, leading to flaccid paralysis.

The bacteria are commonly found in soil and aquatic environments and can cause a rare but severe form of foodborne illness called botulism. The illness is typically associated with consuming contaminated food, such as improperly canned or preserved foods, that contain the preformed neurotoxin. In addition to foodborne botulism, type C botulinum can also cause wound botulism and infant botulism through different modes of infection.

It is essential to distinguish between the various types of Clostridium botulinum and their toxins because they differ in their epidemiology, clinical presentation, and treatment approaches.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

'Clostridium tertium' is a gram-positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the environment, including soil and dust. It is an opportunistic pathogen, meaning it primarily causes infection in individuals with compromised immune systems or underlying medical conditions.

C. tertium infections can lead to a variety of clinical manifestations, such as pneumonia, bacteremia, septicemia, and wound infections. The bacteria produce a range of toxins and enzymes that contribute to their virulence and can cause tissue damage and inflammation.

Prompt diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic therapy are crucial for managing C. tertium infections, as they can be life-threatening in vulnerable populations.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

In a medical context, "hot temperature" is not a standard medical term with a specific definition. However, it is often used in relation to fever, which is a common symptom of illness. A fever is typically defined as a body temperature that is higher than normal, usually above 38°C (100.4°F) for adults and above 37.5-38°C (99.5-101.3°F) for children, depending on the source.

Therefore, when a medical professional talks about "hot temperature," they may be referring to a body temperature that is higher than normal due to fever or other causes. It's important to note that a high environmental temperature can also contribute to an elevated body temperature, so it's essential to consider both the body temperature and the environmental temperature when assessing a patient's condition.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Clindamycin is a antibiotic medication used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It is a type of antibiotic known as a lincosamide, which works by binding to the bacterial ribosome and inhibiting protein synthesis. This leads to the death of the bacteria and helps to clear the infection.

Clindamycin is effective against a wide range of gram-positive and some anaerobic bacteria, making it a useful antibiotic for treating many different types of infections, including skin and soft tissue infections, bone and joint infections, respiratory infections, and dental infections. It is also sometimes used to treat certain types of bacterial vaginal infections.

Like all antibiotics, clindamycin should be used only under the direction of a healthcare provider, as misuse can lead to antibiotic resistance. Additionally, clindamycin can cause side effects such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, and it may increase the risk of developing a serious intestinal infection called Clostridioides difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD). It is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when taking this medication.

Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) refers to the specific regions of DNA in a cell that contain the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Ribosomes are complex structures composed of proteins and rRNA, which play a crucial role in protein synthesis by translating messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins.

In humans, there are four types of rRNA molecules: 18S, 5.8S, 28S, and 5S. These rRNAs are encoded by multiple copies of rDNA genes that are organized in clusters on specific chromosomes. In humans, the majority of rDNA genes are located on the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22.

Each cluster of rDNA genes contains both transcribed and non-transcribed spacer regions. The transcribed regions contain the genes for the four types of rRNA, while the non-transcribed spacers contain regulatory elements that control the transcription of the rRNA genes.

The number of rDNA copies varies between species and even within individuals of the same species. The copy number can also change during development and in response to environmental factors. Variations in rDNA copy number have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Bacterial typing techniques are methods used to identify and differentiate bacterial strains or isolates based on their unique characteristics. These techniques are essential in epidemiological studies, infection control, and research to understand the transmission dynamics, virulence, and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens.

There are various bacterial typing techniques available, including:

1. **Bacteriophage Typing:** This method involves using bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to identify specific bacterial strains based on their susceptibility or resistance to particular phages.
2. **Serotyping:** It is a technique that differentiates bacterial strains based on the antigenic properties of their cell surface components, such as capsules, flagella, and somatic (O) and flagellar (H) antigens.
3. **Biochemical Testing:** This method uses biochemical reactions to identify specific metabolic pathways or enzymes present in bacterial strains, which can be used for differentiation. Commonly used tests include the catalase test, oxidase test, and various sugar fermentation tests.
4. **Molecular Typing Techniques:** These methods use genetic markers to identify and differentiate bacterial strains at the DNA level. Examples of molecular typing techniques include:
* **Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE):** This method uses restriction enzymes to digest bacterial DNA, followed by electrophoresis in an agarose gel under pulsed electrical fields. The resulting banding patterns are analyzed and compared to identify related strains.
* **Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST):** It involves sequencing specific housekeeping genes to generate unique sequence types that can be used for strain identification and phylogenetic analysis.
* **Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS):** This method sequences the entire genome of a bacterial strain, providing the most detailed information on genetic variation and relatedness between strains. WGS data can be analyzed using various bioinformatics tools to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene deletions or insertions, and other genetic changes that can be used for strain differentiation.

These molecular typing techniques provide higher resolution than traditional methods, allowing for more accurate identification and comparison of bacterial strains. They are particularly useful in epidemiological investigations to track the spread of pathogens and identify outbreaks.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

The cecum is the first part of the large intestine, located at the junction of the small and large intestines. It is a pouch-like structure that connects to the ileum (the last part of the small intestine) and the ascending colon (the first part of the large intestine). The cecum is where the appendix is attached. Its function is to absorb water and electrolytes, and it also serves as a site for the fermentation of certain types of dietary fiber by gut bacteria. However, the exact functions of the cecum are not fully understood.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

'Clostridium bifermentans' is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium that is commonly found in the environment, such as soil and decaying organic matter. It is a species within the genus Clostridium, which includes several pathogenic species that can cause various diseases in humans and animals.

'Clostridium bifermentans' has been isolated from various clinical specimens, including wounds, abscesses, blood, and respiratory secretions. However, its role as a human pathogen is not well established, and it is often considered a contaminant or opportunistic pathogen. In some cases, 'Clostridium bifermentans' has been associated with infections such as bacteremia, endocarditis, pneumonia, and soft tissue infections, particularly in immunocompromised individuals.

The bacterium is known for its ability to produce a variety of metabolic end products, including butyric acid, acetic acid, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, which can contribute to the development of local inflammation and tissue damage in infected hosts. Proper identification and characterization of 'Clostridium bifermentans' are essential for appropriate clinical management and infection control measures.

Acetone is a colorless, volatile, and flammable liquid organic compound with the chemical formula (CH3)2CO. It is the simplest and smallest ketone, and its molecules consist of a carbonyl group linked to two methyl groups. Acetone occurs naturally in the human body and is produced as a byproduct of normal metabolic processes, particularly during fat burning.

In clinical settings, acetone can be measured in breath or blood to assess metabolic status, such as in cases of diabetic ketoacidosis, where an excess production of acetone and other ketones occurs due to insulin deficiency and high levels of fatty acid breakdown. High concentrations of acetone can lead to a sweet, fruity odor on the breath, often described as "fruity acetone" or "acetone breath."

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

The intestines, also known as the bowel, are a part of the digestive system that extends from the stomach to the anus. They are responsible for the further breakdown and absorption of nutrients from food, as well as the elimination of waste products. The intestines can be divided into two main sections: the small intestine and the large intestine.

The small intestine is a long, coiled tube that measures about 20 feet in length and is lined with tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase its surface area and enhance nutrient absorption. The small intestine is where most of the digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place.

The large intestine, also known as the colon, is a wider tube that measures about 5 feet in length and is responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes from digested food, forming stool, and eliminating waste products from the body. The large intestine includes several regions, including the cecum, colon, rectum, and anus.

Together, the intestines play a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being by ensuring that the body receives the nutrients it needs to function properly.

Neurotoxins are substances that are poisonous or destructive to nerve cells (neurons) and the nervous system. They can cause damage by destroying neurons, disrupting communication between neurons, or interfering with the normal functioning of the nervous system. Neurotoxins can be produced naturally by certain organisms, such as bacteria, plants, and animals, or they can be synthetic compounds created in a laboratory. Examples of neurotoxins include botulinum toxin (found in botulism), tetrodotoxin (found in pufferfish), and heavy metals like lead and mercury. Neurotoxic effects can range from mild symptoms such as headaches, muscle weakness, and tremors, to more severe symptoms such as paralysis, seizures, and cognitive impairment. Long-term exposure to neurotoxins can lead to chronic neurological conditions and other health problems.

Peptostreptococcus is a genus of Gram-positive, anaerobic, coccus-shaped bacteria that are commonly found as normal flora in the human mouth, gastrointestinal tract, and female genital tract. These organisms can become pathogenic and cause a variety of infections, particularly in individuals with compromised immune systems or following surgical procedures. Infections caused by Peptostreptococcus species can include abscesses, endocarditis, bacteremia, and joint infections. Proper identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing are essential for the effective treatment of these infections.

A germ-free life refers to an existence in which an individual is not exposed to or colonized by any harmful microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. This condition is also known as "sterile" or "aseptic." In a medical context, achieving a germ-free state is often the goal in certain controlled environments, such as operating rooms, laboratories, and intensive care units, where the risk of infection must be minimized. However, it is not possible to maintain a completely germ-free life outside of these settings, as microorganisms are ubiquitous in the environment and are an essential part of the human microbiome. Instead, maintaining good hygiene practices and a healthy immune system is crucial for preventing illness and promoting overall health.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Bacteroides are a genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are normally present in the human gastrointestinal tract. They are part of the normal gut microbiota and play an important role in breaking down complex carbohydrates and other substances in the gut. However, some species of Bacteroides can cause opportunistic infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or when they spread to other parts of the body. They are resistant to many commonly used antibiotics, making infections caused by these bacteria difficult to treat.

Xylosidases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of xylosides, which are glycosides with a xylose sugar. Specifically, they cleave the terminal β-1,4-linked D-xylopyranoside residues from various substrates such as xylooligosaccharides and xylan. These enzymes play an important role in the breakdown and metabolism of plant-derived polysaccharides, particularly hemicelluloses, which are a major component of plant biomass. Xylosidases have potential applications in various industrial processes, including biofuel production and animal feed manufacturing.

Bacterial RNA refers to the genetic material present in bacteria that is composed of ribonucleic acid (RNA). Unlike higher organisms, bacteria contain a single circular chromosome made up of DNA, along with smaller circular pieces of DNA called plasmids. These bacterial genetic materials contain the information necessary for the growth and reproduction of the organism.

Bacterial RNA can be divided into three main categories: messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and transfer RNA (tRNA). mRNA carries genetic information copied from DNA, which is then translated into proteins by the rRNA and tRNA molecules. rRNA is a structural component of the ribosome, where protein synthesis occurs, while tRNA acts as an adapter that brings amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis.

Bacterial RNA plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including gene expression, protein synthesis, and regulation of metabolic pathways. Understanding the structure and function of bacterial RNA is essential for developing new antibiotics and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Clostridium symbiosum is a species of gram-positive, obligately anaerobic, spore-forming bacteria that is commonly found in the human intestine. It is a member of the normal gut microbiota and plays a role in the breakdown of complex carbohydrates in the colon. The bacteria are non-pathogenic and do not typically cause disease in healthy individuals. However, they have been associated with certain conditions such as bacteremia (bacteria in the blood) in immunocompromised patients and nosocomial pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients.

The bacteria are named after their characteristic shape, which is drumstick-like or club-shaped, due to the presence of terminal spores. They are difficult to culture and identify, but molecular methods such as 16S rRNA gene sequencing have been used to confirm their presence in clinical samples.

In summary, Clostridium symbiosum is a commensal bacterium found in the human intestine, which plays a role in carbohydrate metabolism and is not typically associated with disease in healthy individuals.

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

Botulinum toxins type A are neurotoxins produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species. These toxins act by blocking the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, leading to muscle paralysis. Botulinum toxin type A is used in medical treatments for various conditions characterized by muscle spasticity or excessive muscle activity, such as cervical dystonia, blepharospasm, strabismus, and chronic migraine. It is also used cosmetically to reduce the appearance of wrinkles by temporarily paralyzing the muscles that cause them. The commercial forms of botulinum toxin type A include Botox, Dysport, and Xeomin.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Peptococcus" is not a currently recognized or valid genus of bacteria in modern medical or scientific classification. It seems there might be some confusion here, as the correct name for the bacterial group you may be referring to is "Peptostreptococcus."

Peptostreptococcus is a genus of Gram-positive, anaerobic, coccus-shaped bacteria. These bacteria are commonly found in the human mouth, gastrointestinal tract, and female genital tract. They can sometimes cause opportunistic infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or when they enter areas where they shouldn't be, such as deep tissue or the bloodstream.

I hope this clarification helps! If you have any further questions, please let me know.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Food Packaging" is not a medical term. It is a term used to describe the process and materials used to package food products to protect them from contamination, damage, and to provide information about the product. Medical definitions are typically related to diseases, conditions, treatments, or anatomical terms. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I'd be happy to help with those!

Acetates, in a medical context, most commonly refer to compounds that contain the acetate group, which is an functional group consisting of a carbon atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms and an oxygen atom (-COO-). An example of an acetate is sodium acetate (CH3COONa), which is a salt formed from acetic acid (CH3COOH) and is often used as a buffering agent in medical solutions.

Acetates can also refer to a group of medications that contain acetate as an active ingredient, such as magnesium acetate, which is used as a laxative, or calcium acetate, which is used to treat high levels of phosphate in the blood.

In addition, acetates can also refer to a process called acetylation, which is the addition of an acetyl group (-COCH3) to a molecule. This process can be important in the metabolism and regulation of various substances within the body.

Medical Definition:

Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) is a standard measurement in toxicology that refers to the estimated amount or dose of a substance, which if ingested, injected, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin by either human or animal, would cause death in 50% of the test population. It is expressed as the mass of a substance per unit of body weight (mg/kg, μg/kg, etc.). LD50 values are often used to compare the toxicity of different substances and help determine safe dosage levels.

Glycoside hydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds found in various substrates such as polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, and glycoproteins. These enzymes break down complex carbohydrates into simpler sugars by cleaving the glycosidic linkages that connect monosaccharide units.

Glycoside hydrolases are classified based on their mechanism of action and the type of glycosidic bond they hydrolyze. The classification system is maintained by the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB). Each enzyme in this class is assigned a unique Enzyme Commission (EC) number, which reflects its specificity towards the substrate and the type of reaction it catalyzes.

These enzymes have various applications in different industries, including food processing, biofuel production, pulp and paper manufacturing, and biomedical research. In medicine, glycoside hydrolases are used to diagnose and monitor certain medical conditions, such as carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome, a rare inherited disorder affecting the structure of glycoproteins.

Claudin-4 is a protein that belongs to the family of claudins, which are major components of tight junctions in cells. Tight junctions are specialized structures that serve as barriers between adjacent cells, controlling the paracellular movement of ions, solutes, and water. Claudin-4 is primarily expressed in epithelial tissues, where it plays a crucial role in maintaining cell-to-cell adhesion and regulating the permeability of tight junctions.

Claudin-4 has been identified as a potential biomarker for various cancers, including ovarian, pancreatic, and gastric cancers. Its overexpression is often associated with increased malignancy, invasiveness, and poor prognosis in these cancers. Additionally, claudin-4 is involved in the regulation of cell signaling pathways, inflammation, and immune responses, making it a target for therapeutic interventions in cancer and other diseases.

Substrate specificity in the context of medical biochemistry and enzymology refers to the ability of an enzyme to selectively bind and catalyze a chemical reaction with a particular substrate (or a group of similar substrates) while discriminating against other molecules that are not substrates. This specificity arises from the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, which has evolved to match the shape, charge distribution, and functional groups of its physiological substrate(s).

Substrate specificity is a fundamental property of enzymes that enables them to carry out highly selective chemical transformations in the complex cellular environment. The active site of an enzyme, where the catalysis takes place, has a unique conformation that complements the shape and charge distribution of its substrate(s). This ensures efficient recognition, binding, and conversion of the substrate into the desired product while minimizing unwanted side reactions with other molecules.

Substrate specificity can be categorized as:

1. Absolute specificity: An enzyme that can only act on a single substrate or a very narrow group of structurally related substrates, showing no activity towards any other molecule.
2. Group specificity: An enzyme that prefers to act on a particular functional group or class of compounds but can still accommodate minor structural variations within the substrate.
3. Broad or promiscuous specificity: An enzyme that can act on a wide range of structurally diverse substrates, albeit with varying catalytic efficiencies.

Understanding substrate specificity is crucial for elucidating enzymatic mechanisms, designing drugs that target specific enzymes or pathways, and developing biotechnological applications that rely on the controlled manipulation of enzyme activities.

Cellulose 1,4-beta-Cellobiosidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of cellulose, a complex carbohydrate and the main structural component of plant cell walls, into simpler sugars. Specifically, this enzyme breaks down cellulose by cleaving the 1,4-beta-glycosidic bonds between the cellobiose units that make up the cellulose polymer, releasing individual cellobiose molecules (disaccharides consisting of two glucose molecules). This enzyme is also known as cellobiohydrolase or beta-1,4-D-glucan cellobiohydrolase. It plays a crucial role in the natural breakdown of plant material and is widely used in various industrial applications, such as biofuel production and pulp and paper manufacturing.

Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases are a type of enzyme that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in xylans, which are complex polysaccharides made up of beta-1,4-linked xylose residues. Xylan is a major hemicellulose component found in the cell walls of plants, and endo-1,4-beta Xylanases play an important role in the breakdown and digestion of plant material by various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and animals. These enzymes are widely used in industrial applications, such as biofuel production, food processing, and pulp and paper manufacturing, to break down xylans and improve the efficiency of various processes.

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

Food contamination is the presence of harmful microorganisms, chemicals, or foreign substances in food or water that can cause illness or injury to individuals who consume it. This can occur at any stage during production, processing, storage, or preparation of food, and can result from various sources such as:

1. Biological contamination: This includes the presence of harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi that can cause foodborne illnesses. Examples include Salmonella, E. coli, Listeria, and norovirus.

2. Chemical contamination: This involves the introduction of hazardous chemicals into food, which may occur due to poor handling practices, improper storage, or exposure to environmental pollutants. Common sources of chemical contamination include pesticides, cleaning solvents, heavy metals, and natural toxins produced by certain plants or fungi.

3. Physical contamination: This refers to the presence of foreign objects in food, such as glass, plastic, hair, or insects, which can pose a choking hazard or introduce harmful substances into the body.

Preventing food contamination is crucial for ensuring food safety and protecting public health. Proper hygiene practices, temperature control, separation of raw and cooked foods, and regular inspections are essential measures to minimize the risk of food contamination.

Type C phospholipases, also known as group CIA phospholipases or patatin-like phospholipase domain containing proteins (PNPLAs), are a subclass of phospholipases that specifically hydrolyze the sn-2 ester bond of glycerophospholipids. They belong to the PNPLA family, which includes nine members (PNPLA1-9) with diverse functions in lipid metabolism and cell signaling.

Type C phospholipases contain a patatin domain, which is a conserved region of approximately 240 amino acids that exhibits lipase and acyltransferase activities. These enzymes are primarily involved in the regulation of triglyceride metabolism, membrane remodeling, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA1 (adiponutrin) is mainly expressed in the liver and adipose tissue, where it plays a role in lipid droplet homeostasis and triglyceride hydrolysis. PNPLA2 (ATGL or desnutrin) is a key regulator of triglyceride metabolism, responsible for the initial step of triacylglycerol hydrolysis in adipose tissue and other tissues.

PNPLA3 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 epsilon or iPLA2ε) is involved in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways. Mutations in PNPLA3 have been associated with an increased risk of developing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic liver disease, and hepatic steatosis.

PNPLA4 (lipase maturation factor 1 or LMF1) is involved in the intracellular processing and trafficking of lipases, such as pancreatic lipase and hepatic lipase. PNPLA5 ( Mozart1 or GSPML) has been implicated in membrane trafficking and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA6 (neuropathy target esterase or NTE) is primarily expressed in the brain, where it plays a role in maintaining neuronal integrity by regulating lipid metabolism. Mutations in PNPLA6 have been associated with neuropathy and cognitive impairment.

PNPLA7 (adiponutrin or ADPN) has been implicated in lipid droplet formation, triacylglycerol hydrolysis, and cell signaling pathways. Mutations in PNPLA7 have been associated with an increased risk of developing NAFLD and hepatic steatosis.

PNPLA8 (diglyceride lipase or DGLα) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA9 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 gamma or iPLA2γ) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA10 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 delta or iPLA2δ) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA11 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 epsilon or iPLA2ε) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA12 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 zeta or iPLA2ζ) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA13 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 eta or iPLA2η) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA14 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 theta or iPLA2θ) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA15 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 iota or iPLA2ι) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA16 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 kappa or iPLA2κ) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA17 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 lambda or iPLA2λ) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA18 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 mu or iPLA2μ) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA19 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 nu or iPLA2ν) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA20 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 xi or iPLA2ξ) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA21 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 omicron or iPLA2ο) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA22 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 pi or iPLA2π) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA23 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 rho or iPLA2ρ) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA24 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 sigma or iPLA2σ) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA25 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 tau or iPLA2τ) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA26 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 upsilon or iPLA2υ) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA27 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 phi or iPLA2φ) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA28 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 chi or iPLA2χ) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA29 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 psi or iPLA2ψ) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA30 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 omega or iPLA2ω) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA31 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 pi or iPLA2π) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA32 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 rho or iPLA2ρ) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA33 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 sigma or iPLA2σ) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, ar

Gram-positive bacteria are a type of bacteria that stain dark purple or blue when subjected to the Gram staining method, which is a common technique used in microbiology to classify and identify different types of bacteria based on their structural differences. This staining method was developed by Hans Christian Gram in 1884.

The key characteristic that distinguishes Gram-positive bacteria from other types, such as Gram-negative bacteria, is the presence of a thick layer of peptidoglycan in their cell walls, which retains the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining process. Additionally, Gram-positive bacteria lack an outer membrane found in Gram-negative bacteria.

Examples of Gram-positive bacteria include Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Bacillus subtilis. Some Gram-positive bacteria can cause various human diseases, while others are beneficial or harmless.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

I apologize, but there seems to be a misunderstanding. "Soil microbiology" is not a medical term; rather, it is a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms in soil. It involves understanding the diversity, ecology, and biochemistry of bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, and other microscopic life forms found in soil. This field has applications in agriculture, environmental science, and waste management but is not directly related to medical definitions or human health.

Multienzyme complexes are specialized protein structures that consist of multiple enzymes closely associated or bound together, often with other cofactors and regulatory subunits. These complexes facilitate the sequential transfer of substrates along a series of enzymatic reactions, also known as a metabolic pathway. By keeping the enzymes in close proximity, multienzyme complexes enhance reaction efficiency, improve substrate specificity, and maintain proper stoichiometry between different enzymes involved in the pathway. Examples of multienzyme complexes include the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, the citrate synthase complex, and the fatty acid synthetase complex.

Xylans are a type of complex carbohydrate, specifically a hemicellulose, that are found in the cell walls of many plants. They are made up of a backbone of beta-1,4-linked xylose sugar molecules and can be substituted with various side groups such as arabinose, glucuronic acid, and acetyl groups. Xylans are indigestible by humans, but they can be broken down by certain microorganisms in the gut through a process called fermentation, which can produce short-chain fatty acids that have beneficial effects on health.

Fusobacterium is a genus of obligate anaerobic, gram-negative, non-spore forming bacilli that are commonly found as normal flora in the human oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and female genital tract. Some species of Fusobacterium have been associated with various clinical infections and diseases, such as periodontal disease, abscesses, bacteremia, endocarditis, and inflammatory bowel disease.

Fusobacterium nucleatum is the most well-known species in this genus and has been extensively studied for its role in various diseases. It is a opportunistic pathogen that can cause severe infections in immunocompromised individuals or when it invades damaged tissues. Fusobacterium necrophorum, another important species, is a leading cause of Lemierre's syndrome, a rare but serious condition characterized by septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and metastatic infections.

Fusobacteria are known to have a complex relationship with other microorganisms and host cells, and they can form biofilms that contribute to their virulence and persistence in the host. Further research is needed to fully understand the pathogenic mechanisms of Fusobacterium species and to develop effective strategies for prevention and treatment of Fusobacterium-associated diseases.

Coenzyme A-transferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of Coenzyme A (CoA) from one molecule to another. CoA is a coenzyme that plays a crucial role in various metabolic processes, including the oxidation of carbohydrates, fatty acids, and amino acids.

Coenzyme A-transferases can be further classified into several subfamilies based on their specific functions and the types of molecules they act upon. For example, some CoA-transferases transfer CoA to acyl groups, forming acyl-CoAs, which are important intermediates in fatty acid metabolism. Other CoA-transferases transfer CoA to pyruvate, forming pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes that play a key role in glucose metabolism.

These enzymes are essential for maintaining the proper functioning of various metabolic pathways and are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including energy production, lipid synthesis, and detoxification. Defects in CoA-transferases can lead to several metabolic disorders, such as fatty acid oxidation disorders and pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency.

Enterocolitis is a medical condition that involves inflammation of the small intestine (enteritis) and large intestine (colitis). This condition can affect people of all ages, but it is most commonly seen in infants and young children. The symptoms of enterocolitis may include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, bloating, nausea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration.

There are several types of enterocolitis, including:

1. Infectious Enterocolitis: This type is caused by a bacterial, viral, or parasitic infection in the intestines. Common causes include Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and norovirus.
2. Antibiotic-Associated Enterocolitis: This type is caused by an overgrowth of harmful bacteria in the intestines following the use of antibiotics that kill off beneficial gut bacteria.
3. Pseudomembranous Enterocolitis: This is a severe form of antibiotic-associated enterocolitis caused by the bacterium Clostridioides difficile (C. diff).
4. Necrotizing Enterocolitis: This is a serious condition that primarily affects premature infants, causing inflammation and damage to the intestinal tissue, which can lead to perforations and sepsis.
5. Ischemic Enterocolitis: This type is caused by reduced blood flow to the intestines, often due to conditions such as mesenteric ischemia or vasculitis.
6. Radiation Enterocolitis: This type occurs as a complication of radiation therapy for cancer treatment, which can damage the intestinal lining and lead to inflammation.
7. Eosinophilic Enterocolitis: This is a rare condition characterized by an excessive buildup of eosinophils (a type of white blood cell) in the intestinal tissue, leading to inflammation and symptoms similar to those seen in inflammatory bowel disease.

Treatment for enterocolitis depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. It may include antibiotics, antiparasitic medications, probiotics, or surgery in severe cases.

Electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel (EPG) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze complex mixtures of proteins or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) based on their size and electrical charge. This technique utilizes a matrix made of cross-linked polyacrylamide, a type of gel, which provides a stable and uniform environment for the separation of molecules.

In this process:

1. The polyacrylamide gel is prepared by mixing acrylamide monomers with a cross-linking agent (bis-acrylamide) and a catalyst (ammonium persulfate) in the presence of a buffer solution.
2. The gel is then poured into a mold and allowed to polymerize, forming a solid matrix with uniform pore sizes that depend on the concentration of acrylamide used. Higher concentrations result in smaller pores, providing better resolution for separating smaller molecules.
3. Once the gel has set, it is placed in an electrophoresis apparatus containing a buffer solution. Samples containing the mixture of proteins or nucleic acids are loaded into wells on the top of the gel.
4. An electric field is applied across the gel, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode (anode) while positively charged molecules move toward the negative electrode (cathode). The rate of migration depends on the size, charge, and shape of the molecules.
5. Smaller molecules move faster through the gel matrix and will migrate farther from the origin compared to larger molecules, resulting in separation based on size. Proteins and nucleic acids can be selectively stained after electrophoresis to visualize the separated bands.

EPG is widely used in various research fields, including molecular biology, genetics, proteomics, and forensic science, for applications such as protein characterization, DNA fragment analysis, cloning, mutation detection, and quality control of nucleic acid or protein samples.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

A disease outbreak is defined as the occurrence of cases of a disease in excess of what would normally be expected in a given time and place. It may affect a small and localized group or a large number of people spread over a wide area, even internationally. An outbreak may be caused by a new agent, a change in the agent's virulence or host susceptibility, or an increase in the size or density of the host population.

Outbreaks can have significant public health and economic impacts, and require prompt investigation and control measures to prevent further spread of the disease. The investigation typically involves identifying the source of the outbreak, determining the mode of transmission, and implementing measures to interrupt the chain of infection. This may include vaccination, isolation or quarantine, and education of the public about the risks and prevention strategies.

Examples of disease outbreaks include foodborne illnesses linked to contaminated food or water, respiratory infections spread through coughing and sneezing, and mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika virus and West Nile virus. Outbreaks can also occur in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and nursing homes, where vulnerable populations may be at increased risk of infection.

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, also known as the digestive tract, is a continuous tube that starts at the mouth and ends at the anus. It is responsible for ingesting, digesting, absorbing, and excreting food and waste materials. The GI tract includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), large intestine (cecum, colon, rectum, anus), and accessory organs such as the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. The primary function of this system is to process and extract nutrients from food while also protecting the body from harmful substances, pathogens, and toxins.

Bacteroidaceae is a family of gram-negative, anaerobic or facultatively anaerobic, non-spore forming bacteria that are commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract. They are rod-shaped and can vary in size and shape. Bacteroidaceae are important breakdowners of complex carbohydrates and proteins in the gut, and play a significant role in maintaining the health and homeostasis of the intestinal microbiota. Some members of this family can also be opportunistic pathogens and have been associated with various infections and diseases, such as abscesses, bacteremia, and periodontal disease.

Aldehyde oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids using NAD+ or FAD as cofactors. They play a crucial role in the detoxification of aldehydes generated from various metabolic processes, such as lipid peroxidation and alcohol metabolism. These enzymes are widely distributed in nature and have been identified in bacteria, yeast, plants, and animals.

The oxidation reaction catalyzed by aldehyde oxidoreductases involves the transfer of electrons from the aldehyde substrate to the cofactor, resulting in the formation of a carboxylic acid and reduced NAD+ or FAD. The enzymes are classified into several families based on their sequence similarity and cofactor specificity.

One of the most well-known members of this family is alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which catalyzes the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones as part of the alcohol metabolism pathway. Another important member is aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), which further oxidizes the aldehydes generated by ADH to carboxylic acids, thereby preventing the accumulation of toxic aldehydes in the body.

Deficiencies in ALDH enzymes have been linked to several human diseases, including alcoholism and certain types of cancer. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of aldehyde oxidoreductases is essential for developing new therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

Claudin-3 is a protein that belongs to the family of claudins, which are essential components of tight junctions in cells. Tight junctions are specialized structures that serve as barriers between adjacent cells, controlling the paracellular movement of ions, solutes, and water. Claudin-3 is primarily expressed in epithelial tissues, where it helps maintain cell polarity and regulate the permeability of the intercellular space. Mutations or abnormal expression of claudin-3 have been implicated in various pathological conditions, including cancer and inflammatory diseases.

Dextrins are a group of carbohydrates that are produced by the hydrolysis of starches. They are made up of shorter chains of glucose molecules than the original starch, and their molecular weight and physical properties can vary depending on the degree of hydrolysis. Dextrins are often used in food products as thickeners, stabilizers, and texturizers, and they also have applications in industry as adhesives and binders. In a medical context, dextrins may be used as a source of calories for patients who have difficulty digesting other types of carbohydrates.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

A "colony count" is a method used to estimate the number of viable microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, in a sample. In this technique, a known volume of the sample is spread onto the surface of a solid nutrient medium in a petri dish and then incubated under conditions that allow the microorganisms to grow and form visible colonies. Each colony that grows on the plate represents an individual cell (or small cluster of cells) from the original sample that was able to divide and grow under the given conditions. By counting the number of colonies that form, researchers can make a rough estimate of the concentration of microorganisms in the original sample.

The term "microbial" simply refers to microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Therefore, a "colony count, microbial" is a general term that encompasses the use of colony counting techniques to estimate the number of any type of microorganism in a sample.

Colony counts are used in various fields, including medical research, food safety testing, and environmental monitoring, to assess the levels of contamination or the effectiveness of disinfection procedures. However, it is important to note that colony counts may not always provide an accurate measure of the total number of microorganisms present in a sample, as some cells may be injured or unable to grow under the conditions used for counting. Additionally, some microorganisms may form clusters or chains that can appear as single colonies, leading to an overestimation of the true cell count.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hydrogen" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol H and atomic number 1. It is the lightest and most abundant chemical element in the universe, making up about 75% of its elemental mass.

In a medical context, hydrogen can be discussed in terms of molecular hydrogen (H2) which has been studied for potential therapeutic benefits. Some research explores its use as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, but more studies are needed to confirm these effects and understand the mechanisms behind them.

Xylan Endo-1,3-beta-Xylosidase is an enzyme that breaks down xylan, which is a major component of hemicellulose in plant cell walls. This enzyme specifically catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in xylans, resulting in the release of xylose units from the xylan backbone. It is involved in the process of breaking down plant material for various industrial applications and in the natural decomposition of plants by microorganisms.

RhoB GTP-binding protein is a member of the Rho family of small GTPases, which are involved in regulating various cellular processes such as actin cytoskeleton organization, gene expression, and cell cycle progression. Specifically, RhoB functions as a molecular switch that cycles between an inactive GDP-bound state and an active GTP-bound state.

When RhoB is activated by GTP binding, it interacts with various downstream effectors to regulate the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton, which is important for cell motility, adhesion, and membrane trafficking. RhoB has been implicated in several physiological processes, including angiogenesis, wound healing, and immune response.

RhoB is unique among the Rho GTPases because it can be localized to both the plasma membrane and endosomal compartments, allowing it to regulate various cellular processes in different subcellular locations. Dysregulation of RhoB has been associated with various pathological conditions, including cancer, inflammation, and neurodegenerative diseases.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

Tetanus toxin, also known as tetanospasmin, is a potent neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. This toxin binds to nerve endings and is transported to the nervous system's inhibitory neurons, where it blocks the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters, particularly glycine and GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid). As a result, it causes uncontrolled muscle contractions or spasms, which are the hallmark symptoms of tetanus disease.

The toxin has two main components: an N-terminal portion called the light chain, which is the enzymatically active part that inhibits neurotransmitter release, and a C-terminal portion called the heavy chain, which facilitates the toxin's entry into neurons. The heavy chain also contains a binding domain that allows the toxin to recognize specific receptors on nerve cells.

Tetanus toxin is one of the most potent toxins known, with an estimated human lethal dose of just 2.5-3 nanograms per kilogram of body weight when introduced into the bloodstream. Fortunately, tetanus can be prevented through vaccination with the tetanus toxoid, which is part of the standard diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTaP or Tdap) immunization series for children and adolescents and the tetanus-diphtheria (Td) booster for adults.

Aerobic bacteria are a type of bacteria that require oxygen to live and grow. These bacteria use oxygen as the final electron acceptor in their respiratory chain to generate energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Aerobic bacteria can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the air, as well as on the surfaces of living things. Some examples of aerobic bacteria include species of Pseudomonas, Bacillus, and Staphylococcus.

It's worth noting that some bacteria can switch between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism depending on the availability of oxygen. These bacteria are called facultative anaerobes. In contrast, obligate anaerobes are bacteria that cannot tolerate oxygen and will die in its presence.

Phosphate Acetyltransferase (PAT) is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of certain amino acids. It catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from acetyl phosphate to a variety of acceptor molecules, including carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur nucleophiles. This reaction plays a crucial role in several biochemical pathways, such as the biosynthesis of certain amino acids, vitamins, and cofactors.

The systematic name for this enzyme is acetylphosphate-protein phosphotransferase. It belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring phosphorus-containing groups. The gene that encodes this enzyme in humans is called PAT1 or CABYR. Defects in this gene have been associated with certain neurological disorders.

Amino acids are organic compounds that serve as the building blocks of proteins. They consist of a central carbon atom, also known as the alpha carbon, which is bonded to an amino group (-NH2), a carboxyl group (-COOH), a hydrogen atom (H), and a variable side chain (R group). The R group can be composed of various combinations of atoms such as hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon, which determine the unique properties of each amino acid.

There are 20 standard amino acids that are encoded by the genetic code and incorporated into proteins during translation. These include:

1. Alanine (Ala)
2. Arginine (Arg)
3. Asparagine (Asn)
4. Aspartic acid (Asp)
5. Cysteine (Cys)
6. Glutamine (Gln)
7. Glutamic acid (Glu)
8. Glycine (Gly)
9. Histidine (His)
10. Isoleucine (Ile)
11. Leucine (Leu)
12. Lysine (Lys)
13. Methionine (Met)
14. Phenylalanine (Phe)
15. Proline (Pro)
16. Serine (Ser)
17. Threonine (Thr)
18. Tryptophan (Trp)
19. Tyrosine (Tyr)
20. Valine (Val)

Additionally, there are several non-standard or modified amino acids that can be incorporated into proteins through post-translational modifications, such as hydroxylation, methylation, and phosphorylation. These modifications expand the functional diversity of proteins and play crucial roles in various cellular processes.

Amino acids are essential for numerous biological functions, including protein synthesis, enzyme catalysis, neurotransmitter production, energy metabolism, and immune response regulation. Some amino acids can be synthesized by the human body (non-essential), while others must be obtained through dietary sources (essential).

Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GLDH or GDH) is a mitochondrial enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of amino acids, particularly within liver and kidney tissues. It catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination of glutamate to alpha-ketoglutarate, which links amino acid metabolism with the citric acid cycle and energy production. This enzyme is significant in clinical settings as its levels in blood serum can be used as a diagnostic marker for diseases that damage liver or kidney cells, since these cells release GLDH into the bloodstream upon damage.

Carbohydrate metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose, which is then used for energy or stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. This process involves several enzymes and chemical reactions that convert carbohydrates from food into glucose, fructose, or galactose, which are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to cells throughout the body.

The hormones insulin and glucagon regulate carbohydrate metabolism by controlling the uptake and storage of glucose in cells. Insulin is released from the pancreas when blood sugar levels are high, such as after a meal, and promotes the uptake and storage of glucose in cells. Glucagon, on the other hand, is released when blood sugar levels are low and signals the liver to convert stored glycogen back into glucose and release it into the bloodstream.

Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism can result from genetic defects or acquired conditions that affect the enzymes or hormones involved in this process. Examples include diabetes, hypoglycemia, and galactosemia. Proper management of these disorders typically involves dietary modifications, medication, and regular monitoring of blood sugar levels.

Butyrates are a type of fatty acid, specifically called short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), that are produced in the gut through the fermentation of dietary fiber by gut bacteria. The name "butyrate" comes from the Latin word for butter, "butyrum," as butyrate was first isolated from butter.

Butyrates have several important functions in the body. They serve as a primary energy source for colonic cells and play a role in maintaining the health and integrity of the intestinal lining. Additionally, butyrates have been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects, regulate gene expression, and may even help prevent certain types of cancer.

In medical contexts, butyrate supplements are sometimes used to treat conditions such as ulcerative colitis, a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), due to their anti-inflammatory properties and ability to promote gut health. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential therapeutic uses of butyrates and their long-term effects on human health.

Mixtures of Clostridium species, such as Clostridium beijerinckii, Clostridium butyricum, and species from other genera have ... Clostridium tetani causes tetanus. Clostridium difficile, now placed in Clostridioides. Clostridium histolyticum, now placed in ... Clostridium welchii and Clostridium tetani respond to sulfonamides. Clostridia are also susceptible to tetracyclines, ... Clostridium is a genus of anaerobic, Gram-positive bacteria. Species of Clostridium inhabit soils and the intestinal tract of ...
Parte, A.C. "Clostridium". LPSN. "Clostridium grantii Taxon Passport - StrainInfo". www.straininfo.net. "Clostridium grantii". ... Clostridium grantii is a Gram-positive, strictly anaerobic, rod-shaped and spore-forming bacterium from the genus Clostridium ... Mountfort, DO; Rainey, FA; Burghardt, J; Stackebrandt, E (1994). "Clostridium grantii sp. nov., a new obligately anaerobic, ... "Nomenclature Abstract for Clostridium grantii Mountfort et al. 1996". The NamesforLife Abstracts. doi:10.1601/nm.3940. "Details ...
"Clostridium ragsdalei". Retrieved 2011-12-28. "Clostridium ragsdalei" at the Encyclopedia of Life Portal: Biology v t e ( ... "Clostridium ragsdalei" is an anaerobic, motile, gram-positive bacterium. "Clostridium ragsdalei: McGuire et al. 2002". National ...
nov., Clostridium bowmanii sp. nov. and Clostridium psychrophilum sp. nov. and reclassification of Clostridium laramiense as ... Parte, A.C. "Clostridium". LPSN. "Clostridium bowmanii Taxon Passport - StrainInfo". www.straininfo.net. "Clostridium bowmanii ... Clostridium bowmanii is a psychrophilic, Gram-positive, anaerobic and spore-forming bacterium from the genus Clostridium. ... "Characterization of novel psychrophilic clostridia from an Antarctic microbial mat: description of Clostridium frigoris sp. nov ...
... is closely related phylogenetically to Clostridium fallax and Clostridium intestinale. Infections in ... Clostridium cadaveris is found in soil, water, and is a normal component of the human intestinal tract. The genus Clostridium ... Clostridium cadaveris is an enteric, gas-forming, motile, strictly anaerobic gram-positive bacterium of the genus Clostridium. ... Clostridia are found extensively in nature predominantly as benign soil saprophytes. A number of Clostridium species are ...
... is a bacterium from the genus Clostridium which has been isolated from sewage sludge in the United ... Parte, A.C. "Clostridium". LPSN. "Clostridium collagenovorans Taxon Passport - StrainInfo". www.straininfo.net.[dead link] " ... "Clostridium collagenovorans". www.uniprot.org. Parker, Charles Thomas; Wigley, Sarah; Garrity, George M (2009). Parker, Charles ... Thomas; Garrity, George M (eds.). "Nomenclature Abstract for Clostridium collagenovorans Jain and Zeikus 1988". The ...
Clostridium vaccine Clostridium septicum lpsn.dsmz.de, list of prokaryotic names with standing nomenclature. Nagano N, Isomine ... "Clostridium chauvoei" at the Encyclopedia of Life Type strain of Clostridium chauvoei at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... Clostridium chauvoei is an anaerobic, motile, Gram-positive bacterium. It is a soil-borne pathogen that can cause blackleg in ... However, these reports may also be due to infection with other Clostridium strains that can cause blackleg, such as C. septicum ...
... can cause gas gangrene, but unlike other Clostridium species like Clostridium perfringens, no trauma is ... Gas gangrene caused by Clostridium septicum is associated with colorectal cancer and other defects of the bowel. Clostridium ... "Molecular and cellular basis of microvascular perfusion deficits induced by clostridium perfringens and clostridium septicum". ... Clostridium septicum is a resident bacterium of the human microflora, however it can be found in almost any anoxic habitat in ...
"Clostridium kluyveri". Retrieved 2011-07-07. Type strain of Clostridium kluyveri at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... Clostridium kluyveri (CLOKL) is an anaerobic, motile, gram-positive bacterium. It is named after the Dutch microbiologist ... LPSN lpsn.dsmz.de "Clostridium kluyveri: Barker and Taha 1942". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). UniProt ...
... can cause ulcerative enteritis in chicken. Parte, A.C. "Clostridium". LPSN. "Clostridium colinum Taxon ... Clostridium colinum is a Gram-positive, anaerobic and spore-forming bacterium from the genus Clostridium which has been ... Clostridium] colinum". www.uniprot.org. Parker, Charles Thomas; Wigley, Sarah; Garrity, George M; Taylor, Dorothea (2009). ... Ononiwu, J C; Prescott, J F; Carlson, H C; Julian, R J (1978). "Ulcerative enteritis caused by Clostridium colinum in chickens ...
"Clostridium phytofermentans ISDg". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Type strain of Clostridium ... Clostridium phytofermentans sp. nov., a cellulolytic mesophile from forest soil. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol July 2002 52:1155-60 ... Clostridium phytofermentans (also called Lachnoclostridium phytofermentans) is an obligately anaerobic rod-shaped spore-forming ... Genome and transcriptome of Clostridium phytofermentans, catalyst for the direct conversion of plant feedstocks to fuels. PLOS ...
... (oedematiens) a Gram-positive, endospore- forming, obligate anaerobic bacteria of the class Clostridia. It is ... Clostridium novyi-NT, an attenuated form of Clostridium novyi-NT being studied for its potential use as a cancer treatment ... "Phylogenetic positions of Clostridium novyi and Clostridium haemolyticum based on 16S rDNA sequences". International Journal of ... Clostridium novyi is considered to be made up from three clades, labelled A, B and C, distinguished by the range of toxins they ...
... can cause bacteremia. Parte, A.C. "Clostridium". LPSN. "Clostridium intestinale Taxon Passport - ... Clostridium intestinale is a bacterium from the genus Clostridium which has been isolated from faeces of a cattle in Japan. ... "Clostridium intestinale". www.uniprot.org. "Details: DSM-6191". www.dsmz.de. Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M (2008). ... Elsayed, S.; Zhang, K. (6 April 2005). "Bacteremia Caused by Clostridium intestinale". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 43 (4 ...
... is an anaerobic, mesophilic and hydrogen-producing bacterium from the genus Clostridium which has been ... Parte, A.C. "Clostridium". LPSN. "Clostridium bornimense Taxon Passport - StrainInfo". www.straininfo.net. Archived from the ... "Clostridium bornimense". www.uniprot.org. Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M (2014). Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, ... Hahnke, S; Striesow, J; Elvert, M; Mollar, XP; Klocke, M (August 2014). "Clostridium bornimense sp. nov., isolated from a ...
... is an anaerobic gram-positive bacterium of the genus Clostridium. Page Species: Clostridium sardiniense ...
LPSN "Clostridium aminophilum" at the Encyclopedia of Life Type strain of Clostridium aminophilum at BacDive - the Bacterial ... Clostridium sticklandii, and Clostridium aminophilum sp. nov". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 43 (1): 107- ... Clostridium aminophilum is a species of gram-positive ammonia-producing ruminal bacteria, with type strain FT. Paster, B. J.; ... Houlihan AJ, Russell JB (2003). "The susceptibility of ionophore-resistant Clostridium aminophilum F to other antibiotics". J ...
Parte, A.C. "Clostridium". LPSN. "Clostridium drakei Taxon Passport - StrainInfo". www.straininfo.net. "Clostridium drakei". ... Clostridium drakei is a strictly anaerobic bacterium from the genus Clostridium which has been isolated from a coal mine pond ... Jeong, Y.; Song, Y.; Shin, H. S.; Cho, B.-K. (15 May 2014). "Draft Genome Sequence of Acid-Tolerant Clostridium drakei SL1T, a ... "Nomenclature Abstract for Clostridium drakei Liou et al. 2005". The NamesforLife Abstracts. doi:10.1601/nm.9597. ...
He, YL; Ding, YF; Long, YQ (April 1991). "Two cellulolytic Clostridium species: Clostridium cellulosi sp. nov. and Clostridium ... Clostridium cellulofermentans is a Gram-negative and cellulolytic bacterium from the genus of Clostridium. Parte, A.C. " ... "Clostridium". LPSN. Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M (2008). Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M (eds.). " ... "Nomenclature Abstract for Clostridium cellulofermentans He et al. 1991". The NamesforLife Abstracts. doi:10.1601/nm.3910. ...
Parte, A.C. "Clostridium". LPSN. "Clostridium acetireducens Taxon Passport - StrainInfo". www.straininfo.net. "Clostridium ... Clostridium acetireducens is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic and non-motile bacterium from the genus of Clostridium ... ORLYGSSON, J.; KROONEMAN, J.; COLLINS, M. D.; PASCUAL, C.; GOTTSCHAL, J. C. (1 April 1996). "Clostridium acetireducens sp. nov ... "Nomenclature Abstract for Clostridium acetireducens Örlygsson et al. 1996". The NamesforLife Abstracts. doi:10.1601/nm.3882. " ...
"Clostridium cellulovorans" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Clostridium cellulovorans at BacDive - the Bacterial ... Clostridium cellulovorans is an anaerobic, mesophilic, spore-forming cellulolytic bacterium. Its cells are gram-positive and ... Koukiekolo R, Cho HY, Kosugi A, Inui M, Yukawa H, Doi RH (July 2005). "Degradation of corn fiber by Clostridium cellulovorans ... Doi RH, Tamaru Y (2001). "The Clostridium cellulovorans cellulosome: an enzyme complex with plant cell wall degrading activity ...
Parte, A.C. "Clostridium". LPSN. "Clostridium cavendishii Taxon Passport - StrainInfo". www.straininfo.net. "Clostridium ... Bowman, KS; Dupré, RE; Rainey, FA; Moe, WM (February 2010). "Clostridium hydrogeniformans sp. nov. and Clostridium cavendishii ... Clostridium cavendishii is a Gram-positive, aerotolerant, anaerobic, spore-forming and motile hydrogen-producing bacterium from ... Parker, Charles Thomas; Taylor, Dorothea; Garrity, George M. "Nomenclature Abstract for Clostridium cavendishii Bowman et al. ...
Parte, A.C. "Clostridium". LPSN. "Clostridium chromiireducens Taxon Passport - StrainInfo". www.straininfo.net. "Clostridium ... Clostridium chromiireducens is a Gram-positive anaerobe anaerobic and spore-forming bacterium from the genus Clostridium which ... Inglett, KS; Bae, HS; Aldrich, HC; Hatfield, K; Ogram, AV (November 2011). "Clostridium chromiireducens sp. nov., isolated from ... "Nomenclature Abstract for Clostridium chromiireducens Inglett et al. 2011". The NamesforLife Abstracts. doi:10.1601/nm.22684. " ...
Parte, A.C. "Clostridium". LPSN. "Clostridium celatum Taxon Passport - StrainInfo". www.straininfo.net. "Clostridium celatum". ... Clostridium celatum is a Gram-positive and anaerobic bacterium from the genus Clostridium which has been isolated from human ... Hauschild, A. H. W.; Holdeman, L. V. (1 October 1974). "Clostridium celatum sp.nov., Isolated from Normal Human Feces". ... Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M (2008). "Nomenclature Abstract for Clostridium celatum Hauschild and Holdeman 1974 ( ...
Parte, A.C. "Clostridium". LPSN. Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 Type strain of Clostridium tyrobutyricum at BacDive - the ... Clostridium, Bacteria described in 1935, All stub articles, Clostridia stubs). ... Clostridium tyrobutyricum spores present in raw milk ferments lactate causing the "late-blowing" defect in high-pH cheeses such ... Clostridium tyrobutyricum is a rod-shaped, Gram-positive bacterium that grows under anaerobic conditions and produces butyric ...
... is a bacterium from the genus Clostridium. Parte, A.C. "Clostridium". LPSN. "Clostridium frigoris Taxon ... nov., Clostridium bowmanii sp. nov. and Clostridium psychrophilum sp. nov. and reclassification of Clostridium laramiense as ... "Clostridium frigoris". www.uniprot.org. Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M. "Nomenclature Abstract for Clostridium ... "Characterization of novel psychrophilic clostridia from an Antarctic microbial mat: description of Clostridium frigoris sp. nov ...
... is classified within the genus Clostridium, a broad group of over 150 species of Gram-positive bacteria. C. ... Clostridium tetani is a common soil bacterium and the causative agent of tetanus. Vegetative cells of Clostridium tetani are ... Clostridium tetani is a rod-shaped, Gram-positive bacterium, typically up to 0.5 μm wide and 2.5 μm long. It is motile by way ... Other Clostridium species can be divided into a number of genetically related groups, many of which are more closely related to ...
nov., Clostridium bowmanii sp. nov. and Clostridium psychrophilum sp. nov. and reclassification of Clostridium laramiense as ... Parte, A.C. "Clostridium". LPSN. "Clostridium lacusfryxellense Taxon Passport - StrainInfo". www.straininfo.net. "Clostridium ... "Characterization of novel psychrophilic clostridia from an Antarctic microbial mat: description of Clostridium frigoris sp. nov ... Clostridium lacusfryxellense is a psychrophilic, Gram-positive, spore-forming and anaerobic bacterium from the genus ...
Parte, A.C. "Clostridium". LPSN. "Clostridium lundense Taxon Passport - StrainInfo". www.straininfo.net. "Clostridium lundense ... Clostridium lundense is a lipolytic, strictly anaerobic, mesophilic and spore-forming bacterium from the genus of Clostridium ... Cirne, DG; Delgado, OD; Marichamy, S; Mattiasson, B (March 2006). "Clostridium lundense sp. nov., a novel anaerobic lipolytic ... "Nomenclature Abstract for Clostridium lundense Cirne et al. 2006". The NamesforLife Abstracts. doi:10.1601/nm.9932. v t e ( ...
"Phylogenetic positions of Clostridium novyi and Clostridium haemolyticum based on 16S rDNA sequences". International Journal of ... Clostridium haemolyticum is a species of bacteria in the family of Clostridiaceae. Based on 16S-rDNA sequence analysis, C. ... Page Species: Clostridium haemolyticum on "LPSN - List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature". Deutsche Sammlung ... Oakley CL, Warrack GH, Clarke PH (Jan 1947). "The toxins of Clostridium oedematiens (Cl. novyi)". Journal of General ...
... is a Gram-negative and cellulolytic bacterium from the genus Clostridium. Parte, A.C. "Clostridium". LPSN ... He, YL; Ding, YF; Long, YQ (April 1991). "Two cellulolytic Clostridium species: Clostridium cellulosi sp. nov. and Clostridium ... Clostridium] cellulosi". www.uniprot.org. Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M (2019). Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, ... George M (eds.). "Nomenclature Abstract for Clostridium cellulosi He et al. 1991". The NamesforLife Abstracts. doi:10.1601/nm. ...
Mixtures of Clostridium species, such as Clostridium beijerinckii, Clostridium butyricum, and species from other genera have ... Clostridium tetani causes tetanus. Clostridium difficile, now placed in Clostridioides. Clostridium histolyticum, now placed in ... Clostridium welchii and Clostridium tetani respond to sulfonamides. Clostridia are also susceptible to tetracyclines, ... Clostridium is a genus of anaerobic, Gram-positive bacteria. Species of Clostridium inhabit soils and the intestinal tract of ...
Toxic shock associated with clostridium sordellii and clostridium perfringens after medical and spontaneous abortion.external ... Clostridium sordellii [klaw-strĭ-dee-um sore-dell-ee-i] (also called C. sordellii) is a rare bacterium that causes pneumonia, ... Other similar Clostridium species are spread from person to person and sometimes contaminated surfaces are involved in this ... Undiagnosed cases of fatal clostridium-associated toxic shock in californian women of childbearing age.external icon Am J ...
Clostridium difficile Infection : C. difficile infection (CDI) can cause symptoms ranging from diarrhea to life-threatening ...
PRNewswire/ -- Provides understanding and access to the clostridium difficile partnering deals and agreements entered into by ... 17, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- Provides understanding and access to the clostridium difficile partnering deals and agreements entered ...
Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacillus that is responsible for the development of ... Clostridium difficile toxin B induces senescence in enteric glial cells: a potential new mechanism of Clostridium difficile ... encoded search term (Clostridioides (Clostridium) Difficile Colitis) and Clostridioides (Clostridium) Difficile Colitis What to ... Clostridioides (Clostridium) Difficile Colitis. Updated: Jun 07, 2023 * Author: Faten N Aberra, MD, MSCE; Chief Editor: BS ...
All about Gangrene (Clostridium perfringens). FACTS: Although gangrene may sound like a hazard of jungle exploits and military ... Bacteria such as clostridium perfringens, which produce toxic gases that can bubble up under the skin, are often implicated. ... Clostridium perfringens is a bacteria that commonly causes food poisoning that lasts 24 hours. Its found everywhere in the ...
Clostridium difficile. Clostridium difficile. Discussion. *pseudomembranous colitis & diarrhea are complications of ... Clostridium difficile infection in orthopaedic patients.. *Epidemics of Diarrhea Caused by a Clindamycin-Resistant Strain of ...
Genus: Clostridium. Species: Clostridium perfringens Strains: C. perfringens ATCC 13124 - C. perfringens SM101 - C. perfringens ... Clostridium perfringens. Taxonavigation[edit]. Taxonavigation: Clostridiales Prokaryota Superregnum: Bacteria Regnum: Bacteria ... Clostridium perfringens - Taxon details on National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).. *Bacterial Nomenclature Up-to ... Retrieved from "https://species.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Clostridium_perfringens&oldid=8061661" ...
PHOSPHOLIPASE CCALCIUM IONZINC ION
Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is released as a progenitor complex, in association with a non-toxic-non-hemagglutinin ... Hatheway, C. L. Clostridium botulinum and other clostridia that produce botulinum neurotoxin. in Clostridium botulinum - ... How to cite this article: Eswaramoorthy, S. et al. Molecular Assembly of Clostridium botulinum progenitor M complex of type E. ... Eswaramoorthy, S., Sun, J., Li, H. et al. Molecular Assembly of Clostridium botulinum progenitor M complex of type E. Sci Rep 5 ...
61 - Clostridium Difficile Are you ready to ingest this episode? Pump up the bacteria and get ready to learn about fecal ... Kyles stomach issues dont hold a candle to Clostridium difficile which Tig is intimately acquainted with. Just, please wash ...
COHESIN MODULE FROM THE CELLULOSOME OF CLOSTRIDIUM CELLULOLYTICUM ... Crystal structure of a cohesin module from Clostridium ... Despite a rather low sequence identity of 32 %, this module has a fold close to those of the two Clostridium thermocellum ... In the assembly of the Clostridium cellulolyticum cellulosome, the multiple cohesin modules of the scaffolding protein CipC ... COHESIN MODULE FROM THE CELLULOSOME OF CLOSTRIDIUM CELLULOLYTICUM. *PDB DOI: https://doi.org/10.2210/pdb1G1K/pdb ...
... Nucleic Acids Res. 2019 Jun 20;47(11):5809- ... the functional and structural characterization of the siDNA-guided DNA-targeting pAgo from the mesophilic bacterium Clostridium ...
This study indicates that for much of our evolution - the vast majority of it - Clostridium was not present in significant ... Kelly Brogan, MD, discussed how the hunter-gatherer microbiome is conspicuously low in the Clostridium bacteria family, based ... such as Clostridium botulinum - the bacteria that is capable of producing botulism. As we discussed in a previous article on ... the discovery that a variety of Clostridium strains (as well as related potentially pathogenic strains from genuses such as ...
Figure 1 Flow diagram for cost-effectiveness modeling for Clostridium difficile infection. ... Clostridium difficile. treatment decision-making. World J Clin Cases 2015; 3(11): 935-941 [PMID: 26601096 DOI: 10.12998/wjcc.v3 ... Clostridium difficile. treatment decision-making. World J Clin Cases 2015; 3(11): 935-941 ...
Reagents, clostridium difficile toxin - Product Code LLH. Product. Remel Xpect Clostridium difficile Toxin A/B, IVD, 20 ... Class 2 Device Recall Remel X/pect Clostridium Difficile Toxin A/B (20 tests) *. ... The test kit is a rapid in vitro immunochromatographic test for the direct, qualitative detection of Clostridium difficile ... The test is intended for use as an aid in diagnosis of Clostridium difficile-associated disease.. ...
Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacillus that is responsible for the development of ... Clostridium difficile toxin B induces senescence in enteric glial cells: a potential new mechanism of Clostridium difficile ... encoded search term (Clostridioides (Clostridium) Difficile Colitis) and Clostridioides (Clostridium) Difficile Colitis What to ... Clostridioides (Clostridium) Difficile Colitis Workup. Updated: Jun 07, 2023 * Author: Faten N Aberra, MD, MSCE; Chief Editor: ...
The other prominent Clostridium species that exhibits pathogenic effects is Clostridium tetani. C. tetani primarily ... For instance, one of the most deadly toxins is produced by Clostridium botulinum which causes paralysis by stopping all ... View source for Clostridium thermocellum. From MicrobeWiki, the student-edited microbiology resource ... Pathology== Most bacterial species in the Clostridium genus generate toxins that are harmful and malevolent to other host cells ...
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a common hospital-acquired infection that is associated with a high clinical and ... Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a common hospital-acquired infection that is associated with a high clinical and ... Dr Slain then described the pathogen that these antibiotics are intended to kill-Clostridium difficile. This gram-positive ... Update in Infectious Diseases: Treatment of Clostridium difficile Infection. June 2, 2013. Article ...
2014 Annual Report for the Emerging Infections Program for Clostridium difficile Infection. ...
Timeline for Species Clostridium perfringens [TaxId:1502] from c.1.8.10 automated matches: *Species Clostridium perfringens [ ... Species Clostridium perfringens [TaxId:1502] from c.1.8.10 automated matches appears in SCOPe 2.05. *Species Clostridium ... PDB entry in Species: Clostridium perfringens [TaxId: 1502]:. *Domain(s) for 2xpk: *. Domain d2xpka2: 2xpk A:179-495 [244577]. ... Lineage for Species: Clostridium perfringens [TaxId: 1502]. *Root: SCOPe 2.06 *. Class c: Alpha and beta proteins (a/b) [51349 ...
In this blog post, well take a look at clostridium in dogs and learn about the causes and symptoms. Well also discuss how ... There are several different strains of clostridium, and all of them can cause problems ranging from mild to deadly. ... Clostridium is a type of bacteria that can cause serious illness in dogs. ... What Is Clostridium?. As mentioned, clostridium is a type of bacteria. It most commonly affects the gastrointestinal tract and ...
Tag: Clostridium difficile. * August 12, 2019. Gut makeup could make diarrhea less likely. Molecular signature of a diarrhea- ...
Timeline for Species Clostridium thermocellum [TaxId:1515] from b.2.2.2 Cellusomal scaffolding protein A, scaffoldin: *Species ... PDB entry in Species: Clostridium thermocellum [TaxId: 1515]:. *Domain(s) for 1nbc: *. Domain d1nbca_: 1nbc A: [22390]. ... Species Clostridium thermocellum [TaxId:1515] from b.2.2.2 Cellusomal scaffolding protein A, scaffoldin appears in SCOPe 2.01. ... Species Clostridium thermocellum [TaxId:1515] from b.2.2.2 Cellusomal scaffolding protein A, scaffoldin appears in SCOPe 2.03. ...
Clostridium Perfringens Type B in U.S Retail Foods Objective. ,p,Determine the distribution of the bacterim Clostriium ... Clostridium Perfringens Type B in U.S Retail Foods ...
Find out how to dispose of products that may be contaminated with Clostridium botulinum, the bacteria that causes botulism. ... Home » Can I Sue for Botulism? » Clostridium Botulinum and Product Disposal. Clostridium Botulinum and Product Disposal. ... This toxin is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. The toxin affects the nervous system and can cause paralysis and ...
... an outbreak of Clostridium perfringens at a psychiatric hospital in Louisiana claimed the lives of 3 of the 54 people sickened ... Tags: Clostridium perfringens, psychiatric hospital. Print:. Email this postTweet this postLike this postShare this post on ... Clostridium perfringens May Cause More Severe Illness in Psychiatric Inpatients. By Gretchen Goetz on August 17, 2012. ... In 2010, an outbreak of Clostridium perfringens at a psychiatric hospital in Louisiana claimed the lives of 3 of the 54 people ...
"Burden of Clostridium difficile infection in the United States". 2015. New England Journal of Medicine. 1430. 286.0. 234.3. ... "Clostridium difficile - More difficult than ever". 2008. New England Journal of Medicine. 1019. 84.9. 68.1. ... "Duodenal infusion of donor feces for recurrent clostridium difficile". 2013. New England Journal of Medicine. 2140. 305.7. ... "Clostridium difficile infection: New developments in epidemiology and pathogenesis". 2009. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 985. ...
  • The rate of vaginal colonization (when bacteria are present, but not causing an infection) with Clostridium species in the period after abortion has been reported to be as high as 29%, whereas these bacteria have been isolated in the vaginal secretions of 5%-10% of non-pregnant women. (cdc.gov)
  • Clostridium sordellii, now placed in Paeniclostridium, can cause a fatal infection in exceptionally rare cases after medical abortions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The epidemiology of community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection: a population-based study. (medscape.com)
  • Comparison of real-time PCR for detection of the tcdC gene with four toxin immunoassays and culture in diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical practice guidelines for Clostridium difficile infection in adults: 2010 update by the society for healthcare epidemiology of America (SHEA) and the infectious diseases society of America (IDSA). (medscape.com)
  • Long-term follow-up of colonoscopic fecal microbiota transplant for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. (medscape.com)
  • Clostridium difficile infection: epidemiology, risk factors and management. (medscape.com)
  • Pant C, Sferra TJ, Deshpande A, Minocha A. Clinical approach to severe Clostridium difficile infection: update for the hospital practitioner. (medscape.com)
  • Receipt of antibiotics in hospitalized patients and risk for Clostridium difficile infection in subsequent patients who occupy the same bed. (medscape.com)
  • Clostridiodes difficile (formerly Clostridium difficile ) infection. (nih.gov)
  • N. Fecal microbiota transplantation for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection. (nih.gov)
  • abdominal~American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) describes Clostridium difficile infection, a cause of diarrhea in children. (nih.gov)
  • Probiotics may prevent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), a leading healthcare-associated infection in the United States. (nih.gov)
  • Clostridium difficile infection has emerged as a growing worldwide health problem. (mdpi.com)
  • The colitis of Clostridium difficile infection results from the synergistic action of C. difficile secreted toxins A and B upon the colon mucosa. (mdpi.com)
  • This antibody is currently in a clinical trial for the treatment of human Clostridium difficile infection. (mdpi.com)
  • A video presentation by Julia Shaklee Sammons, MD MSCE, on Pediatric Clostridium difficile Infection, from the CHOP Medical Seminar in Salzburg, Austria, June 22-28, 2014. (chop.edu)
  • Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk for developing symptomatic Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) with worse clinical outcomes, including mortality, as compared with the general population. (helsinki.fi)
  • Estimated incidence of Clostridium difficile infection. (cdc.gov)
  • This guide explains what Clostridium difficile is, how it developed and ways in which it can cause infection.Clostridium difficile is the major cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and colitis, a healthcare associated intestinal infection that mostly affects elderly patients with other underlying diseases. (accepta.com)
  • Clostridium difficile is a major cause of nosocomial intestinal infection. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) played an important role in the initial outbreaks of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in the 1970s. (edu.au)
  • What Happens If A Person Or Animal Gets Clostridium difficile Infection (CDI)? (vin.com)
  • How Is Clostridium difficile Infection Diagnosed? (vin.com)
  • Clostridium difficile, now placed in Clostridioides. (wikipedia.org)
  • You may see it called other names - Clostridioides difficile (the new name), Clostridium difficile (an older name), and C. diff icile. (nih.gov)
  • Clostridioides difficile ( formerly Clostridium difficile) colitis results from a disturbance of the normal bacterial flora of the colon, colonization by C difficile , and the release of toxins that cause mucosal inflammation and damage. (medscape.com)
  • Toxic shock associated with clostridium sordellii and clostridium perfringens after medical and spontaneous abortion. (cdc.gov)
  • Clostridium perfringens causes a wide range of symptoms, from food poisoning to cellulitis, fasciitis, necrotic enteritis and gas gangrene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Outbreaks of foodborne illness caused by Clostridium perfringens are not usually the result of intoxication and testing of suspected menu items for colony count can often identify the causative item. (neha.org)
  • Clostridium perfringens food poisoning results from eating food contaminated by the bacterium Clostridium perfringens . (msdmanuals.com)
  • Contaminated beef, poultry, gravies, and dried or precooked foods are usually responsible for outbreaks of Clostridium perfringens food poisoning. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Symptoms of Clostridium perfringens food poisoning usually last about 24 hours. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A doctor usually suspects the diagnosis of Clostridium perfringens food poisoning when a local outbreak of the disease has occurred. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The diagnosis is confirmed by testing contaminated food or stool samples from infected people for Clostridium perfringens . (msdmanuals.com)
  • Necrotic enteritis (NE) is one of the important enteric diseases in poultry caused by Clostridium perfringens which leads to considerable economic losses for poultry raisers. (banglajol.info)
  • and Clostridium perfringens is the main cause of gas gangrene. (davidgessner.com)
  • Clostridium difficile causes a variety of diarrheal syndromes, including C difficile diarrhea, C difficile colitis, antibiotic-associated C difficile colitis, and pseudomembranous colitis, all of which vary widely in severity. (medscape.com)
  • Clostridium difficile is responsible for virtually all cases of pseudomembranous colitis. (medscape.com)
  • Use of tigecycline for the management of Clostridium difficile colitis in oncology patients and case series of breakthrough infections. (medscape.com)
  • Clostridium difficile colitis following treatment with metronidazole and vancomycin. (medscape.com)
  • Neutrophil infiltration is a prominent feature of Clostridium difficile-associated enteritis and colitis. (jci.org)
  • Minimally invasive colon preserving options have emerged as attractive options for patients with fulminant clostridium difficile colitis. (sages.org)
  • Toxin A, a 308,000-Mr enterotoxin from Clostridium difficile, mediates antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis in humans. (qxmd.com)
  • Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacillus that is responsible for the development of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis. (medscape.com)
  • Clostridium Difficile Infections (Clostridium Difficile Associated Disease) - Pipeline Insight, 2020 report outlays comprehensive insights of present scenario and growth prospects across Clostridium Difficile Infections (Clostridium Difficile Associated Disease). (researchandmarkets.com)
  • According to a report published in BMJ , researchers conducted a study to discover whether dogs are capable of smelling clostridium difficile infections, similar to how dogs can detect certain types of cancer. (aaha.org)
  • What Are Clostridium difficile Infections? (carle.org)
  • Clostridium difficile Tests are carried out to diagnose the bacterium, commonly known as C. diff, that is a major cause of serious diarrheal infections, and may also cause colon cancer. (medicaldevice-network.com)
  • Overview of Clostridial Infections Clostridia are bacteria that commonly reside in the intestine of healthy adults and newborns. (merckmanuals.com)
  • C. diff is present as normal flora in the digestive tract, but when broad-spectrum antibiotics are used to treat infections, typically for an extended period of time, the balance of the normal flora is disrupted and the overgrowth of clostridium difficile is allowed to occur. (anylabtestnow.com)
  • Fast Five Quiz: Are You Able to Confront Clostridium Difficile Infections? (medscape.com)
  • Clostridium difficile , a common gram-positive, spore-forming, anaerobic bacillus, is the leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea associated with antibiotic therapy. (medscape.com)
  • Clostridium is a genus of anaerobic, Gram-positive bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • By Bengtson's classification scheme, Clostridium contained all of the anaerobic endospore-forming rod-shaped bacteria, except the genus Desulfotomaculum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clostridium can be differentiated from the also endospore forming genus Bacillus by its obligate anaerobic growth, the shape of endospores and the lack of catalase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic, rod-shaped sporeforming bacterium that produces a protein with characteristic neurotoxicity. (fda.gov)
  • The production of ABE (acetone, butanol, ethanol) by the anaerobic bacteria Clostridium is a bioprocess capable of converting various renewable substrates into high value solvents and fuels. (confex.com)
  • Clostridia are anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria that do not grow in the more aerobic environment of the distal colon. (davidgessner.com)
  • Clostridium , the genus name of these gram-positive, spore-forming, anaerobic bacteria comes from Greek klōstēr (spindle) because, under the microscope, the colonies resemble spindles used in cloth weaving and long sticks with a bulge at the end. (cdc.gov)
  • The main species responsible for disease in humans are: Clostridium botulinum can produce botulinum toxin in food or wounds and can cause botulism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clostridium difficile toxin B induces senescence in enteric glial cells: a potential new mechanism of Clostridium difficile pathogenesis. (medscape.com)
  • Neutrophil recruitment in Clostridium difficile toxin A enteritis in the rabbit. (jci.org)
  • Almdni, Sabir M.Shakir (2013) Recombinant antibodies against Clostridium difficile toxin A. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow. (gla.ac.uk)
  • An illness resulting from toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum that has infected a wound. (cdc.gov)
  • Clostridium botulinum is notorious for producing a toxin, called botulinum toxin, which causes botulism . (osmosis.org)
  • Unfortunately, since these environments block out air, if a Clostridium botulinum spore gets in during the food preparation process, it can grow and produce botulinum toxin, contaminating the food. (osmosis.org)
  • Clostridium botulinum is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobe, spore-forming bacterium known to produce botulinum toxin, which causes botulism . (osmosis.org)
  • Circa 1880, in the course of studying fermentation and butyric acid synthesis, a scientist surnamed Prazmowski first assigned a binomial name to Clostridium butyricum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The minimal replicon of the cryptic plasmid pCB 102 from Clostridium butyricum NCIB 7423 was located to 1.6 kb DNA fragment by deletion analysis, enabling the identification of hitherto undiscovered putative ORFs and secondary structures, consistent with a replicative function. (open.ac.uk)
  • Clostridium butyricum is a type of beneficial bacteria that can naturally be found in the gut microbiome. (davidgessner.com)
  • Clostridium histolyticum, now placed in Hathewaya. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serious injury to the penis, including penile fracture (corporal rupture), has been reported in patients receiving Clostridium histolyticum injection (Xiaflex) for treatment of Peyronie's disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your doctor or pharmacist will give you the manufacturer's patient information sheet (Medication Guide) when you begin treatment with collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (Xiaflex) and each time you receive the medication. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Talk to your doctor about the risks of receiving collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection (Xiaflex). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection (Xiaflex) is used to treat Dupuytren's contracture (a painless thickening and tightening of tissue [cord] beneath the skin in the palm of the hand, which may make it difficult to straighten one or more fingers) when a cord of tissue can be felt upon examination. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection (Xiaflex) is also used to treat Peyronie's disease (a thickening of tissue [plaque] inside the penis that causes the penis to curve). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection (QWO) is also used to treat cellulite (fat deposit beneath the skin) in the buttocks of adult women. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection is in a class of medications called enzymes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection comes as a powder to be mixed with a liquid and injected by a doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you are receiving collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection (Xiaflex) to treat Dupuytren's contracture, your doctor will inject the medicine into a cord just under the skin in the affected hand. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you are receiving collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection (Xiaflex) to treat Peyronie's disease, your doctor will inject the medicine into the plaque that is causing your penis to curve. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you are receiving collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (QWO) to treat cellulite, your doctor will inject it subcutaneously (just under the skin) into the buttock(s). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hi, Billing for Xiaflex™ (collagenase clostridium histolyticum) XiaflexTM is only indicated for Dupuytren's contractures, ICD-9 code 728.6 (Contracture of palmar fascia). (aapc.com)
  • C. difficile is a bacterium of the family Clostridium (the family also includes the bacteria that cause tetanus, botulism, and gas gangrene). (accepta.com)
  • Clostridium difficile (commonly called C. difficile or C. diff) is a type of bacteria whose overgrowth from antibiotic use is associated with diarrhea and other gastrointestinal problems. (anylabtestnow.com)
  • Is Clostridium A good bacteria? (davidgessner.com)
  • Clostridium difficile is a species of bacteria that can be found in the intestinal tract of humans and many animal species, including pets, farm animals, and wildlife. (vin.com)
  • Genome sequences can tell us a lot about the biology of the organism, but research into clostridia has been hampered by the lack of a good genetic system. (innovations-report.com)
  • Clostridium thermocellum is a good candidate organism for producing cellulosic biofuels due to its native ability to ferment cellulose, however its maximum biofuel titer is limited by tolerance. (doe.gov)
  • Clostridium sordellii [klaw-strĭ-dee-um sore-dell-ee-i] (also called C. sordellii ) is a rare bacterium that causes pneumonia, endocarditis, arthritis, peritonitis, and myonecrosis. (cdc.gov)
  • The bacterium named Clostridium difficile (or C. diff ) causes mild illness such as diarrhea to life-threatening inflammation (swelling) of the intestine (colon). (carle.org)
  • Clostridium tetani causes tetanus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunologic tests: Clostridium tetani]. (nih.gov)
  • Characteristics of Clostridium tetani and laboratory diagnosis of tetanus]. (nih.gov)
  • Tetanus is caused by Clostridium tetani, a soil inhabitant that is a prolific spore producer. (davidgessner.com)
  • Fast Five Quiz: Clostridium difficile - Medscape - Aug 05, 2019. (medscape.com)
  • As of 2005, outbreaks with Clostridium difficile PCR polymerase chain reaction (polymerase chain reaction) ribotype 027 were recognized in the Netherlands. (rivm.nl)
  • All medical microbiologists in the Netherlands were requested to send Clostridium difficile samples from patients with severe CDI and from outbreaks to the Reference Laboratory. (rivm.nl)
  • Gene transfer of a Group I Clostridium botulinum type A strain was demonstrated with a representative pCB 102-derived shuttle vector, pMTL540E. (open.ac.uk)
  • A significant proportion of the healthy human population possesses polyclonal antibodies to the Clostridium difficile toxins. (mdpi.com)
  • However, in experimental studies a direct influence of Clostridium difficile toxins on renal duct cells could be shown. (davidgessner.com)
  • FDA Drug Safety Communication: Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea can be associated with stomach acid drugs known as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). (medscape.com)
  • Clostridium difficile is a cause of diarrhea in children. (healthychildren.org)
  • For temporary relief of symptoms related to Clostridium Difficile which include occasional diarrhea, intestinal cramping and fevers. (nih.gov)
  • RESULTS: The link between Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and acute renal failure in our patient was most likely volume depletion. (davidgessner.com)
  • Website: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/clostridium difficileinfections.htm. (carle.org)
  • Other similar Clostridium species are spread from person to person and sometimes contaminated surfaces are involved in this transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • Species of Clostridium inhabit soils and the intestinal tract of animals, including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of October 2022, there are 164 validly published species in Clostridium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The issue was originally illustrated in full detail by a rRNA phylogeny from Collins 1994, which split the traditional genus (now corresponding to a large slice of Clostridia) into twenty clusters, with cluster I containing the type species and its close relatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species of Clostridium are obligate anaerobe and capable of producing endospores. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species of Desulfotomaculum form similar endospores and can be distinguished by their requirement for sulfur.Glycolysis and fermentation of pyruvic acid by Clostridia yield the end products butyric acid, butanol, acetone, isopropanol, and carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clostridium species are readily found inhabiting soils and intestinal tracts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clostridium species are also a normal inhabitant of the healthy lower reproductive tract of females. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the final applications of these genetic tools are important, we believe that discussing the successes and failures encountered while developing this genetic transformation method will help others in approaching genetics in other intractable species of Clostridium . (confex.com)
  • When doing a Gram stain, Clostridium botulinum stains purple, or Gram positive, and it's a bacillus, meaning that it looks like a big cylinder or rod under the microscope. (osmosis.org)
  • Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor is required in Clostridium difficile- induced enteritis. (qxmd.com)
  • Human fulminant gas gangrene caused by Clostridium chauvoei . (mja.com.au)
  • Here, we produced n -butanol from butyric acid using Clsotrdium beijerinckii KCTC 2203, which was the most suitable strain among the six Clostridia strains tested. (springer.com)
  • Here, we discuss our development of a genetic transformation method for the industrial butanol hyperproducer Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum strain N1-4. (confex.com)
  • Genomic DNA was extracted from pure cultures of 25 Clostridium difficile strains by using the Isolate II Genomic DNA kit (Bioline, London, UK). (cdc.gov)
  • While progress has been made in developing genetics for a handful of strains over the last 25 years, a vast majority of known solventogenic Clostridium strains remain genetically intractable. (confex.com)
  • Clostridium difficile (C. diff. (nih.gov)
  • Incidents of Clostridium difficile, or C.diff , are increasing in the US. (reachmd.com)
  • Antimicrobial resistance in Clostridium difficile ribotype 017" by Korakrit Imwattana, Daniel R. Knight et al. (edu.au)
  • In 2022, GlobalData's Market Model methodology determined that the leading player in the clostridium difficile tests market in India was American Type Culture Collection followed by bioMerieux , Danaher , DiaSorin , LG Chem , Meridian Bioscience , Microbiologics, TECHLAB and Thermo Fisher Scientific . (medicaldevice-network.com)
  • Organisms that produce secondary bile acids, such as Clostridium scindens, enhance C. difficile colonization resistance. (nih.gov)
  • For more information see the Clostridium sordellii Toxic Shock Syndrome After Medical Abortion with Mifepristone and Intravaginal Misoprostol - United States and Canada, 2001-2005 . (cdc.gov)
  • In 1924, Ida A. Bengtson separated van Ermengem's microorganisms from the Bacillus group and assigned them to the genus Clostridium. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The Schaeffer-Fulton stain (0.5% malachite green in water) can be used to distinguish endospores of Bacillus and Clostridium from other microorganisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • While ABE fermentation by Clostridium has been performed on an industrial scale since the early 1900s, several significant technical challenges have prevented this process from being economically competitive with the conventional production of solvents and fuels from petroleum. (confex.com)
  • Genomic comparison of Clostridium chauvoei isolates from classical and visceral clinical manifestation. (mja.com.au)
  • The availability of this tool should revolutionise functional genomic studies in clostridia. (innovations-report.com)
  • Genomic DNA fragments encoding the silent type B neurotoxin gene from Clostridium botulinum NCTC 2916 have been cloned and the complete nucleotide sequence determined. (open.ac.uk)
  • Cite this: Clostridium difficile - Medscape - Jun 01, 2000. (medscape.com)
  • Three-dimensional structures of the nitrogenase molybdenum-iron (MoFe-) proteins from Azotobacter vinelandii and Clostridium pasteurianum have been determined by X-ray crystallography. (caltech.edu)
  • Recommendations for surveillance of Clostridium difficile-associated disease. (medscape.com)
  • The clostridium difficile tests market in India can expand or contract due to a variety of reasons including population demographics, disease incidence and prevalence, macroeconomic issues, and geopolitical considerations. (medicaldevice-network.com)
  • Soon after their recognition, the Center for Infectious Disease Control ( CIb Centre for Infectious Disease Control (Centre for Infectious Disease Control) ) of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) started a national Reference Laboratory for Clostridium difficile at the Leiden University Medical Center. (rivm.nl)
  • Which disease is caused by Clostridium? (davidgessner.com)
  • Clostridium difficile is an important cause of disease in people and animals. (vin.com)
  • Clostridia, as a family, are obligate anaerobes, meaning that oxygen is toxic to them. (osmosis.org)
  • Clostridium Endospores have a distinct bowling pin or bottle shape, distinguishing them from other bacterial endospores, which are usually ovoid in shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clostridium difficile is one of our most urgent bacterial threats, sickening a quarter million Americans every year, and killing thousands at the cost of a billion dollars a year. (nutritionfacts.org)
  • Lethal human neutropenic enterocolitis caused by Clostridium chauvoei in the United States: tip of the iceberg? (mja.com.au)
  • Duodenal infusion of donor feces for recurrent Clostridium difficile. (medscape.com)