Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Clostridium difficile: A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.Clostridium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.Clostridium botulinum: A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous: An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.Clostridium acetobutylicum: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, used for the industrial production of SOLVENTS.Clostridium thermocellum: A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.Clostridium tetani: The cause of TETANUS in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin.Botulinum Toxins: Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.Clostridium sordellii: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, found in INTESTINES and SOIL.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Clostridium butyricum: Type species of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM, a gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is used as a source of PROBIOTICS.Clostridium septicum: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. Infections have a strong association with malignancies and also with GAS GANGRENE.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Clostridium beijerinckii: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, capable of solventogenesis, and isolated from SOIL, infected WOUNDS, fermenting OLIVES, and spoiled CANDY.Botulism: A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)Ribotyping: RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM analysis of rRNA genes that is used for differentiating between species or strains.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Clostridium botulinum type A: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces BOTULINUM TOXINS, TYPE A which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Clostridium cellulolyticum: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is a cellulolytic, mesophilic species isolated from decayed GRASS.Clostridium cellulovorans: A species of gram-positive, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It produces CELLULOSOMES which are involved in plant CELL WALL degradation.Clostridium chauvoei: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae isolated from infected CATTLE; SHEEP; and other animals. It causes blackleg in cattle and sheep and is transmitted through soil-borne spores.Cellulase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.Butanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Gas Gangrene: A severe condition resulting from bacteria invading healthy muscle from adjacent traumatized muscle or soft tissue. The infection originates in a wound contaminated with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM. C. perfringens accounts for the majority of cases (over eighty percent), while C. noyvi, C. septicum, and C. histolyticum cause most of the other cases.Clostridium botulinum type E: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type E which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.Clostridium kluyveri: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is distinctive for its ability to ferment ETHANOL to caproic acid.Clostridium histolyticum: A species of gram-positive, strongly proteolytic bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It contains several forms of COLLAGENASE whose action can lead to GAS GANGRENE in humans and HORSES.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Spores: The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Bacteria, AnaerobicADP Ribose Transferases: Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.Cytotoxins: Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.Antitoxins: Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Clostridium botulinum type B: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type B which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.Toxins, Biological: Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.Cellulosomes: Extracellular structures found in a variety of microorganisms. They contain CELLULASES and play an important role in the digestion of CELLULOSE.Clostridium tyrobutyricum: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae responsible for spoilage of some CHEESE via FERMENTATION of BUTYRIC ACID.Enterotoxemia: Disease caused by the liberation of exotoxins of CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS in the intestines of sheep, goats, cattle, foals, and piglets. Type B enterotoxemia in lambs is lamb dysentery; type C enterotoxemia in mature sheep produces "struck", and in calves, lambs and piglets it produces hemorrhagic enterotoxemia; type D enterotoxemia in sheep and goats is pulpy-kidney disease or overeating disease.Clostridium botulinum type D: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type D which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Clostridium botulinum type F: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type F which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Metronidazole: A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).Cellobiose: A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.Enteritis: Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Ferredoxins: Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Rubredoxins: A class of iron-sulfur proteins that contains one iron coordinated to the sulfur atom of four cysteine residues. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Toxoids: Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.Clostridium sticklandii: A species of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae frequently used for the study of ENZYMES.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Botulinum Antitoxin: Antiserum given therapeutically in BOTULISM.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Eubacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.Clostridium botulinum type C: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type C which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans. It causes dissociation of ACTIN FILAMENTS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Clostridium tertium: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, causing BACTEREMIA in humans and ANIMALS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Clindamycin: An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Cecum: The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Clostridium bifermentans: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that ferments both CARBOHYDRATES and AMINO ACIDS.Acetone: A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Neurotoxins: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.Peptostreptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.Germ-Free Life: Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Xylosidases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha- or beta-xylosidic linkages. EC 3.2.1.8 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.32 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.37 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans; and EC 3.2.1.72 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans. Other xylosidases have been identified that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-xylosidic bonds.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Clostridium symbiosum: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. Its GLUTAMATE DEHYDROGENASE is commonly used in research.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Botulinum Toxins, Type A: A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Peptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of the mouth, upper respiratory tract, and large intestine in humans. Its organisms cause infections of soft tissues and bacteremias.Food Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Glycoside HydrolasesClaudin-4: A claudin subtype that takes part in maintaining the barrier-forming property of TIGHT JUNCTIONS. Claudin-4 is found associated with CLAUDIN-8 in the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT where it may play a role in paracellular chloride ion reabsorption.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Cellulose 1,4-beta-Cellobiosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE and cellotetraose. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing ends of beta-D-glucosides with release of CELLOBIOSE.Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases: Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Xylans: Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.Fusobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.Coenzyme A-Transferases: Enzymes which transfer coenzyme A moieties from acyl- or acetyl-CoA to various carboxylic acceptors forming a thiol ester. Enzymes in this group are instrumental in ketone body metabolism and utilization of acetoacetate in mitochondria. EC 2.8.3.Enterocolitis: Inflammation of the MUCOSA of both the SMALL INTESTINE and the LARGE INTESTINE. Etiology includes ISCHEMIA, infections, allergic, and immune responses.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Bacteroidaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.Aldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.Claudin-3: A ubiquitously-expressed claudin subtype that acts as a general barrier-forming protein in TIGHT JUNCTIONS. Elevated expression of claudin-3 is found in a variety of tumor cell types, suggesting its role as a therapeutic target for specific ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.DextrinsPlasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Xylan Endo-1,3-beta-Xylosidase: A xylosidase that catalyses the random hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-xylans.rhoB GTP-Binding Protein: A GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating a signal transduction pathway that controls assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Tetanus Toxin: Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.Bacteria, AerobicPhosphate Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of acetylphosphate from acetyl-CoA and inorganic phosphate. Acetylphosphate serves as a high-energy phosphate compound. EC 2.3.1.8.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Glutamate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.4.1.2.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Butyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.

Synergistic activation of JNK/SAPK by interleukin-1 and platelet-derived growth factor is independent of Rac and Cdc42. (1/2206)

The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are activated strongly by inflammatory cytokines and environmental stresses, but only weakly by growth factors. Here we show that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) strongly potentiates activation of JNK by interleukin 1 (IL-1) in human fibroblasts and a pig aortic endothelial (PAE) cell line. This synergistic activation of JNK by IL-1 and PDGF was unaffected by bacterial toxins that inactivate Rho proteins and Ras. Since Rho proteins have been implicated in JNK activation, their possible involvement was investigated further using stably expressed, inducible N17 or V12 mutants in PAE cell lines. N17 Rac non-selectively reduced JNK activity by 30% in resting or stimulated cells (IL-1 alone, or with PDGF). N17 Cdc42 had no effect. V12 Rac weakly activated JNK and synergized with IL-1, but not with PDGF. V12 Cdc42 weakly activated JNK, but synergized with PDGF and not IL-1. Our results imply that Rho GTPases are not directly involved in mediating IL-1-induced JNK activation, or in the potentiation of this activation by PDGF.  (+info)

Rejection of Clostridium putrificum and conservation of Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium sporogenes-Opinion 69. Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology. (2/2206)

The Judicial Commission rejected the name Clostridium putrificum while conserving Clostridium botulinum for toxigenic strains and conserving Clostridium sporogenes for non-toxigenic strains.  (+info)

Characteristics of a strain of Clostridium carnis causing septicaemia in a young infant. (3/2206)

Clostridium carnis is a species which is only rarely isolated from man or animals and is occasionally found in the soil. This paper is an account of a single isolate found in blood cultures obtained from an 8-week-old boy who was suffering from gastroenteritis.  (+info)

The influence of a diet rich in wheat fibre on the human faecal flora. (4/2206)

The effect on the faecal flora of adding wheat fibre to a controlled diet in four healthy volunteers for a 3-week period has been observed. No change in the concentration of the bacteria in the bacterial groups counted was found, although there was a slight increase in total output associated with increased faecal weight. The predominant organisms in all subjects were non-sporing anaerobes, but the dominant species in each subject was different and was unaffected by changing the diet. Similarly, the concentration of faecal beta-glucuronidase detected in two subjects was unaltered and the concentration of clostridia able to dehydrogenate the steroid nucleus found in one subject was unaltered. It is suggested that the faecal microflora is not primarily controlled by the presence of undigested food residues in the large bowel.  (+info)

Nitrate-dependent regulation of acetate biosynthesis and nitrate respiration by Clostridium thermoaceticum. (5/2206)

Nitrate has been shown to shunt the electron flow in Clostridium thermoaceticum from CO2 to nitrate, but it did not influence the levels of enzymes involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (J. M. Frostl, C. Seifritz, and H. L. Drake, J. Bacteriol. 178:4597-4603, 1996). Here we show that under some growth conditions, nitrate does in fact repress proteins involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. The CO oxidation activity in crude extracts of nitrate (30 mM)-supplemented cultures was fivefold less than that of nitrate-free cultures, while the H2 oxidation activity was six- to sevenfold lower. The decrease in CO oxidation activity paralleled a decrease in CO dehydrogenase (CODH) protein level, as confirmed by Western blot analysis. Protein levels of CODH in nitrate-supplemented cultures were 50% lower than those in nitrate-free cultures. Western blots analyses showed that nitrate also decreased the levels of the corrinoid iron-sulfur protein (60%) and methyltransferase (70%). Surprisingly, the decrease in activity and protein levels upon nitrate supplementation was observed only when cultures were continuously sparged. Northern blot analysis indicates that the regulation of the proteins involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway by nitrate is at the transcriptional level. At least a 10-fold decrease in levels of cytochrome b was observed with nitrate supplementation whether the cultures were sparged or stoppered. We also detected nitrate-inducible nitrate reductase activity (2 to 39 nmol min-1 mg-1) in crude extracts of C. thermoaceticum. Our results indicate that nitrate coordinately represses genes encoding enzymes and electron transport proteins in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and activates transcription of nitrate respiratory proteins. CO2 also appears to induce expression of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway genes and repress nitrate reductase activity.  (+info)

Antisense RNA strategies for metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum. (6/2206)

We examined the effectiveness of antisense RNA (as RNA) strategies for metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) was developed to produce a 102-nucleotide asRNA with 87% complementarity to the butyrate kinase (BK) gene. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) exhibited 85 to 90% lower BK and acetate kinase specific activities than the control strain. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) also exhibited 45 to 50% lower phosphotransbutyrylase (PTB) and phosphotransacetylase specific activities than the control strain. This strain exhibited earlier induction of solventogenesis, which resulted in 50 and 35% higher final concentrations of acetone and butanol, respectively, than the concentrations in the control. Strain ATCC 824(pRD1) was developed to putatively produce a 698-nucleotide asRNA with 96% complementarity to the PTB gene. Strain ATCC 824(pRD1) exhibited 70 and 80% lower PTB and BK activities, respectively, than the control exhibited. It also exhibited 300% higher levels of a lactate dehydrogenase activity than the control exhibited. The growth yields of ATCC 824(pRD1) were 28% less than the growth yields of the control. While the levels of acids were not affected in ATCC 824(pRD1) fermentations, the acetone and butanol concentrations were 96 and 75% lower, respectively, than the concentrations in the control fermentations. The lower level of solvent production by ATCC 824(pRD1) was compensated for by approximately 100-fold higher levels of lactate production. The lack of any significant impact on butyrate formation fluxes by the lower PTB and BK levels suggests that butyrate formation fluxes are not controlled by the levels of the butyrate formation enzymes.  (+info)

Sequence analysis of scaffolding protein CipC and ORFXp, a new cohesin-containing protein in Clostridium cellulolyticum: comparison of various cohesin domains and subcellular localization of ORFXp. (7/2206)

The gene encoding the scaffolding protein of the cellulosome from Clostridium cellulolyticum, whose partial sequence was published earlier (S. Pages, A. Belaich, C. Tardif, C. Reverbel-Leroy, C. Gaudin, and J.-P. Belaich, J. Bacteriol. 178:2279-2286, 1996; C. Reverbel-Leroy, A. Belaich, A. Bernadac, C. Gaudin, J. P. Belaich, and C. Tardif, Microbiology 142:1013-1023, 1996), was completely sequenced. The corresponding protein, CipC, is composed of a cellulose binding domain at the N terminus followed by one hydrophilic domain (HD1), seven highly homologous cohesin domains (cohesin domains 1 to 7), a second hydrophilic domain, and a final cohesin domain (cohesin domain 8) which is only 57 to 60% identical to the seven other cohesin domains. In addition, a second gene located 8.89 kb downstream of cipC was found to encode a three-domain protein, called ORFXp, which includes a cohesin domain. By using antiserum raised against the latter, it was observed that ORFXp is associated with the membrane of C. cellulolyticum and is not detected in the cellulosome fraction. Western blot and BIAcore experiments indicate that cohesin domains 1 and 8 from CipC recognize the same dockerins and have similar affinity for CelA (Ka = 4.8 x 10(9) M-1) whereas the cohesin from ORFXp, although it is also able to bind all cellulosome components containing a dockerin, has a 19-fold lower Ka for CelA (2.6 x 10(8) M-1). Taken together, these data suggest that ORFXp may play a role in cellulosome assembly.  (+info)

Segmented filamentous bacteria are potent stimuli of a physiologically normal state of the murine gut mucosal immune system. (8/2206)

Segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) are autochthonous bacteria inhabiting the intestinal tracts of many species, including humans. We studied the effect of SFB on the mucosal immune system by monoassociating formerly germfree C3H/HeN mice with SFB. At various time points during 190 days of colonization, fragment cultures of small intestine and Peyer's patches (PP) were analyzed for total immunoglobulin A (IgA) and SFB-specific IgA production. Also, phenotypic changes indicating germinal center reactions (GCRs) and the activation of CD4(+) T cells in PP were determined by using fluorescence-activated cell sorter analyses. A second group of SFB-monoassociated mice was colonized with a gram-negative commensal, Morganella morganii, to determine if the mucosal immune system was again stimulated and to evaluate the effect of prior colonization with SFB on the ability of M. morganii to translocate to the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. We found that SFB stimulated GCRs in PP from day 6 after monoassociation, that GCRs only gradually waned over the entire length of colonization, that natural IgA production was increased to levels 24 to 63% of that of conventionally reared mice, and that SFB-specific IgA was produced but accounted for less than 1.4% of total IgA. Also, the proportion of CD4(+), CD45RBlow T cells, indicative of activated cells, gradually increased in the PP to the level found in conventionally reared mice. Secondary colonization with M. morganii was able to stimulate GCRs anew, leading to a specific IgA antibody response. Previous stimulation of mucosal immunity by SFB did not prevent the translocation of M. morganii in the double-colonized mice. Our findings generally indicate that SFB are one of the single most potent microbial stimuli of the gut mucosal immune system.  (+info)

Clostridium glycolicum ATCC ® 14880D™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Clostridium glycolicum TypeStrain=True Application:
Clostridium novyi (oedematiens) a Gram-positive, endospore- forming, obligate anaerobic bacteria of the class clostridia. It is ubiquitous, being found in the soil and faeces. It is pathogenic, causing a wide variety of diseases in man and animals. It comes in three types, labelled A, B, and a non-pathogenic type C distinguished by the range of toxins they produce. Some authors include Clostridium haemolyticum as Clostridium novyi type D. C novyi is closely related to Clostridium botulinum types C and D as Yoshimasa Sasaki et al. have demonstrated by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Growth in culture proceeds through 3 stages: Initial growth wherein no toxin is produced; vigorous growth wherein toxin is produced; and spore formation wherein endospores are formed and toxin production decreases. It is suggested that type C may be type B that forms spores more readily so does not go through the toxin-production stage. Isolating and identifying C novyi is difficult due to its extreme anaerobic nature. ...
Clostridium innocuum (CLOIN) is an anaerobic, non-motile, gram-positive bacterium that reproduces by sporulation. While there are over 130 species of Clostridia, C. innocuum is the third most commonly isolated. Although it is not normally considered an aggressive human pathogen, it has been isolated in some disease processes. C. innocuum and other Clostrida line the oropharynx and gastrointestinal tract, and are considered normal gut flora. Anaerobic gram-positive bacilli affecting human beings are generally divided into two distinct groups, those that form spores (Clostridium spp) and those that do not form spores. Within the spore-forming group of Clostridium species, some are very pathogenic or toxigenic (C. perfringens) while others are rarely pathogenic. Identification and differentiation between anaerobic gram-positive bacteria in a clinical laboratory can be a very difficult task. C. innocuum forms white, glossy, raised colonies and exhibits a chartreuse fluorescence. It is a small, ...
Clostridium sporogenes ATCC ® 11437D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Clostridium sporogenes strain L.S. McClung 2006 TypeStrain=False Application:
Abstract: A group-specific PCR-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method was developed and combined with group-specific clone library analysis to investigate the diversity of the Clostridium leptum subgroup in human feces. PCR products (length, 239 bp) were amplified using C. leptum cluster-specific primers and were well separated by DGGE. The DGGE patterns of fecal amplicons from 11 human individuals revealed host-specific profiles; the patterns for fecal samples collected from a child for 3 years demonstrated the structural succession of the population in the first 2 years and its stability in the third year. A clone library was constructed with 100 clones consisting of 1,143-bp inserts of 16S rRNA gene fragments that were amplified from one adult fecal DNA with one forward universal bacterial primer and one reverse group-specific primer. Eighty-six of the clones produced the 239-bp C. leptum cluster-specific amplicons, and the remaining 14 clones did not produce these ...
Curated}} {{Biorealm Genus}} [[Image:clostridium.ipg.jpg,thumb,400px,right,Clostridium. Courtesy of [http://www-instruct.nmu.edu/cls/lriipi/micro/ Northern Michigan University.]]] ==Classification== ===Higher order taxa:=== Bacteria; Firmicutes; Clostridia; Clostridiales; Clostridiaceae; Clostridium ===Species:=== Clostridium tetani, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium acetobutylicum, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium novyi {, , height="10" bgcolor="#FFDF95" , NCBI: [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?mode=Undef&id=1485&lvl=3&keep=1&srchmode=1&unlock Taxonomy] [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=genomeprj&cmd=Search&dopt=DocSum&term=txid1485%5BOrganism:exp%5D Genomes] ,} ==Description and Significance== Clostridia are, spore-forming, Gram-positive, anaerobes (although some species are microaerophilic). They are known to produce a variety of toxins, some of which are fatal. ==Genome Structure== Currently there are 3 ...
The transport of 99MoO42- into dinitrogen-fixing cells of Clostridium pasteurianum was investigated. Transport of molybdate in this organism is energy dependent; sucrose is required in the minimal media, and the system is inhibited by the glycolysis inhibitors, NaF, iodoacetic acid, and arsenate. The cells accumulate molybdate against a concentration gradient, and the uptake shows a marked dependence on temperature (optimum 37 C) and pH (optimum 6.0). The rate of molybdate uptake with increasing molybdate concentrations shows saturation kinetics with an apparent Km and Vmax of 4.8 X 10(-5) M and 55 nmol/g of dry cells per min, respectively. Inhibition studies with the anions SO42-, S2O32-, WO42-, and VO32- show that SO42- and WO42- competitively inhibit MoO42- uptake (apparent Ki [SO42-] is 3.0 X 10(-5) M; apparent Ki [WO42-] is 2.4 X 10(-5), whereas S2O32- and VO32- have no inhibitory effect. Exchange experiments with MoO42- show that only a small percentage of the 99MoO42- taken up by the ...
Conference Comment: The contributor provides a good summary of C. piliforme, an atypical member of the genus Clostridium. Other members of the clostridia are large, Gram positive spore forming bacteria with straight or slightly curved morphology, in contrast the filamentous, Gram negative spore forming C. piliforme.(2) Further differentiating C. piliforme from other clostridia is the fact that it does not possess characteristics that allow its inclusion into one of the three general categories of the other pathogenic members of the genus. These categories of clostridia are neurotoxic (C. tetani, C. botulinum types A-G), histotoxic (C. chauvoei, C. septicum, C. novyi types A and B, C. perfringens type A, C. sordellii, C. hemolyticum), and enteropathogenic/enterotoxemia-producing (C. perfringens types A-E, C. difficile, C. colinum, C. spiroforme).(2 ...
Some pathogenic spore-forming bacilli employ a binary protein mechanism for intoxicating the intestinal tracts of insects, animals, and humans. These Gram-positive bacteria and their toxins include Clostridium botulinum (C2 toxin), Clostridium difficile (C. difficile toxin or CDT), Clostridium perfringens (ι-toxin and binary enterotoxin, or BEC), Clostridium spiroforme (C. spiroforme toxin or CST), as well as Bacillus cereus (vegetative insecticidal protein or VIP). These gut-acting proteins form an AB complex composed of ADP-ribosyl transferase (A) and cell-binding (B) components that intoxicate cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis and endosomal trafficking. Once inside the cytosol, the A components inhibit normal cell functions by mono-ADP-ribosylation of globular actin, which induces cytoskeletal disarray and death. Important aspects of each bacterium and binary enterotoxin will be highlighted in this review, with particular focus upon the disease process involving the biochemistry and modes of
Looking for Clostridium oedematiens? Find out information about Clostridium oedematiens. genus of gram-positive bacteria , several species of which cause significant, potentially deadly diseases in humans as a result of the toxins that each... Explanation of Clostridium oedematiens
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Clostridium pasteurianum is emerging as a prospective host for the production of biofuels and chemicals, and has recently been shown to directly consume electric current. Despite this growing biotechnological appeal, the organisms genetics and central metabolism remain poorly understood. Here we present a concurrent genome sequence for the C. pasteurianum type strain and provide extensive genomic analysis of the organisms defence mechanisms and central fermentative metabolism. Next generation genome sequencing produced reads corresponding to spontaneous excision of a novel phage, designated φ6013, which could be induced using mitomycin C and detected using PCR and transmission electron microscopy. Methylome analysis of sequencing reads provided a near-complete glimpse into the organisms restriction-modification systems. We also unveiled the chief C. pasteurianum Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) locus, which was found to exemplify a Type I-B system. Finally, we show
1] k__Bacteria,p__Proteobacteria,c__Gammaproteobacteria,o__Enterobacteriales,f__Enterobacteriaceae,g__Escherichia,s__Escherichia_coli ## [2] k__Bacteria,p__Proteobacteria,c__Gammaproteobacteria,o__Enterobacteriales,f__Enterobacteriaceae,g__Escherichia,s__Escherichia_coli,t__Escherichia_coli_unclassified ## [3] k__Bacteria,p__Firmicutes,c__Clostridia,o__Clostridiales,f__Ruminococcaceae,g__Anaerotruncus,s__Anaerotruncus_colihominis ## [4] k__Bacteria,p__Firmicutes,c__Clostridia,o__Clostridiales,f__Ruminococcaceae,g__Anaerotruncus,s__Anaerotruncus_colihominis,t__GCF_000154565 ## [5] k__Bacteria,p__Firmicutes,c__Clostridia,o__Clostridiales,f__Peptostreptococcaceae,g__Peptostreptococcaceae_noname,s__Clostridium_glycolicum ## [6] k__Bacteria,p__Firmicutes,c__Clostridia,o__Clostridiales,f__Peptostreptococcaceae,g__Peptostreptococcaceae_noname,s__Clostridium_glycolicum,t__GCF_000373865 ## [7] ...
1GUO: Passive Acquisition of Ligand by the Mopii Molbindin from Clostridium Pasteurianum: Structures of Apo and Oxyanion-Bound Forms
1GUN: Passive Acquisition of Ligand by the Mopii Molbindin from Clostridium Pasteurianum: Structures of Apo and Oxyanion-Bound Forms
View Notes - 12 from STEP 1 at Montgomery College. Anaerobic Bacteria Category Category Spore-forming: Spore-forming: rod, Gram (+)--Clostridium Clostridium Nonspore-forming: Nonspore-forming: see
SunEthanol, a company that is developing microbes to produce cellulosic ethanol, announced on Nov. 18 that has raised $25 million in Series B financing and that it is changing its name to Qteros Inc. The funding will allow the company to scale up its process from the pilot plant to commercial operations, and hire additional engineers and scientists, company officials said. Plans call for a demonstration plant by 2010 and commercial production in 2011. The two year old Hadley, MA company is developing the Q Microbe™ (Clostridium phytofermentans), a lollipop-shaped microscopic organism that the company claims has unique properties that make it ideally suited to the production of cellulosic ethanol from a variety of non-food plant materials. Dr. Susan Leschine, Qteros Chief Scientist and co-founder, is the University of Massachusetts, Amherst microbiology professor who, nearly 10 years ago, first collected a sample of the Q Microbe™ near the Quabbin Reservoir in Massachusetts. The Q Microbe, was
Editors note: This interesting article describes new research in which a type of bacteria called C. novyi was modified by researchers and injected into a soft tissue cancer patient to shrink a metastatic tumor in her arm. Ongoing research aims to determine which other kinds of cancer patients might benefit from the new treatment.. "A modified version of the Clostridium novyi (C. noyvi-NT) bacterium can produce a strong and precisely targeted anti-tumor response in rats, dogs and now humans, according to a new report from Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center researchers.. "In its natural form, C. novyi is found in the soil and, in certain cases, can cause tissue-damaging infection in cattle, sheep and humans. The microbe thrives only in oxygen-poor environments, which makes it a targeted means of destroying oxygen-starved cells in tumors that are difficult to treat with chemotherapy and radiation. The Johns Hopkins team removed one of the bacterias toxin-producing genes to make it safer for ...
Sampling frequency. Both rivers were sampled once a month for 42 months (September 2007 to March 2011). The sampling was done on Mondays between 08:00 and 08:30, according to the SANS 5667-6 (SANS, 2006) guideline. The samples were transported on ice and analysed in duplicate.. Microbiological analysis. The aerobic colony count (ACC) was used to give an indication of the size of the microbial population in the water. The aerobic and anaerobic spore formers were used to establish the presence of Bacillus and Clostridium strains. Total coliforms, faecal coliforms, E. coli and intestinal enterococci were used as indicator organisms for faecal contamination (Busta et al., 2003). The index organisms (Staphylococcus, Salmonella and Listeria) were used as indicators of the possible presence of related pathogens, i.e., Clostridium, Campylobacter, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and other Gram-negative species (Busta et al., 2003).. Aerobic colony count. The aerobic colony counts were determined according to ...
ID R4JWB5_CLOPA Unreviewed; 448 AA. AC R4JWB5; DT 24-JUL-2013, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 24-JUL-2013, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 35. DE RecName: Full=Chromosomal replication initiator protein DnaA {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00377, ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU000577, ECO:0000256,SAAS:SAAS00724181}; GN Name=dnaA {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00377}; GN ORFNames=Clopa_0001 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95117.1}; OS Clostridium pasteurianum BC1. OC Bacteria; Firmicutes; Clostridia; Clostridiales; Clostridiaceae; OC Clostridium. OX NCBI_TaxID=86416 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95117.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000013523}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95117.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000013523} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=BC1 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95117.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000013523}; RG US DOE Joint Genome Institute; RA Lucas S., Han J., Lapidus A., Cheng J.-F., Goodwin L., Pitluck S., RA Peters L., Mikhailova N., Teshima H., Detter J.C., Han C., Tapia ...
ID R4K521_CLOPA Unreviewed; 191 AA. AC R4K521; DT 24-JUL-2013, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 24-JUL-2013, sequence version 1. DT 20-DEC-2017, entry version 19. DE SubName: Full=Phage minor structural protein GP20 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95624.1}; GN ORFNames=Clopa_0576 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95624.1}; OS Clostridium pasteurianum BC1. OC Bacteria; Firmicutes; Clostridia; Clostridiales; Clostridiaceae; OC Clostridium. OX NCBI_TaxID=86416 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95624.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000013523}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95624.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000013523} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=BC1 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95624.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000013523}; RG US DOE Joint Genome Institute; RA Lucas S., Han J., Lapidus A., Cheng J.-F., Goodwin L., Pitluck S., RA Peters L., Mikhailova N., Teshima H., Detter J.C., Han C., Tapia R., RA Land M., Hauser L., Kyrpides N., Ivanova N., Pagani I., Dunn J., RA Taghavi S., Francis A., van der Lelie D., Woyke ...
Scientists introduced Clostridium novyi, a bacteria that causes mild illnesses in humans that typically lurks inside the soil and feces, in cancer tumors a
Pet dogs have helped researchers show that a special bacteria can seemingly fight cancer, causing tumors to shrink. A modified version of Clostridium novyi bact
Clostridiums saprophytic Usually saprophytic proteolyticfermenter Usually proteolytic and fermenter (Important in the process of decomposition of animal proteins) toxigenic Most of the species are highly toxigenic soil animal GI Living normally in soil or animal GI
A Texas A&M University biologist has received a federal grant to study the fecal samples of hundreds of people to better understand the gut bacteria Clostridium difficile-the cause of some 14,000 deaths a year in America-and ...
14. Diaz, L. A., Jr., Cheong, I., Foss, C. A., Zhang, X., Peters, B. A., Agrawal, N., Bettegowda, C., Karim, B., Liu, G., Khan, K., Huang, X., Kohli, M., Dang, L. H., Hwang, P., Vogelstein, A., Garrett-Mayer, E., Kobrin, B., Pomper, M., Zhou, S., Kinzler, K. W., Vogelstein, B., and Huso, D. L., Pharmacologic and toxicologic evaluation of C. novyi-NT spores. Toxicol Sci, 88(2): p. 562-75; ...
Aerobios totales; Coliformes totales; E. Coli; Salmonellas; Pseudomonas; Staphylococcus ; Clostridium; Hongos; Levaduras; Bacteriológico completo de aguas; Determinación de potencia de drogas. ...
Reduction of fully oxidized Clostridium pasteurianum 8-Feox.,ox. ferredoxin by using pulse-radiolysis techniques yields the half-reduced species 8-Feox.,red. ferredoxin. The subsequent oxidation of 8-Feox.,red. ferredoxin with Co(NH3)5Cl2+ was studied. From a comparison with stopped-flow studies on the 2:1 Co(NH3)5Cl2+ oxidation of 8-Fered.,red. ferredoxin to the 8-Feox.,ox. form it is concluded that there is no redox co-operativity between the two 4-Fe centres in these reactions. ...
Define Clostridium welchii. Clostridium welchii synonyms, Clostridium welchii pronunciation, Clostridium welchii translation, English dictionary definition of Clostridium welchii. Noun 1. clostridium perfringens - anaerobic Gram-positive rod bacterium that produces epsilon toxin; can be used as a bioweapon eubacteria, eubacterium,...
The increase in glycerol obtained as a byproduct of biodiesel has encouraged the production of new industrial products, such as 1,3-propanediol (PDO), using biotechnological transformation via bacteria like Clostridium butyricum. However, despite the increasing role of Clostridium butyricum as a bio-production platform, its metabolism remains poorly modeled. We reconstructed iCbu641, the first genome-scale metabolic (GSM) model of a PDO producer Clostridium strain, which included 641 genes, 365 enzymes, 891 reactions, and 701 metabolites. We found an enzyme expression prediction of nearly 84% after comparison of proteomic data with flux distribution estimation using flux balance analysis (FBA). The remaining 16% corresponded to enzymes directionally coupled to growth, according to flux coupling findings (FCF). The fermentation data validation also revealed different phenotype states that depended on culture media conditions; for example, Clostridium maximizes its biomass yield per enzyme usage under
The nucleotide sequence of the celY gene coding for the thermostable exo-1,4-β-glucanase Avicelase II of Clostridium stercorarium was determined. The gene consists of an ORF of 2742 bp which encodes a preprotein of 914 amino acids with a molecular mass of 103 kDa. The signal-peptide cleavage site was identified by comparison with the N-terminal amino acid sequence of Avicelase II purified from C. stercorarium. The celY gene is located in close vicinity to the celZ gene coding for the endo-1,4-β-glucanase Avicelase I. The CelY-encoding sequence was isolated from genomic DNA of C. stercorarium with the PCR technique. The recombinant enzyme produced in Escherichia coli as a LacZ'-CelY fusion protein could be purified using a simple two-step procedure. The properties of CelY proved to be consistent with those of Avicelase II purified from C. stercorarium. Sequence comparison revealed that CelY consists of an N-terminal catalytic domain flanked by a domain of 95 amino acids with unknown function
Increasing demand for the production of renewable fuels has recently generated a particular interest in microbial production of butanol. Anaerobic bacteria, such as Clostridium spp., can naturally convert carbohydrates into a variety of primary products, including alcohols like butanol. The genetics of microorganisms like Clostridium acetobutylicum have been well studied and their solvent-producing metabolic pathways characterized. In contrast, less is known about the genetics of Clostridium spp. capable of converting syngas or its individual components into solvents. In this study, the type of strain of a new solventogenic Clostridium species, C. carboxidivorans, was genetically characterized by genome sequencing. C. carboxidivorans strain P7T possessed a complete Wood-Ljungdahl pathway gene cluster, involving CO and CO2 fixation and conversion to acetyl-CoA. Moreover, with the exception of an acetone production pathway, all the genetic determinants of canonical ABE metabolic pathways for acetate,
Lethal Toxin from Clostridium sordellii (TcsL), which is casually involved in the toxic shock syndrome and in gas gangrene, enters its target cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Inside the cell, TcsL mono-O-glucosylates and thereby inactivates Rac/Cdc42 and Ras subtype GTPases, resulting in actin reorganization and an activation of p38 MAP kinase. While a role of p38 MAP kinase in TcsL-induced cell death is well established, data on a role of p38 MAP kinase in TcsL-induced actin reorganization are not available. In this study, TcsL-induced Rac/Cdc42 glucosylation and actin reorganization are differentially analyzed in p38alpha−/− MSCV empty vector MEFs and the corresponding cell line with reconstituted p38alpha expression (p38alpha−/− MSCV p38alpha MEFs). Genetic deletion of p38alpha results in reduced susceptibility of cells to TcsL-induced Rac/Cdc42 glucosylation and actin reorganization. Furthermore, SB203580, a pyridinyl imidazole inhibitor of p38alpha/beta MAP kinase, also protects
CRISPR/Cas-based genetic engineering has revolutionised molecular biology in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Several tools dedicated to the genomic transformation of the Clostridium genus of Gram-positive bacteria have been described in the literature; however, the integration of large DNA fragments still remains relatively limited. In this study, a CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing tool using a two-plasmid strategy was developed for the solventogenic strain Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Codon-optimised cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes was placed under the control of an anhydrotetracycline-inducible promoter on one plasmid, while the gRNA expression cassettes and editing templates were located on a second plasmid. Through the sequential introduction of these vectors into the cell, we achieved highly accurate genome modifications, including nucleotide substitution, gene deletion and cassette insertion up to 3.6 kb. To demonstrate its potential, this genome editing tool was used to generate a marker-free
Clostridium thermocellum CelJ protein: isolated from Clostridium thermocellum; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank D83704
Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 is a commercially valuable bacterium sometimes called the Weizmann Organism after JewishRussianborn Chaim Weizmann
Lactobacillus sporogenes is used in the treatment of diarrhoea,infectious diarrhoea,diarrhoea associated with antibiotics.get complete information about lactobacillus sporogenes including usage, side effects, drug interaction, expert advice along with medicines associated with lactobacillus sporogenes at 1mg.com
For the vaccination of healthy cattle and sheep against diseases caused by Clostridium chauvoei Cl.septicum Cl.novyi Type B Cl.haemolyticum (known elsewhere as Cl. novyi Type D) Cl.tetani and Cl. perfringens Types C and D.
Iron reduction in Gram-positive bacteria is not well understood yet, even if it has been investigated in some extent for Gram-positive bacteria. The mechanisms involved in the delivery of electrons to a solid terminal electron acceptor like iron oxides have not been defined. Clostridium acetobutylicum is an appropriate Gram-positive bacterium to study those mechanisms as genetic tools have been developed due to its industrial interest, allowing easy targeted and random mutagenesis. In this Masters project, phenotype of two mutants, whose dihydroorotate dehydrogenase 1B (pyrD) or ferredoxin hydrogenase (hydA) gene have been knocked out through ClosTron mutagenesis, have been characterized and no phenotype diverging from the wild strain has been detected. However, evidences of flavin presence in the spent growth medium have been observed during experiment. An attempt to measure their redox state, either by direct measurement or through the addition of AQDS, has been done but results are ...
Preliminary work has been done on the formulation of a new solventogenic clostridial fermentation medium based on the use of corn steep liquor (CSL). CSL is a by-product of the corn wet-milling industry, and has been used primarily as a feed supplement in the livestock industry. This nutrient-rich medium is an ideal base for use in a bacterial fermentation medium. A medium developed from CSL has been found to support good bacterial growth while allowing a level of solvent production approaching that of complex, more expensive clostridial growth media. When used in combination with C. beijerinckii, BA101, this newly developed medium holds promise to increase the cost-effectiveness of the ABE fermentation. (Abstract shortened by UMI ...
Pure bacterial strains give better yields when producing H2 than mixed, natural communities. However the main drawback with the pure cultures is the need to perform the fermentations under sterile conditions. Therefore, H2 production using artificial co-cultures, composed of well characterized strains, is one of the directions currently undertaken in the field of biohydrogen research. Four pure Clostridium cultures, including C. butyricum CWBI1009, C. pasteurianum DSM525, C. beijerinckii DSM1820 and C. felsineum DSM749, and three different co-cultures composed of (1) C. pasteurianum and C. felsineum, (2) C. butyricum and C. felsineum, (3) C. butyricum and C. pasteurianum, were grown in 20 L batch bioreactors. In the first part of the study a strategy composed of three-culture sequences was developed to determine the optimal pH for H2 production (sequence 1); and the H2-producing potential of each pure strain and co-culture, during glucose (sequence 2) and starch (sequence 3) fermentations at the optimal
Clostridium Perfringens : Its Significance, Incidence, and Prevention Bobbi Johnson, PhD Walden University PUBH 8165-1 Instructor: Dr. Stephen Arnold Summer, 2011. Clostridium Perfringens History. Is also referred to as Clostridium Welchii Slideshow 4754453 by fern
Creative Biolabs offers the best Recombinant Clostridium Thermocellum ispE Protein (aa 1-283), which is useful for vaccine development.
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Enlarge this imageInfections with Clostridium difficile can crop up following a spherical of antibiotics.BSIP/UIG by way of Getty Imageshide captiontoggle captionBSIP/UIG by using Getty ImagesInfections with Clostridium difficile can crop up after a round of antibiotics.BSIP/UIG by way of Getty ImagesNamed from the Greek kloster, for spindle, a category of microbes recognised as Clostridia abounds in nature.Staining deep violet underneath the microscope, they seem as slender rods which has a bulge at one particular end, just like a tadpole or maple seed. They thrive in soil, marine sediments and human beings. They are living on our pores and skin and in our intestines.And from time to time, they can kill you.Most strains are https://www.athleticsshine.com/Kendrys-Morales-Jersey harmle s, but tetanus, botulism and gangrene are because of clostridial species. Vaccination, sanitation and enhanced profe sional medical care have made these infections a lot le s typical, but just one a sortment is ...
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Hongo, M.and A. Murata. 1965. Bacteriophages of Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum. I. Some characteristics of the twelve phages obtained from the abnormally fermented broths. Agric.Biol. Chem. 29:1135-1139 ...
Free, official information about 2009 (and also 2010-2015) ICD-9-CM diagnosis code 005.3, including coding notes, detailed descriptions, index cross-references and ICD-10-CM conversion.
1st)SBOs; specifically the clostridium strain present in probiotic 3, that I assumed was recommended. It looked liked you took a swipe at it, in a recent post. as in the company trains that strain to be beneficial, not pathogenic;). I know, not your exact words, but I felt like that was the gist of what you were saying. I had high hopes and still do, for that strain. If you have changed your mind, for some reason, could you please clarify why. Maybe any member of the clostridium family is questionable, and I might be paying for a product that is bad for me ...
Good call!. I believe you are most likely correct in your assumption. People his age are prone to an infection of the digestive track called "C-Diff"(Clostridium difficile) which is often contracted from a previous stay in the hospital, although a small portion of the population has this bacterium naturally present in their colon.. C-Diff is difficult to eradicate in older people because of arterial stenosis and other vascular conditions common to the elderly that lessen blood flow to certain areas and compromises their ability to fight off infection and, in general, heal. C-Diff in the very old and very infirmed is often fatal.. Wikipedia says:. Clostridium difficile (pronunciation below) (from the Greek kloster (ÎºÎ»Ï Ï Ï Î®Ï ), spindle, and Latin difficile,[1] difficult), also known as "CDF/cdf", or "C. diff", is a species of Gram-positive bacteria of the genus Clostridium that causes severe diarrhea and other intestinal disease when competing bacteria in the gut flora have been ...
In the last few years the spoilage of vacuum-packed, refrigerated beef due to psychrophilic and psychrotolerant clostridia, including production of gas inside the pack, has gained in importance. In addition to C. estertheticum and C. gasigenes, further psychrophilic clostridia have been described, which are able to cause Blown Pack Spoilage. Because there are divergent descriptions of these spoilage-causing bacteria, the phenotypic characteristics of the reference strains of six psychrotolerant clostridia were examined and the results were compared. In doing so, dissent results have been detected especially concerning hemolysis on blood agar plates as well as size of the vegeta- tive cells. The examination of C. gasigenes showed that there are distinct transverse pro- cesses in the last third of the rods of C. gasigenes, which, at present state of knowledge, have not been mentioned in the literature yet. The intention of this study was, to get more findings about the occurrence and the ...
Patient of childbearing potential (defined by the clinical sites standards) is using adequate birth control measures (e.g., barrier method with spermicide; intrauterine device; implantable or injectable hormonal contraceptives; surgical sterilization) for the duration of the study and will continue to use such precautions for 12 months after receiving treatment ...
Over 200 years ago, a surgeon in New York City, named Dr. William Coley, discovered that he could fight the tumors of cancer patients by injecting them with live Streptococcus bacteria. After some trial and error, he switched to using dead bacteria, and ultimately treated over 1000 patients with what were eventually dubbed "Coley toxins." The advent of current cancer treatments such as radiation, chemotherapy and surgery pushed Coleys methods into the background. Interestingly, though, it was discovered in 1999 that his success rates were similar to those for modern cancer therapies.. For over a decade, Bert Vogelstein, a cancer geneticist at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, has been using the soil-dweller bacterium, Clostridium novyi. This bacterium thrives in areas of low oxygen, which is typical of tumors. While initial results were promising in rats, the researchers then extended the study to 16 pet dogs, and found that the tumors shrank or disappeared in six of the dogs, ...
The invention relates to mutant bacteria of the genus Clostridium beijerinckii, CNCM I-4985, CNCM I-4986, CNCM I-4987 and CNCM I-4988, deposited on the 27th May 2015 at the Pasteur institute (CNCM, 25 rue du Docteur Roux, F-75724 PARIS C ...
Clostridium difficile news, clinical research studies and treatment articles on advancement of c-diff treatment, allowing medical professionals to stay updated.
With our dedicated customer support team, 30-day no-questions-asked return policy, and our price match guarantee, you can rest easy knowing that were doing everything we can to save you time, money, and stress.. ...
Clostridium perfringens is found in soil and in the intestines of humans and animals. In contaminated food, it produces a toxin that causes a form of food poisoning.
Infections with bacterium Clostridium difficile have rapidly become a significant medical problem in hospitals and long-term care facilities. The bacteria cause diarrhea and life-threatening inflammation of the colon by producing toxins that kill the endothelial cells that form the lining of the gut. Although a natural inhibitor of these toxins, called InsP6, works in the…
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for Q97EW9 (RNM5_CLOAB), Ribonuclease M5. Clostridium acetobutylicum (strain ATCC 824 / DSM 792 / JCM 1419 / LMG 5710/ VKM B-1787)
Task---- I ask Dr. Diego Gonzále Halphen if he could give us clhamydomonas reinhardtii. I ask Jovita Martínez, who take care of the strain collection of CINVESTAV-Mexico, if she could give us clostridium acetobutylicum. ...
Numerous significant hits in gapped BLAST to conserved hypothetical sequences; residues 13-374 are 34% similar to (AF036764) unknown [Clostridium acetobutylicum]; and residues 15-392 are 30% similar to YQEV_BACSU ...
The Genus Clostridium Consists Of Over 295 Species Of Gram- Positive, Rod-shaped Bacteria. These Are Mostly Anaerobes And Present Ubiquitously In The Environment Due To Their Ability To Form Heat, Radiation And Chemical Resistant Spores. In This Book, The Authors Present Current Research In The Stud... Lees verder ...
The report examines the market applications of DNA Probes, Monoclonal Antibodies, Immunoassays, IT and other technologies; reviews features and operating characteristics of automated analyzers; profiles leading suppliers and recent market entrants developing innovative technologies and products; and identifies emerging business expansion opportunities, alternative market penetration strategies, market entry barriers and risks, and strategic planning issues and concerns. ...
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Autores: Diana America Chavez Cabrera Patricia Trespalacios Prieto Asignatura: Microbiologia Catedrático: Dra. Ethel Velasco Hernandez Universidad Autonoma d…
Study Flashcards On Q3: Micro: Exotoxin Producing Clostridia at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; Terrabacteria group; Firmicutes; Clostridia; Clostridiales; Clostridiaceae; Clostridium; unclassified ...
With our approach we can develop strong programs and have great accomplishments like the initiation of C. novyi-NT & ulixertinib/BVD-523 clinical trials.
When spore-forming bacteria, such as Bacillus or Clostridium, enter a state of starvation, they transform into a state of dormancy in order to survive. No
Klostridie (clostridium) jsou skupinou anaerobních grampozitivních bakterií, které způsobují řadu nebezpečných infekcí. Klostridie jsou typické tvorbou řady toxinů, které bývají zodpovědné za vznik chorobných příznaků. Více informací najdete v textu o klostridiových infekcích ...
門間 千枝 , 下島 優香子 , 小西 典子 , 尾畑 浩魅 , 石崎 直人 , 仲真 晶子 , 甲斐 明美 , 柳川 義勢 , 山田 澄夫 日本食品微生物学会雑誌 = Japanese journal of food microbiology 25(2), 76-82, 2008-06-30 医中誌Web 参考文献28件 ...
Clostridium butyricum phosphatidyltransferase: from Clostridium butyricum; catalyzes transfer of the phosphatidyl moiety of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol or phosphatidylserine to primary alcohols such as glycerol, serine and ethanolamine; catalyze transfer of both the diacyl and alkenyl acyl forms of glycerophospholipids, but the diacyl forms are used preferentially
Gas gangrene or C. myonecrosis is a rare life-threatening illness that results in necrotising soft tissue injury. Early recognition and diagnosis is imperative as the disease course is rapid. Risk factors for developing fulminant soft tissue infections include trauma, immunosupression, diabetes and vascular disease. More specifically, gas gangrene is commonly associated with patients post surgery or trauma due to the presence of Clostridium perfringes. Only 16% of cases occur spontaneously and the organisms responsible is usually the more virulent C. septicum.1 2 Clostridium is an anaerobic, spore-forming, positive rod.2 It constitutes part of the normal flora of the gastrointestinal tract. There are over 100 different strains of Clostridium of varying clinical significance. C. septicum infection resulting in bacteraemia is extremely rare. Larson et al 3 reviewed all cases of Clostridium infection at their institution from 1966 to 1993. Among 241 cases of Clostridium, 32 cases were C. septicum ...
Looking for online definition of Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin in the Medical Dictionary? Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin explanation free. What is Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin? Meaning of Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin medical term. What does Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin mean?
Thiolase of Clostridium acetobutylicum is an important enzyme involved in both, acid and solvent fermentation. Two thiolase genes (thlA and thlB) have been cloned and sequenced from Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 792, showing high homology to each other and to thiolases of PHA-synthesizing bacteria. The thlA gene is identical to the gene already cloned and sequenced from strain ATCC 824 (Stim- Herndon et al., 1995, Gene 154: 81-85). Using primer extension and S1 nuclease analysis a transcriptional start site was identified 102 bp upstream of the thlA start codon. This site was preceded by a region that exhibits high similarity to the s70 consensus promoter sequences of Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Regulation of thlA and thlB was studied at the transcriptional level to elucidate the specific function of each gene. Non-radioactive primer extension analysis using fluorescein-labelled oligonucleotides and Northern blot analysis revealed high levels of thlA transcripts in acid- and ...
Production and application of bio-based industrial products are increasingly important to the nations economic development. The goal of this work was to develop a novel bioprocess to economically produce butyric acid from low-value agricultural commodities. Butyric acid has many important applications in chemical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. Conventional fermentation technologies for butyric acid production are limited by low reactor productivity, product concentration, and yield. In this study, novel metabolic engineering approaches, at both molecular biology and process engineering levels, were developed for enhanced butyric acid production by Clostridium tyrobutyricum. First, a novel fibrous-bed bioreactor (FBB) was developed for fermentation of glucose and xylose to produce butyrate with high reactor productivity (>2.5 g/L/h), high butyrate concentration (58 g/L), and a butyrate yield of 0.47 g/g. Cells in the FBB were able to grow into high density (>70 g/L) and tolerate high ...
Looking for online definition of Clostridium tunisiense in the Medical Dictionary? Clostridium tunisiense explanation free. What is Clostridium tunisiense? Meaning of Clostridium tunisiense medical term. What does Clostridium tunisiense mean?
Clostridium difficile is the most prevalent pathogen among all healthcare-associated infections. This anaerobic bacterium can colonize the human gut, typically following agents that disrupt the normal gut microbiota, like antibiotics. In the gut, C. difficile is subjected to oxygen, which it has to eliminate for survival. Its genome encodes for two flavodiiron proteins, capable to reduce oxygen to water. Besides, some FDPs also reduce NO to N2O, an important feature as a resistance mechanism towards the human innate immune system [1,2]. Flavodiiron enzymes are constituted by a minimal core of two domains: a metallo-β-lactamase-like one, harboring the catalytic center, followed by a short-chain flavodoxin [1,2]. More complex FDPs exist, with multiple extra domains and redox centers [1,2]. C. difficile contains a classical FDP, and a very complex one, with an extra short-type rubredoxin domain followed by an NADH:rubredoxin oxidoreductase-like one [3]. The biochemical, redox and spectroscopic studies
Learn more about Antibiotic-associated Colitis -- C difficile at Portsmouth Regional Hospital DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Learn more about Antibiotic-associated Colitis -- C difficile at TriStar Centennial Parthenon Pavilion DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
The first crystal structures of a two-domain, prokaryotic glucoamylase were determined to high resolution from the clostridial species Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum with and without acarbose. The N-terminal domain has 18 antiparallel strands arranged in beta-sheets of a super-beta-sandwich. The C-terminal domain is an (alpha/alpha)(6) barrel, lacking the peripheral subdomain of eukaryotic glucoamylases. Interdomain contacts are common to all prokaryotic Family GH15 proteins. Domains similar to those of prokaryotic glucoamylases in maltose phosphorylases (Family GH65) and glycoaminoglycan lyases (Family PL8) suggest evolution from a common ancestor. Eukaryotic glucoamylases may have evolved from prokaryotic glucoamylases by the substitution of the N-terminal domain with the peripheral subdomain and by the addition of a starch-binding domain. Crystal structure and evolution of a prokaryotic glucoamylase.,Aleshin AE, Feng PH, Honzatko RB, Reilly PJ J Mol Biol. 2003 Mar ...
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This book outlines the currently available clinical, epidemiological and experimental data on Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) with special emphasis on studies and results achieved in Europe. Th
Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against synthetic peptide of Clostridium difficile protein CD1021. A synthetic peptide corresponding to N-terminus of Clostridium difficile protein CD1021. (PAB16071) - Products - Abnova
In order to get basic results which allow the phylogenetic localisation and identification of Clostridium chauvoei and the closely related species Clostridium septicum, we cloned and sequenced the rrs genes encoding the 16SrRNA for these species and determined their phylogenetic position in Clostridium cluster I (C. carnis, C. perfringens, C. botulinum, C. tetani). Based on DNA sequence data, we developed an identification system for C. chauvoei, using specific PCR amplification of the rrs gene with specific oligonucleotids. ... The developed identification system was evaluated on clinical material during a recent outbreak of blackleg. Thereby C. chauvoei was identified as the etiological agent of the outbreak either directly from clinical samples of muscle, liver spleen and kidney or from primary cultures made with this material ...
Looks like there is more than one fount for male steroid hormones in the body. In a paper recently out in the Journal of Lipid Research, researchers show that a bacterial species converts glucocorticoids into androgens, a group of male steroid hormones. The implication is that the host endocrine system may not be the only source of androgens and other regulatory molecules: The gut microbiome may be another.. Phillip Hylemon at the Virginia Commonwealth University explains that there has been evidence since the 1960s that secondary bile acids, which are microbial products made from the primary bile acids secreted by the gallbladder, are associated with gastrointestinal diseases, such as colon cancer and cholesterol gallstones. "A small number of microbes inhabiting the (gastrointestinal) tract are the sole source of these molecules," he explains.. His group and others have worked out how the bacterium Clostridium scindens carries out the primary to secondary bile acid transformation. But it turns ...
Background Many Firmicutes bacteria, including solvent-producing clostridia such as Clostridium acetobutylicum, are able to utilize xylose, an abundant carbon source in nature. Nevertheless, homology...
A selection of various Gram-positive bacteria featuring the 3 basic morphological shapes. Tube cultures.Bacillus megaterium (rod)Clostridium sporogenes (rod)Lactococcus lactis (cocci in chains)Lactobacillus acidophilus (rod)Micrococcus luteus (cocci in clusters or tetrads)Sarcina aurantiaca (cocci i...
In the UK and Netherlands scientists have genetically engineered an enzyme into the Clostridium sporogenes bacteria to deliver a cancer drug into anaerobic brain tumors. If their work continues to demonstrate success, this bacteria will be used to transport anti-cancer agents into previously inaccessible forms of cancer. The findings of this group will be presented at the annual meeting of the Society of Microbiology at the UKs University of York. Key to the findings of the group is that the use of this bacteria as a drug delivery system appears to leave healthy tissue surrounding tumors unharmed, in contrast to both chemotherapy and radiation treatment. This in and of itself is a milestone in cancer therapy.. Meanwhile, according to findings reported in the American Chemical Society (ACS), a compound called chlorotoxin from the highly poisonous venom of the deathstalker scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus may also help to deliver anti-cancer genes to glioma, the most common and serious form of ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against Clostridium botulinum D Toxoid. Clostridium botulinum D toxoid (MAB0406) - Products - Abnova
Accepted name: (S)-2-methylmalate dehydratase. Reaction: (S)-2-methylmalate = 2-methylfumarate + H2O. Other name(s): mesaconate hydratase; (+)-citramalate hydro-lyase; L-citramalate hydrolase; citramalate dehydratase; (+)-citramalic hydro-lyase; mesaconate mesaconase; mesaconase; (S)-2-methylmalate hydro-lyase. Systematic name: (S)-2-methylmalate hydro-lyase (2-methylfumarate-forming). Comments: Also hydrates fumarate to (S)-malate.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: 9027-94-5. References:. 1. Blair, A.H. and Barker, H.A. Assay and purification of (+)-citramalate hydro-lyase components from Clostridium tetanomorphum. J. Biol. Chem. 241 (1966) 400-408. [PMID: 5903732]. 2. Wang, C.C. and Barker, H.A. Purification and properties of L-citramalate hydrolyase. J. Biol. Chem. 244 (1969) 2516-2526. [PMID: 5769987]. ...
Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive spore-forming anaerobic bacillus found in the environment. Its spores are part of the colonic flora in about 2 to 3% of healthy adults, with colonization rates increasing during hospitalization to 20 to 40%. Disease occurs when the organism shifts to its replicating vegetative form with toxin (A and B) production, this typically happening when there is inhibition of the competing colonic flora by antibiotics. ...
Disease caused by Clostridium difficile may be community onset or hospital onset. It has become one of the most common hospital-acquired-infections (HAI..
1. Meynial-Salles I., Cervin M. A. and Soucaille P. 2005. New tool for metabolic pathway engineering in E. coli : one step method to modulate the expression of chromosomal genes : Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 71, 2140-2144. (impact Factor 2007 4.004 from J C Rt). 2. Girbal L., Von AbendrothG., WinklerM., BentonP. M. C., Meynial-SallesI., Croux C., PetersJ., Happe T. and Soucaille P. 2005. Homologous/heterologous over-expression in Clostridium acetobutylicum and characterization of purified clostridial and algal Fe-only hydrogenases with high specific activity : Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 71, 2777-2781. (impact Factor 2007 4,004 from J C R). 3. Meynial-Salles I., Gonzalez-Pajuelo M., , Mendes P., Andrade J. C., Vasconcelos I. and Soucaille P. 2005. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum for the industrial production of 1.3 propanediol from glycerol : Met. Eng., 7, 329-336. (impact Factor 2007 3.444 from J C R). 4. Gonzalez-Pajuelo M., Meynial-Salles I., Mendes P., Soucaille P. and ...
Correction: Defined Nutrient Diets Alter Susceptibility to Clostridium difficile Associated Disease in a Murine Model. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Citation : Anthony, D. M., Reynolds, T., Payton, J. and Rafter, L. (2009) Serum albumin in risk assessment of clostridium difficile. Journal of Hospital Infection, 71 (4), pp. 378-9. ...
Epidemiological surveillance of Clostridium difficile in human and animal health CEI Campus Moncloa: Campus of international Excellence
Acetohalobium arabaticum strain DSM 5501 Alkaliphilus metalliredigens strain QYMF Alkaliphilus oremlandii strain OhILAs Anaerococcus prevotii strain ACS-065-V-Col13 Anaerococcus vaginalis strain ATCC 51170 Anaerofustis stercorihominis strain DSM 17244 Anaerostipes caccae strain DSM 14662 Anaerostipes sp. strain 3_2_56FAA Anaerotruncus colihominis strain DSM 17241 Bacteroides capillosus strain ATCC 29799 Bacteroides pectinophilus strain ATCC 43243 Brachyspira hyodysenteriae strain ATCC 49526; WA1 Brachyspira intermedia strain PWS/A Brachyspira pilosicoli strain 95/1000 Candidatus Arthromitus sp. SFB-mouse-Japan Carnobacterium sp. strain 17-4 Clostridium acetobutylicum strain ATCC 824 Clostridium asparagiforme strain DSM 15981 Clostridium bartlettii strain DSM 16795 Clostridium bolteae strain ATCC BAA-613 Clostridium botulinum A2 strain Kyoto Clostridium butyricum strain 5521 Clostridium cellulovorans strain 743B Clostridium cf. saccharolyticum strain K10 Clostridium citroniae strain WAL-17108 ...
In order to determine if gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) on concentrated stool extracts could be substituted to cell culture assay for cytotoxicity, we prospectively studied 154 diarrhoeal stools submitted for detection of Clostridium difficile toxin. Isocaproic-positive samples were cultured on egg yolk agar supplemented with cycloserine, cefoxitin and fructose for isolation of C difficile, and on egg yolk agar plus kanamycin for isolation of other clostridium species. Of the 154 samples, 129 were GLC-negative (height of the isocaproic peak less than 1.2 cm) and were toxin-negative. Twenty-five stools yielded isocaproic acid; C difficile isolated from 13 of them, six of which were also toxin-positive. Four other isocaproic-positive samples yielded C bifermentans and C sordellii; all were toxin-negative. These results indicate that a negative GLC is an excellent screening test for excluding C difficile infection; positive results must be checked by toxin testing and culture since they are not ...
Clostridium difficile is an important nosocomial pathogen, resulting in antibiotic-associated disease ranging from mild diarrhoea to the life-threatening pseudomembranous colitis. Upon antibiotic exposure, it is believed that the normal bowel microflora of patients is disrupted, allowing C. difficile to proliferate. Significantly, C. difficile is among only a few bacteria able to ferment tyrosine to p-cresol, a phenolic compound that is toxic to other microbes via its ability to interfere with metabolism. Therefore, the ability of different C. difficile strains to produce and tolerate p-cresol may play an important role in the development and severity of C. difficile-associated disease. In this study, it was demonstrated that two C. difficile hypervirulent 027 strains (Stoke Mandeville and BI-16) are more tolerant to p-cresol than other C. difficile strains including 630, CF4 and CD196. Surprising, it was shown that Clostridium sordellii also has a high tolerance to p-cresol, suggesting an overlap in
Bactrim Pseudomembranous Colitis. Pseudomembranous colitis - Symptoms and causes - Mayo…19 Aug 2017 Pseudomembranous colitis - Comprehensive overview covers symptoms, causes, treatment of this inflammatory colon condition.Bactrim Disease Interactions - Drugs.comAntibiotics (Includes Bactrim) ↔ Colitis. Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility. Applies to: Colitis/Enteritis (Noninfectious). Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with most antibacterial agents and may range in severity from mild to life-threatening, with an onset of up to two months following cessation of Bactrim DS Side Effects in Detail - Drugs.comLearn about the potential side effects of Bactrim DS (sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim). Includes common and Some of the dosage forms listed on this page may not apply to the brand name Bactrim DS. Very rare (less than 0.01%): Constipation, glossitis, stomatitis, pseudomembranous colitis, pancreatitis, abdominal painAntibiotic-Associated Diarrhea and Clostridium ...
Manuka honey originates from the manuka tree (Leptospermum scoparium) and its antimicrobial effect has been attributed to a property referred to as Unique Manuka Factor that is absent in other types of honey. Antibacterial activity of Manuka honey has been documented for several bacterial pathogens, however there is no information on Clostridium difficile, an important nosocomial pathogen. In this study we investigated susceptibility of C. difficile to Manuka honey and whether the activity is bactericidal or bacteriostatic. Three C. difficile strains were subjected to the broth dilution method to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) for Manuka honey. The agar well diffusion method was also used to investigate sensitivity of the C. difficile strains to Manuka honey. The MIC values of the three C. difficile strains were the same (6.25% v/v). Similarly, MBC values of the three C. difficile strains were the same (6.25% v/v). The activity of Manuka
TY - JOUR. T1 - Epidemiology and outcomes of clostridium difficile infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. AU - Alonso, Carolyn D.. AU - Treadway, Suzanne B.. AU - Hanna, David B.. AU - Huff, Carol Ann. AU - Neofytos, Dionissios. AU - Carroll, Karen C.. AU - Marr, Kieren A.. PY - 2012/4/15. Y1 - 2012/4/15. N2 - Background. Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of infectious diarrhea among hospitalized patients and is a major concern for patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Risk factors and the natural history of C. difficile infection (CDI) are poorly understood in this population.Methods.We performed a retrospective nested case-control study to describe the epidemiology, timing, and risk factors for CDI among adult patients who received HSCTs at our center from January 2003 through December 2008. Results. The overall 1-year incidence of CDI was 9.2% among HSCTs performed (n=999). The median time to diagnosis of CDI was short among both ...
Lactobacillus pentosus TV35b, isolated from the posterior fornix secretions of the vagina of a prenatal patient, produced a bacteriocin-like peptide (pentocin TV35b), which is inhibitory to Clostridium sporogenes, Cl. tyrobutyricum, Lact. curvatus, Lact. fermentum, Lact. sake, Listeria innocua, Propionibacterium acidipropionici, Propionibacterium sp. and Candida albicans. The mechanism of activity of pentocin TV35b is bactericidal, as shown by a decrease in the viable cell numbers of Lact. sake from approximately 4 x 108 to less than 10 cfu ml-1 over a period of 4 h. Pentocin TV35b added to the growth medium of C. albicans stimulated the formation of pseudohyphae during the first 36 h, followed by a slight repression in cell growth. Production of pentocin TV35b was at its maximum towards the end of the logarithmic growth phase of strain TV35b. The peptide was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, followed by SP-Sepharose cation exchange chromatography. The molecular size of pentocin TV35b ...
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD)[edit]. Tolevamer was designed to bind the enterotoxins rather than attack ... In early 2008, a noninferiority study versus vancomycin or metronidazole for Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) ... a polystyrene sulfonate was investigated by Genzyme as a toxin binding agent for the treatment of Clostridium difficile ... Clostridium difficile directly. Since it has no antibiotic properties, it does not harm the gut flora. Early studies used the ...
... (CTX III, also known as cytotoxin 3) is a sixty amino-acid polypeptide toxin from the Taiwan Cobra Naja atra. It is an example of a group of snake cardio/cytotoxins (InterPro: IPR003572), which are made up of shorter snake venom three-finger toxins.[1] Recent evidence has shown that CTX III may induce apoptosis in K562 cells via the release of cytochrome c.[2] ...
Clostridium perfringens. *Escherichia coli O104:H4. *Escherichia coli O157:H7. *Hepatitis A ...
... s are often distinguished from other chemical agents by their method of production-the word toxin does not specify method of delivery (compare with venom and the broader meaning of poison-all substances that can also cause disturbances to organisms). It simply means it is a biologically produced poison. There was an ongoing terminological dispute between NATO and the Warsaw Pact over whether to call a toxin a biological or chemical agent, in which the NATO opted for biological agent, and the Warsaw Pact, like most other countries in the world, for chemical agent.[citation needed] According to an International Committee of the Red Cross review of the Biological Weapons Convention, "Toxins are poisonous products of organisms; unlike biological agents, they are inanimate and not capable of reproducing themselves", and "Since the signing of the Constitution, there have been no disputes among the parties regarding the definition of biological agents or toxins".[4] According to Title 18 of the ...
... acts by the following mechanism: First, the B subunit ring of the cholera toxin binds to GM1 gangliosides on the surface of target cells. The B subunit can also bind to cells lacking GM1. The toxin then most likely binds to other types of glycans, such as Lewis Y and Lewis X, attached to proteins instead of lipids.[7][8][9] Once bound, the entire toxin complex is endocytosed by the cell and the cholera toxin A1 (CTA1) chain is released by the reduction of a disulfide bridge. The endosome is moved to the Golgi apparatus, where the A1 protein is recognized by the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, protein disulfide isomerase. The A1 chain is then unfolded and delivered to the membrane, where Ero1 triggers the release of the A1 protein by oxidation of protein disulfide isomerase complex.[10] As the A1 protein moves from the ER into the cytoplasm by the Sec61 channel, it refolds and avoids deactivation as a result of ubiquitination. CTA1 is then free to bind with a human partner protein ...
... occludes the pore of calcium-activated voltage-gated shaker K+ channels by binding to one of four independent, overlapping binding sites.[6][7] It binds both to the open and the closed states. In addition, the block is enhanced as the ionic strength is lowered.[8] This block occurs as the Asn 30 on the CTX interacts with the Asp 381 on the K+ channel.[9] The blockade of K+ channels by the charybdotoxin peptide causes neuronal hyperexcitability. Mutations of the Lys31Gln and the Asn30Gln had the effect of lessening the CTX block of the pore on the shaker channel.[9] ...
See also: Clostridium acetobutylicum. Butanol is an alcohol which can be used as a fuel in most gasoline internal combustion ... It is typically a product of the fermentation of biomass by the bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum (also known as the ...
Clostridium difficile: 2 - 4 µg/ml. *Escherichia coli: 0.125 - 16 µg/ml ...
Clostridium botulinum; Note: Botulism is not an infection by Clostridium botulinum but caused by the intake of botulinum toxin ...
Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens (inhabitants of the lower bowel); and Clostridium tetani. ...
Clostridia. Clostridium (spore-forming). motile:. *Clostridium difficile *Pseudomembranous colitis. *Clostridium botulinum * ...
Clostridia. Clostridium (spore-forming). motile:. *Clostridium difficile *Pseudomembranous colitis. *Clostridium botulinum * ...
... is caused by the tetanus bacterium Clostridium tetani.[1] Tetanus is an international health problem, as C. tetani ... Tetanus is caused by an infection with the bacterium Clostridium tetani,[1] which is commonly found in soil, saliva, dust, and ... Clostridium tetani is strongly durable due to its endospores. Pictured is the bacterium alone, with a spore being produced, and ... Arnon, Stephen S. (2016). "Chapter 211: Tetanus (Clostridium tetani)". Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. Elsevier. p. 1432. ISBN ...
Clostridia. Clostridium (spore-forming). motile:. *Clostridium difficile *Pseudomembranous colitis. *Clostridium botulinum * ...
... is caused by exotoxin-producing Clostridium species (most often C. perfringens, and C. novyi,[5] but less commonly ... Chi CH, Chen KW, Huang JJ, Chuang YC, Wu MH (1995). "Gas composition in Clostridium septicum gas gangrene". J Formos Med Assoc ... Bratton SL, Krane EJ, Park JR, Burchette S (1992). "Clostridium septicum infections in children". Pediatr Infect Dis J. 11 (7 ... 2008), "Clostridium perfringens Poisoning", Poisoning and Toxicology Handbook (4th ed.), Informa, pp. 892-893, ISBN 978-1-4200- ...
Clostridia. Clostridium (spore-forming). motile:. *Clostridium difficile *Pseudomembranous colitis. *Clostridium botulinum * ...
Clostridia. Clostridium (spore-forming). motile:. *Clostridium difficile *Pseudomembranous colitis. *Clostridium botulinum * ...
Clostridia. Clostridium (spore-forming). motile:. *Clostridium difficile *Pseudomembranous colitis. *Clostridium botulinum * ...
... by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Clostridium botulinum is a large anaerobic Gram-positive bacillus that forms ... Clostridium botulinum type C toxin has been incriminated as the cause of grass sickness, a condition in horses which occurs in ... Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic, Gram positive, spore-forming rod. Botulinum toxin is one of the most powerful known ... Clostridium botulinum is a ubiquitous soil-dwelling bacterium. Many infant botulism patients have been demonstrated to live ...
Clostridium spp. are frequently recovered in long bones infections, mostly in association with traumatic wounds. Because ... frequently found in infections of hematogenic origin), and Clostridium spp. (frequently found in infections after trauma). The ... The isolation of B. fragilis group and Clostridium spp. is often associated with a gastrointestinal source, pigmented ... Toxin can be neutralized by specific antitoxins, mainly in infections caused by Clostridia (tetanus and botulism). Controlling ...
... can be helpful in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infections, to absorb toxins A and B, and reduce the ... Stroehlein JR (June 2004). "Treatment of Clostridium difficile Infection". Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol. 7 (3): 235-239. ...
Ward PB, Young GP (1997). "Dynamics of Clostridium difficile infection. Control using diet". Adv Exp Med Biol. 412: 63-75. PMID ... and Clostridium difficile,[28] due in part to the short-chain fatty acids produced with subsequent anti-inflammatory actions ...
The most common organisms are Campylobacter, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, and Salmonella.[86] A large number ... Toxigenic Clostridium difficile is an important cause of diarrhea that occurs more often in the elderly.[17] Infants can carry ... Moudgal, V; Sobel, JD (February 2012). "Clostridium difficile colitis: a review". Hospital Practice. 40 (1): 139-48. doi: ... including Clostridium difficile, Salmonella, and Campylobacter species.[34] The risk is greater in those taking proton pump ...
against Clostridium botulinum. J Food Prot 2002, 65:806-813. von der Weid I, Alviano DS, Santos AL, Soares RM, Alviano CS, ...
link) Green, Mary T.; Font, Ramon L.; Campbell, James V.; Marines, Hector M. (1987). "Endogenous Clostridium Panophthalmitis". ... It can be caused by infection, particularly from Pseudomonas species, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Clostridium species, ...
Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens (inhabitants of the lower bowel); and Clostridium tetani. Causes (listed in order ...
Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, ... Purified collagenase clostridium histolyticum was not mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium (AMES test) and was not clastogenic ... It belongs to the class II Clostridium histolyticum collagenases.. XIAFLEX is supplied as a sterile lyophilized powder (white ... collagenase clostridium histolyticum) for Injection, for Intralesional Use. XIAFLEX is approved for two uses: Dupuytrens ...
Carbon flux has been redistributed in Clostridium tyrobutyricum via metabolic cell engineering to produce biobutanol. However, ... Ma C, Ou J, Xu N, Fierst JL, Yang S-T, Liu X. Rebalancing Redox to Improve Biobutanol Production by Clostridium tyrobutyricum. ... Keywords: Clostridium tyrobutyricum; butanol production; redox engineering; metabolic cell engineering; metabolic shift ... Ma, C.; Ou, J.; Xu, N.; Fierst, J.L.; Yang, S.-T.; Liu, X. Rebalancing Redox to Improve Biobutanol Production by Clostridium ...
... from Clostridium butyricum; catalyzes transfer of the phosphatidyl moiety of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol or ... Clostridium butyricum phosphatidyltransferase. Subscribe to New Research on Clostridium butyricum phosphatidyltransferase from ... Clostridium butyricum; catalyzes transfer of the phosphatidyl moiety of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol or ...
Enhanced butyric acid fermentation by Clostridium tyrobutyricum immobilized in a fibrous-bed bioreactor. by Zhu, Ying ... Keywords:butyric acid fermentation clostridium tyrobutyricum fibrous bed bioreactor metabolic engineering xylose ... were developed for enhanced butyric acid production by Clostridium tyrobutyricum. First, a novel fibrous-bed bioreactor (FBB) ...
It inhibits Ach release at NMJ and also inhibits the synthesis and release of GABA in rest of the nervous system. All these causes spastic paralysis, exaggerated reflexes and scissors or fits. ...
Other Clostridium species that can cause gas gangrene include Clostridium bifermentans, Clostridium septicum, Clostridium ... Clostridium Perfringens Gas Gangrene and More. Gas gangrene is typically caused by the Clostridium bacteria. These are normal ... The fatal agent was found to be Clostridium novyi type A.. Reference. Hoi Ho et al. Gas Gangrene. eMedicine Clinical Reference ... sporogenes, and Clostridium tertium.. Other bacteria that can also cause the severe infection include Group A Streptococcus and ...
Clostridium tetani is an anaerobic bacterium that is found in soil and animal intestinal tracts. C. tetani bacteria are single- ... Clostridium tetani was discovered in 1884 by a German physician Arthur Nicolaier. He found that C.tetani causes tetanus when he ... Clostridium tetani bacteria have two primary life stages, sporular and vegetative. The latter stage is extremely anaerobic and ... Clostridium tetani reproduces by an asexual reproduction process known as binary fission. In this process a single bacteria ...
Tetanus is a nervous system disease caused by a toxin (tetanospasmin) produced by Clostridium tetani. It is divided into four ... "Researchers now have access to purchase Tetanus (Clostridium tetani) kits at Creative Diagnostics, for example, human tetanus ... For more detailed information about the Tetanus (Clostridium tetani) related products, please contact Creative Diagnostics at 1 ... Creative Diagnostics offers Tetanus (Clostridium Tetani) antigens, antibodies and ELISA kits for research use. ...
Creative Diagnostics Provides New Tetanus (Clostridium Tetani) Related Products for Researchers. Print This Article Share it ... Creative Diagnostics Provides New Tetanus (Clostridium Tetani) Related Products for Researchers. Back To Homepage Subscribe To ... Tetanus is a nervous system disease caused by a toxin (tetanospasmin) produced by Clostridium tetani. It is divided into four ... "Researchers now have access to purchase Tetanus (Clostridium tetani) kits at Creative Diagnostics, for example, human tetanus ...
An Open Label, Dose Escalation Study to Assess Safety and Tolerability of Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum (EN3835) in ... An Open Label, Dose Escalation Study to Assess Safety and Tolerability of Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum (EN3835) in ...
We reconstructed iCbu641, the first genome-scale metabolic (GSM) model of a PDO producer Clostridium strain, which included 641 ... However, despite the increasing role of Clostridium butyricum as a bio-production platform, its metabolism remains poorly ... By contrast, under glycerol excess conditions, Clostridium grows sub-optimally, maximizing biomass yield while minimizing both ... Clostridium maximizes its biomass yield per enzyme usage under glycerol limitation. ...
Also called: Clostridioides difficile infections, Clostridium difficile Infections, Clostridium enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous ... Clostridium difficile (American Academy of Pediatrics) Also in Spanish * Stool Test: C. Difficile Toxin (For Parents) (Nemours ... ClinicalTrials.gov: Clostridium difficile Infections (National Institutes of Health) * ClinicalTrials.gov: Enterocolitis, ... You may see it called other names - Clostridioides difficile (the new name), Clostridium difficile (an older name), and C. ...
"Inhibition of the cytotoxic effect of Clostridium difficile in vitro by Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI 588 strain". Journal of ... Clostridium butyricum is a strictly anaerobic endospore-forming Gram-positive butyric acid-producing bacillus subsisting by ... Its usefulness stems primarily from its ability to interfere with the growth of highly pathogenic Clostridium difficile by ... Recent European Food Safety Authority opinions confirm the official strain nomenclature as Clostridium butyricum FERM BP-2789. ...
EPA Clostridium acetobutylicum Final Risk Assessment. *Genetic Engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum for Enhanced ... Clostridium acetobutylicum, ATCC 824, is a commercially valuable bacterium sometimes called the "Weizmann Organism", after ... Unlike yeast, which can digest only sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide, C. acetobutylicum and other Clostridia can digest ... In 2008, a strain of Escherichia coli was genetically engineered to synthesize butanol; the genes were derived from Clostridium ...
... * 1. Género,br /,TRESPALACIOS PRIETO PATRICIA,br /,CHÁVEZ CABRERA DIANA AMERICA,br /,Universidad Autónoma de ... 8. Clostridium Perfringens,br /,Toxinas menores,br /,Enterotoxina TL ,br /,Toxina  ,br /,Tipo A,br /,,ul,,li,Cambios ...
Toxic shock associated with clostridium sordellii and clostridium perfringens after medical and spontaneous abortion.external ... Clostridium sordellii [klaw-strĭ-dee-um sore-dell-ee-i] (also called C. sordellii) is a rare bacterium that causes pneumonia, ... Other similar Clostridium species are spread from person to person and sometimes contaminated surfaces are involved in this ... Undiagnosed cases of fatal clostridium-associated toxic shock in californian women of childbearing age.external icon Am J ...
Clostridium difficile, a major nosocomial pathogen shown to be a primary cause of antibiotic-associated disease, has emerged as ... Introduction to Clostridium difficile and the Disease It Causes. * Front Matter Pages 1-1 ... Clostridium difficile, a major nosocomial pathogen shown to be a primary cause of antibiotic-associated disease, has emerged as ... In Clostridium difficile: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers bring together the most recently developed methods for ...
Clostridium perfringens (formerly known as C. welchii) is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium of ... the genus Clostridium. It is always present in nature and is a normal component of decaying vegetation, marine sediment, the ...
Clostridium difficile infection serves as a useful example for illustrating the significance of the relationship between the ... ClostridiumMicrograph of Clostridium difficile bacteria from a stool sample.. Lois S. Wiggs/Centers for Disease Control and ... Clostridium difficile infection serves as a useful example for illustrating the significance of the relationship between the ... gut microbiome transplantsThe advantages of microbiota transplantation therapy in treating infections of Clostridium difficile ...
Clostridium difficile is the leading infectious cause of nosocomial diarrhea.[1] There has been an increase in the incidence of ... Refractory Clostridium difficile-associated Diarrhea. Shilpa Grover, MD; Matthew J. Hamilton , MD; David L. Carr-Locke MD, FRCP ...
Clostridium difficile, now called Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile), is a bacterium that can cause symptoms such as ... Clostridium difficile, which experts recently reclassified as Clostridioides difficile, is a bacterium that resides in the gut ... Mcdonald, L. C., et al. (2018). Clinical practice guidelines for Clostridium difficile infection in adults and children: 2017 ... Kazanowski, M., et al. (2014). Clostridium difficile: Epidemiology, diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities-A systematic ...
... (Klein 1899) McClung and McCoy 1957. ›DSM 1284. ›JCM 1392. ›Plectridium cadaveris. ...
Clostridium difficile (C. diff.) is a type of bacteria that can lead to an infection. Learn about the symptoms, causes, and how ... Clostridium difficile (C. diff.) is a type of bacteria that lives in many peoples intestines. C. diff. is part of the normal ...
Clostridium difficile is a bacterium commonly found in the intestinal tract but which, under the right circumstances, such as ... Clostridium difficile is a bacterium commonly found in the intestinal tract, but which, under the right circumstances, such as ...
Definition of Clostridium septicum. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... Clostridium septicum. Definition: a bacterial species found in malignant edema of animals, in human battle wounds, and in cases ...
  • We reconstructed i Cbu641, the first genome-scale metabolic (GSM) model of a PDO producer Clostridium strain, which included 641 genes, 365 enzymes, 891 reactions, and 701 metabolites. (biomedcentral.com)
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