A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.
A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, used for the industrial production of SOLVENTS.
A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.
The cause of TETANUS in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, found in INTESTINES and SOIL.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Type species of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM, a gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is used as a source of PROBIOTICS.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. Infections have a strong association with malignancies and also with GAS GANGRENE.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, capable of solventogenesis, and isolated from SOIL, infected WOUNDS, fermenting OLIVES, and spoiled CANDY.
A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)
RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM analysis of rRNA genes that is used for differentiating between species or strains.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces BOTULINUM TOXINS, TYPE A which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is a cellulolytic, mesophilic species isolated from decayed GRASS.
A species of gram-positive, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It produces CELLULOSOMES which are involved in plant CELL WALL degradation.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae isolated from infected CATTLE; SHEEP; and other animals. It causes blackleg in cattle and sheep and is transmitted through soil-borne spores.
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A severe condition resulting from bacteria invading healthy muscle from adjacent traumatized muscle or soft tissue. The infection originates in a wound contaminated with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM. C. perfringens accounts for the majority of cases (over eighty percent), while C. noyvi, C. septicum, and C. histolyticum cause most of the other cases.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type E which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is distinctive for its ability to ferment ETHANOL to caproic acid.
A species of gram-positive, strongly proteolytic bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It contains several forms of COLLAGENASE whose action can lead to GAS GANGRENE in humans and HORSES.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.
Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type B which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
Extracellular structures found in a variety of microorganisms. They contain CELLULASES and play an important role in the digestion of CELLULOSE.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae responsible for spoilage of some CHEESE via FERMENTATION of BUTYRIC ACID.
Disease caused by the liberation of exotoxins of CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS in the intestines of sheep, goats, cattle, foals, and piglets. Type B enterotoxemia in lambs is lamb dysentery; type C enterotoxemia in mature sheep produces "struck", and in calves, lambs and piglets it produces hemorrhagic enterotoxemia; type D enterotoxemia in sheep and goats is pulpy-kidney disease or overeating disease.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type D which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type F which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).
A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.
Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A class of iron-sulfur proteins that contains one iron coordinated to the sulfur atom of four cysteine residues. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.
A species of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae frequently used for the study of ENZYMES.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.
Antiserum given therapeutically in BOTULISM.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type C which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans. It causes dissociation of ACTIN FILAMENTS.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, causing BACTEREMIA in humans and ANIMALS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that ferments both CARBOHYDRATES and AMINO ACIDS.
A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.
Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha- or beta-xylosidic linkages. EC catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans; and EC catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans. Other xylosidases have been identified that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-xylosidic bonds.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. Its GLUTAMATE DEHYDROGENASE is commonly used in research.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of the mouth, upper respiratory tract, and large intestine in humans. Its organisms cause infections of soft tissues and bacteremias.
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
A claudin subtype that takes part in maintaining the barrier-forming property of TIGHT JUNCTIONS. Claudin-4 is found associated with CLAUDIN-8 in the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT where it may play a role in paracellular chloride ion reabsorption.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE and cellotetraose. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing ends of beta-D-glucosides with release of CELLOBIOSE.
Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC, it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.
Enzymes which transfer coenzyme A moieties from acyl- or acetyl-CoA to various carboxylic acceptors forming a thiol ester. Enzymes in this group are instrumental in ketone body metabolism and utilization of acetoacetate in mitochondria. EC 2.8.3.
Inflammation of the MUCOSA of both the SMALL INTESTINE and the LARGE INTESTINE. Etiology includes ISCHEMIA, infections, allergic, and immune responses.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
A ubiquitously-expressed claudin subtype that acts as a general barrier-forming protein in TIGHT JUNCTIONS. Elevated expression of claudin-3 is found in a variety of tumor cell types, suggesting its role as a therapeutic target for specific ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
A xylosidase that catalyses the random hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-xylans.
A GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating a signal transduction pathway that controls assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of acetylphosphate from acetyl-CoA and inorganic phosphate. Acetylphosphate serves as a high-energy phosphate compound. EC
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.

Synergistic activation of JNK/SAPK by interleukin-1 and platelet-derived growth factor is independent of Rac and Cdc42. (1/2206)

The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are activated strongly by inflammatory cytokines and environmental stresses, but only weakly by growth factors. Here we show that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) strongly potentiates activation of JNK by interleukin 1 (IL-1) in human fibroblasts and a pig aortic endothelial (PAE) cell line. This synergistic activation of JNK by IL-1 and PDGF was unaffected by bacterial toxins that inactivate Rho proteins and Ras. Since Rho proteins have been implicated in JNK activation, their possible involvement was investigated further using stably expressed, inducible N17 or V12 mutants in PAE cell lines. N17 Rac non-selectively reduced JNK activity by 30% in resting or stimulated cells (IL-1 alone, or with PDGF). N17 Cdc42 had no effect. V12 Rac weakly activated JNK and synergized with IL-1, but not with PDGF. V12 Cdc42 weakly activated JNK, but synergized with PDGF and not IL-1. Our results imply that Rho GTPases are not directly involved in mediating IL-1-induced JNK activation, or in the potentiation of this activation by PDGF.  (+info)

Rejection of Clostridium putrificum and conservation of Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium sporogenes-Opinion 69. Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology. (2/2206)

The Judicial Commission rejected the name Clostridium putrificum while conserving Clostridium botulinum for toxigenic strains and conserving Clostridium sporogenes for non-toxigenic strains.  (+info)

Characteristics of a strain of Clostridium carnis causing septicaemia in a young infant. (3/2206)

Clostridium carnis is a species which is only rarely isolated from man or animals and is occasionally found in the soil. This paper is an account of a single isolate found in blood cultures obtained from an 8-week-old boy who was suffering from gastroenteritis.  (+info)

The influence of a diet rich in wheat fibre on the human faecal flora. (4/2206)

The effect on the faecal flora of adding wheat fibre to a controlled diet in four healthy volunteers for a 3-week period has been observed. No change in the concentration of the bacteria in the bacterial groups counted was found, although there was a slight increase in total output associated with increased faecal weight. The predominant organisms in all subjects were non-sporing anaerobes, but the dominant species in each subject was different and was unaffected by changing the diet. Similarly, the concentration of faecal beta-glucuronidase detected in two subjects was unaltered and the concentration of clostridia able to dehydrogenate the steroid nucleus found in one subject was unaltered. It is suggested that the faecal microflora is not primarily controlled by the presence of undigested food residues in the large bowel.  (+info)

Nitrate-dependent regulation of acetate biosynthesis and nitrate respiration by Clostridium thermoaceticum. (5/2206)

Nitrate has been shown to shunt the electron flow in Clostridium thermoaceticum from CO2 to nitrate, but it did not influence the levels of enzymes involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (J. M. Frostl, C. Seifritz, and H. L. Drake, J. Bacteriol. 178:4597-4603, 1996). Here we show that under some growth conditions, nitrate does in fact repress proteins involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. The CO oxidation activity in crude extracts of nitrate (30 mM)-supplemented cultures was fivefold less than that of nitrate-free cultures, while the H2 oxidation activity was six- to sevenfold lower. The decrease in CO oxidation activity paralleled a decrease in CO dehydrogenase (CODH) protein level, as confirmed by Western blot analysis. Protein levels of CODH in nitrate-supplemented cultures were 50% lower than those in nitrate-free cultures. Western blots analyses showed that nitrate also decreased the levels of the corrinoid iron-sulfur protein (60%) and methyltransferase (70%). Surprisingly, the decrease in activity and protein levels upon nitrate supplementation was observed only when cultures were continuously sparged. Northern blot analysis indicates that the regulation of the proteins involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway by nitrate is at the transcriptional level. At least a 10-fold decrease in levels of cytochrome b was observed with nitrate supplementation whether the cultures were sparged or stoppered. We also detected nitrate-inducible nitrate reductase activity (2 to 39 nmol min-1 mg-1) in crude extracts of C. thermoaceticum. Our results indicate that nitrate coordinately represses genes encoding enzymes and electron transport proteins in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and activates transcription of nitrate respiratory proteins. CO2 also appears to induce expression of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway genes and repress nitrate reductase activity.  (+info)

Antisense RNA strategies for metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum. (6/2206)

We examined the effectiveness of antisense RNA (as RNA) strategies for metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) was developed to produce a 102-nucleotide asRNA with 87% complementarity to the butyrate kinase (BK) gene. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) exhibited 85 to 90% lower BK and acetate kinase specific activities than the control strain. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) also exhibited 45 to 50% lower phosphotransbutyrylase (PTB) and phosphotransacetylase specific activities than the control strain. This strain exhibited earlier induction of solventogenesis, which resulted in 50 and 35% higher final concentrations of acetone and butanol, respectively, than the concentrations in the control. Strain ATCC 824(pRD1) was developed to putatively produce a 698-nucleotide asRNA with 96% complementarity to the PTB gene. Strain ATCC 824(pRD1) exhibited 70 and 80% lower PTB and BK activities, respectively, than the control exhibited. It also exhibited 300% higher levels of a lactate dehydrogenase activity than the control exhibited. The growth yields of ATCC 824(pRD1) were 28% less than the growth yields of the control. While the levels of acids were not affected in ATCC 824(pRD1) fermentations, the acetone and butanol concentrations were 96 and 75% lower, respectively, than the concentrations in the control fermentations. The lower level of solvent production by ATCC 824(pRD1) was compensated for by approximately 100-fold higher levels of lactate production. The lack of any significant impact on butyrate formation fluxes by the lower PTB and BK levels suggests that butyrate formation fluxes are not controlled by the levels of the butyrate formation enzymes.  (+info)

Sequence analysis of scaffolding protein CipC and ORFXp, a new cohesin-containing protein in Clostridium cellulolyticum: comparison of various cohesin domains and subcellular localization of ORFXp. (7/2206)

The gene encoding the scaffolding protein of the cellulosome from Clostridium cellulolyticum, whose partial sequence was published earlier (S. Pages, A. Belaich, C. Tardif, C. Reverbel-Leroy, C. Gaudin, and J.-P. Belaich, J. Bacteriol. 178:2279-2286, 1996; C. Reverbel-Leroy, A. Belaich, A. Bernadac, C. Gaudin, J. P. Belaich, and C. Tardif, Microbiology 142:1013-1023, 1996), was completely sequenced. The corresponding protein, CipC, is composed of a cellulose binding domain at the N terminus followed by one hydrophilic domain (HD1), seven highly homologous cohesin domains (cohesin domains 1 to 7), a second hydrophilic domain, and a final cohesin domain (cohesin domain 8) which is only 57 to 60% identical to the seven other cohesin domains. In addition, a second gene located 8.89 kb downstream of cipC was found to encode a three-domain protein, called ORFXp, which includes a cohesin domain. By using antiserum raised against the latter, it was observed that ORFXp is associated with the membrane of C. cellulolyticum and is not detected in the cellulosome fraction. Western blot and BIAcore experiments indicate that cohesin domains 1 and 8 from CipC recognize the same dockerins and have similar affinity for CelA (Ka = 4.8 x 10(9) M-1) whereas the cohesin from ORFXp, although it is also able to bind all cellulosome components containing a dockerin, has a 19-fold lower Ka for CelA (2.6 x 10(8) M-1). Taken together, these data suggest that ORFXp may play a role in cellulosome assembly.  (+info)

Segmented filamentous bacteria are potent stimuli of a physiologically normal state of the murine gut mucosal immune system. (8/2206)

Segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) are autochthonous bacteria inhabiting the intestinal tracts of many species, including humans. We studied the effect of SFB on the mucosal immune system by monoassociating formerly germfree C3H/HeN mice with SFB. At various time points during 190 days of colonization, fragment cultures of small intestine and Peyer's patches (PP) were analyzed for total immunoglobulin A (IgA) and SFB-specific IgA production. Also, phenotypic changes indicating germinal center reactions (GCRs) and the activation of CD4(+) T cells in PP were determined by using fluorescence-activated cell sorter analyses. A second group of SFB-monoassociated mice was colonized with a gram-negative commensal, Morganella morganii, to determine if the mucosal immune system was again stimulated and to evaluate the effect of prior colonization with SFB on the ability of M. morganii to translocate to the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. We found that SFB stimulated GCRs in PP from day 6 after monoassociation, that GCRs only gradually waned over the entire length of colonization, that natural IgA production was increased to levels 24 to 63% of that of conventionally reared mice, and that SFB-specific IgA was produced but accounted for less than 1.4% of total IgA. Also, the proportion of CD4(+), CD45RBlow T cells, indicative of activated cells, gradually increased in the PP to the level found in conventionally reared mice. Secondary colonization with M. morganii was able to stimulate GCRs anew, leading to a specific IgA antibody response. Previous stimulation of mucosal immunity by SFB did not prevent the translocation of M. morganii in the double-colonized mice. Our findings generally indicate that SFB are one of the single most potent microbial stimuli of the gut mucosal immune system.  (+info)

Clostridium glycolicum ATCC ® 14880D™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Clostridium glycolicum TypeStrain=True Application:
Clostridium novyi (oedematiens) a Gram-positive, endospore- forming, obligate anaerobic bacteria of the class clostridia. It is ubiquitous, being found in the soil and faeces. It is pathogenic, causing a wide variety of diseases in man and animals. It comes in three types, labelled A, B, and a non-pathogenic type C distinguished by the range of toxins they produce. Some authors include Clostridium haemolyticum as Clostridium novyi type D. C novyi is closely related to Clostridium botulinum types C and D as Yoshimasa Sasaki et al. have demonstrated by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Growth in culture proceeds through 3 stages: Initial growth wherein no toxin is produced; vigorous growth wherein toxin is produced; and spore formation wherein endospores are formed and toxin production decreases. It is suggested that type C may be type B that forms spores more readily so does not go through the toxin-production stage. Isolating and identifying C novyi is difficult due to its extreme anaerobic nature. ...
Clostridium innocuum (CLOIN) is an anaerobic, non-motile, gram-positive bacterium that reproduces by sporulation. While there are over 130 species of Clostridia, C. innocuum is the third most commonly isolated. Although it is not normally considered an aggressive human pathogen, it has been isolated in some disease processes. C. innocuum and other Clostrida line the oropharynx and gastrointestinal tract, and are considered normal gut flora. Anaerobic gram-positive bacilli affecting human beings are generally divided into two distinct groups, those that form spores (Clostridium spp) and those that do not form spores. Within the spore-forming group of Clostridium species, some are very pathogenic or toxigenic (C. perfringens) while others are rarely pathogenic. Identification and differentiation between anaerobic gram-positive bacteria in a clinical laboratory can be a very difficult task. C. innocuum forms white, glossy, raised colonies and exhibits a chartreuse fluorescence. It is a small, ...
Clostridium sporogenes ATCC ® 11437D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Clostridium sporogenes strain L.S. McClung 2006 TypeStrain=False Application:
Abstract: A group-specific PCR-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method was developed and combined with group-specific clone library analysis to investigate the diversity of the Clostridium leptum subgroup in human feces. PCR products (length, 239 bp) were amplified using C. leptum cluster-specific primers and were well separated by DGGE. The DGGE patterns of fecal amplicons from 11 human individuals revealed host-specific profiles; the patterns for fecal samples collected from a child for 3 years demonstrated the structural succession of the population in the first 2 years and its stability in the third year. A clone library was constructed with 100 clones consisting of 1,143-bp inserts of 16S rRNA gene fragments that were amplified from one adult fecal DNA with one forward universal bacterial primer and one reverse group-specific primer. Eighty-six of the clones produced the 239-bp C. leptum cluster-specific amplicons, and the remaining 14 clones did not produce these ...
Curated}} {{Biorealm Genus}} [[Image:clostridium.ipg.jpg,thumb,400px,right,Clostridium. Courtesy of [http://www-instruct.nmu.edu/cls/lriipi/micro/ Northern Michigan University.]]] ==Classification== ===Higher order taxa:=== Bacteria; Firmicutes; Clostridia; Clostridiales; Clostridiaceae; Clostridium ===Species:=== Clostridium tetani, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium acetobutylicum, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium novyi {, , height=10 bgcolor=#FFDF95 , NCBI: [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?mode=Undef&id=1485&lvl=3&keep=1&srchmode=1&unlock Taxonomy] [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=genomeprj&cmd=Search&dopt=DocSum&term=txid1485%5BOrganism:exp%5D Genomes] ,} ==Description and Significance== Clostridia are, spore-forming, Gram-positive, anaerobes (although some species are microaerophilic). They are known to produce a variety of toxins, some of which are fatal. ==Genome Structure== Currently there are 3 ...
Formate is the major source of C1 units in many species of the genus Clostridium. In this study we have cloned and characterized the genes encoding pyruvate formate-lyase and its activating enzyme of Clostridium pasteurianum. The genetic and transcriptional organizations of the genes and the high le …
Butanol is currently one of the most discussed biofuels. Its use provides many benefits in comparison to bio-ethanol, but the price of its fermentative production is still high. Genetic improvements could help solve many problems associated with butanol production during ABE fermentation, such as its toxicity, low concentration achievable in the cultivation medium, the need for a relatively expensive substrate, and many more. Clostridium pasteurianum NRRL B-598 is non-type strain producing butanol, acetone, and a negligible amount of ethanol. Its main benefits are high oxygen tolerance, utilization of a wide range of carbon and nitrogen sources, and the availability of its whole genome sequence. However, there is no established method for the transfer of foreign DNA into this strain; this is the next step necessary for progress in its use for butanol production. We have described functional protocols for conjugation and transformation of the bio-butanol producer C. pasteurianum NRRL B-598 by foreign
The transport of 99MoO42- into dinitrogen-fixing cells of Clostridium pasteurianum was investigated. Transport of molybdate in this organism is energy dependent; sucrose is required in the minimal media, and the system is inhibited by the glycolysis inhibitors, NaF, iodoacetic acid, and arsenate. The cells accumulate molybdate against a concentration gradient, and the uptake shows a marked dependence on temperature (optimum 37 C) and pH (optimum 6.0). The rate of molybdate uptake with increasing molybdate concentrations shows saturation kinetics with an apparent Km and Vmax of 4.8 X 10(-5) M and 55 nmol/g of dry cells per min, respectively. Inhibition studies with the anions SO42-, S2O32-, WO42-, and VO32- show that SO42- and WO42- competitively inhibit MoO42- uptake (apparent Ki [SO42-] is 3.0 X 10(-5) M; apparent Ki [WO42-] is 2.4 X 10(-5), whereas S2O32- and VO32- have no inhibitory effect. Exchange experiments with MoO42- show that only a small percentage of the 99MoO42- taken up by the ...
Conference Comment: The contributor provides a good summary of C. piliforme, an atypical member of the genus Clostridium. Other members of the clostridia are large, Gram positive spore forming bacteria with straight or slightly curved morphology, in contrast the filamentous, Gram negative spore forming C. piliforme.(2) Further differentiating C. piliforme from other clostridia is the fact that it does not possess characteristics that allow its inclusion into one of the three general categories of the other pathogenic members of the genus. These categories of clostridia are neurotoxic (C. tetani, C. botulinum types A-G), histotoxic (C. chauvoei, C. septicum, C. novyi types A and B, C. perfringens type A, C. sordellii, C. hemolyticum), and enteropathogenic/enterotoxemia-producing (C. perfringens types A-E, C. difficile, C. colinum, C. spiroforme).(2 ...
Some pathogenic spore-forming bacilli employ a binary protein mechanism for intoxicating the intestinal tracts of insects, animals, and humans. These Gram-positive bacteria and their toxins include Clostridium botulinum (C2 toxin), Clostridium difficile (C. difficile toxin or CDT), Clostridium perfringens (ι-toxin and binary enterotoxin, or BEC), Clostridium spiroforme (C. spiroforme toxin or CST), as well as Bacillus cereus (vegetative insecticidal protein or VIP). These gut-acting proteins form an AB complex composed of ADP-ribosyl transferase (A) and cell-binding (B) components that intoxicate cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis and endosomal trafficking. Once inside the cytosol, the A components inhibit normal cell functions by mono-ADP-ribosylation of globular actin, which induces cytoskeletal disarray and death. Important aspects of each bacterium and binary enterotoxin will be highlighted in this review, with particular focus upon the disease process involving the biochemistry and modes of
Looking for Clostridium oedematiens? Find out information about Clostridium oedematiens. genus of gram-positive bacteria , several species of which cause significant, potentially deadly diseases in humans as a result of the toxins that each... Explanation of Clostridium oedematiens
Clostridium clariflavum is a Cluster III Clostridium within the family Clostridiaceae isolated from thermophilic anaerobic sludge (Shiratori et al, 2009). This species is of interest because of its similarity to the model cellulolytic organism Clostridium thermocellum and for the ability of environmental isolates to break down cellulose and hemicellulose. Here we describe features of the 4,897,678 bp long genome and its annotation, consisting of 4,131 protein-coding and 98 RNA genes, for the type strain DSM 19732.
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Full Article. Butanol Fermentation by Clostridium saccharobutylicum Based on Poplar Wood Qiye Wang, a,b Chao Zhang, b Rui Yao, b Shaodong Xu, b Jie Zhong, b Lang Luo, b and Yiqiang Wang a,b, * As a potential source of liquid fuels, lignocellulosic material is an alternative to plant-derived starch and sugar, which are urgently needed to meet global demands for food.. ...
Clostridium pasteurianum is emerging as a prospective host for the production of biofuels and chemicals, and has recently been shown to directly consume electric current. Despite this growing biotechnological appeal, the organisms genetics and central metabolism remain poorly understood. Here we present a concurrent genome sequence for the C. pasteurianum type strain and provide extensive genomic analysis of the organisms defence mechanisms and central fermentative metabolism. Next generation genome sequencing produced reads corresponding to spontaneous excision of a novel phage, designated φ6013, which could be induced using mitomycin C and detected using PCR and transmission electron microscopy. Methylome analysis of sequencing reads provided a near-complete glimpse into the organisms restriction-modification systems. We also unveiled the chief C. pasteurianum Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) locus, which was found to exemplify a Type I-B system. Finally, we show
1] k__Bacteria,p__Proteobacteria,c__Gammaproteobacteria,o__Enterobacteriales,f__Enterobacteriaceae,g__Escherichia,s__Escherichia_coli ## [2] k__Bacteria,p__Proteobacteria,c__Gammaproteobacteria,o__Enterobacteriales,f__Enterobacteriaceae,g__Escherichia,s__Escherichia_coli,t__Escherichia_coli_unclassified ## [3] k__Bacteria,p__Firmicutes,c__Clostridia,o__Clostridiales,f__Ruminococcaceae,g__Anaerotruncus,s__Anaerotruncus_colihominis ## [4] k__Bacteria,p__Firmicutes,c__Clostridia,o__Clostridiales,f__Ruminococcaceae,g__Anaerotruncus,s__Anaerotruncus_colihominis,t__GCF_000154565 ## [5] k__Bacteria,p__Firmicutes,c__Clostridia,o__Clostridiales,f__Peptostreptococcaceae,g__Peptostreptococcaceae_noname,s__Clostridium_glycolicum ## [6] k__Bacteria,p__Firmicutes,c__Clostridia,o__Clostridiales,f__Peptostreptococcaceae,g__Peptostreptococcaceae_noname,s__Clostridium_glycolicum,t__GCF_000373865 ## [7] ...
MRFR Offers a Thorough Analysis of Veterinary Clostridium Vaccine Market provides the latest information on the present and the future industry trends, allowing the readers to identify the products and services, hence driving the revenue growth and profitability.. Market Highlights. The Global Veterinary Clostridium Vaccine Anticipated To Have Held A Market Value Of USD 461.7 Million In The Year 2017 And Is Expected To Grow At A CAGR Of 4.5% During The Forecast Period.. Clostridium bacteria is an anaerobic in nature and widely found in soil and gut of humans and animals. Vaccination play important role in protection of animals against clostridial diseases. The vaccines are more commonly used for animals such as bovine, ovine, swine, caprine, poultry, and other animals. Wide variety of vaccines is available in the treatment of clostridial diseases such as single and combination vaccines. The combination vaccines consist of bacterins, toxoids, or mixtures of bacterins and toxoids. The veterinary ...
Clostridium colitis - an acute inflammatory disorder of the colon secondary to infection with any species of the bacterial genus clostridium. Symptoms include acute diarrhea, abdominal pain, and myalgia.
1GUO: Passive Acquisition of Ligand by the Mopii Molbindin from Clostridium Pasteurianum: Structures of Apo and Oxyanion-Bound Forms
1GUN: Passive Acquisition of Ligand by the Mopii Molbindin from Clostridium Pasteurianum: Structures of Apo and Oxyanion-Bound Forms
View Notes - 12 from STEP 1 at Montgomery College. Anaerobic Bacteria Category Category Spore-forming: Spore-forming: rod, Gram (+)--Clostridium Clostridium Nonspore-forming: Nonspore-forming: see
SunEthanol, a company that is developing microbes to produce cellulosic ethanol, announced on Nov. 18 that has raised $25 million in Series B financing and that it is changing its name to Qteros Inc. The funding will allow the company to scale up its process from the pilot plant to commercial operations, and hire additional engineers and scientists, company officials said. Plans call for a demonstration plant by 2010 and commercial production in 2011. The two year old Hadley, MA company is developing the Q Microbe™ (Clostridium phytofermentans), a lollipop-shaped microscopic organism that the company claims has unique properties that make it ideally suited to the production of cellulosic ethanol from a variety of non-food plant materials. Dr. Susan Leschine, Qteros Chief Scientist and co-founder, is the University of Massachusetts, Amherst microbiology professor who, nearly 10 years ago, first collected a sample of the Q Microbe™ near the Quabbin Reservoir in Massachusetts. The Q Microbe, was
Deciphering mixotrophic Clostridium formicoaceticum metabolism and energy conservation: Genomic analysis and experimental studies ...
Editors note: This interesting article describes new research in which a type of bacteria called C. novyi was modified by researchers and injected into a soft tissue cancer patient to shrink a metastatic tumor in her arm. Ongoing research aims to determine which other kinds of cancer patients might benefit from the new treatment.. A modified version of the Clostridium novyi (C. noyvi-NT) bacterium can produce a strong and precisely targeted anti-tumor response in rats, dogs and now humans, according to a new report from Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center researchers.. In its natural form, C. novyi is found in the soil and, in certain cases, can cause tissue-damaging infection in cattle, sheep and humans. The microbe thrives only in oxygen-poor environments, which makes it a targeted means of destroying oxygen-starved cells in tumors that are difficult to treat with chemotherapy and radiation. The Johns Hopkins team removed one of the bacterias toxin-producing genes to make it safer for ...
Sampling frequency. Both rivers were sampled once a month for 42 months (September 2007 to March 2011). The sampling was done on Mondays between 08:00 and 08:30, according to the SANS 5667-6 (SANS, 2006) guideline. The samples were transported on ice and analysed in duplicate.. Microbiological analysis. The aerobic colony count (ACC) was used to give an indication of the size of the microbial population in the water. The aerobic and anaerobic spore formers were used to establish the presence of Bacillus and Clostridium strains. Total coliforms, faecal coliforms, E. coli and intestinal enterococci were used as indicator organisms for faecal contamination (Busta et al., 2003). The index organisms (Staphylococcus, Salmonella and Listeria) were used as indicators of the possible presence of related pathogens, i.e., Clostridium, Campylobacter, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and other Gram-negative species (Busta et al., 2003).. Aerobic colony count. The aerobic colony counts were determined according to ...
ID R4JWB5_CLOPA Unreviewed; 448 AA. AC R4JWB5; DT 24-JUL-2013, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 24-JUL-2013, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 35. DE RecName: Full=Chromosomal replication initiator protein DnaA {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00377, ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU000577, ECO:0000256,SAAS:SAAS00724181}; GN Name=dnaA {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00377}; GN ORFNames=Clopa_0001 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95117.1}; OS Clostridium pasteurianum BC1. OC Bacteria; Firmicutes; Clostridia; Clostridiales; Clostridiaceae; OC Clostridium. OX NCBI_TaxID=86416 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95117.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000013523}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95117.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000013523} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=BC1 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95117.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000013523}; RG US DOE Joint Genome Institute; RA Lucas S., Han J., Lapidus A., Cheng J.-F., Goodwin L., Pitluck S., RA Peters L., Mikhailova N., Teshima H., Detter J.C., Han C., Tapia ...
ID R4K521_CLOPA Unreviewed; 191 AA. AC R4K521; DT 24-JUL-2013, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 24-JUL-2013, sequence version 1. DT 20-DEC-2017, entry version 19. DE SubName: Full=Phage minor structural protein GP20 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95624.1}; GN ORFNames=Clopa_0576 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95624.1}; OS Clostridium pasteurianum BC1. OC Bacteria; Firmicutes; Clostridia; Clostridiales; Clostridiaceae; OC Clostridium. OX NCBI_TaxID=86416 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95624.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000013523}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95624.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000013523} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=BC1 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95624.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000013523}; RG US DOE Joint Genome Institute; RA Lucas S., Han J., Lapidus A., Cheng J.-F., Goodwin L., Pitluck S., RA Peters L., Mikhailova N., Teshima H., Detter J.C., Han C., Tapia R., RA Land M., Hauser L., Kyrpides N., Ivanova N., Pagani I., Dunn J., RA Taghavi S., Francis A., van der Lelie D., Woyke ...
Scientists introduced Clostridium novyi, a bacteria that causes mild illnesses in humans that typically lurks inside the soil and feces, in cancer tumors a
Pet dogs have helped researchers show that a special bacteria can seemingly fight cancer, causing tumors to shrink. A modified version of Clostridium novyi bact
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A0PXX7 (ECFA1_CLONN), Energy-coupling factor transporter ATP-binding protein EcfA1. Clostridium novyi (strain NT)
General Information: Solvent-producing bacterium. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. There are also species that can fix molecular nitrogen and thus are important participants in ...
Clostridiums saprophytic Usually saprophytic proteolyticfermenter Usually proteolytic and fermenter (Important in the process of decomposition of animal proteins) toxigenic Most of the species are highly toxigenic soil animal GI Living normally in soil or animal GI
Name: Clostridium drakei Liou et al. 2005. Category: Species. Proposed as: sp. nov.. Etymology: drake.i N.L. gen. masc. n. drakei, of Drake, in recognition of Harold L. Drakes contributions to our understanding of the physiology and ecology of acetogens Gender: neuter Type strain: ATCC BAA-623; DSM 12750; SL1 See detailed strain information at ...
Name: Clostridium algidicarnis Lawson et al. 1995. Category: Species. Proposed as: sp. nov.. Etymology: carnis L. masc. adj. algidus, cold; L. gen. n. carnis, of flesh, of meat; N.L. gen. n. algidicarnis, of cold meat Gender: neuter Type strain: DSM 15099; NCFB 2931; NCIMB 702931 See detailed strain information at ...
A Texas A&M University biologist has received a federal grant to study the fecal samples of hundreds of people to better understand the gut bacteria Clostridium difficile-the cause of some 14,000 deaths a year in America-and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Advancing Clostridia to Clinical Trial: Past Lessons and Recent Progress. AU - Mowday, Alexandra M.. AU - Guise, Christopher P.. AU - Ackerley, David F.. AU - Minton, Nigel P.. AU - Lambin, Philippe. AU - Dubois, Ludwig J.. AU - Theys, Jan. AU - Smaill, Jeff B.. AU - Patterson, Adam V.. PY - 2016/7. Y1 - 2016/7. KW - Clostridium. KW - cancer. KW - gene therapy. KW - imaging. KW - prodrug. KW - radiotherapy. KW - immunotherapy. U2 - 10.3390/cancers8070063. DO - 10.3390/cancers8070063. M3 - Article. C2 - 27367731. VL - 8. JO - Cancers. JF - Cancers. SN - 2072-6694. IS - 7. M1 - 63. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Production of 1,3-Propanediol from Pure and Crude Glycerol Using Immobilised Clostridium Butyricum. AU - Dolejš, Igor. AU - Líšková, Monika. AU - Krasňan, Vladimír. AU - Markošová, Kristína. AU - Rosenberg, Michal. AU - Lorenzini, Fabio. AU - Marr, Andrew C.. AU - Rebros, Martin. PY - 2019/3/31. Y1 - 2019/3/31. N2 - The present study describes the production of the value-added chemical 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) from crude glycerol, a waste by-product formed during biodiesel production. The efficiency, robustness, and stability of the process were improved by immobilization of the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium butyricum into a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel. The highest average productivity, 6.8 ± 0.2 g/(L·h), was achieved in 10 consecutive, repeated batch fermentations, with an initial concentration of pure glycerol 45.5 ± 0.7 g/L, after 2.5 hours. The highest final concentration and yield of 1,3-PD, 28.3 ± 0.6 g/L, and 0.42 ± 0.01 g/g, respectively, were ...
Reduction of fully oxidized Clostridium pasteurianum 8-Feox.,ox. ferredoxin by using pulse-radiolysis techniques yields the half-reduced species 8-Feox.,red. ferredoxin. The subsequent oxidation of 8-Feox.,red. ferredoxin with Co(NH3)5Cl2+ was studied. From a comparison with stopped-flow studies on the 2:1 Co(NH3)5Cl2+ oxidation of 8-Fered.,red. ferredoxin to the 8-Feox.,ox. form it is concluded that there is no redox co-operativity between the two 4-Fe centres in these reactions. ...
Define Clostridium welchii. Clostridium welchii synonyms, Clostridium welchii pronunciation, Clostridium welchii translation, English dictionary definition of Clostridium welchii. Noun 1. clostridium perfringens - anaerobic Gram-positive rod bacterium that produces epsilon toxin; can be used as a bioweapon eubacteria, eubacterium,...
The increase in glycerol obtained as a byproduct of biodiesel has encouraged the production of new industrial products, such as 1,3-propanediol (PDO), using biotechnological transformation via bacteria like Clostridium butyricum. However, despite the increasing role of Clostridium butyricum as a bio-production platform, its metabolism remains poorly modeled. We reconstructed iCbu641, the first genome-scale metabolic (GSM) model of a PDO producer Clostridium strain, which included 641 genes, 365 enzymes, 891 reactions, and 701 metabolites. We found an enzyme expression prediction of nearly 84% after comparison of proteomic data with flux distribution estimation using flux balance analysis (FBA). The remaining 16% corresponded to enzymes directionally coupled to growth, according to flux coupling findings (FCF). The fermentation data validation also revealed different phenotype states that depended on culture media conditions; for example, Clostridium maximizes its biomass yield per enzyme usage under
One of the biggest limitations in the study and engineering of anaerobic Clostridium organisms is the lack of strong fluorescent reporters capable of strong and real-time fluorescence. Recently, we developed a strong fluorescent reporter system for Clostridium organisms based on the FAST protein. Here, we report the development of two new strong fluorescent reporter systems for Clostridium organisms based on the HaloTag and SNAP-tag proteins, which produce strong fluorescent signals when covalently bound to fluorogenic ligands. These new fluorescent reporters are orthogonal to the FAST ligands and to each other, allowing for simultaneous labeling and visualization. We used HaloTag and SNAP-tag to label the strictly anaerobic organisms Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium ljungdahlii. We have also identified a new strong promoter for protein expression in C. acetobutylicum, based on the phosphotransacetylase gene (pta) from C. ljungdahlii. Furthermore, the HaloTag and the SNAP-tag, in ...
Ruminiclostridium cellulolyticum and Lachnoclostridium phytofermentans (formerly known as Clostridium cellulolyticum and Clostridium phytofermentans, respectively) are anaerobic bacteria that developed different strategies to depolymerize the cellulose and the related plant cell wall polysaccharides. Thus, R. cellulolyticum produces large extracellular multi-enzyme complexes termed cellulosomes, while L. phytofermentans secretes in the environment some cellulose-degrading enzymes as free enzymes. In the present study, the major cellulase from L. phytofermentans was introduced as a free enzyme or as a cellulosomal component in R. cellulolyticum to improve its cellulolytic capacities. The gene at locus Cphy_3367 encoding the major cellulase Cel9A from L. phytofermentans and an engineered gene coding for a modified enzyme harboring a R. cellulolyticum C-terminal dockerin were cloned in an expression vector. After electrotransformation of R. cellulolyticum, both forms of Cel9A
The nucleotide sequence of the celY gene coding for the thermostable exo-1,4-β-glucanase Avicelase II of Clostridium stercorarium was determined. The gene consists of an ORF of 2742 bp which encodes a preprotein of 914 amino acids with a molecular mass of 103 kDa. The signal-peptide cleavage site was identified by comparison with the N-terminal amino acid sequence of Avicelase II purified from C. stercorarium. The celY gene is located in close vicinity to the celZ gene coding for the endo-1,4-β-glucanase Avicelase I. The CelY-encoding sequence was isolated from genomic DNA of C. stercorarium with the PCR technique. The recombinant enzyme produced in Escherichia coli as a LacZ'-CelY fusion protein could be purified using a simple two-step procedure. The properties of CelY proved to be consistent with those of Avicelase II purified from C. stercorarium. Sequence comparison revealed that CelY consists of an N-terminal catalytic domain flanked by a domain of 95 amino acids with unknown function
Increasing demand for the production of renewable fuels has recently generated a particular interest in microbial production of butanol. Anaerobic bacteria, such as Clostridium spp., can naturally convert carbohydrates into a variety of primary products, including alcohols like butanol. The genetics of microorganisms like Clostridium acetobutylicum have been well studied and their solvent-producing metabolic pathways characterized. In contrast, less is known about the genetics of Clostridium spp. capable of converting syngas or its individual components into solvents. In this study, the type of strain of a new solventogenic Clostridium species, C. carboxidivorans, was genetically characterized by genome sequencing. C. carboxidivorans strain P7T possessed a complete Wood-Ljungdahl pathway gene cluster, involving CO and CO2 fixation and conversion to acetyl-CoA. Moreover, with the exception of an acetone production pathway, all the genetic determinants of canonical ABE metabolic pathways for acetate,
SUMMARY: Evidence is provided in support of the view of MacLennan, Mandl & Howes (1958) that some strains of Clostridium histolyticum produce a cysteine-inactivated proteinase-the δ-antigen.
Background:Clostridium tertium is distributed in the soil and in animal and human gastrointestinal tracts. C. tertium has been isolated from patients with blood diseases, immune disorders, and abdominal surgeries. Glyphosate is toxic, causing cause eye and skin irritation, gastrointestinal pain, and vomiting. Ingestion of herbicides modifies the gastrointestinal environment, which stresses the living organisms. However, there has been little attention to cases of bacteremia in patients recovering from suicide attempt by ingesting herbicide. Case Report:Clostridium tertium was identified in a 44-year-old female who attempted suicide by glyphosate (a herbicide) ingestion. The 16S rRNA sequences from all colonies were 99% identical with that of C. tertium (AB618789) found on a BLAST search of the NCBI database. The bacterium was cultured on TSA under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests performed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions showed that the bacterium was
When I last looked at Miyarisan, it was available in Japan only. In the last month I discovered that it is now available in the US and EU -- thus it is a good time to revisit it. 2020 Update Clostridium Butyricum Modulates the Microbiome to Protect Intestinal Barrier Function in Mice With Antibiotic-Induced Dysbiosis…
Lethal Toxin from Clostridium sordellii (TcsL), which is casually involved in the toxic shock syndrome and in gas gangrene, enters its target cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Inside the cell, TcsL mono-O-glucosylates and thereby inactivates Rac/Cdc42 and Ras subtype GTPases, resulting in actin reorganization and an activation of p38 MAP kinase. While a role of p38 MAP kinase in TcsL-induced cell death is well established, data on a role of p38 MAP kinase in TcsL-induced actin reorganization are not available. In this study, TcsL-induced Rac/Cdc42 glucosylation and actin reorganization are differentially analyzed in p38alpha−/− MSCV empty vector MEFs and the corresponding cell line with reconstituted p38alpha expression (p38alpha−/− MSCV p38alpha MEFs). Genetic deletion of p38alpha results in reduced susceptibility of cells to TcsL-induced Rac/Cdc42 glucosylation and actin reorganization. Furthermore, SB203580, a pyridinyl imidazole inhibitor of p38alpha/beta MAP kinase, also protects
CRISPR/Cas-based genetic engineering has revolutionised molecular biology in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Several tools dedicated to the genomic transformation of the Clostridium genus of Gram-positive bacteria have been described in the literature; however, the integration of large DNA fragments still remains relatively limited. In this study, a CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing tool using a two-plasmid strategy was developed for the solventogenic strain Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Codon-optimised cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes was placed under the control of an anhydrotetracycline-inducible promoter on one plasmid, while the gRNA expression cassettes and editing templates were located on a second plasmid. Through the sequential introduction of these vectors into the cell, we achieved highly accurate genome modifications, including nucleotide substitution, gene deletion and cassette insertion up to 3.6 kb. To demonstrate its potential, this genome editing tool was used to generate a marker-free
Clostridium thermocellum CelJ protein: isolated from Clostridium thermocellum; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank D83704
The effect of pH, growth rate, phosphate and iron limitation, carbon monoxide, and carbon source on product formation by Clostridium pasteurianum was determined. Under phosphate limitation, glucose was fermented almost exclusively to acetate and butyrate independently of the pH and growth rate. Iron limitation caused lactate production (38 mol/100 mol) from glucose in batch and continuous culture. At 15% (vol/vol) carbon monoxide in the atmosphere, glucose was fermented to ethanol (24 mol/100 mol), lactate (32 mol/100 mol), and butanol (36 mol/100 mol) in addition to the usual products, acetate (38 mol/100 mol) and butyrate (17 mol/100 mol). During glycerol fermentation, a completely different product pattern was found. In continuous culture under phosphate limitation, acetate and butyrate were produced only in trace amounts, whereas ethanol (30 mol/100 mol), butanol (18 mol/100 mol), and 1,3-propanediol (18 mol/100 mol) were the major products. Under iron limitation, the ratio of these products ...
Clostridium cellulovorans (ATCC 35296) is anaerobic, spore forming and stain gram negative non-motile rods originally isolated from a batch methanogenic fermentation of hybrid poplar wood. C. cellulovorans is a mesophilic bacterium with optimum growth temperature of 37°C, though it can grow in a temperature range of 20 to 40°C. Optimum pH is 7.0, and the pH range of growth is 6.4 to 7.8. This organism produces extracellular enzyme complex known as cellulosome, which can degrade plant cell walls. As most abundantly available potential source of fermentable sugars in the world are the higher plants cell walls, utilization of such a vast resource for energy production would reduce the dependency on non-renewable fossil fuel. Hence, C. cellulovorans have potential industrial application for energy production. ...
Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 is a commercially valuable bacterium sometimes called the Weizmann Organism after JewishRussianborn Chaim Weizmann
Lactobacillus sporogenes is used in the treatment of diarrhoea,infectious diarrhoea,diarrhoea associated with antibiotics.get complete information about lactobacillus sporogenes including usage, side effects, drug interaction, expert advice along with medicines associated with lactobacillus sporogenes at 1mg.com
For the vaccination of healthy cattle and sheep against diseases caused by Clostridium chauvoei Cl.septicum Cl.novyi Type B Cl.haemolyticum (known elsewhere as Cl. novyi Type D) Cl.tetani and Cl. perfringens Types C and D.
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Iron reduction in Gram-positive bacteria is not well understood yet, even if it has been investigated in some extent for Gram-positive bacteria. The mechanisms involved in the delivery of electrons to a solid terminal electron acceptor like iron oxides have not been defined. Clostridium acetobutylicum is an appropriate Gram-positive bacterium to study those mechanisms as genetic tools have been developed due to its industrial interest, allowing easy targeted and random mutagenesis. In this Masters project, phenotype of two mutants, whose dihydroorotate dehydrogenase 1B (pyrD) or ferredoxin hydrogenase (hydA) gene have been knocked out through ClosTron mutagenesis, have been characterized and no phenotype diverging from the wild strain has been detected. However, evidences of flavin presence in the spent growth medium have been observed during experiment. An attempt to measure their redox state, either by direct measurement or through the addition of AQDS, has been done but results are ...
Genus and Species: Clostridium acetobutylicum Domain: Prokaryote Optimal Growth Medium: Thioglycolate Medium Optimal Growth Temperature: 37° C Package: Tube Biosafety Level: 1 Gram Stain: Gram-Positive Shape: Bacillus (rod-shaped)
The structures of the Glu140--|Gln mutant of the Clostridium thermocellum endoglucanase CelC in unliganded form (CelC(E140Q)) and in complex with
Preliminary work has been done on the formulation of a new solventogenic clostridial fermentation medium based on the use of corn steep liquor (CSL). CSL is a by-product of the corn wet-milling industry, and has been used primarily as a feed supplement in the livestock industry. This nutrient-rich medium is an ideal base for use in a bacterial fermentation medium. A medium developed from CSL has been found to support good bacterial growth while allowing a level of solvent production approaching that of complex, more expensive clostridial growth media. When used in combination with C. beijerinckii, BA101, this newly developed medium holds promise to increase the cost-effectiveness of the ABE fermentation. (Abstract shortened by UMI ...
Clostridium Perfringens : Its Significance, Incidence, and Prevention Bobbi Johnson, PhD Walden University PUBH 8165-1 Instructor: Dr. Stephen Arnold Summer, 2011. Clostridium Perfringens History. Is also referred to as Clostridium Welchii Slideshow 4754453 by fern
Creative Biolabs offers the best Recombinant Clostridium Thermocellum ispE Protein (aa 1-283), which is useful for vaccine development.
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Clostridium perfringens (previously named Clostridium welchii) is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming pathogenic bacterium.
Enlarge this imageInfections with Clostridium difficile can crop up following a spherical of antibiotics.BSIP/UIG by way of Getty Imageshide captiontoggle captionBSIP/UIG by using Getty ImagesInfections with Clostridium difficile can crop up after a round of antibiotics.BSIP/UIG by way of Getty ImagesNamed from the Greek kloster, for spindle, a category of microbes recognised as Clostridia abounds in nature.Staining deep violet underneath the microscope, they seem as slender rods which has a bulge at one particular end, just like a tadpole or maple seed. They thrive in soil, marine sediments and human beings. They are living on our pores and skin and in our intestines.And from time to time, they can kill you.Most strains are https://www.athleticsshine.com/Kendrys-Morales-Jersey harmle s, but tetanus, botulism and gangrene are because of clostridial species. Vaccination, sanitation and enhanced profe sional medical care have made these infections a lot le s typical, but just one a sortment is ...
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Hongo, M.and A. Murata. 1965. Bacteriophages of Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum. I. Some characteristics of the twelve phages obtained from the abnormally fermented broths. Agric.Biol. Chem. 29:1135-1139 ...
In 2000, an unusual increase of morbidity and mortality among illegal injecting drug users in the UK and Ireland was reported and Clostridium novyi was identified as the likely source of the serious infection, although infections due to C. botulinum and Bacillus cereus were also reported. Because heroin was a possibile source of infection, this study investigated the microflora of heroin samples seized in England during 2000 and 2002. Two methods were developed for the examination of the microflora of heroin. The first consisted of suspension of the drug in maximum recovery diluent (MRD) which was inoculated directly into Clostridium Botulinum Isolation Cooked Meat Broth (CBI). The second method rendered the heroin soluble in citric acid, concentrated particulate material (and bacterial cells) by filtration and removed heroin residues by washing with citric acid and phosphate-buffered saline before placing the filter in CBI broth. Duplicate CBI broths from both methods were incubated without ...
Free, official information about 2009 (and also 2010-2015) ICD-9-CM diagnosis code 005.3, including coding notes, detailed descriptions, index cross-references and ICD-10-CM conversion.
1st)SBOs; specifically the clostridium strain present in probiotic 3, that I assumed was recommended. It looked liked you took a swipe at it, in a recent post. as in the company trains that strain to be beneficial, not pathogenic;). I know, not your exact words, but I felt like that was the gist of what you were saying. I had high hopes and still do, for that strain. If you have changed your mind, for some reason, could you please clarify why. Maybe any member of the clostridium family is questionable, and I might be paying for a product that is bad for me ...
Good call!. I believe you are most likely correct in your assumption. People his age are prone to an infection of the digestive track called C-Diff(Clostridium difficile) which is often contracted from a previous stay in the hospital, although a small portion of the population has this bacterium naturally present in their colon.. C-Diff is difficult to eradicate in older people because of arterial stenosis and other vascular conditions common to the elderly that lessen blood flow to certain areas and compromises their ability to fight off infection and, in general, heal. C-Diff in the very old and very infirmed is often fatal.. Wikipedia says:. Clostridium difficile (pronunciation below) (from the Greek kloster (ÎºÎ»Ï Ï Ï Î®Ï ), spindle, and Latin difficile,[1] difficult), also known as CDF/cdf, or C. diff, is a species of Gram-positive bacteria of the genus Clostridium that causes severe diarrhea and other intestinal disease when competing bacteria in the gut flora have been ...
General Information: This strain was isolated in 1924 from garden soil in Connecticut, USA, by E. Wyer and L. Rettger. It is one of the best studied solventogenic clostridia. Solvent-producing bacterium. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism is a benign saccharolytic and proteolytic soil bacterium ...
In the last few years the spoilage of vacuum-packed, refrigerated beef due to psychrophilic and psychrotolerant clostridia, including production of gas inside the pack, has gained in importance. In addition to C. estertheticum and C. gasigenes, further psychrophilic clostridia have been described, which are able to cause Blown Pack Spoilage. Because there are divergent descriptions of these spoilage-causing bacteria, the phenotypic characteristics of the reference strains of six psychrotolerant clostridia were examined and the results were compared. In doing so, dissent results have been detected especially concerning hemolysis on blood agar plates as well as size of the vegeta- tive cells. The examination of C. gasigenes showed that there are distinct transverse pro- cesses in the last third of the rods of C. gasigenes, which, at present state of knowledge, have not been mentioned in the literature yet. The intention of this study was, to get more findings about the occurrence and the ...
Structural and functional characterization of the gut microbiota in elderly women with migraine [2020] [80001365] [Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology ...
Signal transduction proteins, Histidine Kinase, Response regulator, Phophotransfer protein, HPT, Phosphorelay, complete metagenomes browser, TCS, Prokaryotic Two-Component Systems database, P2CS, annotation browser, MIST, SENTRA
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD)[edit]. Tolevamer was designed to bind the enterotoxins rather than attack ... In early 2008, a noninferiority study versus vancomycin or metronidazole for Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) ... a polystyrene sulfonate was investigated by Genzyme as a toxin binding agent for the treatment of Clostridium difficile ... Clostridium difficile directly. Since it has no antibiotic properties, it does not harm the gut flora. Early studies used the ...
... (CTX III, also known as cytotoxin 3) is a sixty amino-acid polypeptide toxin from the Taiwan Cobra Naja atra. It is an example of a group of snake cardio/cytotoxins (InterPro: IPR003572), which are made up of shorter snake venom three-finger toxins.[1] Recent evidence has shown that CTX III may induce apoptosis in K562 cells via the release of cytochrome c.[2] ...
Clostridium perfringens. *Escherichia coli O104:H4. *Escherichia coli O157:H7. *Hepatitis A ...
... s are often distinguished from other chemical agents by their method of production-the word toxin does not specify method of delivery (compare with venom and the broader meaning of poison-all substances that can also cause disturbances to organisms). It simply means it is a biologically produced poison. There was an ongoing terminological dispute between NATO and the Warsaw Pact over whether to call a toxin a biological or chemical agent, in which the NATO opted for biological agent, and the Warsaw Pact, like most other countries in the world, for chemical agent.[citation needed] According to an International Committee of the Red Cross review of the Biological Weapons Convention, "Toxins are poisonous products of organisms; unlike biological agents, they are inanimate and not capable of reproducing themselves", and "Since the signing of the Constitution, there have been no disputes among the parties regarding the definition of biological agents or toxins".[4] According to Title 18 of the ...
In general, when scientists determine the amount of a substance that may be hazardous for humans, animals and/or the environment they determine the amount of the substance likely to trigger effects and if possible establish a safe level. In Europe, the European Food Safety Authority produced risk assessments for more than 4,000 substances in over 1,600 scientific opinions and they provide open access summaries of human health, animal health and ecological hazard assessments in their: OpenFoodTox[22] database. [23][24] The OpenFoodTox database can be used to screen potential new foods for toxicity.[25] The Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program (TEHIP)[26] at the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) maintains a comprehensive toxicology and environmental health web site that includes access to toxins-related resources produced by TEHIP and by other government agencies and organizations.[27] This web site includes links to databases, bibliographies, tutorials, and other ...
... acts by the following mechanism: First, the B subunit ring of the cholera toxin binds to GM1 gangliosides on the surface of target cells. The B subunit can also bind to cells lacking GM1. The toxin then most likely binds to other types of glycans, such as Lewis Y and Lewis X, attached to proteins instead of lipids.[7][8][9] Once bound, the entire toxin complex is endocytosed by the cell and the cholera toxin A1 (CTA1) chain is released by the reduction of a disulfide bridge. The endosome is moved to the Golgi apparatus, where the A1 protein is recognized by the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, protein disulfide isomerase. The A1 chain is then unfolded and delivered to the membrane, where Ero1 triggers the release of the A1 protein by oxidation of protein disulfide isomerase complex.[10] As the A1 protein moves from the ER into the cytoplasm by the Sec61 channel, it refolds and avoids deactivation as a result of ubiquitination. CTA1 is then free to bind with a human partner protein ...
... occludes the pore of calcium-activated voltage-gated shaker K+ channels by binding to one of four independent, overlapping binding sites.[6][7] It binds both to the open and the closed states. In addition, the block is enhanced as the ionic strength is lowered.[8] This block occurs as the Asn 30 on the CTX interacts with the Asp 381 on the K+ channel.[9] The blockade of K+ channels by the charybdotoxin peptide causes neuronal hyperexcitability. Mutations of the Lys31Gln and the Asn30Gln had the effect of lessening the CTX block of the pore on the shaker channel.[9] ...
LPS acts as the prototypical endotoxin because it binds the CD14/TLR4/MD2 receptor complex in many cell types, but especially in monocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells, which promotes the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide, and eicosanoids.[16] As part of the cellular stress response, superoxide is one of the major reactive oxygen species induced by LPS in various cell types that express TLR (toll-like receptor). LPS is also an exogenous pyrogen (fever-inducing substance). Being of crucial importance to Gram-negative bacteria, these molecules make candidate targets for new antimicrobial agents. Some researchers doubt reports of generalized toxic effects attributed to all lipopolysaccharides, in particular, for cyanobacteria.[17] LPS function has been under experimental research for several years due to its role in activating many transcription factors. LPS also produces many types of mediators involved in septic shock. Humans are much more sensitive to LPS than ...
See also: Clostridium acetobutylicum. Butanol is an alcohol which can be used as a fuel in most gasoline internal combustion ... It is typically a product of the fermentation of biomass by the bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum (also known as the ...
Clostridium spp., Lactobacillus spp., Bacteroides spp. and the fungi Candida spp. are all capable of such a high level of ...
Orla Geoghegan, Christopher Eades, Luke SP Moore, Mark Gilchrist (9 February 2017). "Clostridium difficile: diagnosis and ... Clostridium, Peptostreptococcus, and Prevotella species.[13] It is also often used to eradicate Helicobacter pylori along with ... It is an option for a first episode of mild-to-moderate Clostridium difficile colitis if vancomycin or fidaxomicin is ... "A comparison of vancomycin and metronidazole for the treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, stratified by ...
Clostridium difficile: 2 - 4 µg/ml. *Escherichia coli: 0.125 - 16 µg/ml ...
Clostridium botulinum; Note: Botulism is not an infection by Clostridium botulinum but caused by the intake of botulinum toxin ...
Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens (inhabitants of the lower bowel); and Clostridium tetani. ...
"Clostridium Infections". Advances in Research and Treatment (2011 ed.). ScholarlyEditions. 9 January 2012. ISBN 9781464960130. ...
... by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Clostridium botulinum is a large anaerobic Gram-positive bacillus that forms ... Clostridium botulinum type C toxin has been incriminated as the cause of grass sickness, a condition in horses which occurs in ... Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic, Gram positive, spore-forming rod. Botulinum toxin is one of the most powerful known ... Clostridium botulinum is a ubiquitous soil-dwelling bacterium. Many infant botulism patients have been demonstrated to live ...
Xanthomonas spp., Argobacterium spp., Acinetobacter spp., Corynebacterium spp., Bacteroides spp., Clostridium spp., ...
"Clostridium perfringens". Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Thanabalu T, Porter AG (April 1996). "A Bacillus sphaericus ... Some β-PFTs such as clostridial ε-toxin and Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) bind to the cell membrane via specific ... Fujita K, Katahira J, Horiguchi Y, Sonoda N, Furuse M, Tsukita S (July 2000). "Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin binds to the ... A family of highly conserved cholesterol-dependent cytolysins, closely related to perfringolysin from Clostridium perfringens ...
... , formerly Clostridium aldenense, is a bacterium from the genus of Clostridium which has been isolated ... Parte, A.C. "Clostridium". LPSN. "[Clostridium] aldenense". www.uniprot.org. Parker, Charles Thomas; Osier, Nicole Danielle; ... and Clostridium citroniae sp. nov. Isolated from Human Clinical Infections". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 44 (7): 2416- ... and Clostridium citroniae sp. nov. Isolated from Human Clinical Infections". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 44 (7): 2416- ...
"Clostridium clostridioforme: Clostridium clostridioforme corrig. (Burri and Ankersmit 1906) Kaneuchi et al. 1976". National ... While Clostridium species have cell walls that resemble gram-positive bacteria, E. clostridioformis often appears negative by ... In subsequent years, these bacteria were shown to form spores, causing them to be reclassified in the genus Clostridium. Most ... And Clostridium symbiosum (Stevens) comb. Nov". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 26 (2): 195. doi:10.1099/ ...
Clostridium spp. are frequently recovered in long bones infections, mostly in association with traumatic wounds. Because ... frequently found in infections of hematogenic origin), and Clostridium spp. (frequently found in infections after trauma). The ... The isolation of B. fragilis group and Clostridium spp. is often associated with a gastrointestinal source, pigmented ... Toxin can be neutralized by specific antitoxins, mainly in infections caused by Clostridia (tetanus and botulism). Controlling ...
Clostridium difficile[editar , editar a fonte]. Clostridium difficile é u patóxeno nosocomial que causa diarreas en todo o ... "Clostridium difficile: a challenge for hospitals". European Center for Disease Prevention and Control. Institute for Medical ... McDonald LC (2005). "Clostridium difficile: responding to a new threat from an old enemy". Infect. Control. Hosp. Epidemiol. 26 ... Palmore TN, Sohn S, Malak SF, Eagan J, Sepkowitz KA (agosto de 2005). "Risk factors for acquisition of Clostridium difficile- ...
against Clostridium botulinum. J Food Prot 2002, 65:806-813. von der Weid I, Alviano DS, Santos AL, Soares RM, Alviano CS, ...
It can be caused by infection, particularly from Pseudomonas species, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Clostridium species, ... "Endogenous Clostridium Panophthalmitis". Ophthalmology. 94 (4): 435-438. doi:10.1016/S0161-6420(87)33433-5. ISSN 0161-6420. ...
nov., ' Clostridium merdae ' sp. nov., ' Sutterella massiliensis ' sp. nov., ' Sutturella timonensis ' sp. nov., ' Enorma ...
Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens (inhabitants of the lower bowel); and Clostridium tetani. Causes (listed in order ...
... and proposal for the reclassification of the closely related Clostridium halophilum and Clostridium caminithermale within ... "Clostridium caminithermale sp. nov., a slightly halophilic and moderately thermophilic bacterium isolated from an Atlantic deep ... Clostridium caminithermale has been reclassified to Paramaledivibacter caminithermalis. Paramaledivibacter caminithermalis has ...
against Clostridium botulinum. J Food Prot 2002, 65:806-813. von der Weid I, Alviano DS, Santos AL, Soares RM, Alviano CS, ... plant pathogenic bacteria and even important anaerobic pathogens as Clostridium botulinium. P. dendritiformis is a social ...
André Romain Prévot subsequently transferred it to the genus Clostridium, which made its binomen Clostridium difficile. Its ... The most well-characterized are enterotoxin (Clostridium difficile toxin A) and cytotoxin (Clostridium difficile toxin B), both ... "Rapid detection of Clostridium difficile toxins and laboratory diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infections". Infection. 45 (3 ... "Clostridium difficile Infection Information for Patients , HAI , CDC". www.cdc.gov. Archived from the original on 30 March 2017 ...
Starr J (2005). "Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea: diagnosis and treatment". BMJ. 331 (7515): 498-501. doi:10.1136/ ... It increases the risk of hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile colitis about fourfold and thus is only recommended when other ... Thomas C, Stevenson M, Riley TV (2003). "Antibiotics and hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea: a ... Kelly, Ciaran P.; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; LaMont, J. Thomas (27 January 1994). "Clostridium difficile Colitis". New England ...
"Inhibition of the cytotoxic effect of Clostridium difficile in vitro by Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI 588 strain". Journal of ... Clostridium butyricum is a strictly anaerobic endospore-forming Gram-positive butyric acid-producing bacillus subsisting by ... Its usefulness stems primarily from its ability to interfere with the growth of highly pathogenic Clostridium difficile by ... Recent European Food Safety Authority opinions confirm the official strain nomenclature as Clostridium butyricum FERM BP-2789. ...
EPA Clostridium acetobutylicum Final Risk Assessment. *Genetic Engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum for Enhanced ... Clostridium acetobutylicum, ATCC 824, is a commercially valuable bacterium sometimes called the "Weizmann Organism", after ... Unlike yeast, which can digest only sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide, C. acetobutylicum and other Clostridia can digest ... In 2008, a strain of Escherichia coli was genetically engineered to synthesize butanol; the genes were derived from Clostridium ...
Toxic shock associated with clostridium sordellii and clostridium perfringens after medical and spontaneous abortion.external ... Clostridium sordellii [klaw-strĭ-dee-um sore-dell-ee-i] (also called C. sordellii) is a rare bacterium that causes pneumonia, ... Other similar Clostridium species are spread from person to person and sometimes contaminated surfaces are involved in this ... Undiagnosed cases of fatal clostridium-associated toxic shock in californian women of childbearing age.external icon Am J ...
Clostridium difficile, a major nosocomial pathogen shown to be a primary cause of antibiotic-associated disease, has emerged as ... Introduction to Clostridium difficile and the Disease It Causes. * Front Matter Pages 1-1 ... Clostridium difficile, a major nosocomial pathogen shown to be a primary cause of antibiotic-associated disease, has emerged as ... In Clostridium difficile: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers bring together the most recently developed methods for ...
Clostridium perfringens (formerly known as C. welchii) is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium of ... the genus Clostridium. It is always present in nature and is a normal component of decaying vegetation, marine sediment, the ...
Clostridium difficile infection serves as a useful example for illustrating the significance of the relationship between the ... ClostridiumMicrograph of Clostridium difficile bacteria from a stool sample.. Lois S. Wiggs/Centers for Disease Control and ... Clostridium difficile infection serves as a useful example for illustrating the significance of the relationship between the ... gut microbiome transplantsThe advantages of microbiota transplantation therapy in treating infections of Clostridium difficile ...
Clostridium difficile is the leading infectious cause of nosocomial diarrhea.[1] There has been an increase in the incidence of ... Refractory Clostridium difficile-associated Diarrhea. Shilpa Grover, MD; Matthew J. Hamilton , MD; David L. Carr-Locke MD, FRCP ...
Clostridium difficile, now called Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile), is a bacterium that can cause symptoms such as ... Clostridium difficile, which experts recently reclassified as Clostridioides difficile, is a bacterium that resides in the gut ... Mcdonald, L. C., et al. (2018). Clinical practice guidelines for Clostridium difficile infection in adults and children: 2017 ... Kazanowski, M., et al. (2014). Clostridium difficile: Epidemiology, diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities-A systematic ...
... diff or Clostridium difficile is a type of bacteria that infects the colon. Symptoms of C. diff are abdominal pain, diarrhea, ... Is C. diff (Clostridium difficile) Contagious?. * Facts *What facts should I know about C. diff (Clostridium difficile)? ... home/digestion health center/digestion a-z list/is c diff clostridium difficile contagious center /is c diff clostridium ... Clostridium difficile or C. diff is a bacterium. Microscopically it is referred to as gram positive and rod-shaped. It is ...
Food poisoning caused by Clostridium perfringens may occur when foods such as meat or poultry are cooked and held without ... Some species of Clostridium occasionally isolated from foods have characteristics which differentiate them from C. perfringens. ... Furthermore, the oxygen level may be sufficiently reduced during cooking to permit growth of the clostridia. Spores that ... count black colonies and calculate number of clostridia cells/g food. Save plates for identification tests (see D, below). ...
Xiaflex contains purified collagenase clostridium histolyticum, consisting of two microbial collagenases in a defined mass ... Xiaflex contains purified collagenase clostridium histolyticum. When injected directly into a Dupuytrens cord, it ... ratio, Collagenase AUX-I and Collagenase AUX-II, which are isolated and purified from the fermentation of Clostridium ...
Clostridium difficile is primarily recognised as a nosocomially acquired pathogen manifesting in gastrointestinal disease ... Typing of Clostridium difficile Clin Microbiol Infect. 2001 Aug;7(8):428-31. doi: 10.1046/j.1198-743x.2001.00288.x. ... Clostridium difficile is primarily recognised as a nosocomially acquired pathogen manifesting in gastrointestinal disease ...
... (Klein 1899) McClung and McCoy 1957. ›DSM 1284. ›JCM 1392. ›Plectridium cadaveris. ...
CCUG 15942 [[Clostridium putrificum]]. ›CDC KA 38. ›CIP 104310. ›CIP 60.54 [[Clostridium putrificum]]. ›Clostridium botulinum ( ... JCM 1410 [[Clostridium putrificum]]. ›NCIMB 10677 [[Clostridium putrificum]]. ›NCTC 13037 [[Clostridium putrificum]]. ›Pacinia ... Clostridia. › Clostridiales. › Clostridiaceae. › Clostridium. Strains i. › 62A / Type A ,62A, Type A / 62A. › NCTC 2916 / Type ... Clostridium putrificum (Trevisan 1889) Reddish and Rettger 1922 (Approved Lists 1980). ›DSM 1734 [[Clostridium putrificum]]. › ...
Clostridium difficile (C. diff.) is a type of bacteria that can lead to an infection. Learn about the symptoms, causes, and how ... Clostridium difficile (C. diff.) is a type of bacteria that lives in many peoples intestines. C. diff. is part of the normal ...
Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum Injection: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection comes as a powder to be mixed with a liquid and injected by a doctor. If you are ... Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum Injection. pronounced as (kol a jen ase) (klos trid ee um) (his toe lit ik um) ... Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or ...
Theyve figured out how Clostridium difficiles most potent toxin gets into cells and zeroed in on the first new botulinum ... Innovation Fund Denmark supports research project that aims to fight Clostridium difficile diarrhea One mans trash is another ... A phase I clinical trial investigating the use of bacterial Clostridium novyi-NT spores as an injectable monotherapy had ... Researchers elucidate infection process of bacterial pathogen Clostridium difficile Scientists from the VIB-UGent Center for ...
Clostridium aceticum Clostridium acetireducens Clostridium acetobutylicum Clostridium acidisoli Clostridium aciditolerans ... Clostridium acidurici Clostridium aerotolerans Clostridium aestuarii Clostridium akagii Clostridium aldenense Clostridium ... difficile Clostridium diolis Clostridium disporicum Clostridium drakei Clostridium durum Clostridium estertheticum Clostridium ... Clostridium indolis Clostridium innocuum Clostridium intestinale Clostridium irregulare Clostridium isatidis Clostridium josui ...
clostridium synonyms, clostridium pronunciation, clostridium translation, English dictionary definition of clostridium. n. pl. ... clos·trid·i·a Any of various rod-shaped, spore-forming, chiefly anaerobic bacteria of the genus Clostridium, such as certain ... Related to clostridium: clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium tetani, Clostridium butyricum. clos·trid·i· ... This toxin is made by Clostridium botulinum, and sometimes Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium baratii bacteria.. Dont feed ...
Nosocomial Clostridium difficile colonisation and disease.. Johnson S1, Clabots CR, Linn FV, Olson MM, Peterson LR, Gerding DN. ... To assess the risk of acquiring Clostridium difficile diarrhoea or colitis in patients colonised with C difficile, rectal swabs ...
Clostridium Difficile News and Research. RSS Clostridium difficile is a type of bacterium found in human and animal waste. ... Clostridium sordellii is a rare germ that has killed four women who took the abortion pill RU-486 and has also been implicated ... Clostridium difficile is a common cause of diarrhea that occurs in hospitals. It can also cause diarrhea or other intestinal ... Investigational vaccine against Clostridium difficile Acambis has announced that earlier this month it started a Phase I ...
... Martin Oman Evans II,1 Brad Starley,2 Jack Carl Galagan,3 Joseph Michael ... S. Lehrer, "Duodenal infusion of feces for recurrent Clostridium difficile," The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 368, no ... J. S. Weese, "Clostridium difficile in food-innocent bystander or serious threat?" Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 16 ... The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is on the rise and has increased by a factor of three over the last ...
Type F toxin produced by Clostridium baratii and type E toxin produced by Clostridium butyricum have also been implicated in ... It occurs as a result of intestinal colonization with Clostridium botulinum and in vivo toxin production in a manner similar to ... The toxin types are classified as A, B, C, D, E, F and G. Human botulism has been described with the strains of Clostridium ... Botulism is caused by a group of anaerobic spore-forming organisms called Clostridium botulinum. This is classified as a single ...
... er en særlig variant af Clostridium difficile. Den er meget smitsom, kan give svær diarré og kan medføre større sygelighed og ... Clostridium difficile 027-overvågning Overvågning af Clostridium difficile 027. Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 027 (CD027) ... Se også EPI-NYT 18/10 om stigning i Clostridium difficile. *De første tilfælde af CD027 i Danmark er beskrevet i 2006-2007, EPI ... Udbrud af CD027 i Danmark er beskrevet i EPI-NYT 13/09 (pdf) samt i følgende artikel "Outbreak of Clostridium difficile 027 in ...
Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in a region of Quebec from 1991 to 2003: a changing pattern of disease severity. Can ... Clostridium difficile anses som mikrobiologisk etiologi til 20-30% av av tilfeller av antibiotika-assosiert diarre, 50-70 % av ... Clostridium difficile infeksjoner er et økende problem som hovedsakelig skyldes bruk av bredspektrede antibiotika. Fra 2002 er ... Clostridium difficile assosiert diaré (CDAD), C. difficile assosiert kolitt og psedomenbranøs kolitt omtales ofte samlet som C ...
Clostridium disporicum Horn Depositors. NCIMB Chain of custody. ATCC <-- NCIMB <-- N. Horn DS1 Type of isolate. Animal ... Horn N. Clostridium disporicum sp. nov., a saccharolytic species able to form two spores per cell, isolated from a rat cecum. ... To download a certificate of origin for Clostridium disporicum Horn (43838), enter the lot number exactly as it appears on your ... To download a certificate of analysis for Clostridium disporicum Horn (43838), enter the lot number exactly as it appears on ...
... , Gas Gangrene, Anaerobic Cellulitis, Clostridial Myonecrosis. ... Clostridium perfringens (organismo), Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium welchii. French. Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium ... 1937, clostridium perfringens, clostridium welchii, c. perfringens, perfringens clostridium, CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS, ... CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS, BACILLUS PERFRINGENS, BACTERIUM WELCHII. Dutch. Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium welchii, ...
Parte, A.C. "Clostridium". LPSN. "Clostridium grantii Taxon Passport - StrainInfo". www.straininfo.net. "Clostridium grantii". ... Clostridium grantii is a Gram-positive, strictly anaerobic, rod-shaped and spore-forming bacterium from the genus of ... Mountfort, DO; Rainey, FA; Burghardt, J; Stackebrandt, E (1994). "Clostridium grantii sp. nov., a new obligately anaerobic, ... "Nomenclature Abstract for Clostridium grantii Mountfort et al. 1996". The NamesforLife Abstracts. doi:10.1601/nm.3940. "Details ...
Clostridium cellulovorans, Clostridium josui, Clostridium phytofermentans, and C. thermocellum (8-11). Cellulases from family ... Deletion of the Cel48S cellulase from Clostridium thermocellum. Daniel G. Olson, Shital A. Tripathi, Richard J. Giannone, ... Deletion of the Cel48S cellulase from Clostridium thermocellum. Daniel G. Olson, Shital A. Tripathi, Richard J. Giannone, ... 2007) Induction of the celC operon of Clostridium thermocellum by laminaribiose. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:3747-3752. ...
National Clostridium difficile Standards Group: report to the Department of Health. J Hosp Infect 2004; 56(Suppl 1): 138. ... Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea is a serious condition with a mortality of up to 25% in frail elderly people.1 It ... Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in a region of Quebec from 1991 to 2003: a changing pattern of disease severity. CMAJ ... Clostridium difficile: a prospective study in a geriatric unit. J Med Microbiol 2003; 52: 5738. ...
  • The absence of genes encoding botulinum neurotoxin A,B,F and genes encoding non-toxic haemagglutinin (NTNH) and genes encoding Clostridium perfringens toxins (alpha, beta, epsilon and iota) has been demonstrated by PCR assay. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toxic shock associated with clostridium sordellii and clostridium perfringens after medical and spontaneous abortion. (cdc.gov)
  • Clostridium perfringens (formerly known as C. welchii) is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium of the genus Clostridium. (redorbit.com)
  • Clostridium perfringens causes a wide range of symptoms, from food poisoning to cellulitis, fasciitis, necrotic enteritis and gas gangrene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Food poisoning caused by Clostridium perfringens may occur when foods such as meat or poultry are cooked and held without maintaining adequate heating or refrigeration before serving. (fda.gov)
  • The aim of this project was to prepare a toxoid vaccine from the prevailing pathogenic strains of Type D Clostridium perfringens strains and evaluate its immune responses in rabbits, goats and sheep. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Clostridium perfringens is classified into five types (A-E) based on the capacity to produce one or more of the four major toxins (alpha, beta, epsilon, and iota). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Any bacterial organism that can be assigned to the species Clostridium perfringens. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Clostridium welchii, Clostridium plagarum, C. perfringens, Clostridium perfringens (Veillon and Zuber 1898) Hauduroy et al. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Researchers have detailed the first reported Clostridium perfringens outbreak in England associated with leeks in leftover and reheated cheese sauce. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • [5] This cluster includes other pathogenic Clostridium species such as Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium perfringens . (wikipedia.org)
  • Clostridium perfringens is a gram positive, anaerobic rod shaped bacteria belonging to genus Clostridium and is responsible for production of terminal spores (Hughes et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Timely and accurate methods for detecting Clostridium perfringens -associated diseases (CPAD) are crucial to improve patient care. (asm.org)
  • The genomes of both Clostridium tetani , the etiological agent of tetanus, and Clostridium perfringens , the etiological agent of gas gangrene have been sequenced. (kenyon.edu)
  • C. perfringens is an excellent model for genetic studies of the clostridium genus due to its oxygen tolerance and fast growth rate. (kenyon.edu)
  • Clostridium tetani is the etiological agent of tetanus, Clostridium botulinum is the etiological agent of botulism, and Clostridium perfringens is one of the etiological agent of gas gangrene. (kenyon.edu)
  • These bacteria form part of the Clostridium genus which includes clostridium perfringens and clostridium difficile. (medic8.com)
  • Evidence of Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin associated with multiple sclerosis. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Clostridium perfringens iota-toxin is composed of the enzyme component (Ia) and the binding component (Ib). (mdpi.com)
  • Sakurai J, Nagahama M, Oda M, Tsuge H, Kobayashi K. Clostridium perfringens Iota-Toxin: Structure and Function. (mdpi.com)
  • It can be distinguished from the more common Clostridium perfringens by the presence of subterminal rather than central spores on Gram staining. (cmaj.ca)
  • The rate of vaginal colonization (when bacteria are present, but not causing an infection) with Clostridium species in the period after abortion has been reported to be as high as 29%, whereas these bacteria have been isolated in the vaginal secretions of 5%-10% of non-pregnant women. (cdc.gov)
  • Clostridium Micrograph of Clostridium difficile bacteria from a stool sample. (britannica.com)
  • Clostridium is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clostridium contains around 250 species that include common free-living bacteria, as well as important pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Washing contaminated hospital bedsheets in a commercial washing machine with industrial detergent at high disinfecting temperatures failed to remove all traces of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile), a bacteria that causes infectious diarrhea, suggesting that linens could be a source of infection among patients and even other hospitals, according to a study published today in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, the journal of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. (news-medical.net)
  • Any of various rod-shaped, spore-forming, chiefly anaerobic bacteria of the genus Clostridium, such as certain nitrogen-fixing species found in soil and those causing botulism and tetanus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This toxin is made by Clostridium botulinum, and sometimes Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium baratii bacteria. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The infection originates in a wound contaminated with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Family 48 glycoside hydrolase (GH48) enzymes are highly expressed in truly cellulolytic bacteria ( 7 ) including Clostridium cellulolyticum , Clostridium cellulovorans , Clostridium josui , Clostridium phytofermentans , and C. thermocellum ( 8 - 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • C. tetani falls within the genus Clostridium , a broad group of over 150 species of Gram-positive bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collagenase clostridium histolyticum is made from a mixture of proteins derived from a certain bacteria. (cigna.com)
  • Clostridia are strictly anaerobic or moderately aerotolerant bacteria, gaining adenosine triphosphate (ATP) mostly by substrate level phosphorylation. (els.net)
  • The spores of clostridia are produced during times of stress, and can persist in toxic environments where the anaerobic bacteria cannot. (kenyon.edu)
  • Clostridium difficile is a bacteria that can cause diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, bowel inflammation (colitis), and rarely severe colitis ("pseudomembranous colitis") and bowel perforation. (oregon.gov)
  • XIAFLEX contains purified collagenase clostridium histolyticum, consisting of two microbial collagenases in a defined mass ratio, Collagenase AUX- I and Collagenase AUX-II, which are isolated and purified from the fermentation of Clostridium histolyticum bacteria. (rxlist.com)
  • Clostridium tagluense is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, psychrotolerant bacteria that was first isolated from the permafrost of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago in 2009 [2]. (kenyon.edu)
  • Ecology and Pathology Clostridium tagluense is a psychrotolerant bacteria that grows in a temperature range from 0-28 degrees Celsius [2 . (kenyon.edu)
  • Clostridium difficile (commonly called C. difficile or C. diff ) is a type of bacteria that is associated with diarrhea resulting from antibiotic use. (labcorp.com)
  • Clostridium difficile, also known as C. diff or C. difficile, is a type of bacteria that may cause gastrointestinal infection and in some cases a severe infection of the colon known as pseudomembranous colitis. (patientslikeme.com)
  • Clostridium difficile (also known as C. difficile or C. diff) is one of the many germs (bacteria) sometimes found in the intestines. (toronto.ca)
  • Another provocative finding of the study is that some of the strains capable of breaking down the more immunotoxic peptides in wheat, including the 33 amino acid long peptide known as 33-mer, are highly pathogenic, such as Clostridium botulinum - the bacteria that is capable of producing botulism. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Additionally, a recent article by Dr. Kelly Brogan , MD, discussed how the hunter-gatherer microbiome is conspicuously low in the Clostridium bacteria family, based on research into the modern hunter-gatherer Hadza gastrointestinal flora. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Clostridium difficile infection serves as a useful example for illustrating the significance of the relationship between the human microbiome and health and disease. (britannica.com)
  • Clostridium sordellii (now Paeniclostridium) can cause a fatal infection in exceptionally rare cases after medical abortions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patient safety is a top priority at Martin Medical Center, which recently announced that it has seen a significant reduction in its Clostridium difficile (C.diff) infection rates since adopting Xenex LightStrike Germ-Zapping Robots as its environmental standard of care. (news-medical.net)
  • Clostridium difficile , the life-threatening bacterium that causes diarrhea and more serious intestinal conditions, is sickening many more patients than previously estimated, according to a 2008 study released by the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC). (apic.org)
  • Start probiotics within 1 to 2 days of starting antibiotics in hospitalized patients to reduce the risk of Clostridium difficile infection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Oragenics announced the publication of a research paper entitled "Mutacin 1140 Lantibiotic Variants Are Efficacious Against Clostridium difficile Infection" in the peer reviewed journal, Frontiers in Microbiology. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There have been some 300 cases of Clostridium difficile in 18 months at Stoke Mandeville Hospital, in Aylesbury, Bucks, a national centre for spinal injury, and it is thought that the infection was an "actual or probable" factor in 12 deaths in that time. (news-medical.net)
  • We aimed to identify foods associated with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). (hindawi.com)
  • The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is on the rise and has increased by a factor of three over the last decade [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Since 2000, the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has changed, with significant increases in incidence, severity, mortality rate, and treatment failures. (nurse.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the differential clinical and economic value of fidaxomicin compared with metronidazole and vancomycin in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). (rand.org)
  • Las Vegas, NV (October 22, 2012) - A stay in the hospital may not be the only way to acquire Clostridium difficile diarrhea - but the potentially life-threatening infection may be associated with a number of health complications in hospitalized children, according to the findings from two studies unveiled today at the American College of Gastroenterology's (ACG) 77th Annual Scientific meeting in Las Vegas. (eurekalert.org)
  • In a separate case report also presented today, fecal microbiota transplantation in a 20-month old with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) suggests the therapeutic potential fecal bacteriotherapy in pediatric patients who fail standard therapy for CDI. (eurekalert.org)
  • The results of their analysis, "Changing Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile -Associated Diarrhea (CDAD) Among Long-Term Care Facility Patients," suggest a changing shift in the way CDAD is acquired--from a traditional hospital-acquired infection to a community and long-term-care facility-based infection. (eurekalert.org)
  • For the study, CDAD was defined as having clinical signs and symptoms of Clostridium difficile infection and a positive C. difficile stool toxin assay. (eurekalert.org)
  • The Epidemiology and Outcomes of Clostridium difficile Infection in Children from 2005-2009: Results from a Nationwide Survey," suggest that despite increased awareness of CDI in children and advancements in the management of CDI and infection and control practices, CDI remains a "major problem" in hospitalized children, and is associated with increased length of stay, colectomy, in-hospital mortality and discharge to a short-or-long-term care facility (DTCF). (eurekalert.org)
  • See 'Clostridium difficile in adults: Treatment' and 'Clostridium difficile in adults: Epidemiology, microbiology, and pathophysiology' and 'Clostridium difficile infection: Prevention and control' . (uptodate.com)
  • Twenty patients with haematological malignancies who developed Clostridium difficile bowel infection or colonisation are described. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This study is an observational study to collect stool samples from patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) to investigate the virulence mechanisms of C. difficile ribotypes in Hong Kong, mainly ribotype 002. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Clostridium difficle infection is the leading cause of hospital acquired infection and infectious diarrhea in hospitalized patients. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Little is known about the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) among children, particularly children ≤3 years of age in whom colonization is common but pathogenicity uncertain. (aappublications.org)
  • Little is known about the epidemiology and pathogenicity of Clostridium difficile infection among children, particularly those aged ≤3 years in whom colonization is common and pathogenicity uncertain. (aappublications.org)
  • Young children, 1 to 3 years of age, had the highest Clostridium difficile infection incidence. (aappublications.org)
  • The Clostridium difficile initiative works to assess, identify gaps, and prevent transmission of C. difficile infection (CDI) across different healthcare settings. (oregon.gov)
  • The Clover trial is evaluating an investigational vaccine that may help to prevent Clostridium difficile infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Participants in the study are adults 50 years of age and older, who are at risk of developing Clostridium difficile infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Each subject will receive 3 doses of Clostridium difficile vaccine or placebo and be followed for up to 3 years after vaccination for potential Clostridium difficile infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Clostridium difficile Infection is a topic covered in the Washington Manual of Medical Therapeutics . (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Washington Manual , www.unboundmedicine.com/washingtonmanual/view/Washington-Manual-of-Medical-Therapeutics/602054/4/Clostridium_difficile_Infection. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Clinical efficacy and microbiome changes following fecal microbiota transplantation in children with recurrent clostridium difficile infection. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The evolving epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in Canadian hospitals during a postepidemic period (2009-2015)" is published June 25, 2018. (eurekalert.org)
  • Data from patients with C. diff (Clostridium difficile) infection, who reported starting treatments within the last 5 years. (patientslikeme.com)
  • Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients [ 1 ]. (plos.org)
  • A handout on this topic is available at https://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/clostridium-difficile-infection.html . (aafp.org)
  • Clostridium difficile infection is a common cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. (aafp.org)
  • Testing for Clostridium difficile infection should be performed only once during a single episode of illness because further testing does not improve diagnostic accuracy and may yield false-positive results. (aafp.org)
  • Considering taking medication to treat bacterial+blood+infection+caused+by+clostridium? (webmd.com)
  • Below is a list of common medications used to treat or reduce the symptoms of bacterial+blood+infection+caused+by+clostridium. (webmd.com)
  • We are doing this research study to determine if taking vancomycin in addition to a broad-spectrum antibiotic will decrease the chance of developing recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To determine whether prophylactic use of oral vancomycin reduces the incidence of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI) in hospitalized patients admitted from their home or another health care facility (HCF) who are exposed to concurrent broad spectrum antibiotics. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A member of the Research staff will monitor you daily during the 10 days of treatment for any adverse reactions or any signs and symptoms of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • NICE is unable to make a recommendation on bezlotoxumab (Zinplava) for preventing recurrent Clostridium difficile infection in adults because Merck Sharp & Dohme did not provide an evidence submission. (nice.org.uk)
  • We will withdraw this appraisal when the guideline on Clostridium difficile infection: antimicrobial prescribing is published, which will make recommendations on bezlotoxumab. (nice.org.uk)
  • Clostridium difficile is a Gram positive, spore-forming rod that causes a spectrum of intestinal diseases extending from relatively mild diarrhea to toxic megacolon and is a frequent cause of hospital-acquired enteric infection. (mskcc.org)
  • The issue was originally illustrated in full detail by a rRNA phylogeny from Collins 1994, which split the traditional genus (now corresponding to a large slice of Clostridia) into twenty clusters, with cluster I containing the type species and its close relatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clostridium can be distinguished from Desulfotomaculum on the basis of the nutrients each genus uses (the latter requires sulfur). (wikipedia.org)
  • Clostridium grantii is a Gram-positive, strictly anaerobic, rod-shaped and spore-forming bacterium from the genus of Clostridium which has been isolated from the gut of a mullet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microbiology) any anaerobic typically rod-shaped bacterium of the genus Clostridium , occurring mainly in soil, but also in the intestines of humans and animals: family Bacillaceae . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • [5] Within Clostridium , C. tetani falls within a cluster of nearly 100 species that are more closely related to each other than they are to any other genus. (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] Examples of this include the human pathogen Clostridium difficile which is more closely related to members of genus Peptostreptococcus than to C. tetani . (wikipedia.org)
  • lavalense 16S rRNA gene sequence belongs to the Clostridium coccoides rRNA group, the rRNA cluster XIVa of the genus Clostridium [1]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The genus clostridium comprises nearly 100 species, sub- divided into a majority of nonpathogenic species, 25 to 30 minor pathogens and around 13 classical major pathogens. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Members of the genus Clostridium are nutritionally extremely versatile, able to degrade a large variety of heterotrophic substrates and able to grow under autotrophic conditions. (els.net)
  • Lee C‐K, Dürre P, Hippe H and Gottschalk G (1987) Screening for plasmids in the genus Clostridium. (els.net)
  • [1] Bakteri ini masuk kedalam genus Clostridium . (wikipedia.org)
  • C. tagluense belongs to the loosely defined genus of Clostridium, which is comprised of over one hundred species that are highly diverse both phenotypically and taxonomically [3]. (kenyon.edu)
  • C. tagluense has a high 16S rRNA sequence similarity (92-99%) to the species in Cluster I of Clostridium (Clostridium sensu stricto), which is defined as the representative species of the loosely defined Clostridium genus [2,7,8]. (kenyon.edu)
  • It's genome hybridizes with less than 52% of other species within Cluster I of Clostridium, indicating that it is a separate species that has significant differences from other species of the genus 2. (kenyon.edu)
  • The pangenome of the genus Clostridium. (kenyon.edu)
  • Serious injury to the penis, including penile fracture (corporal rupture), has been reported in patients receiving Clostridium histolyticum injection for treatment of Peyronie's disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your doctor or pharmacist will give you the manufacturer's patient information sheet (Medication Guide) when you begin treatment with collagenase Clostridium histolyticum and each time you receive the medication. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Talk to your doctor about the risks of receiving collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection is used to treat Dupuytren's contracture (a painless thickening and tightening of tissue [cord] beneath the skin in the palm of the hand, which may make it difficult to straighten one or more fingers) when a cord of tissue can be felt upon examination. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection is also used to treat Peyronie's disease (a thickening of tissue [plaque] inside the penis that causes the penis to curve). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection is in a class of medications called enzymes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection comes as a powder to be mixed with a liquid and injected by a doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you are receiving collagenase Clostridium histolyticum to treat Dupuytren's contracture, your doctor will inject the medicine into a cord just under the skin in the affected hand. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you are receiving collagenase Clostridium histolyticum to treat Peyronie's disease, your doctor will inject the medicine into the plaque that is causing your penis to curve. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you are receiving treatment for Peyronie's disease, your doctor will inject collagenase Clostridium histolyticum into your penis, followed by a second injection 1 to 3 days after the first injection You must return to your doctor's office 1 to 3 days after your second injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Collagenase D is prepared from Clostridium histolyticum cultures by filtration, ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis, and lyophilization. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • What is the most important information I should know about collagenase clostridium histolyticum? (cigna.com)
  • Collagenase clostridium histolyticum can damage a nerve, tendon, or ligament in the hand the medicine is injected into. (cigna.com)
  • Collagenase clostridium histolyticum is used to treat Dupuytren's contracture in adults. (cigna.com)
  • Collagenase clostridium histolyticum is also used to treat a related condition called Peyronie's disease in adult men. (cigna.com)
  • Collagenase clostridium histolyticum is available for Peyronie's disease only from a certified pharmacy under a special program called Xiaflex REMS. (cigna.com)
  • Collagenase clostridium histolyticum may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. (cigna.com)
  • What should I discuss with my health care provider before receiving collagenase clostridium histolyticum? (cigna.com)
  • You should not use collagenase clostridium histolyticum if you are allergic to it. (cigna.com)
  • FDA pregnancy category B. Collagenase clostridium histolyticum is not expected to harm an unborn baby. (cigna.com)
  • It is not known whether collagenase clostridium histolyticum passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. (cigna.com)
  • How is collagenase clostridium histolyticum given? (cigna.com)
  • Collagenase clostridium histolyticum is usually given in a treatment cycle of 1 to 3 injections given 4 weeks apart. (cigna.com)
  • This study will evaluate the safety and Pharmacokinetics (PK) of a single 3.36-mg dose of Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum (CCH) in 4 quadrants concurrently, in subjects with Edematous fibrosclerotic panniculopathy (EFP). (bioportfolio.com)
  • It belongs to the class I Clostridium histolyticum collagenases. (rxlist.com)
  • XIAFLEX is available in single-use, glass vials containing 0.9 mg of collagenase clostridium histolyticum. (rxlist.com)
  • What are the possible side effects of collagenase clostridium histolyticum (Xiaflex)? (rxlist.com)
  • Read user comments about the side effects, benefits, and effectiveness of collagenase clostridium histolyticum topical. (webmd.com)
  • Clostridium and Bacillus are both in the phylum Firmicutes, but they are in different classes, orders, and families. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clostridium ( klostridij ) je rod grampozitivnih bakterij iz debla Firmicutes . (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the incubation period is much longer (4 to 14 days), as time is required for the incubation of spores, growth of Clostridium, and release of toxins. (inchem.org)
  • Clostridia are rod-shaped, but when producing spores they appear more like drumsticks with a bulge at one end. (kenyon.edu)
  • Because clostridium spores can be airborne, they often find their way onto food that is going to be canned, which provides a pleasant anaerobic environment for the spores to germinate and release their toxin. (kenyon.edu)
  • True or False: Clostridium Tetani is a motile organism that can have sub-terminal spores. (studystack.com)
  • Germination of Clostridium difficile spores is a crucial early requirement for colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. (asm.org)
  • Clostridium difficile , being an obligate anaerobe, is highly sensitive to oxygen, so the production of aerotolerant spores allows this organism to survive in the external environment until it infects a new host. (asm.org)
  • Other similar Clostridium species are spread from person to person and sometimes contaminated surfaces are involved in this transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • Clostridium species inhabit soils and the intestinal tract of animals, including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main species responsible for disease in humans are: Clostridium botulinum can produce botulinum toxin in food or wounds and can cause botulism. (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] Other Clostridium species can be divided into a number of genetically related groups, many of which are more closely related to members of other genera than they are to C. tetani . (wikipedia.org)
  • Several species of clostridia are used industrially for the production of alcohols and commercial solvents. (kenyon.edu)
  • There are three species of clostridia that cause widely recognized and often-deadly diseases. (kenyon.edu)
  • Which Clostridium species is Litmus milk positive, Lecithinase positive & lipase negative? (studystack.com)
  • Cytosine and guanine comprise 31.5% of the genome, close to that of most species in Cluster I Clostridium [2]. (kenyon.edu)
  • Effects of meat pH on growth of 11 species of psychrotolerant clostridia on vacuum packaged beef and blown pack spoilage of the product. (kenyon.edu)
  • genic species is Clostridium acetobutylicum, which typically pro-duces butanol, acetone, and ethanol at the mass ratio of 6:3:1 (17, 20, 21). (jakesonline.org)
  • Biofuel Research Journal 6 … produce butyric acid and acetic acid via the butyric acid fermentation pathway.Some species of Clostridium, such as C. acetobutylicum also produce isopropanol or acetone. (jakesonline.org)
  • Clostridium and Desulfotomaculum are both in the class Clostridia and order Clostridiales, and they both produce bottle-shaped endospores, but they are in different families. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clostridium collagenase from Roche has been used to prepare cells from many types of tissue, such as hepatocytes, adipocytes, pancreatic islets, epithelial cells, muscle cells, endothelial cells, etc . (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Clostridium preparations typically give conversion factors of approximately 1:1800 ( e.g., a particular lot of Clostridium collagenase contained approximately 0.15 Wünsch U/mg and 250 Mandl U/mg). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Which Clostridium is the 2nd most encountered in clinical infections & is very resistant to antibiotics? (studystack.com)
  • FMT has a higher cure rate than standard antibiotic treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infections,and shows promising results in Inflammatory bowel disease(IBD).However, few. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Global Markets Direct's, 'Clostridium Difficile Infections (Clostridium Difficile Associated Disease) - Pipeline Review, H1 2014', provides an overview of the Clostridium Difficile Infections (Clostridium Difficile Associated Disease)'s therapeutic pipeline. (sbwire.com)
  • This report provides comprehensive information on the therapeutic development for Clostridium Difficile Infections (Clostridium Difficile Associated Disease) , complete with comparative analysis at various stages, therapeutics assessment by drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type, along with latest updates, and featured news and press releases. (sbwire.com)
  • It also reviews key players involved in the therapeutic development for Clostridium Difficile Infections (Clostridium Difficile Associated Disease) and special features on late-stage and discontinued projects. (sbwire.com)
  • To assess the risk of acquiring Clostridium difficile diarrhoea or colitis in patients colonised with C difficile, rectal swabs taken weekly for 9 weeks from patients with long-term (at least 7 days) hospital stays on three wards were cultured for C difficile. (nih.gov)
  • Clostridium acetobutylicum , ATCC 824, is a commercially valuable bacterium sometimes called the " Weizmann Organism ", after Jewish-Russian-born Chaim Weizmann . (wikipedia.org)
  • Clostridium butyricum is a strictly anaerobic endospore -forming Gram-positive butyric acid -producing bacillus subsisting by means of fermentation using an intracellularly accumulated amylopectin-like α-polyglucan (granulose) as a substrate . (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacillus and Clostridium are often described as Gram-variable, because they show an increasing number of gram-negative cells as the culture ages. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Schaeffer-Fulton stain (0.5% malachite green in water) can be used to distinguish endospores of Bacillus and Clostridium from other microorganisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clostridium septicum is an aerotolerant gram-positive, gas-producing bacillus. (cmaj.ca)
  • Clostridium acetobutylicum is a Gram-positive bacillus (1).C. The butyric acid titer, BA/AA ratio, and productivity obtained in this study were the highest values reported for C. acetobutylicum, and the BA/AA ratio and productivity were also comparable to those of native butyric acid producer Clostridium tyrobutyricum. (jakesonline.org)
  • See 'Clostridium difficile in adults: Epidemiology, microbiology, and pathophysiology', section on 'Risk factors' . (uptodate.com)
  • Clostridium tetani causes tetanus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clostridium welchii and Clostridium tetani respond to sulfonamides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clostridium tetani is a common soil bacterium and the causative agent of tetanus . (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] The closest relative to C. tetani is Clostridium cochlearium . (wikipedia.org)
  • Clostridium tetani (Flügge, 1886) Bergey & al. (gbif.org)
  • Unlike yeast , which can digest only sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide , C. acetobutylicum and other Clostridia can digest whey , sugar , starch , cellulose and perhaps certain types of lignin , yielding butanol , propionic acid , ether , and glycerin . (wikipedia.org)
  • the genes were derived from Clostridium acetobutylicum . (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the crucial enzymes - a fatty acyl-CoA reductase - came from Clostridium acetobutylicum . (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome of Clostridium acetobutylicum is 3.94088 Mega-base pairs long with a 192-kb megaplasmid. (kenyon.edu)
  • Complete genome sequence of Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 1731, a solvent-producing strain with multireplicon genome architecture. (genome.jp)
  • The enzyme 3-hydroxybutyryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase, a key enzyme in solventogenesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum , was among the most up-regulated proteins during high toxin production. (jakesonline.org)
  • Solvent production by Clostridium acetobutylicum collapses when cells are grown in pH-uncontrolled glucose medium, the so-called "acid crash" phenomenon. (jakesonline.org)
  • The solvents produced by C. acetobutylicum, predominately acetic acid, butyric acid… High cell densities of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium tyrobutyricum were obtained using the retarding agents KH 2 PO 4 (50 mM) and NaHCO 3 (200 mM). (jakesonline.org)
  • Clostridium acetobutylicum has been considered an attractive platform-host for biorefinery due to its metabolic diversity. (jakesonline.org)
  • Therefore, adaptive evolution and retarding agents can enhance the overall butanol and butyric acid yields from Please cite this article as: Ndaba B., Chiyanzu I., Marx S. Direct fermentation of sweet sorghum juice by Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium tetanomorphum to produce bio-butanol and organic acids. (jakesonline.org)
  • New insights into the butyric acid metabolism of Clostridium acetobutylicum. (jakesonline.org)
  • Abstract Biosynthesis of acetone and n-butanol is naturally restricted to the group of solventogenic clostridia with Clostridium acetobutylicum being the model organism for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. (jakesonline.org)
  • Nomenclature Abstract for Clostridium grantii Mountfort et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fecal microbiota transplantation or stool transplant from a donor is useful for patients infected with the deadly recurrent Clostridium difficile that leads to severe diarrhea, pain and often serious consequences. (news-medical.net)
  • The digestive microbiota graft is performed in three clinical circumstances: Clostridium difficile colitis is responsible for numerous deaths each year showing a severe prognosis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • They identified associations between fecal bacterial BA metabolism and specific microbiota, especially Clostridium scindens. (jci.org)
  • Clostridium difficile is the leading infectious cause of nosocomial diarrhea. (medscape.com)
  • Cite this: Refractory Clostridium difficile-associated Diarrhea - Medscape - May 29, 2007. (medscape.com)
  • Clostridium difficile [klo-STRID-ee-um dif-uh-SEEL], or C. difficile , is a potentially life-threatening bacterium found in the intestines that can cause diarrhea and more serious intestinal conditions such as colitis (inflammation of the large intestine). (apic.org)
  • Clostridium difficile is a common cause of diarrhea that occurs in hospitals. (news-medical.net)
  • Although diarrhea is one of the most frequently encountered adverse effects of linezolid, Clostridium difficile -related complications are very uncommon. (springer.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea is a major problem in adults. (hindawi.com)
  • In one study, researchers from Sinai Hospital in Baltimore retrospectively analyzed the changing epidemiological trends of patients with Clostridium difficile -associated diarrhea (CDAD) who were admitted to an acute care hospital between January 2005 and December 20120. (eurekalert.org)
  • Probiotics in the Prevention of Antibiotic Induced Diarrhea and Clostridium Difficile Associated Diarrhea. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The objective of this study is to determine the efficacy of probiotics containing 25Bn (billion) CFU (colony-forming unit) of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Sacchromyces boulardii and Bifidobacterium breve in the prevention of antibiotic induced diarrhea and Clostridium difficile diarrhea. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Clostridium difficile causes a wide spectrum of clinical illness, from asymptomatic colonization and mild diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis and toxic megacolon. (aappublications.org)
  • Tests to detect Clostridium difficile ( C. difficile or C. diff for short), the genes associated with toxin production, and its toxins are used to help diagnose diarrhea and other conditions and complications caused by toxin-producing C. difficile . (labcorp.com)
  • Clostridium difficile is the most common infectious cause of diarrhea in hospitalized patients in developed countries, causing severe illness and occasionally death. (eurekalert.org)
  • Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium that is the leading cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea worldwide ( 1 , 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a bacterium that causes diarrhea and more serious intestinal conditions such as colitis. (ecolab.com)
  • What is the risk factor for severe clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea? (eurekalert.org)
  • Colitis symptoms and positive Clostridium difficile assay were confirmed. (hindawi.com)
  • INTRODUCTION - Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming, toxin-producing, gram-positive anaerobic bacterium that causes antibiotic-associated colitis. (uptodate.com)
  • We report the first isolation of a variant strain of Clostridium difficile from a patient with pseudomembranous colitis in Japan. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea (CDAD) is the most common cause of healthcare-associated diarrhoea and results in a wide spectrum of disease severity ranging from asymptomatic carriage to life-threatening entero-colitis and death. (eurekalert.org)
  • We have recently identified Clostridium scindens , an obligate anaerobic bacterium that converts primary to secondary bile salts, as a major contributor to resistance against C. difficile colitis (Buffie et al. (mskcc.org)
  • Toll-Like Receptor 5 Stimulation Protects Mice from Acute Clostridium difficile Colitis. (mskcc.org)
  • Neutrophil infiltration is a prominent feature of Clostridium difficile-associated enteritis and colitis. (jci.org)
  • The Clostridium difficile is a grampositive, spore-forming bacterium, usually spread by the fecal-oral route. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The MIYAIRI 588 strain of C. butyricum does not carry any genes encoding any toxins and virulence factors associated with Clostridium or other enteropathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Few clostridia produce one or several toxins, however, among these toxins are the most potent known (botulinum toxin). (els.net)
  • Clostridium difficile produces toxins A and B, which result in a loss of intestinal epithelial integrity. (mskcc.org)
  • It occurs when neuromuscular transmission is interrupted by a protein neurotoxin produced by the spore-forming, obligate anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum . (inchem.org)
  • Most clostridia are obligate fermenters. (kenyon.edu)
  • This strain is deposited at the Fermentation Research Institute, Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, Japan under the strain name Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI 588 strain, deposit number FERM BP-2789. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycolysis and fermentation of pyruvic acid by Clostridia yield the end products butyric acid, butanol, acetone, isopropanol, and carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organisms regulate gene expression in response to the environment to coordinate metabolic reactions.Clostridium thermocellumexpresses enzymes for both lignocellulose solubilization and its fermentation to produce ethanol. (osti.gov)
  • Clostridium sordellii [klaw-strĭ-dee-um sore-dell-ee-i] (also called C. sordellii ) is a rare bacterium that causes pneumonia, endocarditis, arthritis, peritonitis, and myonecrosis. (cdc.gov)
  • For more information see the Clostridium sordellii Toxic Shock Syndrome After Medical Abortion with Mifepristone and Intravaginal Misoprostol - United States and Canada, 2001-2005 . (cdc.gov)
  • Clostridium sordellii is a rare germ that has killed four women who took the abortion pill RU-486 and has also been implicated in the deaths of at least 11 other women following childbirth or miscarriage. (news-medical.net)
  • Clostridium endospores have a distinct bowling pin or bottle shape, distinguishing them from other bacterial endospores, which are usually ovoid in shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the incubation period for Clostridium difficile is not precisely known, researchers suggest that the incubation period is about seven days if the conditions are favorable for bacterial proliferation. (medicinenet.com)
  • Scientists from the VIB-UGent Center for Inflammation Research identified the mechanisms by which the bacterial pathogen Clostridium difficile kills intestinal epithelial cells, thus destroying the protective mucosal barrier of the intestinal tract. (news-medical.net)
  • Clostridium difficile , a major nosocomial pathogen shown to be a primary cause of antibiotic-associated disease, has emerged as a highly transmissible and frequently antibiotic-resistant organism, causing a considerable burden on health care systems worldwide. (springer.com)
  • Clostridium difficile is primarily recognised as a nosocomially acquired pathogen manifesting in gastrointestinal disease subsequent to the patient receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics. (nih.gov)
  • Clostridium thermocellum is a thermophilic anaerobic bacterium that rapidly solubilizes cellulose with the aid of a multienzyme cellulosome complex. (pnas.org)
  • Clostridium thermocellum has received consideration in the context of the latter strategy. (pnas.org)
  • The metabolism of Clostridium thermocellum is notable in that it assimilates sugar via the EMP pathway but does not possess a pyruvate kinase enzyme. (osti.gov)
  • In Clostridium difficile: Methods and Protocols , expert researchers bring together the most recently developed methods for studying the organism, including techniques involving isolation, molecular typing, genomics, genetic manipulation, and the use of animal models. (springer.com)
  • Authoritative and cutting-edge, Clostridium difficile: Methods and Protocols serves as an ideal guide for scientists now in a position to gain an in-depth understanding of how this organism is transmitted and how it causes disease. (springer.com)
  • Its usefulness stems primarily from its ability to interfere with the growth of highly pathogenic Clostridium difficile by antagonizing its multiplication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acambis has announced that earlier this month it started a Phase I clinical trial of its investigational vaccine against Clostridium difficile (C. difficile). (news-medical.net)
  • Clinical management of Clostridium difficile-associated disease. (uptodate.com)
  • 2015) The complete genome sequence of Clostridium aceticum: a missing link between Rnf and cytochrome‐containing autotrophic acetogens. (els.net)
  • Deidre K. Fontenot , Scott P. Terrell , Michele Miller , Patricia K. Robbins , Mark Stetter , and Martha Weber " CLOSTRIDIUM SEPTICUM MYOSITIS IN A WESTERN LOWLAND GORILLA ( GORILLA GORILLA GORILLA )," Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 36(3), 509-511, (1 September 2005). (bioone.org)
  • However, after a two-day incubation period, anaerobic gram-positive rods, which formed a film on the media, were seen and identified as Clostridium septicum ( Figure 1 ). (cmaj.ca)
  • Clostridium septicum is not considered part of the normal stool flora 1 , 2 and is a rare cause of bacteremia, accounting for less than 1% of blood cultures that test positive for clostridia. (cmaj.ca)
  • Clostridium difficile is a bacterium commonly found in the intestinal tract, but which, under the right circumstances, such as after or during antibiotics therapy, can be the cause of enterocolitis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This is caused by the absorption of toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum that colonize the intestinal tracts of infants under one year of age. (inchem.org)
  • It occurs as a result of intestinal colonization with Clostridium botulinum and in vivo toxin production in a manner similar to that of infant botulism. (inchem.org)
  • Clostridium difficile assosiert diaré (CDAD), C. difficile assosiert kolitt og psedomenbranøs kolitt omtales ofte samlet som C. difficile infeksjon (CDI). (helsedirektoratet.no)
  • The incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) and its serious complications (including colectomy and death) have been increasing worldwide. (uptodate.com)
  • This study was designed to investigate the ability of Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 to produce butanol in a limited nutrient medium using mixtures of glucose and butyric acid as substrates. (jakesonline.org)
  • Recent European Food Safety Authority opinions confirm the official strain nomenclature as Clostridium butyricum FERM BP-2789. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 027 (CD027) er en særlig variant af Clostridium difficile . (ssi.dk)
  • While John Starr was working as a senior registrar at the Hammersmith Hospital in London, an upsurge in episodes of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea seemed to be associated with increasing use of third generation cephalosporins. (bmj.com)
  • Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea is a serious condition with a mortality of up to 25% in frail elderly people. (bmj.com)
  • Univariate and multivariate analysis of risk factors for severe clostridium difficile -associated diarrhoea: Importance of co-morbidity and serum C-reactive protein. (eurekalert.org)
  • Neutrophil recruitment in Clostridium difficile toxin A enteritis in the rabbit. (jci.org)
  • : 107-108 In this connection it was circa 1880 when a scientist surnamed Prazmowski first assigned a name to Clostridium butyricum . (wikipedia.org)
  • Clostridia - Taxon details on National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). (wikimedia.org)
  • Butyric acid production from spent coffee grounds by engineered Clostridium tyrobutyricum overexpressing galactose catabolism genes. (jakesonline.org)
  • The National Prevalence Study of Clostridium difficile in U.S. Healthcare Facilities" indicates that 13 out of every 1,000 hospitalized patients were either infected or colonized with C. difficile . (apic.org)
  • As many as two dozen patients at a British hospital have died after contracting the virulent stomach bug Clostridium difficile (C. diff). (news-medical.net)
  • Tallene fra den skærpede overvågning opdateres retrospektivt og er baseret på prøvedato (ny episode registreres, hvis der er over 6 måneder mellem en patients positive fund). (ssi.dk)
  • Genotyping of Clostridium difficile isolates. (asm.org)
  • They've figured out how Clostridium difficile's most potent toxin gets into cells and zeroed in on the first new botulinum toxin identified since 1969. (news-medical.net)
  • A thorough investigation by E. van Ermengem led to the discovery of Clostridium botulinum and botulinum toxin. (nih.gov)
  • Clostridium botulinum causes botulism, which is contracted through contact (usually ingestion) of botulinum toxin (wound botulism is rare, but can occur). (kenyon.edu)