A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.
A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, used for the industrial production of SOLVENTS.
A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.
The cause of TETANUS in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, found in INTESTINES and SOIL.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Type species of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM, a gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is used as a source of PROBIOTICS.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. Infections have a strong association with malignancies and also with GAS GANGRENE.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, capable of solventogenesis, and isolated from SOIL, infected WOUNDS, fermenting OLIVES, and spoiled CANDY.
A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)
RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM analysis of rRNA genes that is used for differentiating between species or strains.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces BOTULINUM TOXINS, TYPE A which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is a cellulolytic, mesophilic species isolated from decayed GRASS.
A species of gram-positive, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It produces CELLULOSOMES which are involved in plant CELL WALL degradation.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae isolated from infected CATTLE; SHEEP; and other animals. It causes blackleg in cattle and sheep and is transmitted through soil-borne spores.
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A severe condition resulting from bacteria invading healthy muscle from adjacent traumatized muscle or soft tissue. The infection originates in a wound contaminated with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM. C. perfringens accounts for the majority of cases (over eighty percent), while C. noyvi, C. septicum, and C. histolyticum cause most of the other cases.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type E which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is distinctive for its ability to ferment ETHANOL to caproic acid.
A species of gram-positive, strongly proteolytic bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It contains several forms of COLLAGENASE whose action can lead to GAS GANGRENE in humans and HORSES.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.
Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type B which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
Extracellular structures found in a variety of microorganisms. They contain CELLULASES and play an important role in the digestion of CELLULOSE.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae responsible for spoilage of some CHEESE via FERMENTATION of BUTYRIC ACID.
Disease caused by the liberation of exotoxins of CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS in the intestines of sheep, goats, cattle, foals, and piglets. Type B enterotoxemia in lambs is lamb dysentery; type C enterotoxemia in mature sheep produces "struck", and in calves, lambs and piglets it produces hemorrhagic enterotoxemia; type D enterotoxemia in sheep and goats is pulpy-kidney disease or overeating disease.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type D which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type F which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).
A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.
Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A class of iron-sulfur proteins that contains one iron coordinated to the sulfur atom of four cysteine residues. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.
A species of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae frequently used for the study of ENZYMES.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.
Antiserum given therapeutically in BOTULISM.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type C which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans. It causes dissociation of ACTIN FILAMENTS.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, causing BACTEREMIA in humans and ANIMALS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that ferments both CARBOHYDRATES and AMINO ACIDS.
A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.
Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha- or beta-xylosidic linkages. EC catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans; and EC catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans. Other xylosidases have been identified that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-xylosidic bonds.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. Its GLUTAMATE DEHYDROGENASE is commonly used in research.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of the mouth, upper respiratory tract, and large intestine in humans. Its organisms cause infections of soft tissues and bacteremias.
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
A claudin subtype that takes part in maintaining the barrier-forming property of TIGHT JUNCTIONS. Claudin-4 is found associated with CLAUDIN-8 in the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT where it may play a role in paracellular chloride ion reabsorption.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE and cellotetraose. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing ends of beta-D-glucosides with release of CELLOBIOSE.
Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC, it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.
Enzymes which transfer coenzyme A moieties from acyl- or acetyl-CoA to various carboxylic acceptors forming a thiol ester. Enzymes in this group are instrumental in ketone body metabolism and utilization of acetoacetate in mitochondria. EC 2.8.3.
Inflammation of the MUCOSA of both the SMALL INTESTINE and the LARGE INTESTINE. Etiology includes ISCHEMIA, infections, allergic, and immune responses.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
A ubiquitously-expressed claudin subtype that acts as a general barrier-forming protein in TIGHT JUNCTIONS. Elevated expression of claudin-3 is found in a variety of tumor cell types, suggesting its role as a therapeutic target for specific ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
A xylosidase that catalyses the random hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-xylans.
A GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating a signal transduction pathway that controls assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of acetylphosphate from acetyl-CoA and inorganic phosphate. Acetylphosphate serves as a high-energy phosphate compound. EC
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.

Synergistic activation of JNK/SAPK by interleukin-1 and platelet-derived growth factor is independent of Rac and Cdc42. (1/2206)

The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are activated strongly by inflammatory cytokines and environmental stresses, but only weakly by growth factors. Here we show that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) strongly potentiates activation of JNK by interleukin 1 (IL-1) in human fibroblasts and a pig aortic endothelial (PAE) cell line. This synergistic activation of JNK by IL-1 and PDGF was unaffected by bacterial toxins that inactivate Rho proteins and Ras. Since Rho proteins have been implicated in JNK activation, their possible involvement was investigated further using stably expressed, inducible N17 or V12 mutants in PAE cell lines. N17 Rac non-selectively reduced JNK activity by 30% in resting or stimulated cells (IL-1 alone, or with PDGF). N17 Cdc42 had no effect. V12 Rac weakly activated JNK and synergized with IL-1, but not with PDGF. V12 Cdc42 weakly activated JNK, but synergized with PDGF and not IL-1. Our results imply that Rho GTPases are not directly involved in mediating IL-1-induced JNK activation, or in the potentiation of this activation by PDGF.  (+info)

Rejection of Clostridium putrificum and conservation of Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium sporogenes-Opinion 69. Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology. (2/2206)

The Judicial Commission rejected the name Clostridium putrificum while conserving Clostridium botulinum for toxigenic strains and conserving Clostridium sporogenes for non-toxigenic strains.  (+info)

Characteristics of a strain of Clostridium carnis causing septicaemia in a young infant. (3/2206)

Clostridium carnis is a species which is only rarely isolated from man or animals and is occasionally found in the soil. This paper is an account of a single isolate found in blood cultures obtained from an 8-week-old boy who was suffering from gastroenteritis.  (+info)

The influence of a diet rich in wheat fibre on the human faecal flora. (4/2206)

The effect on the faecal flora of adding wheat fibre to a controlled diet in four healthy volunteers for a 3-week period has been observed. No change in the concentration of the bacteria in the bacterial groups counted was found, although there was a slight increase in total output associated with increased faecal weight. The predominant organisms in all subjects were non-sporing anaerobes, but the dominant species in each subject was different and was unaffected by changing the diet. Similarly, the concentration of faecal beta-glucuronidase detected in two subjects was unaltered and the concentration of clostridia able to dehydrogenate the steroid nucleus found in one subject was unaltered. It is suggested that the faecal microflora is not primarily controlled by the presence of undigested food residues in the large bowel.  (+info)

Nitrate-dependent regulation of acetate biosynthesis and nitrate respiration by Clostridium thermoaceticum. (5/2206)

Nitrate has been shown to shunt the electron flow in Clostridium thermoaceticum from CO2 to nitrate, but it did not influence the levels of enzymes involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (J. M. Frostl, C. Seifritz, and H. L. Drake, J. Bacteriol. 178:4597-4603, 1996). Here we show that under some growth conditions, nitrate does in fact repress proteins involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. The CO oxidation activity in crude extracts of nitrate (30 mM)-supplemented cultures was fivefold less than that of nitrate-free cultures, while the H2 oxidation activity was six- to sevenfold lower. The decrease in CO oxidation activity paralleled a decrease in CO dehydrogenase (CODH) protein level, as confirmed by Western blot analysis. Protein levels of CODH in nitrate-supplemented cultures were 50% lower than those in nitrate-free cultures. Western blots analyses showed that nitrate also decreased the levels of the corrinoid iron-sulfur protein (60%) and methyltransferase (70%). Surprisingly, the decrease in activity and protein levels upon nitrate supplementation was observed only when cultures were continuously sparged. Northern blot analysis indicates that the regulation of the proteins involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway by nitrate is at the transcriptional level. At least a 10-fold decrease in levels of cytochrome b was observed with nitrate supplementation whether the cultures were sparged or stoppered. We also detected nitrate-inducible nitrate reductase activity (2 to 39 nmol min-1 mg-1) in crude extracts of C. thermoaceticum. Our results indicate that nitrate coordinately represses genes encoding enzymes and electron transport proteins in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and activates transcription of nitrate respiratory proteins. CO2 also appears to induce expression of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway genes and repress nitrate reductase activity.  (+info)

Antisense RNA strategies for metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum. (6/2206)

We examined the effectiveness of antisense RNA (as RNA) strategies for metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) was developed to produce a 102-nucleotide asRNA with 87% complementarity to the butyrate kinase (BK) gene. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) exhibited 85 to 90% lower BK and acetate kinase specific activities than the control strain. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) also exhibited 45 to 50% lower phosphotransbutyrylase (PTB) and phosphotransacetylase specific activities than the control strain. This strain exhibited earlier induction of solventogenesis, which resulted in 50 and 35% higher final concentrations of acetone and butanol, respectively, than the concentrations in the control. Strain ATCC 824(pRD1) was developed to putatively produce a 698-nucleotide asRNA with 96% complementarity to the PTB gene. Strain ATCC 824(pRD1) exhibited 70 and 80% lower PTB and BK activities, respectively, than the control exhibited. It also exhibited 300% higher levels of a lactate dehydrogenase activity than the control exhibited. The growth yields of ATCC 824(pRD1) were 28% less than the growth yields of the control. While the levels of acids were not affected in ATCC 824(pRD1) fermentations, the acetone and butanol concentrations were 96 and 75% lower, respectively, than the concentrations in the control fermentations. The lower level of solvent production by ATCC 824(pRD1) was compensated for by approximately 100-fold higher levels of lactate production. The lack of any significant impact on butyrate formation fluxes by the lower PTB and BK levels suggests that butyrate formation fluxes are not controlled by the levels of the butyrate formation enzymes.  (+info)

Sequence analysis of scaffolding protein CipC and ORFXp, a new cohesin-containing protein in Clostridium cellulolyticum: comparison of various cohesin domains and subcellular localization of ORFXp. (7/2206)

The gene encoding the scaffolding protein of the cellulosome from Clostridium cellulolyticum, whose partial sequence was published earlier (S. Pages, A. Belaich, C. Tardif, C. Reverbel-Leroy, C. Gaudin, and J.-P. Belaich, J. Bacteriol. 178:2279-2286, 1996; C. Reverbel-Leroy, A. Belaich, A. Bernadac, C. Gaudin, J. P. Belaich, and C. Tardif, Microbiology 142:1013-1023, 1996), was completely sequenced. The corresponding protein, CipC, is composed of a cellulose binding domain at the N terminus followed by one hydrophilic domain (HD1), seven highly homologous cohesin domains (cohesin domains 1 to 7), a second hydrophilic domain, and a final cohesin domain (cohesin domain 8) which is only 57 to 60% identical to the seven other cohesin domains. In addition, a second gene located 8.89 kb downstream of cipC was found to encode a three-domain protein, called ORFXp, which includes a cohesin domain. By using antiserum raised against the latter, it was observed that ORFXp is associated with the membrane of C. cellulolyticum and is not detected in the cellulosome fraction. Western blot and BIAcore experiments indicate that cohesin domains 1 and 8 from CipC recognize the same dockerins and have similar affinity for CelA (Ka = 4.8 x 10(9) M-1) whereas the cohesin from ORFXp, although it is also able to bind all cellulosome components containing a dockerin, has a 19-fold lower Ka for CelA (2.6 x 10(8) M-1). Taken together, these data suggest that ORFXp may play a role in cellulosome assembly.  (+info)

Segmented filamentous bacteria are potent stimuli of a physiologically normal state of the murine gut mucosal immune system. (8/2206)

Segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) are autochthonous bacteria inhabiting the intestinal tracts of many species, including humans. We studied the effect of SFB on the mucosal immune system by monoassociating formerly germfree C3H/HeN mice with SFB. At various time points during 190 days of colonization, fragment cultures of small intestine and Peyer's patches (PP) were analyzed for total immunoglobulin A (IgA) and SFB-specific IgA production. Also, phenotypic changes indicating germinal center reactions (GCRs) and the activation of CD4(+) T cells in PP were determined by using fluorescence-activated cell sorter analyses. A second group of SFB-monoassociated mice was colonized with a gram-negative commensal, Morganella morganii, to determine if the mucosal immune system was again stimulated and to evaluate the effect of prior colonization with SFB on the ability of M. morganii to translocate to the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. We found that SFB stimulated GCRs in PP from day 6 after monoassociation, that GCRs only gradually waned over the entire length of colonization, that natural IgA production was increased to levels 24 to 63% of that of conventionally reared mice, and that SFB-specific IgA was produced but accounted for less than 1.4% of total IgA. Also, the proportion of CD4(+), CD45RBlow T cells, indicative of activated cells, gradually increased in the PP to the level found in conventionally reared mice. Secondary colonization with M. morganii was able to stimulate GCRs anew, leading to a specific IgA antibody response. Previous stimulation of mucosal immunity by SFB did not prevent the translocation of M. morganii in the double-colonized mice. Our findings generally indicate that SFB are one of the single most potent microbial stimuli of the gut mucosal immune system.  (+info)

Clostridium glycolicum ATCC ® 14880D™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Clostridium glycolicum TypeStrain=True Application:
Flagella - Clostridium perfringens is a Non-flagellated bacterium. 400 MPa at 60 °C for 30 min) or sequentially (e.g. • Appendages include long beaded filaments of unknown function. Clostridium sporogenes is closely related to the proteolytic strains of Clostridium botulinum. Morphology and Physiology--long thin gram-positive organism that stains gram negative in old cultures. Robert Sevenich, in Reference Module in Food Science, 2016. Use of combinations of challenge micro-organisms in microbial cocktails has generally been recommended, and has most often been included in the inoculation methodology part of challenge trial designs. Clostridium -> ABSTRACT Conditions Associated with Clostridium sporogenes Growth as a Surrogate for Clostridium botulinum in Non-thermally Processed Canned Butter Reed Taylor Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science Master of Science Shelf-stable canned butter … This category includes acidophiles, thermophiles, osmophiles, Among Clostridium, a ...
Clostridium novyi (oedematiens) a Gram-positive, endospore- forming, obligate anaerobic bacteria of the class clostridia. It is ubiquitous, being found in the soil and faeces. It is pathogenic, causing a wide variety of diseases in man and animals. It comes in three types, labelled A, B, and a non-pathogenic type C distinguished by the range of toxins they produce. Some authors include Clostridium haemolyticum as Clostridium novyi type D. C novyi is closely related to Clostridium botulinum types C and D as Yoshimasa Sasaki et al. have demonstrated by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Growth in culture proceeds through 3 stages: Initial growth wherein no toxin is produced; vigorous growth wherein toxin is produced; and spore formation wherein endospores are formed and toxin production decreases. It is suggested that type C may be type B that forms spores more readily so does not go through the toxin-production stage. Isolating and identifying C novyi is difficult due to its extreme anaerobic nature. ...
Clostridium innocuum (CLOIN) is an anaerobic, non-motile, gram-positive bacterium that reproduces by sporulation. While there are over 130 species of Clostridia, C. innocuum is the third most commonly isolated. Although it is not normally considered an aggressive human pathogen, it has been isolated in some disease processes. C. innocuum and other Clostrida line the oropharynx and gastrointestinal tract, and are considered normal gut flora. Anaerobic gram-positive bacilli affecting human beings are generally divided into two distinct groups, those that form spores (Clostridium spp) and those that do not form spores. Within the spore-forming group of Clostridium species, some are very pathogenic or toxigenic (C. perfringens) while others are rarely pathogenic. Identification and differentiation between anaerobic gram-positive bacteria in a clinical laboratory can be a very difficult task. C. innocuum forms white, glossy, raised colonies and exhibits a chartreuse fluorescence. It is a small, ...
Clostridium sporogenes ATCC ® 11437D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Clostridium sporogenes strain L.S. McClung 2006 TypeStrain=False Application:
Abstract: A group-specific PCR-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method was developed and combined with group-specific clone library analysis to investigate the diversity of the Clostridium leptum subgroup in human feces. PCR products (length, 239 bp) were amplified using C. leptum cluster-specific primers and were well separated by DGGE. The DGGE patterns of fecal amplicons from 11 human individuals revealed host-specific profiles; the patterns for fecal samples collected from a child for 3 years demonstrated the structural succession of the population in the first 2 years and its stability in the third year. A clone library was constructed with 100 clones consisting of 1,143-bp inserts of 16S rRNA gene fragments that were amplified from one adult fecal DNA with one forward universal bacterial primer and one reverse group-specific primer. Eighty-six of the clones produced the 239-bp C. leptum cluster-specific amplicons, and the remaining 14 clones did not produce these ...
Curated}} {{Biorealm Genus}} [[Image:clostridium.ipg.jpg,thumb,400px,right,Clostridium. Courtesy of [http://www-instruct.nmu.edu/cls/lriipi/micro/ Northern Michigan University.]]] ==Classification== ===Higher order taxa:=== Bacteria; Firmicutes; Clostridia; Clostridiales; Clostridiaceae; Clostridium ===Species:=== Clostridium tetani, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium acetobutylicum, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium novyi {, , height=10 bgcolor=#FFDF95 , NCBI: [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?mode=Undef&id=1485&lvl=3&keep=1&srchmode=1&unlock Taxonomy] [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=genomeprj&cmd=Search&dopt=DocSum&term=txid1485%5BOrganism:exp%5D Genomes] ,} ==Description and Significance== Clostridia are, spore-forming, Gram-positive, anaerobes (although some species are microaerophilic). They are known to produce a variety of toxins, some of which are fatal. ==Genome Structure== Currently there are 3 ...
Formate is the major source of C1 units in many species of the genus Clostridium. In this study we have cloned and characterized the genes encoding pyruvate formate-lyase and its activating enzyme of Clostridium pasteurianum. The genetic and transcriptional organizations of the genes and the high le …
Butanol is currently one of the most discussed biofuels. Its use provides many benefits in comparison to bio-ethanol, but the price of its fermentative production is still high. Genetic improvements could help solve many problems associated with butanol production during ABE fermentation, such as its toxicity, low concentration achievable in the cultivation medium, the need for a relatively expensive substrate, and many more. Clostridium pasteurianum NRRL B-598 is non-type strain producing butanol, acetone, and a negligible amount of ethanol. Its main benefits are high oxygen tolerance, utilization of a wide range of carbon and nitrogen sources, and the availability of its whole genome sequence. However, there is no established method for the transfer of foreign DNA into this strain; this is the next step necessary for progress in its use for butanol production. We have described functional protocols for conjugation and transformation of the bio-butanol producer C. pasteurianum NRRL B-598 by foreign
The transport of 99MoO42- into dinitrogen-fixing cells of Clostridium pasteurianum was investigated. Transport of molybdate in this organism is energy dependent; sucrose is required in the minimal media, and the system is inhibited by the glycolysis inhibitors, NaF, iodoacetic acid, and arsenate. The cells accumulate molybdate against a concentration gradient, and the uptake shows a marked dependence on temperature (optimum 37 C) and pH (optimum 6.0). The rate of molybdate uptake with increasing molybdate concentrations shows saturation kinetics with an apparent Km and Vmax of 4.8 X 10(-5) M and 55 nmol/g of dry cells per min, respectively. Inhibition studies with the anions SO42-, S2O32-, WO42-, and VO32- show that SO42- and WO42- competitively inhibit MoO42- uptake (apparent Ki [SO42-] is 3.0 X 10(-5) M; apparent Ki [WO42-] is 2.4 X 10(-5), whereas S2O32- and VO32- have no inhibitory effect. Exchange experiments with MoO42- show that only a small percentage of the 99MoO42- taken up by the ...
Conference Comment: The contributor provides a good summary of C. piliforme, an atypical member of the genus Clostridium. Other members of the clostridia are large, Gram positive spore forming bacteria with straight or slightly curved morphology, in contrast the filamentous, Gram negative spore forming C. piliforme.(2) Further differentiating C. piliforme from other clostridia is the fact that it does not possess characteristics that allow its inclusion into one of the three general categories of the other pathogenic members of the genus. These categories of clostridia are neurotoxic (C. tetani, C. botulinum types A-G), histotoxic (C. chauvoei, C. septicum, C. novyi types A and B, C. perfringens type A, C. sordellii, C. hemolyticum), and enteropathogenic/enterotoxemia-producing (C. perfringens types A-E, C. difficile, C. colinum, C. spiroforme).(2 ...
Some pathogenic spore-forming bacilli employ a binary protein mechanism for intoxicating the intestinal tracts of insects, animals, and humans. These Gram-positive bacteria and their toxins include Clostridium botulinum (C2 toxin), Clostridium difficile (C. difficile toxin or CDT), Clostridium perfringens (ι-toxin and binary enterotoxin, or BEC), Clostridium spiroforme (C. spiroforme toxin or CST), as well as Bacillus cereus (vegetative insecticidal protein or VIP). These gut-acting proteins form an AB complex composed of ADP-ribosyl transferase (A) and cell-binding (B) components that intoxicate cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis and endosomal trafficking. Once inside the cytosol, the A components inhibit normal cell functions by mono-ADP-ribosylation of globular actin, which induces cytoskeletal disarray and death. Important aspects of each bacterium and binary enterotoxin will be highlighted in this review, with particular focus upon the disease process involving the biochemistry and modes of
Looking for Clostridium oedematiens? Find out information about Clostridium oedematiens. genus of gram-positive bacteria , several species of which cause significant, potentially deadly diseases in humans as a result of the toxins that each... Explanation of Clostridium oedematiens
Clostridium clariflavum is a Cluster III Clostridium within the family Clostridiaceae isolated from thermophilic anaerobic sludge (Shiratori et al, 2009). This species is of interest because of its similarity to the model cellulolytic organism Clostridium thermocellum and for the ability of environmental isolates to break down cellulose and hemicellulose. Here we describe features of the 4,897,678 bp long genome and its annotation, consisting of 4,131 protein-coding and 98 RNA genes, for the type strain DSM 19732.
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Full Article. Butanol Fermentation by Clostridium saccharobutylicum Based on Poplar Wood Qiye Wang, a,b Chao Zhang, b Rui Yao, b Shaodong Xu, b Jie Zhong, b Lang Luo, b and Yiqiang Wang a,b, * As a potential source of liquid fuels, lignocellulosic material is an alternative to plant-derived starch and sugar, which are urgently needed to meet global demands for food.. ...
Clostridium pasteurianum is emerging as a prospective host for the production of biofuels and chemicals, and has recently been shown to directly consume electric current. Despite this growing biotechnological appeal, the organisms genetics and central metabolism remain poorly understood. Here we present a concurrent genome sequence for the C. pasteurianum type strain and provide extensive genomic analysis of the organisms defence mechanisms and central fermentative metabolism. Next generation genome sequencing produced reads corresponding to spontaneous excision of a novel phage, designated φ6013, which could be induced using mitomycin C and detected using PCR and transmission electron microscopy. Methylome analysis of sequencing reads provided a near-complete glimpse into the organisms restriction-modification systems. We also unveiled the chief C. pasteurianum Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) locus, which was found to exemplify a Type I-B system. Finally, we show
1] k__Bacteria,p__Proteobacteria,c__Gammaproteobacteria,o__Enterobacteriales,f__Enterobacteriaceae,g__Escherichia,s__Escherichia_coli ## [2] k__Bacteria,p__Proteobacteria,c__Gammaproteobacteria,o__Enterobacteriales,f__Enterobacteriaceae,g__Escherichia,s__Escherichia_coli,t__Escherichia_coli_unclassified ## [3] k__Bacteria,p__Firmicutes,c__Clostridia,o__Clostridiales,f__Ruminococcaceae,g__Anaerotruncus,s__Anaerotruncus_colihominis ## [4] k__Bacteria,p__Firmicutes,c__Clostridia,o__Clostridiales,f__Ruminococcaceae,g__Anaerotruncus,s__Anaerotruncus_colihominis,t__GCF_000154565 ## [5] k__Bacteria,p__Firmicutes,c__Clostridia,o__Clostridiales,f__Peptostreptococcaceae,g__Peptostreptococcaceae_noname,s__Clostridium_glycolicum ## [6] k__Bacteria,p__Firmicutes,c__Clostridia,o__Clostridiales,f__Peptostreptococcaceae,g__Peptostreptococcaceae_noname,s__Clostridium_glycolicum,t__GCF_000373865 ## [7] ...
MRFR Offers a Thorough Analysis of Veterinary Clostridium Vaccine Market provides the latest information on the present and the future industry trends, allowing the readers to identify the products and services, hence driving the revenue growth and profitability.. Market Highlights. The Global Veterinary Clostridium Vaccine Anticipated To Have Held A Market Value Of USD 461.7 Million In The Year 2017 And Is Expected To Grow At A CAGR Of 4.5% During The Forecast Period.. Clostridium bacteria is an anaerobic in nature and widely found in soil and gut of humans and animals. Vaccination play important role in protection of animals against clostridial diseases. The vaccines are more commonly used for animals such as bovine, ovine, swine, caprine, poultry, and other animals. Wide variety of vaccines is available in the treatment of clostridial diseases such as single and combination vaccines. The combination vaccines consist of bacterins, toxoids, or mixtures of bacterins and toxoids. The veterinary ...
Clostridium colitis - an acute inflammatory disorder of the colon secondary to infection with any species of the bacterial genus clostridium. Symptoms include acute diarrhea, abdominal pain, and myalgia.
1GUO: Passive Acquisition of Ligand by the Mopii Molbindin from Clostridium Pasteurianum: Structures of Apo and Oxyanion-Bound Forms
1GUN: Passive Acquisition of Ligand by the Mopii Molbindin from Clostridium Pasteurianum: Structures of Apo and Oxyanion-Bound Forms
View Notes - 12 from STEP 1 at Montgomery College. Anaerobic Bacteria Category Category Spore-forming: Spore-forming: rod, Gram (+)--Clostridium Clostridium Nonspore-forming: Nonspore-forming: see
SunEthanol, a company that is developing microbes to produce cellulosic ethanol, announced on Nov. 18 that has raised $25 million in Series B financing and that it is changing its name to Qteros Inc. The funding will allow the company to scale up its process from the pilot plant to commercial operations, and hire additional engineers and scientists, company officials said. Plans call for a demonstration plant by 2010 and commercial production in 2011. The two year old Hadley, MA company is developing the Q Microbe™ (Clostridium phytofermentans), a lollipop-shaped microscopic organism that the company claims has unique properties that make it ideally suited to the production of cellulosic ethanol from a variety of non-food plant materials. Dr. Susan Leschine, Qteros Chief Scientist and co-founder, is the University of Massachusetts, Amherst microbiology professor who, nearly 10 years ago, first collected a sample of the Q Microbe™ near the Quabbin Reservoir in Massachusetts. The Q Microbe, was
Deciphering mixotrophic Clostridium formicoaceticum metabolism and energy conservation: Genomic analysis and experimental studies ...
Editors note: This interesting article describes new research in which a type of bacteria called C. novyi was modified by researchers and injected into a soft tissue cancer patient to shrink a metastatic tumor in her arm. Ongoing research aims to determine which other kinds of cancer patients might benefit from the new treatment.. A modified version of the Clostridium novyi (C. noyvi-NT) bacterium can produce a strong and precisely targeted anti-tumor response in rats, dogs and now humans, according to a new report from Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center researchers.. In its natural form, C. novyi is found in the soil and, in certain cases, can cause tissue-damaging infection in cattle, sheep and humans. The microbe thrives only in oxygen-poor environments, which makes it a targeted means of destroying oxygen-starved cells in tumors that are difficult to treat with chemotherapy and radiation. The Johns Hopkins team removed one of the bacterias toxin-producing genes to make it safer for ...
Sampling frequency. Both rivers were sampled once a month for 42 months (September 2007 to March 2011). The sampling was done on Mondays between 08:00 and 08:30, according to the SANS 5667-6 (SANS, 2006) guideline. The samples were transported on ice and analysed in duplicate.. Microbiological analysis. The aerobic colony count (ACC) was used to give an indication of the size of the microbial population in the water. The aerobic and anaerobic spore formers were used to establish the presence of Bacillus and Clostridium strains. Total coliforms, faecal coliforms, E. coli and intestinal enterococci were used as indicator organisms for faecal contamination (Busta et al., 2003). The index organisms (Staphylococcus, Salmonella and Listeria) were used as indicators of the possible presence of related pathogens, i.e., Clostridium, Campylobacter, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and other Gram-negative species (Busta et al., 2003).. Aerobic colony count. The aerobic colony counts were determined according to ...
ID R4JWB5_CLOPA Unreviewed; 448 AA. AC R4JWB5; DT 24-JUL-2013, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 24-JUL-2013, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 35. DE RecName: Full=Chromosomal replication initiator protein DnaA {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00377, ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU000577, ECO:0000256,SAAS:SAAS00724181}; GN Name=dnaA {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00377}; GN ORFNames=Clopa_0001 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95117.1}; OS Clostridium pasteurianum BC1. OC Bacteria; Firmicutes; Clostridia; Clostridiales; Clostridiaceae; OC Clostridium. OX NCBI_TaxID=86416 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95117.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000013523}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95117.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000013523} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=BC1 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95117.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000013523}; RG US DOE Joint Genome Institute; RA Lucas S., Han J., Lapidus A., Cheng J.-F., Goodwin L., Pitluck S., RA Peters L., Mikhailova N., Teshima H., Detter J.C., Han C., Tapia ...
ID R4K521_CLOPA Unreviewed; 191 AA. AC R4K521; DT 24-JUL-2013, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 24-JUL-2013, sequence version 1. DT 20-DEC-2017, entry version 19. DE SubName: Full=Phage minor structural protein GP20 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95624.1}; GN ORFNames=Clopa_0576 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95624.1}; OS Clostridium pasteurianum BC1. OC Bacteria; Firmicutes; Clostridia; Clostridiales; Clostridiaceae; OC Clostridium. OX NCBI_TaxID=86416 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95624.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000013523}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95624.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000013523} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=BC1 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95624.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000013523}; RG US DOE Joint Genome Institute; RA Lucas S., Han J., Lapidus A., Cheng J.-F., Goodwin L., Pitluck S., RA Peters L., Mikhailova N., Teshima H., Detter J.C., Han C., Tapia R., RA Land M., Hauser L., Kyrpides N., Ivanova N., Pagani I., Dunn J., RA Taghavi S., Francis A., van der Lelie D., Woyke ...
Scientists introduced Clostridium novyi, a bacteria that causes mild illnesses in humans that typically lurks inside the soil and feces, in cancer tumors a
Pet dogs have helped researchers show that a special bacteria can seemingly fight cancer, causing tumors to shrink. A modified version of Clostridium novyi bact
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A0PXX7 (ECFA1_CLONN), Energy-coupling factor transporter ATP-binding protein EcfA1. Clostridium novyi (strain NT)
General Information: Solvent-producing bacterium. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. There are also species that can fix molecular nitrogen and thus are important participants in ...
Clostridiums saprophytic Usually saprophytic proteolyticfermenter Usually proteolytic and fermenter (Important in the process of decomposition of animal proteins) toxigenic Most of the species are highly toxigenic soil animal GI Living normally in soil or animal GI
Name: Clostridium drakei Liou et al. 2005. Category: Species. Proposed as: sp. nov.. Etymology: drake.i N.L. gen. masc. n. drakei, of Drake, in recognition of Harold L. Drakes contributions to our understanding of the physiology and ecology of acetogens Gender: neuter Type strain: ATCC BAA-623; DSM 12750; SL1 See detailed strain information at ...
Name: Clostridium algidicarnis Lawson et al. 1995. Category: Species. Proposed as: sp. nov.. Etymology: carnis L. masc. adj. algidus, cold; L. gen. n. carnis, of flesh, of meat; N.L. gen. n. algidicarnis, of cold meat Gender: neuter Type strain: DSM 15099; NCFB 2931; NCIMB 702931 See detailed strain information at ...
A Texas A&M University biologist has received a federal grant to study the fecal samples of hundreds of people to better understand the gut bacteria Clostridium difficile-the cause of some 14,000 deaths a year in America-and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Advancing Clostridia to Clinical Trial: Past Lessons and Recent Progress. AU - Mowday, Alexandra M.. AU - Guise, Christopher P.. AU - Ackerley, David F.. AU - Minton, Nigel P.. AU - Lambin, Philippe. AU - Dubois, Ludwig J.. AU - Theys, Jan. AU - Smaill, Jeff B.. AU - Patterson, Adam V.. PY - 2016/7. Y1 - 2016/7. KW - Clostridium. KW - cancer. KW - gene therapy. KW - imaging. KW - prodrug. KW - radiotherapy. KW - immunotherapy. U2 - 10.3390/cancers8070063. DO - 10.3390/cancers8070063. M3 - Article. C2 - 27367731. VL - 8. JO - Cancers. JF - Cancers. SN - 2072-6694. IS - 7. M1 - 63. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Production of 1,3-Propanediol from Pure and Crude Glycerol Using Immobilised Clostridium Butyricum. AU - Dolejš, Igor. AU - Líšková, Monika. AU - Krasňan, Vladimír. AU - Markošová, Kristína. AU - Rosenberg, Michal. AU - Lorenzini, Fabio. AU - Marr, Andrew C.. AU - Rebros, Martin. PY - 2019/3/31. Y1 - 2019/3/31. N2 - The present study describes the production of the value-added chemical 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) from crude glycerol, a waste by-product formed during biodiesel production. The efficiency, robustness, and stability of the process were improved by immobilization of the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium butyricum into a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel. The highest average productivity, 6.8 ± 0.2 g/(L·h), was achieved in 10 consecutive, repeated batch fermentations, with an initial concentration of pure glycerol 45.5 ± 0.7 g/L, after 2.5 hours. The highest final concentration and yield of 1,3-PD, 28.3 ± 0.6 g/L, and 0.42 ± 0.01 g/g, respectively, were ...
Reduction of fully oxidized Clostridium pasteurianum 8-Feox.,ox. ferredoxin by using pulse-radiolysis techniques yields the half-reduced species 8-Feox.,red. ferredoxin. The subsequent oxidation of 8-Feox.,red. ferredoxin with Co(NH3)5Cl2+ was studied. From a comparison with stopped-flow studies on the 2:1 Co(NH3)5Cl2+ oxidation of 8-Fered.,red. ferredoxin to the 8-Feox.,ox. form it is concluded that there is no redox co-operativity between the two 4-Fe centres in these reactions. ...
Define Clostridium welchii. Clostridium welchii synonyms, Clostridium welchii pronunciation, Clostridium welchii translation, English dictionary definition of Clostridium welchii. Noun 1. clostridium perfringens - anaerobic Gram-positive rod bacterium that produces epsilon toxin; can be used as a bioweapon eubacteria, eubacterium,...
The increase in glycerol obtained as a byproduct of biodiesel has encouraged the production of new industrial products, such as 1,3-propanediol (PDO), using biotechnological transformation via bacteria like Clostridium butyricum. However, despite the increasing role of Clostridium butyricum as a bio-production platform, its metabolism remains poorly modeled. We reconstructed iCbu641, the first genome-scale metabolic (GSM) model of a PDO producer Clostridium strain, which included 641 genes, 365 enzymes, 891 reactions, and 701 metabolites. We found an enzyme expression prediction of nearly 84% after comparison of proteomic data with flux distribution estimation using flux balance analysis (FBA). The remaining 16% corresponded to enzymes directionally coupled to growth, according to flux coupling findings (FCF). The fermentation data validation also revealed different phenotype states that depended on culture media conditions; for example, Clostridium maximizes its biomass yield per enzyme usage under
One of the biggest limitations in the study and engineering of anaerobic Clostridium organisms is the lack of strong fluorescent reporters capable of strong and real-time fluorescence. Recently, we developed a strong fluorescent reporter system for Clostridium organisms based on the FAST protein. Here, we report the development of two new strong fluorescent reporter systems for Clostridium organisms based on the HaloTag and SNAP-tag proteins, which produce strong fluorescent signals when covalently bound to fluorogenic ligands. These new fluorescent reporters are orthogonal to the FAST ligands and to each other, allowing for simultaneous labeling and visualization. We used HaloTag and SNAP-tag to label the strictly anaerobic organisms Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium ljungdahlii. We have also identified a new strong promoter for protein expression in C. acetobutylicum, based on the phosphotransacetylase gene (pta) from C. ljungdahlii. Furthermore, the HaloTag and the SNAP-tag, in ...
Ruminiclostridium cellulolyticum and Lachnoclostridium phytofermentans (formerly known as Clostridium cellulolyticum and Clostridium phytofermentans, respectively) are anaerobic bacteria that developed different strategies to depolymerize the cellulose and the related plant cell wall polysaccharides. Thus, R. cellulolyticum produces large extracellular multi-enzyme complexes termed cellulosomes, while L. phytofermentans secretes in the environment some cellulose-degrading enzymes as free enzymes. In the present study, the major cellulase from L. phytofermentans was introduced as a free enzyme or as a cellulosomal component in R. cellulolyticum to improve its cellulolytic capacities. The gene at locus Cphy_3367 encoding the major cellulase Cel9A from L. phytofermentans and an engineered gene coding for a modified enzyme harboring a R. cellulolyticum C-terminal dockerin were cloned in an expression vector. After electrotransformation of R. cellulolyticum, both forms of Cel9A
The nucleotide sequence of the celY gene coding for the thermostable exo-1,4-β-glucanase Avicelase II of Clostridium stercorarium was determined. The gene consists of an ORF of 2742 bp which encodes a preprotein of 914 amino acids with a molecular mass of 103 kDa. The signal-peptide cleavage site was identified by comparison with the N-terminal amino acid sequence of Avicelase II purified from C. stercorarium. The celY gene is located in close vicinity to the celZ gene coding for the endo-1,4-β-glucanase Avicelase I. The CelY-encoding sequence was isolated from genomic DNA of C. stercorarium with the PCR technique. The recombinant enzyme produced in Escherichia coli as a LacZ'-CelY fusion protein could be purified using a simple two-step procedure. The properties of CelY proved to be consistent with those of Avicelase II purified from C. stercorarium. Sequence comparison revealed that CelY consists of an N-terminal catalytic domain flanked by a domain of 95 amino acids with unknown function
Increasing demand for the production of renewable fuels has recently generated a particular interest in microbial production of butanol. Anaerobic bacteria, such as Clostridium spp., can naturally convert carbohydrates into a variety of primary products, including alcohols like butanol. The genetics of microorganisms like Clostridium acetobutylicum have been well studied and their solvent-producing metabolic pathways characterized. In contrast, less is known about the genetics of Clostridium spp. capable of converting syngas or its individual components into solvents. In this study, the type of strain of a new solventogenic Clostridium species, C. carboxidivorans, was genetically characterized by genome sequencing. C. carboxidivorans strain P7T possessed a complete Wood-Ljungdahl pathway gene cluster, involving CO and CO2 fixation and conversion to acetyl-CoA. Moreover, with the exception of an acetone production pathway, all the genetic determinants of canonical ABE metabolic pathways for acetate,
SUMMARY: Evidence is provided in support of the view of MacLennan, Mandl & Howes (1958) that some strains of Clostridium histolyticum produce a cysteine-inactivated proteinase-the δ-antigen.
Background:Clostridium tertium is distributed in the soil and in animal and human gastrointestinal tracts. C. tertium has been isolated from patients with blood diseases, immune disorders, and abdominal surgeries. Glyphosate is toxic, causing cause eye and skin irritation, gastrointestinal pain, and vomiting. Ingestion of herbicides modifies the gastrointestinal environment, which stresses the living organisms. However, there has been little attention to cases of bacteremia in patients recovering from suicide attempt by ingesting herbicide. Case Report:Clostridium tertium was identified in a 44-year-old female who attempted suicide by glyphosate (a herbicide) ingestion. The 16S rRNA sequences from all colonies were 99% identical with that of C. tertium (AB618789) found on a BLAST search of the NCBI database. The bacterium was cultured on TSA under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests performed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions showed that the bacterium was
When I last looked at Miyarisan, it was available in Japan only. In the last month I discovered that it is now available in the US and EU -- thus it is a good time to revisit it. 2020 Update Clostridium Butyricum Modulates the Microbiome to Protect Intestinal Barrier Function in Mice With Antibiotic-Induced Dysbiosis…
Lethal Toxin from Clostridium sordellii (TcsL), which is casually involved in the toxic shock syndrome and in gas gangrene, enters its target cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Inside the cell, TcsL mono-O-glucosylates and thereby inactivates Rac/Cdc42 and Ras subtype GTPases, resulting in actin reorganization and an activation of p38 MAP kinase. While a role of p38 MAP kinase in TcsL-induced cell death is well established, data on a role of p38 MAP kinase in TcsL-induced actin reorganization are not available. In this study, TcsL-induced Rac/Cdc42 glucosylation and actin reorganization are differentially analyzed in p38alpha−/− MSCV empty vector MEFs and the corresponding cell line with reconstituted p38alpha expression (p38alpha−/− MSCV p38alpha MEFs). Genetic deletion of p38alpha results in reduced susceptibility of cells to TcsL-induced Rac/Cdc42 glucosylation and actin reorganization. Furthermore, SB203580, a pyridinyl imidazole inhibitor of p38alpha/beta MAP kinase, also protects
CRISPR/Cas-based genetic engineering has revolutionised molecular biology in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Several tools dedicated to the genomic transformation of the Clostridium genus of Gram-positive bacteria have been described in the literature; however, the integration of large DNA fragments still remains relatively limited. In this study, a CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing tool using a two-plasmid strategy was developed for the solventogenic strain Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Codon-optimised cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes was placed under the control of an anhydrotetracycline-inducible promoter on one plasmid, while the gRNA expression cassettes and editing templates were located on a second plasmid. Through the sequential introduction of these vectors into the cell, we achieved highly accurate genome modifications, including nucleotide substitution, gene deletion and cassette insertion up to 3.6 kb. To demonstrate its potential, this genome editing tool was used to generate a marker-free
Clostridium thermocellum CelJ protein: isolated from Clostridium thermocellum; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank D83704
The effect of pH, growth rate, phosphate and iron limitation, carbon monoxide, and carbon source on product formation by Clostridium pasteurianum was determined. Under phosphate limitation, glucose was fermented almost exclusively to acetate and butyrate independently of the pH and growth rate. Iron limitation caused lactate production (38 mol/100 mol) from glucose in batch and continuous culture. At 15% (vol/vol) carbon monoxide in the atmosphere, glucose was fermented to ethanol (24 mol/100 mol), lactate (32 mol/100 mol), and butanol (36 mol/100 mol) in addition to the usual products, acetate (38 mol/100 mol) and butyrate (17 mol/100 mol). During glycerol fermentation, a completely different product pattern was found. In continuous culture under phosphate limitation, acetate and butyrate were produced only in trace amounts, whereas ethanol (30 mol/100 mol), butanol (18 mol/100 mol), and 1,3-propanediol (18 mol/100 mol) were the major products. Under iron limitation, the ratio of these products ...
Clostridium cellulovorans (ATCC 35296) is anaerobic, spore forming and stain gram negative non-motile rods originally isolated from a batch methanogenic fermentation of hybrid poplar wood. C. cellulovorans is a mesophilic bacterium with optimum growth temperature of 37°C, though it can grow in a temperature range of 20 to 40°C. Optimum pH is 7.0, and the pH range of growth is 6.4 to 7.8. This organism produces extracellular enzyme complex known as cellulosome, which can degrade plant cell walls. As most abundantly available potential source of fermentable sugars in the world are the higher plants cell walls, utilization of such a vast resource for energy production would reduce the dependency on non-renewable fossil fuel. Hence, C. cellulovorans have potential industrial application for energy production. ...
Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 is a commercially valuable bacterium sometimes called the Weizmann Organism after JewishRussianborn Chaim Weizmann
Lactobacillus sporogenes is used in the treatment of diarrhoea,infectious diarrhoea,diarrhoea associated with antibiotics.get complete information about lactobacillus sporogenes including usage, side effects, drug interaction, expert advice along with medicines associated with lactobacillus sporogenes at 1mg.com
For the vaccination of healthy cattle and sheep against diseases caused by Clostridium chauvoei Cl.septicum Cl.novyi Type B Cl.haemolyticum (known elsewhere as Cl. novyi Type D) Cl.tetani and Cl. perfringens Types C and D.
Signal transduction proteins, Histidine Kinase, Response regulator, Phophotransfer protein, HPT, Phosphorelay, complete metagenomes browser, TCS, Prokaryotic Two-Component Systems database, P2CS, annotation browser, MIST, SENTRA
Iron reduction in Gram-positive bacteria is not well understood yet, even if it has been investigated in some extent for Gram-positive bacteria. The mechanisms involved in the delivery of electrons to a solid terminal electron acceptor like iron oxides have not been defined. Clostridium acetobutylicum is an appropriate Gram-positive bacterium to study those mechanisms as genetic tools have been developed due to its industrial interest, allowing easy targeted and random mutagenesis. In this Masters project, phenotype of two mutants, whose dihydroorotate dehydrogenase 1B (pyrD) or ferredoxin hydrogenase (hydA) gene have been knocked out through ClosTron mutagenesis, have been characterized and no phenotype diverging from the wild strain has been detected. However, evidences of flavin presence in the spent growth medium have been observed during experiment. An attempt to measure their redox state, either by direct measurement or through the addition of AQDS, has been done but results are ...
Genus and Species: Clostridium acetobutylicum Domain: Prokaryote Optimal Growth Medium: Thioglycolate Medium Optimal Growth Temperature: 37° C Package: Tube Biosafety Level: 1 Gram Stain: Gram-Positive Shape: Bacillus (rod-shaped)
The structures of the Glu140--|Gln mutant of the Clostridium thermocellum endoglucanase CelC in unliganded form (CelC(E140Q)) and in complex with
Preliminary work has been done on the formulation of a new solventogenic clostridial fermentation medium based on the use of corn steep liquor (CSL). CSL is a by-product of the corn wet-milling industry, and has been used primarily as a feed supplement in the livestock industry. This nutrient-rich medium is an ideal base for use in a bacterial fermentation medium. A medium developed from CSL has been found to support good bacterial growth while allowing a level of solvent production approaching that of complex, more expensive clostridial growth media. When used in combination with C. beijerinckii, BA101, this newly developed medium holds promise to increase the cost-effectiveness of the ABE fermentation. (Abstract shortened by UMI ...
Clostridium Perfringens : Its Significance, Incidence, and Prevention Bobbi Johnson, PhD Walden University PUBH 8165-1 Instructor: Dr. Stephen Arnold Summer, 2011. Clostridium Perfringens History. Is also referred to as Clostridium Welchii Slideshow 4754453 by fern
Creative Biolabs offers the best Recombinant Clostridium Thermocellum ispE Protein (aa 1-283), which is useful for vaccine development.
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Clostridium perfringens (previously named Clostridium welchii) is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming pathogenic bacterium.
Enlarge this imageInfections with Clostridium difficile can crop up following a spherical of antibiotics.BSIP/UIG by way of Getty Imageshide captiontoggle captionBSIP/UIG by using Getty ImagesInfections with Clostridium difficile can crop up after a round of antibiotics.BSIP/UIG by way of Getty ImagesNamed from the Greek kloster, for spindle, a category of microbes recognised as Clostridia abounds in nature.Staining deep violet underneath the microscope, they seem as slender rods which has a bulge at one particular end, just like a tadpole or maple seed. They thrive in soil, marine sediments and human beings. They are living on our pores and skin and in our intestines.And from time to time, they can kill you.Most strains are https://www.athleticsshine.com/Kendrys-Morales-Jersey harmle s, but tetanus, botulism and gangrene are because of clostridial species. Vaccination, sanitation and enhanced profe sional medical care have made these infections a lot le s typical, but just one a sortment is ...
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Hongo, M.and A. Murata. 1965. Bacteriophages of Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum. I. Some characteristics of the twelve phages obtained from the abnormally fermented broths. Agric.Biol. Chem. 29:1135-1139 ...
In 2000, an unusual increase of morbidity and mortality among illegal injecting drug users in the UK and Ireland was reported and Clostridium novyi was identified as the likely source of the serious infection, although infections due to C. botulinum and Bacillus cereus were also reported. Because heroin was a possibile source of infection, this study investigated the microflora of heroin samples seized in England during 2000 and 2002. Two methods were developed for the examination of the microflora of heroin. The first consisted of suspension of the drug in maximum recovery diluent (MRD) which was inoculated directly into Clostridium Botulinum Isolation Cooked Meat Broth (CBI). The second method rendered the heroin soluble in citric acid, concentrated particulate material (and bacterial cells) by filtration and removed heroin residues by washing with citric acid and phosphate-buffered saline before placing the filter in CBI broth. Duplicate CBI broths from both methods were incubated without ...
Free, official information about 2009 (and also 2010-2015) ICD-9-CM diagnosis code 005.3, including coding notes, detailed descriptions, index cross-references and ICD-10-CM conversion.
1st)SBOs; specifically the clostridium strain present in probiotic 3, that I assumed was recommended. It looked liked you took a swipe at it, in a recent post. as in the company trains that strain to be beneficial, not pathogenic;). I know, not your exact words, but I felt like that was the gist of what you were saying. I had high hopes and still do, for that strain. If you have changed your mind, for some reason, could you please clarify why. Maybe any member of the clostridium family is questionable, and I might be paying for a product that is bad for me ...
Good call!. I believe you are most likely correct in your assumption. People his age are prone to an infection of the digestive track called C-Diff(Clostridium difficile) which is often contracted from a previous stay in the hospital, although a small portion of the population has this bacterium naturally present in their colon.. C-Diff is difficult to eradicate in older people because of arterial stenosis and other vascular conditions common to the elderly that lessen blood flow to certain areas and compromises their ability to fight off infection and, in general, heal. C-Diff in the very old and very infirmed is often fatal.. Wikipedia says:. Clostridium difficile (pronunciation below) (from the Greek kloster (ÎºÎ»Ï Ï Ï Î®Ï ), spindle, and Latin difficile,[1] difficult), also known as CDF/cdf, or C. diff, is a species of Gram-positive bacteria of the genus Clostridium that causes severe diarrhea and other intestinal disease when competing bacteria in the gut flora have been ...
General Information: This strain was isolated in 1924 from garden soil in Connecticut, USA, by E. Wyer and L. Rettger. It is one of the best studied solventogenic clostridia. Solvent-producing bacterium. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism is a benign saccharolytic and proteolytic soil bacterium ...
In the last few years the spoilage of vacuum-packed, refrigerated beef due to psychrophilic and psychrotolerant clostridia, including production of gas inside the pack, has gained in importance. In addition to C. estertheticum and C. gasigenes, further psychrophilic clostridia have been described, which are able to cause Blown Pack Spoilage. Because there are divergent descriptions of these spoilage-causing bacteria, the phenotypic characteristics of the reference strains of six psychrotolerant clostridia were examined and the results were compared. In doing so, dissent results have been detected especially concerning hemolysis on blood agar plates as well as size of the vegeta- tive cells. The examination of C. gasigenes showed that there are distinct transverse pro- cesses in the last third of the rods of C. gasigenes, which, at present state of knowledge, have not been mentioned in the literature yet. The intention of this study was, to get more findings about the occurrence and the ...
Structural and functional characterization of the gut microbiota in elderly women with migraine [2020] [80001365] [Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology ...
Signal transduction proteins, Histidine Kinase, Response regulator, Phophotransfer protein, HPT, Phosphorelay, complete metagenomes browser, TCS, Prokaryotic Two-Component Systems database, P2CS, annotation browser, MIST, SENTRA
"Clostridium hiranonis Taxon Passport - StrainInfo". www.straininfo.net. "[Clostridium] hiranonis". www.uniprot.org. Parker, ... Kitahara, M; Takamine, F; Imamura, T; Benno, Y (January 2001). "Clostridium hiranonis sp. nov., a human intestinal bacterium ... "Nomenclature Abstract for Clostridium hiranonis Kitahara et al. 2001". The NamesforLife Abstracts. doi:10.1601/nm.3946. " ...
"Clostridium aerotolerans". Retrieved 2011-01-24. Type strain of Clostridium aerotolerans at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... van Gylswyk, N. O.; van der Toorn, J. J. T. K. (1987), "Clostridium aerotolerans sp. nov., a Xylanolytic Bacterium from Corn ... "Clostridium aerotolerans: van Gylswyk and van der Toorn, 1987". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). " ...
"Clostridium Infections". Advances in Research and Treatment (2011 ed.). ScholarlyEditions. 9 January 2012. ISBN 9781464960130. ...
"Clostridium cellulolyticum". Retrieved 2011-07-07. Type strain of Clostridium cellulolyticum at BacDive - the Bacterial ... "Clostridium cellulolyticum: Petitdemange et al. 1984". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). UniProt. " ...
"Clostridium caenicola Taxon Passport - StrainInfo". www.straininfo.net. "[Clostridium] caenicola". www.uniprot.org. Parker, ... Shiratori, H; Sasaya, K; Ohiwa, H; Ikeno, H; Ayame, S; Kataoka, N; Miya, A; Beppu, T; Ueda, K (July 2009). "Clostridium ... and Clostridium caenicola sp. nov., moderately thermophilic, cellulose-/cellobiose-digesting bacteria isolated from ... "Nomenclature Abstract for Clostridium caenicola". The NamesforLife Abstracts. doi:10.1601/nm.14476. "Details: DSM-19027". www. ...
... by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Clostridium botulinum is a large anaerobic Gram-positive bacillus that forms ... Clostridium botulinum type C toxin has been incriminated as the cause of grass sickness, a condition in horses which occurs in ... Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic, Gram-positive, spore-forming rod. Botulinum toxin is one of the most powerful known ... Clostridium botulinum is a ubiquitous soil-dwelling bacterium. Many infant botulism patients have been demonstrated to live ...
Clostridium spp., Lactobacillus spp., Bacteroides spp. and the fungi Candida spp. are all capable of such a high level of ...
Xanthomonas spp., Argobacterium spp., Acinetobacter spp., Corynebacterium spp., Bacteroides spp., Clostridium spp., ...
"Clostridium lavalense". Retrieved 2011-12-25. Type strain of Clostridium lavalense at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... Enterocloster lavalensis, formerly Clostridium lavalense is an anaerobic, motile, spore-forming, rod-shaped, gram-positive ... "Clostridium lavalense: Domingo et al. 2009". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). UniProt. " ... "Clostridium lavalense sp. nov., a glycopeptide-resistant species isolated from human faeces". International Journal of ...
"Clostridium hungatei Taxon Passport - StrainInfo". www.straininfo.net. "Clostridium hungatei". www.uniprot.org. Parker, Charles ... Monserrate, E; Leschine, SB; Canale-Parola, E (January 2001). "Clostridium hungatei sp. nov., a mesophilic, N2-fixing ... mesophilic and nitrogen fixing bacterium from the genus of Clostridium which has been isolated from soil in Amherst in the ... "Nomenclature Abstract for Clostridium hungatei Monserrate et al. 2001". The NamesforLife Abstracts. doi:10.1601/nm.3948. ...
"Clostridium alkalicellulosi Taxon Passport - StrainInfo". www.straininfo.net. "[Clostridium] alkalicellulosi". www.uniprot.org ... Zhilina, TN; Kevbrin, VV; Turova, TP; Lysenko, AM; Kostrikina, NA; Zavarzin, GA (2004). "[Clostridium alkalicellum sp. nov., an ... "Nomenclature Abstract for Clostridium alkalicellulosi Zhilina et al. 2006". The NamesforLife Abstracts. doi:10.1601/nm.10071. " ...
A certain subspecies, Clostridium bifermentans subsp. Malaysia, was the first anaerobic bacterium known to kill mosquito larvae ... "Clostridium bifermentans: (Weinberg and Séguin 1918) Bergey et al. 1923". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI ... "Clostridium bifermentans". Retrieved 2011-01-25. Qureshi, Nadia; Chawla, Swati; Likitvivatanavonga, Supaporn; Ham, Lim Lee; ... Paraclostridium bifermentans, formerly known as Clostridium bifermentans and abbreviated CLOBI, is an anaerobic, motile, gram- ...
"Clostridium celerecrescens Taxon Passport - StrainInfo". www.straininfo.net. "[Clostridium] celerecrescens". www.uniprot.org. ... Glazunova, O. O.; Raoult, D.; Roux, V. (14 June 2005). "First Identification of Clostridium celerecrescens in Liquid Drained ... Bouvet, P; K'Ouas, G; Le Coustumier, A; Popoff, MR (November 2012). "Clostridium celerecrescens, often misidentified as " ... "Nomenclature Abstract for Clostridium celerecrescens Palop et al. 1989 emend. Chamkha et al. 2001". The NamesforLife Abstracts ...
"Clostridium algidixylanolyticum Taxon Passport - StrainInfo". www.straininfo.net. "[Clostridium] algidixylanolyticum". www. ... Broda, DM; Saul, DJ; Bell, RG; Musgrave, DR (March 2000). "Clostridium algidixylanolyticum sp. nov., a psychrotolerant, xylan- ... "Nomenclature Abstract for Clostridium algidixylanolyticum Broda et al. 2000". The NamesforLife Abstracts. doi:10.1601/nm.3890 ...
"Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum". Retrieved 2011-07-07. Type strain of Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum at BacDive ... Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum, previously known as Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum, is a bacterium belonging to ... "Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum: (McClung 1935) Collins et al. 1994". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). ... "The Phylogeny of the Genus Clostridium: Proposal of Five New Genera and Eleven New Species Combinations". International Journal ...
Colonies of Clostridium indolis are found to be non-hemolytic and have an optimal growth temperature of 37 °C, classifying them ... Type strain of Clostridium indolis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase (All articles with dead external links, ... "Clostridium Indolis." GIDEON Guide to Medically Important Bacteria. 2015 ed. Los Angeles: GIDEON Informatics, 2015. p. 525. ... "Clostridium Indolis". ABIS Encyclopedia. 11 November 2015. Retrieved 2015-12-03.[permanent dead link] Berger, Stephen, MD. " ...
Clostridium] glycyrrhizinilyticum". www.uniprot.org. Parte, A.C. "Clostridium". LPSN. Parker, Charles Thomas; Wigley, Sarah; ... Sakuma, K; Kitahara, M; Kibe, R; Sakamoto, M; Benno, Y (2006). "Clostridium glycyrrhizinilyticum sp. nov., a glycyrrhizin- ... non-spore-forming and rod-shaped bacterium from the genus Clostridium which has been isolated from human feces in Japan. Page ... Garrity, George M (2009). Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M (eds.). "Nomenclature Abstract for Clostridium ...
Clostridium] amygdalinum". www.uniprot.org. Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M. "Nomenclature Abstract for Clostridium ... and Clostridium amygdalinum sp. nov., two novel anaerobic, benzaldehyde-converting bacteria". International Journal of ... "Clostridium amygdalinum Taxon Passport - StrainInfo". www.straininfo.net. "[ ...
"Clostridium clostridioforme: Clostridium clostridioforme corrig. (Burri and Ankersmit 1906) Kaneuchi et al. 1976". National ... Haas, Kelly N.; Blanchard, Jeffrey L. (2020). "Reclassification of the Clostridium clostridioforme and Clostridium sphenoides ... While Clostridium species have cell walls that resemble gram-positive bacteria, E. clostridioformis often appears negative by ... In subsequent years, these bacteria were shown to form spores, causing them to be reclassified in the genus Clostridium. Most ...
... , formerly Clostridium bolteae, is a gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium from the genus Enterocloster. E. ... Clostridium] bolteae". www.uniprot.org. Parker, Charles Thomas; Wigley, Sarah; Garrity, George M. "Nomenclature Abstract for ... Song, Y; Liu, C; Molitoris, DR; Tomzynski, TJ; Lawson, PA; Collins, MD; Finegold, SM (March 2003). "Clostridium bolteae sp. nov ... Clostridium bolteae Song et al. 2003". The NamesforLife Abstracts. doi:10.1601/nm.3900. v t e (Articles with short description ...
"Clostridium aldrichii Taxon Passport - StrainInfo". www.straininfo.net. "[Clostridium] aldrichii". www.uniprot.org. Parker, ... Yang, JC; Chynoweth, DP; Williams, DS; Li, A (July 1990). "Clostridium aldrichii sp. nov., a cellulolytic mesophile inhabiting ... "Nomenclature Abstract for Clostridium aldrichii Yang et al. 1990". The NamesforLife Abstracts. doi:10.1601/nm.3888. "Details: ...
"Clostridium clariflavum Taxon Passport - StrainInfo". www.straininfo.net. "[Clostridium] clariflavum". www.uniprot.org. Parker ... Shiratori, H; Sasaya, K; Ohiwa, H; Ikeno, H; Ayame, S; Kataoka, N; Miya, A; Beppu, T; Ueda, K (July 2009). "Clostridium ... Artzi, L; Morag, E; Barak, Y; Lamed, R; Bayer, EA (19 May 2015). "Clostridium clariflavum: Key Cellulosome Players Are Revealed ... and Clostridium caenicola sp. nov., moderately thermophilic, cellulose-/cellobiose-digesting bacteria isolated from ...
"Clostridium maximum". Www.uniprot.org. Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M (2016). Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, ... George M (eds.). "Nomenclature Abstract for Clostridium maximum (Lindner 1888) Lawson and Rainey 2016". The NamesforLife ...
Clostridium spp. are frequently recovered in long bones infections, mostly in association with traumatic wounds. Because ... frequently found in infections of hematogenic origin), and Clostridium spp. (frequently found in infections after trauma). The ... The isolation of B. fragilis group and Clostridium spp. is often associated with a gastrointestinal source, pigmented ... These are generally B. fragilis group, Clostridium spp., Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus spp. On the other hand, infections ...
against Clostridium botulinum. J Food Prot 2002, 65:806-813. von der Weid I, Alviano DS, Santos AL, Soares RM, Alviano CS, ...
It can be caused by infection, particularly from Pseudomonas species, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Clostridium species, ... "Endogenous Clostridium Panophthalmitis". Ophthalmology. 94 (4): 435-438. doi:10.1016/S0161-6420(87)33433-5. ISSN 0161-6420. ...
nov., ' Clostridium merdae ' sp. nov., ' Sutterella massiliensis ' sp. nov., ' Sutturella timonensis ' sp. nov., ' Enorma ...
Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens (inhabitants of the lower bowel); and Clostridium tetani. Causes (listed in order ...
"Clostridium caminithermale sp. nov., a slightly halophilic and moderately thermophilic bacterium isolated from an Atlantic deep ...
against Clostridium botulinum. J Food Prot 2002, 65:806-813. von der Weid I, Alviano DS, Santos AL, Soares RM, Alviano CS, ... plant pathogenic bacteria and even important anaerobic pathogens as Clostridium botulinium. P. dendritiformis is a social ...
Clostridium difficile Infection : C. difficile infection (CDI) can cause symptoms ranging from diarrhea to life-threatening ...
Clostridium difficile,/i,, it can result from several etiologies. Certain medications, chemical injury, collagenous colitis, ... Pseudomembranous Colitis: Not Always Caused by Clostridium difficile. Derek M. Tang. ,1Nathalie H. Urrunaga. ,1Hannah De Groot ... J. Janvier, S. Kuhn, and D. Church, "Not all pseudomembranous colitis is caused by Clostridium difficile," Canadian Journal of ... Pseudomembranous colitis is commonly associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) but can be a consequence of other ...
Toxic shock associated with clostridium sordellii and clostridium perfringens after medical and spontaneous abortion.external ... Clostridium sordellii [klaw-strĭ-dee-um sore-dell-ee-i] (also called C. sordellii) is a rare bacterium that causes pneumonia, ... Other similar Clostridium species are spread from person to person and sometimes contaminated surfaces are involved in this ... Undiagnosed cases of fatal clostridium-associated toxic shock in californian women of childbearing age.external icon Am J ...
LAS VEGAS, Nevada - Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in children leads to significantly worse hospital outcomes, including ...
Clostridium difficile is a bacterium commonly found in the intestinal tract but which, under the right circumstances, such as ... Clostridium difficile is a bacterium commonly found in the intestinal tract, but which, under the right circumstances, such as ...
Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacillus that is responsible for the development of ... Clostridium difficile toxin B induces senescence in enteric glial cells: a potential new mechanism of Clostridium difficile ... encoded search term (Clostridioides (Clostridium) Difficile Colitis) and Clostridioides (Clostridium) Difficile Colitis What to ... Clostridioides (Clostridium) Difficile Colitis. Updated: Dec 06, 2022 * Author: Faten N Aberra, MD, MSCE; Chief Editor: BS ...
CDC. Clostridium perfringens gastroenteritis associated with corned beef served at St. Patricks Day meals---Ohio and Virginia ... Clostridium perfringens Infection Among Inmates at a County Jail --- Wisconsin, August 2008. ... Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin: structure, action and detection. J Food Saf 1992;12:237--52. ... Generation times and modeling of enterotoxin-positive and enterotoxin-negative strains of Clostridium perfringens in laboratory ...
Prevalence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea among hospitalized Jordanian patients  Shehabi, A.A.; Abu Ragheb, H.A ... for the presence of Clostridium difficile or its toxin. We found a ... ...
Creatures » Cellular Organisms » Bacteria » Gram Positive Bacteria » Clostridia » Clostridiales » Clostridiaceae » Clostridium ... Creatures » … » Bacteria » Gram Positive Bacteria » Clostridia » Clostridiales » Clostridiaceae » …. ...
... tetani (Tetanus). * Clostridium perfringens (Gas Gangrene, also most common cause of acute Food Poisoning in U.S.) ...
Posts about Clostridium botulinum toxin type A written by What Doctors Dont Tell You ...
Duodenal Infusion of Donor Feces for Recurrent Clostridium difficile ... Clostridium difficile infection can be life-threatening and difficult to treat, with frequent relapses. In this study in ... Background Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection is difficult to treat, and failure rates for antibiotic therapy are high. ... Antibiotic treatment for an initial Clostridium difficile infection typically does not induce a durable response in ...
Fact Sheet - Clostridium difficile (C. difficile). What is Clostridium difficile (C. difficile)?. Clostridium difficile (C. ...
Clostridium difficile, often referred to as C. diff, is a bacterium that can most commonly cause symptoms like diarrhea, fever ... What is Clostridium difficile infection?. Clostridium difficile, often referred to as "C. diff," is a bacterium that can cause ...
... Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Jun 1;40(11): ... Background: Clostridium difficile is a frequent cause of serious nosocomial infection. Earlier reports have suggested that ...
... Description. 50g minimum sample is recommended. Environmental surface samples can also be analyzed.. ... Clostridium perfringens. Category. Food and Beverage Testing. Test. ...
Clostridium puniceum Lund et al. Depositors. NCIMB Chain of custody. ATCC <-- NCIMB <-- B.M. Lund BL 70/20 Type of isolate. ... To download a certificate of origin for Clostridium puniceum Lund et al. (43978), enter the lot number exactly as it appears on ... To download a certificate of analysis for Clostridium puniceum Lund et al. (43978), enter the lot number exactly as it appears ... The certificate of origin for that lot of Clostridium puniceum Lund et al. (43978) is not currently available online. Complete ...
Is Clostridium difficile infection still a problem for hospitals?. David A. Enoch and Sani H. Aliyu ... The effect of hospital-acquired infection with Clostridium difficile on length of stay in hospital. CMAJ, 184(1), 37-42. ... Appendix 1: Quarterly counts of infection with Clostridium difficile among patients aged two years and older (April 2007 to ... The effect of hospital-acquired infection with Clostridium difficile on length of stay in hospital ...
Home › Health › Microbes › Bacteria › Clostridium Perfringens. Clostridium Perfringens. Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic ... Other clostridia that are occasionally responsible include C. novyi and C. septicum, and others on very rare occasions. ... When clostridia are established in a wound, their enzymes and toxins begin to spread outwards, killing more tissue. This ... enlarges the anaerobic area into which the clostridia can spread. Gas is produced by bacterial enzymes as they attack the ...
Species: Clostridium tagluense 2. Description and significance. Clostridium tagluense is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, ... C. tagluense has a high 16S rRNA sequence similarity (92-99%) to the species in Cluster I of Clostridium (Clostridium sensu ... Higher Order Taxa: Bacteria; Firmicutes; Clostridia; Clostridiales; Clostridiaceae; Clostridium ... Detection of cold-tolerant clostridia other than Clostridium estertheticum in raw vacuum-packed chill-stored meat. Food ...
Intravenous immunoglobulin can be effective in patients with severe recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis and immune ... Opinion statementWith the introduction of broad-spectrum antibiotics into clinical practice, Clostridium difficile infection ... Intravenous immunoglobulin can be effective in patients with severe recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis and immune ... Treatment of clostridium difficile infection. @article{Stroehlein2004TreatmentOC, title={Treatment of clostridium difficile ...
Timeline for Species Clostridium beijerinckii from b.35.1.2 Bacterial secondary alcohol dehydrogenase: *Species Clostridium ... PDB entries in Species: Clostridium beijerinckii:. *Domain(s) for 1kev: *. Domain d1keva1: 1kev A:1-150,A:315-351 [24749]. ... Lineage for Species: Clostridium beijerinckii. *Root: SCOP 1.57 *. Class b: All beta proteins [48724] (104 folds). ... Species Clostridium beijerinckii from b.35.1.2 Bacterial secondary alcohol dehydrogenase appears in SCOP 1.59. *Species ...
Whole genome sequencing can improve surveillance and control of Clostridium perfringens, say researchers. Clostridium ... Clostridium perfringens bacteria. Researchers aim to improve Clostridium perfringens surveillance. By News Desk on September 27 ... Clostridium perfringens bacteria are responsible for an estimated 80,000 cases of diarrhea in the United Kingdom each year ... Tags: Clostridium perfringens, Microbial Genomics, pathogen surveillance, Quadram Institute, whole genome sequencing (WGS) ...
Clostridium tetani). On this page:. What to report. How to report. Who is required to report. ... Tetanus (Clostridium tetani) must be reported to MDH within one working day. ...
The transmission of Clostridium difficile can be patient-to-patient, via contaminated hands of healthcare workers or by ... Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic bacterium, widely distributed in soil and the intestinal tracts of animals. The clinical ... Directory of online resources for prevention and control of Clostridium difficile infections Go to the directory ...
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has become a worldwide public health problem causing high mortality and a large disease ... Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has become a worldwide public health problem causing high mortality and a large disease ... Molecular Characterization of Clostridium difficile Isolates in China From 2010 to 2015. Xiao-shu Liu†, Wen-ge Li†, Wen-zhu ... Citation: Liu X-s, Li W-g, Zhang W-z, Wu Y and Lu J-x (2018) Molecular Characterization of Clostridium difficile Isolates in ...
Cohesin module from Clostridium perfringens ATCC13124 family 33 glycoside hydrolase. ... Structural Basis of Clostridium Perfringens Toxin Complex Formation.. Adams, J.J., Gregg, K., Bayer, E.A., Boraston, A.B., ... Find proteins for A0A0H2YT71 (Clostridium perfringens (strain ATCC 13124 / DSM 756 / JCM 1290 / NCIMB 6125 / NCTC 8237 / Type A ... Cohesin module from Clostridium perfringens ATCC13124 family 33 glycoside hydrolase.. *PDB DOI: 10.2210/pdb2VO8/pdb ...
  • Clostridium botulinum produces a potent neurotoxin that causes flaccid muscular paralysis due to failure of neuromuscular transmission. (medium.com)
  • Costco Black Bean Recall Extended Due to Clostridium Botulinum Bacterial Contamination Risks FDA - According to a news article posted on eatthis.com, Costco emailed its customers concerning three organic black bean products under recall back in late April. (yourlawyer.com)
  • IFSH conducts extensive research related to Clostridium botulinum . (iit.edu)
  • Neurotoxic clostridia include Clostridium (C.) tetani (causes tetanus) and C. botulinum (causes botulism). (hipra.com)
  • Clostridium botulinum : ecology and control in foods / edited by Andreas H. W. Hauschild, Karen L. Dodds. (who.int)
  • WASHINGTON, Feb. 6, 2018 Guymon Extracts Inc., a Guymon, Okla. establishment, is recalling approximately 4,202 pounds of fully cooked pork products due to a processing deviation that may have allowed potential spore-forming pathogen growth including Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium perfringens, the U.S. Department of Agricultures. (usda.gov)
  • Although Clostridium botulinum ​food poisoning is very rare in the UK, its very serious nature means that any business engaged in producing VP or MAP foods must understand the risks associated with it, claims the Food Standards Agency (FSA). (confectionerynews.com)
  • The rate of vaginal colonization (when bacteria are present, but not causing an infection) with Clostridium species in the period after abortion has been reported to be as high as 29%, whereas these bacteria have been isolated in the vaginal secretions of 5%-10% of non-pregnant women. (cdc.gov)
  • Pseudomembranous colitis is commonly associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) but can be a consequence of other disease processes. (hindawi.com)
  • LAS VEGAS, Nevada - Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in children leads to significantly worse hospital outcomes, including longer hospital stays and higher rates of colectomy, in-hospital mortality, and discharge to a short- or long-term care facility, according to a study presented here at the American College of Gastroenterology 2012 Annual Scientific Meeting and Postgraduate Course. (medscape.com)
  • Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection is difficult to treat, and failure rates for antibiotic therapy are high. (nejm.org)
  • Antibiotic treatment for an initial Clostridium difficile infection typically does not induce a durable response in approximately 15 to 26% of patients. (nejm.org)
  • Clostridium difficile is a frequent cause of serious nosocomial infection. (nih.gov)
  • Is Clostridium difficile infection still a problem for hospitals? (cmaj.ca)
  • Opinion statementWith the introduction of broad-spectrum antibiotics into clinical practice, Clostridium difficile infection has become the most common cause of infectious diarrhea in hospitalized patients. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has become a worldwide public health problem causing high mortality and a large disease burden. (frontiersin.org)
  • Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (meticillin resistant (MRSA) and meticillin sensitive (MSSA)) and Clostridium difficile infection for each trust. (bmj.com)
  • Clostridium difficile ( C. difficile ) infection (CDI) is commonly recognised as a nosocomial infection but is increasingly identified in patients in the community. (springer.com)
  • Washington, D.C. - May 30, 2019 - A new review looks at the challenges of testing for Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI) and recommendations for newer diagnostic tests. (asm.org)
  • Household pets as a potential reservoir for Clostridium difficile infection. (bmj.com)
  • In the case described here, an infection with Clostridium novyi (sudden death) was identified as the cause of death on a German pig farm. (hipra.com)
  • Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of nosocomial illness worldwide. (cdc.gov)
  • Clostridium frigoriphilum is a species of Bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae . (eol.org)
  • Clostridium tagluense is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, psychrotolerant bacteria that was first isolated from the permafrost of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago in 2009 [2]. (kenyon.edu)
  • Clostridium tagluense is a psychrotolerant bacteria that grows in a temperature range from 0-28 degrees Celsius [2 . (kenyon.edu)
  • Clostridium perfringens bacteria are responsible for an estimated 80,000 cases of diarrhea in the United Kingdom each year either from food poisoning or a non-foodborne origin. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Clostridium Bacteria. (medium.com)
  • Clostridium difficile is a part of the normal bacteria living in the intestine (colonic flora). (medium.com)
  • Although many bacteria are ureolytic, and in some cases urease acts as a virulence factor, the urease phenotype has not been analyzed in the anaerobic pathogen Clostridium perfringens. (pasteur.fr)
  • According to news reports, the food poisoning outbreak in Caldwell Parish, Louisiana has been caused by both Salmonella and Clostridium perfringens bacteria. (foodpoisoningbulletin.com)
  • Clostridium perfringens bacteria grow and produce a toxin when the temperatures of food are in the danger zone of 40°F to 140°F. These outbreaks happen often when large amounts of food are prepared. (foodpoisoningbulletin.com)
  • Officials have not said if the Clostridium perfringens bacteria or toxins have been found in the food samples taken from the event, or if they come from patient samples. (foodpoisoningbulletin.com)
  • Members of the genus Clostridium are obligate anaerobic, gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria. (hipra.com)
  • Clostridioides difficile ( formerly Clostridium difficile) colitis results from a disturbance of the normal bacterial flora of the colon, colonization by C difficile , and the release of toxins that cause mucosal inflammation and damage. (medscape.com)
  • Clostridioides difficile, otherwise referred to as clostridium difficile or C. difficile, is a pathogen that overgrows in the gut after extended antibiotic therapy. (integrativepractitioner.com)
  • We investigated stool specimens of 400 patients at Jordan University Hospital [‎300 patients with clinical diarrhoea and 100 controls without diarrhoea]‎ for the presence of Clostridium difficile or its toxin. (who.int)
  • Bacitracin treatment of antibiotic-associated colitis and diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile toxin. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Researchers at Vanderbilt University Medical Center have obtained the crystal structure of a toxin from the bacterium Clostridium difficile (C. diff) -- the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea in the United States. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • They found that one small section of the toxin is 'highly conserved,' meaning that its sequence of amino acids is identical to the same sequence in other Clostridium species. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • This 'suggests that antibodies specific for this conserved region could provide protection against multiple toxin-mediated clostridium infections and points to a generalizable strategy for generating safe vaccine antigens for this class of toxins,' they conclude. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Clostridium are spore forming and toxin producing obligate anaerobes. (medium.com)
  • This strand of Clostridium produces harmful toxins that cause Gas Gangrene (Clostridium myonecrosis) which is caused by Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin and Clostridium food poisoning (enterotoxin). (medium.com)
  • Awad, MM & Rood, JI 1997, ' Isolation of a-toxin, q-toxin, k-toxin mutants of Clostridium perfringens by Tn916 mutagenesis ', Microbial Pathogenesis , pp. 275 - 284. (monash.edu)
  • Based on the produced exotoxins, clostridia are classified into different toxin phenotypes [5]. (hipra.com)
  • Other similar Clostridium species are spread from person to person and sometimes contaminated surfaces are involved in this transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • After donor-feces infusion, patients showed increased fecal bacterial diversity, similar to that in healthy donors, with an increase in Bacteroidetes species and clostridium clusters IV and XIVa and a decrease in Proteobacteria species. (nejm.org)
  • C. tagluense belongs to the loosely defined genus of Clostridium, which is comprised of over one hundred species that are highly diverse both phenotypically and taxonomically [3]. (kenyon.edu)
  • C. tagluense has a high 16S rRNA sequence similarity (92-99%) to the species in Cluster I of Clostridium (Clostridium sensu stricto), which is defined as the representative species of the loosely defined Clostridium genus [2,7,8]. (kenyon.edu)
  • It's genome hybridizes with less than 52% of other species within Cluster I of Clostridium, indicating that it is a separate species that has significant differences from other species of the genus 2. (kenyon.edu)
  • Cytosine and guanine comprise 31.5% of the genome, close to that of most species in Cluster I Clostridium [2]. (kenyon.edu)
  • Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic Gram-positive bacillus that produces spores in the human gut. (innvista.com)
  • Matthew Redelings] Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic bacillus, which means that it can grow in decaying tissue without the presence of oxygen. (cdc.gov)
  • 2,5-7 Mechanisms that have been proposed for recurrence include persistence of spores of C. difficile, diminished antibody response to clostridium toxins, and persistent disturbance with a reduced diversity of intestinal microbiota. (nejm.org)
  • When clostridia are established in a wound, their enzymes and toxins begin to spread outwards, killing more tissue. (innvista.com)
  • The virulent properties of the common human and livestock pathogen Clostridium perfringens are attributable to a formidable battery of toxins. (rcsb.org)
  • In severe cases, Clostridium difficile toxins can cause pseudomembranous colitis, which is a severe inflammation of the colon. (medium.com)
  • Objective -To compare the frequency of isolation, genotypes, and in vivo production of major lethal toxins of Clostridium perfringens in adult dairy cows affected with hemorrhagic bowel syndrome (HBS) versus left-displaced abomasum (LDA). (avma.org)
  • A total of 109 samples of Clostridium perfringens isolated from disease cases or foods suspected of causing infections in England and Wales between 2011 and 2017 had their whole genome sequenced, according to the research published in the journal Microbial Genomics . (foodsafetynews.com)
  • How to: Surveillance of Clostridium difficile infections. (europa.eu)
  • Fidaxomicin safe and effective for Clostridium difficile infections, panel says. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • To the Editor-Clostridium difficile is a frequent cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and healthcare-associated infections. (cambridge.org)
  • TORONTO , Jan. 16, 2013 /CNW Telbec/ - Today, Bio-K Plus International Inc., a leading Canadian biotechnology company, announced that Health Canada has approved its exclusive and patented Bio-K+® probiotic formula to help reduce the risk of Clostridium difficile ( C. difficile ) infections in hospitalized patients and those in long-term care facilities. (newswire.ca)
  • Cross-sectional studies suggest an increasing trend in incidence and relatively low recurrence rates of Clostridium difficile infections in Asia than in Europe and North America. (cdc.gov)
  • Clostridium sordellii [klaw-strĭ-dee-um sore-dell-ee-i] (also called C. sordellii ) is a rare bacterium that causes pneumonia, endocarditis, arthritis, peritonitis, and myonecrosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Clostridium difficile is a bacterium commonly found in the intestinal tract, but which, under the right circumstances, such as after or during antibiotics therapy, can be the cause of enterocolitis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Clostridium difficile ( C. difficile ) is a bacterium that causes mild to severe diarrhea and intestinal conditions like pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon). (canada.ca)
  • Clostridium difficile , often referred to as "C. diff," is a bacterium that can cause diarrhea. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic bacterium, widely distributed in soil and the intestinal tracts of animals. (europa.eu)
  • Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive, spore-forming, obligately anaerobic bacterium. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We're here to talk about an article in the September 2007 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases about deaths in the United States caused by the bacterium Clostridium difficile . (cdc.gov)
  • Clostridium acetobutylicum" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Clostridium acetobutylicum" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Clostridium acetobutylicum" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Clostridium acetobutylicum" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • We have previously shown that in syntrophic cocultures of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium ljungdahlii , the two organisms undergo heterologous cell fusion, which includes fusion of the peptidoglycan cell walls and membranes. (biorxiv.org)
  • Endo International plc (OTC: ENDPQ) announced today that it will cease the production and sale of Endo Aesthetics' Qwo® (collagenase clostridium histolyticum-aaes) in light of market concerns about the extent and variability of bruising following initial treatment as well as the potential for. (multispecialtysociety.com)
  • Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin was detected in stool samples collected from six ill inmates, and 43,000 CFU/g of the organism were isolated from a remaining sample of casserole. (cdc.gov)
  • Although classically pseudomembranous colitis is caused by Clostridium difficile , it can result from several etiologies. (hindawi.com)
  • Treatment of antibiotic-associated Clostridium difficile colitis with oral vancomycin: comparison of two dosage regimens. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis with vancomycin and Saccharomyces boulardii. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including clindamycin hydrochloride and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. (nih.gov)
  • Tetanus ( Clostridium tetani ) must be reported to MDH within one working day. (mn.us)
  • Clostridium perfringens ( Gas Gangrene , also most common cause of acute Food Poisoning in U.S. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Researchers at the Quadram Institute worked with Public Health England (PHE) to analyze Clostridium perfringens foodborne and non-foodborne outbreaks over seven years in England and Wales. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Other clostridia that are occasionally responsible include C. novyi and C. septicum , and others on very rare occasions. (innvista.com)
  • Samples of the liver were subjected to bacteriological investigations where Clostridium novyi was detected. (hipra.com)
  • Clostridium novyi was the suspected cause of death, based on the history of sudden death, necropsy and bacteriological findings. (hipra.com)
  • In case of unexpected mortality in gestating sows Clostridium novyi should be considered. (hipra.com)
  • Continuing this line of investigation, we now show that heterologous cell fusion between the two Clostridium organisms can also facilitate the exchange of DNA between the two organisms. (biorxiv.org)
  • We describe imipenem-resistant and imipenem-susceptible clinical isolates of Clostridium difficile ribotype 017 in Portugal. (cdc.gov)
  • For more information see the Clostridium sordellii Toxic Shock Syndrome After Medical Abortion with Mifepristone and Intravaginal Misoprostol - United States and Canada, 2001-2005 . (cdc.gov)
  • Toxic shock associated with clostridium sordellii and clostridium perfringens after medical and spontaneous abortion. (cdc.gov)
  • Hierfür wurde die Cellulose-Bindedomäne (CBD) aus Clostridium thermocellum verwendet, da diese auch unter Hochsalzbedingungen stabil ist. (tu-darmstadt.de)
  • The team found nine outbreaks associated with care homes in North East England over a period of five years were caused by closely related strains of Clostridium perfringens. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • We hope to use the information generated to identify potential strains of Clostridium perfringens that may be associated with outbreaks so that we can in the future develop intervention strategies to try and prevent spread. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Clostridium difficile Serious for Hospitalized Children - Medscape - Oct 24, 2012. (medscape.com)
  • Fast Five Quiz: Clostridium difficile - Medscape - Aug 05, 2019. (medscape.com)
  • Human cases of Clostridium perfringens diarrhea are primarily caused by type F strains (formerly classed as enterotoxigenic type A), which produce enterotoxin (CPE), encoded by the cpe gene. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Clostridium difficile causes antibiotic associated diarrhea. (medium.com)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Clostridium difficile in antibiotic associated pediatric diarrhea. (who.int)
  • Treatment for Clostridium difficile will consist of a different strand of antibiotics, typically oral metronidazole (flagyl) or an oral vancomycin. (medium.com)
  • Clostridium perfringens is anerobic gram positive spore forming rods. (medium.com)
  • Clostridia cause diseases in humans and various domestic animals. (hipra.com)
  • Histotoxic clostridia, which cause gas oedema diseases, include C. septicum , C. chauvoei , C. sordelli , C. perfringens type A and C. noyvi . (hipra.com)
  • Clostridium difficile is an important spore-forming human pathogen associated with serious enteric diseases worldwide ( 1 - 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Enterocolitis due to Clostridium difficile is an inflammation of the intestines that is predominantly associated with antibiotic use. (cdc.gov)
  • In order to cause BPS, Clostridium tagluense produces large volumes of gas while using various substrates that are available in raw meat 6. (kenyon.edu)
  • Do we know which antibiotics are most likely to cause Clostridium difficile diarrhea? (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Whole genome sequencing can improve surveillance and control of Clostridium perfringens, say researchers. (foodsafetynews.com)