Closterovirus: A genus of plant viruses in the family CLOSTEROVIRIDAE containing highly flexuous filaments. Some members are important pathogens of crop plants. Natural vectors include APHIDS, whiteflies, and mealybugs. The type species is Beet yellows virus.Aizoaceae: A plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida.Citrus: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins: A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES found in both prokaryotes and in several compartments of eukaryotic cells. These proteins can interact with polypeptides during a variety of assembly processes in such a way as to prevent the formation of nonfunctional structures.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.GermanyRed Cross: International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.Classification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Closteroviridae: A family of plant viruses containing the largest single-stranded RNA genomes. Infections typically involve yellowing and necrosis, particularly affecting the phloem.Crinivirus: A genus of plant viruses in the family CLOSTEROVIRIDAE. Transmission is by whiteflies. Lettuce infectious yellows virus is the type species.Thumb: The first digit on the radial side of the hand which in humans lies opposite the other four.MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Indigo Carmine: Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.BooksVanilla: A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that is the source of the familiar flavoring used in foods and medicines (FLAVORING AGENTS).Paeonia: A plant genus of the family Paeoniaceae, order Dilleniales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. These perennial herbs are up to 2 m (6') tall. Leaves are alternate and are divided into three lobes, each lobe being further divided into three smaller lobes. The large flowers are symmetrical, bisexual, have 5 sepals, 5 petals (sometimes 10), and many stamens.Beer: An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.Portraits as Topic: Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)Nobel PrizeBrazilMedicine in ArtHong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.Solidago: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE known for allergenic pollen (ALLERGENS).Entomology: A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.Forensic Sciences: Disciplines that apply sciences to law. Forensic sciences include a wide range of disciplines, such as FORENSIC TOXICOLOGY; FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY; FORENSIC MEDICINE; FORENSIC DENTISTRY; and others.MuseumsForensic Pathology: The application of pathology to questions of law.Cyproterone Acetate: An agent with anti-androgen and progestational properties. It shows competitive binding with dihydrotestosterone at androgen receptor sites.Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Honey: A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.Alismatidae: A plant subclass of the class Liliopsida (monocotyledons) in the Chronquist classification system. This is equivalent to the Alismatales order in the APG classification system. It is a primitive group of more or less aquatic plants.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Myelin and Lymphocyte-Associated Proteolipid Proteins: A family of MARVEL domain-containing proteolipid proteins involved in vesicular trafficking cycling between the GOLGI COMPLEX and the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE.RNA Virus InfectionsArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.

New device and method for capture, reverse transcription and nested PCR in a single closed-tube. (1/117)

A device and improved method based on the use of a compartmentalized Eppendorf tube that allows capture, reverse transcription and nested-PCR in a single closed-tube has been developed and patented. The main advantages of the system are the high sensitivity obtained, the simplicity, the low risk of contamination and the easy establishment of adequate conditions for nested-PCR. The method has been successfully applied to the detection and characterization of citrus tristeza closterovirus and plum pox potyvirus isolates in plant tissues and single aphids squashed on paper. This device and methodology could be easily adapted to the detection of other targets.  (+info)

The haplotype distribution of two genes of citrus tristeza virus is altered after host change or aphid transmission. (2/117)

Genetic variability of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was studied using the haplotypes detected by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of genes p18 and p20 in six virus populations of two origins. The Spanish group included a CTV isolate and subisolates obtained by graft-transmission to different host species. The other included two subisolates aphid-transmitted from a single Japanese isolate. The homozygosity observed for gene p20 was always significantly higher than that expected under neutral evolution, whereas only three populations showed high homozygosity for p18, suggesting stronger host constraints for p20 than for p18. Sequential transmissions of a Spanish isolate to new host species increased the difference between its population and that of the successive subisolates for gene p18, as estimated by the F statistic. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that variation between both groups of populations was not statistically significant, whereas variations between populations of the same group or within populations were significant for both genes studied. Our data indicate that selection affects the haplotype distribution and that adaptation to a new host can be as important or more as the geographical origin. Variation of the CTV populations after host change or aphid transmission may explain in part the wide biological variability observed among CTV isolates.  (+info)

The complete genome sequence of the major component of a mild citrus tristeza virus isolate. (3/117)

The genome of the Spanish mild isolate T385 of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was completely sequenced and compared with the genomes of the severe isolates T36 (Florida), VT (Israel) and SY568 (California). The genome of T385 was 19,259 nt in length, 37 nt shorter than the genome of T36, and 33 and 10 nt longer than those of VT and SY568, respectively, but their organization was identical. T385 had mean nucleotide identities of 81.3, 89.3 and 94% with T36, VT and SY568, respectively. The 3' UTR had over 97% identity in all isolates, whereas the 5' UTR of T385 had 67% identity with VT, 66.3% with SY568 and only 42.5% with T36. In the coding regions, the nucleotide differences between T385 and VT were evenly distributed along the genome (around 90% identity); this was not observed between T385 and the other isolates. T385 and T36 had nucleotide identities around 90% in the eight 3'-terminal ORFs of the genome, but only 72.3% in ORF 1a, a divergence pattern similar to that reported previously for T36 and VT. T385 and SY568 had nucleotide identities close to 90% in the 5'- and 3'-terminal regions of the genome, whereas the central region had over 99% identity. Our data suggest that the central region in the SY568 genome results from RNA recombination between two CTV genomes, one of which was almost identical to T385.  (+info)

New defective RNAs from citrus tristeza virus: evidence for a replicase-driven template switching mechanism in their generation. (4/117)

Defective RNAs (D-RNAs) ranging in size from 1968 to 2759 nt were detected in four citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates by hybridization of electroblotted dsRNAs with two probes specific for the 5'- and 3'-terminal genomic regions. The RNAs that hybridized with both probes were eluted, cloned and sequenced. Comparison with the sequences of the corresponding genomic regions of the helper virus showed, in all cases, over 99% nucleotide identity and direct repeats of 4-5 nt flanking or in the vicinity of the junction sites. The presence of the repeats from two separate genome locations suggests a replicase-driven template switching mechanism for the generation of these CTV D-RNAs. Two of the CTV isolates that differed greatly in their pathogenicity contained an identical D-RNA, suggesting that it is unlikely that this D-RNA is involved in symptom modulation, which may be caused by another factor.  (+info)

Lettuce infectious yellows virus: in vitro acquisition analysis using partially purified virions and the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. (5/117)

Virions of lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV; genus Crinivirus) were purified from LIYV-infected plants and their protein composition was analysed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. Virion preparations contained the major capsid protein (CP), but the minor capsid protein (CPm), p59 and the HSP70 homologue were also identified by immunoblot analysis. Immunogold labelling analysis showed that CP constituted the majority of the LIYV virion capsid, but CPm was also part of the capsid and localized to one end of the virion, similar to the polar morphology seen for viruses in the genus Closterovirus. p59 and the HSP70 homologue were not detected on virions by immunogold labelling, but were always detected in virion preparations by immunoblot analysis. Purified LIYV virions were used for in vitro acquisition analysis with Bemisia tabaci whiteflies and were efficiently transmitted to plants. Infectivity neutralization analyses were done using antisera to the LIYV-encoded CP, CPm, p59 and HSP70 homologue. Only antiserum to the CPm effectively neutralized LIYV transmission by B. tabaci. These data suggest that the LIYV-B. tabaci transmission determinants are associated with purified virions, and that the LIYV virion structural protein CPm is involved in transmission by B. tobaci.  (+info)

An engineered closterovirus RNA replicon and analysis of heterologous terminal sequences for replication. (6/117)

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) populations in citrus trees are unusually complex mixtures of viral genotypes and defective RNAs developed during the long-term vegetative propagation of the virus and by additional mixing by aphid transmission. The viral replication process allows the maintenance of minor amounts of disparate genotypes and defective RNAs in these populations. CTV is a member of the Closteroviridae possessing a positive-stranded RNA genome of approximately 20 kilobases that expresses the replicase-associated genes as an approximately 400-kDa polyprotein and the remaining 10 3' genes through subgenomic mRNAs. A full-length cDNA clone of CTV was generated from which RNA transcripts capable of replication in protoplasts were derived. The large size of cDNA hampered its use as a genetic system. Deletion of 10 3' genes resulted in an efficient RNA replicon that was easy to manipulate. To investigate the origin and maintenance of the genotypes in CTV populations, we tested the CTV replicase for its acceptance of divergent sequences by creating chimeric replicons with heterologous termini and examining their ability to replicate. Exchange of the similar 3' termini resulted in efficient replication whereas substitution of the divergent (up to 58% difference in sequence) 5' termini resulted in reduced but significant replication, generally in proportion to the extent of sequence divergence.  (+info)

Subcellular localization of the HSP70-homolog encoded by beet yellows closterovirus. (7/117)

Closteroviridae is the only viral family coding for a homolog of HSP70 (HSP70h). Polyclonal antiserum to recombinant beet yellows closterovirus (BYV) HSP70h was generated and used for immunogold labeling of the leaf samples derived from the infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Ultrastructural analysis revealed the preferential accumulation of BYV in phloem, although occasional infection of the leaf mesophyll cells was also observed. The strongest HSP70h-specific labeling was associated with virion aggregates and vesicles harboring scattered virions. HSP70h was also observed in close proximity of plasmodesmata and inside the plasmodesmatal channels. The possible role of the BYV HSP70h in RNA encapsidation was tested in tobacco protoplasts. A BYV mutant possessing an inactivated HSP70h gene exhibited no detectable encapsidation defects. Collectively, the obtained results suggested that closteroviral HSP70h escorts the virions to their destinations inside the infected cells and possibly participates in the intercellular translocation of BYV.  (+info)

Regulation of closterovirus gene expression examined by insertion of a self-processing reporter and by northern hybridization. (8/117)

A reporter open reading frame (ORF) coding for a fusion of bacterial beta-glucuronidase (GUS) with a proteinase domain (Pro) derived from tobacco etch potyvirus was utilized for tagging individual genes of beet yellows closterovirus (BYV). Insertion of this reporter ORF between the first and second codons of the BYV ORFs encoding the HSP70 homolog (HSP70h), a major capsid protein (CP), and a 20-kDa protein (p20) resulted in the expression of the processed GUS-Pro reporter from corresponding subgenomic RNAs. The high sensitivity of GUS assays permitted temporal analysis of reporter accumulation, revealing early expression from the HSP70h promoter, followed by the CP promoter and later the p20 promoter. The kinetics of transcription of the remaining BYV genes encoding a 64-kDa protein (p64), a minor capsid protein (CPm), and a 21-kDa protein (p21) were examined via Northern blot analysis. Taken together, the data indicated that the temporal regulation of BYV gene expression includes early (HSP70h, CPm, CP, and p21 promoters) and late (p64 and p20 promoters) phases. It was also demonstrated that the deletion of six viral genes that are nonessential for RNA amplification resulted in a dramatic increase in the level of transcription from one of the two remaining subgenomic promoters. Comparison with other positive-strand RNA viruses producing multiple subgenomic RNAs showed the uniqueness of the pattern of closterovirus transcriptional regulation.  (+info)

This paper deals with the Purification method of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) from infected sweet orange(Citrus sinensis[L]. Osbeck). The frozen and infected tissues were homogenized with 0.1mol/L Tris-buffer pH8.4 which contains 0.15% TritonX-100. After several differential centrifugations including two times of precipitation with PEG (MW 6,000), the supernatant was centrifuged by incontinuous sucrose density gradient of 200-400mg/ml and 600 mg/ml at 30,000 r/m (Hitachi, RPT 40 rot) for 3 hours. Then the ba...
Citation: Gottwald, T.R. 2005. Survival analysis of the spatio-temporal spread of citrus tristeza virus. 9th Biennial Meeting of the Florida Phytopathological Society, 2-4 May, 2005, University of Florida/IFAS, Mid-Florida Research and Education Center, Apopka, FL. Interpretive Summary: Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV) remains one of the most severe pathogens of citrus worldwide, causing large production losses and has caused the death of over 50 million trees. Understanding the disease dynamics is key to developing control measures. One aspect that is poorly understood is the interaction of various strains of CTV under field conditions. An analytical method called survival analysis, originating from the medical and engineering disciplines, was used for the first time to investigate the interaction of two field strains of the CTV virus and how they interact. The method was modified to be able to examine the effect of diseased trees within a near vicinity on the probability of a tree remaining disease ...
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Citrus Diseases Exotic to Florida: Citrus Tristeza Virus Stem Pitting (CTV-SP) 3 Vein chlorosis caused by Citrus tristeza virus-Stem Pitting (CTV-SP). As with decline isolates, CTV-SP isolates can be transmitted by budding and grafting. Long distance movement of CTV-SP to different countries or different areas within a region is usually via the movement of the infected budwood or nursery stock. CTV-SP is also transmitted by several species of aphids. The brown citrus aphid (Toxoptera citricida) is considered the most efficient vector, but the melon aphid (Aphis gossypii) and the spirea aphid (A. spiraecola) can also transmit the CTV-SP virus. The patterns of spread vary according to the type of aphids involved. CTV-SP problem often increases rapidly after the brown citrus aphid becomes established in a new area and it seems that CTV-SP isolates are transmitted more often by brown citrus aphid as compared to other aphids. CTV can be transmitted experimentally by stem slash inoculation of citrus ...
New cultivars are obtained from the discovery of mutations in orchards, the breeding programme at the Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops (ITSC) (previously known as the CSFRI) and the importation of promising cultivars from other countries. Since the deregulation of the citrus industry in 1997 private cultivar agents have also become involved in this process and the Citrus Growers Association now has their own Cultivar Company for cultivar development. The ITSC and the CRI facility in Nelspruit are responsible for shoot-tip grafting and pre-immunisation of material with a mild strain of Citrus Tristeza Virus. The Citrus Foundation Block is responsible for increase and release of propagation material to the citrus industry. All promising cultivars are planted in suitable trial sites and evaluated by CRI Cultivar Specialists. The CIS Advisory Committee is responsible for the co-ordination of these processes.. ...
TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 Amino acid sequences of NT, angiotensin, bradykinin, and leu-enkephalin polypeptides and polypeptide analogs Sequence Polypeptide 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 NT p-Glu L-Leu L-Tyr L-Glu L-Asn L-Lys L-Pro L-Arg L-Arg L-Pro L-Tyr L-Ile L-Leu NT(8-13) L-Arg L-Arg L-Pro L-Tyr L-Ile L-Leu NT(9-13) L-Arg L-Pro L-Tyr L-Ile L-Leu NTW L-Arg L-Arg L-Pro L-Trp L-Ile L-Leu NT L-Arg L-Arg L-Pro L-Tyr tert- L-Leu (tert-Leu) Leu Eisai* N- L-Lys L-Pro L-Trp tert- L-Leu methyl- Leu Arg NT2 D-Lys L-Arg L-Pro L-Tyr L-Ile L-Leu NT24 "27" L-Arg D-Orn.sup.& L-Pro L-Tyr L-Ile L-Leu NT34 L-Arg L-Arg L-Pro L-3,1- L-Ile L-Leu Nal# NT64D L-Arg L-Arg L-Pro D-neo- L-Ile L-Leu Trp NT64L L-Arg L-Arg L-Pro L-neo- L-Ile L-Leu Trp NT65L L-Arg L-Arg L-Pro L-neo- tert- L-Leu Trp Leu NT66D D-Lys L-Arg L-Pro D-neo- tert- L-Leu Trp Leu NT66L D-Lys L-Arg L-Pro L-neo- tert- L-Leu Trp Leu NT67L D-Lys L-Arg L-Pro L-neo- L-Ile L-Leu Trp NT69L N- L-Lys L-Pro L-neo- tert- L-Leu methyl- Trp Leu Arg NT69L N- L-Arg ...
Hybridization analysis showed a p27 gene region, which exhibits different patterns with two probes derived from two biological distinct CTV isolates. In an attempt to screen whether that gene region differs in mild and severe strains, six CTV isolates belonging to different biogroups were compared for variations in their p27 gene by analysis of single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). The p27 gene was reverse transcribed and amplified by PCR and thirty clones of each isolate were obtained. From each clone, two fragments of the gene were amplified by PCR: fragment (a), 459 bp long, and fragment (b), 281 bp long. Sequence variations in both gene fragments were studied by SSCP analysis. A variety of SSCP patterns was obtained from each isolate, being isolates belonging to the groups II-IV and III those with the higher and lower number of them. Moreover, SSCP analysis provided a rapid procedure to screen the genetic heterogeneity of the viral isolate reducing considerably the amount of ...
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THE precepts of the eleventh class are enumerated in the Section on Divine Service (Sefer abodah) and the Section on Sacrifices (Sefer ha-korbanot). We have described their use in general terms (chap. xxxii.). I will now proceed to give the reason of each precept separately. Scripture tells us, according to the Version of Onkelos, that the Egyptians worshipped Aries, and therefore abstained from killing sheep, and held shepherds in contempt. Comp. "Behold we shall sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians," etc. (Exod. viii. 26); "For every shepherd is an abomination to the Egyptians" (Gen. xlvi. 34). Some sects among the Sabeans worshipped demons, and imagined that these assumed the form of goats, and called them therefore "goats" This worship was widespread. Comp. "And they shall no more offer their sacrifices unto demons, after whom they have gone a whoring" (Lev. xvii. 7). For this reason those sects abstained from eating goats flesh. Most idolaters objected to killing cattle, holding ...
Read "Occurrence of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 5 in Portugal: genetic variability and population structure in field-grown grapevines, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Abarshi, M.M., Mohammed, I.U., Jeremiah, S.C., Legg, J.P., Kumar, P. Lava, Hillocks, R.J. and Maruthi, M.N. (2011) Multiplex RT-PCR assays for the simultaneous detection of both RNA and DNA viruses infecting cassava and the common occurrence of mixed infections by two cassava brown streak viruses in East Africa. Journal of Virological Methods, 179 (1). pp. 176-184. ISSN 0166-0934 (doi:10.1016/j.jviromet.2011.10.020) Abarshi, M.M., Mohammed, I.U., Wasswa, P., Hillocks, R.J., Holt, J., Legg, J.P., Seal, S.E. and Maruthi, M.N. (2009) Optimization of diagnostic RT-PCR protocols and sampling procedures for the reliable and cost-effective detection of Cassava brown streak virus. Journal of Virological Methods, 163 (2). pp. 353-359. ISSN 0166-0934 (doi:10.1016/j.jviromet.2009.10.023) Nolasco, G., Santos, C., Silva, G. and Fonseca, F. (2008) Development of an asymmetric PCR-ELISA typing method for citrus tristeza virus based on the coat protein gene. Journal of Virological Methods, 155 (2). pp. 97-108. ...
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Subject: RE: DATAFILE?? The best way to find out is to try it. You will probably find that it depends. If you use a LMT and do uniform extents then it will do it by concatenation. (fill up the first file then move on to the 2nd etc.). If you create an LMT and do automatic extents then it is different. It does it by striping. The first extent goes in the first file, the 2nd in the 2nd file... You can see this by setting up a small test. Jim -----Original Message ...
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INTRODUCTION. Grapevine leafroll disease is widely accepted to be the most damaging grapevine virus disease in South Africa, with grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) the most prevalent leafroll-associated virus (Pietersen, 2006). The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is the most common and efficient vector of GLRaV-3 in South Africa (Walton & Pringle, 2004; Douglas & Krüger, 2008). Currently, the industry strategy to limit leafroll infection in newly planted, leafroll-free vineyards in South Africa is based on a multi-pronged approach that includes treating young grapevines with a systemic insecticide like imidacloprid shortly after planting; monitoring for leafroll symptoms in these vineyards over two seasons, and removing all leafroll-infected grapevines, known as rogueing (Pietersen, 2006); monitoring and controlling mealybug in adjacent leafroll-infected vineyards where rogueing is not feasible; and ensuring that workers and equipment do ...
Citrus plants are very liable to infestation by aphids, whitefly and scale insects (e.g. California red scale). Also rather important are the viral infections to which some of these ectoparasites serve as vectors such as the aphid-transmitted Citrus tristeza virus which when unchecked by proper methods of control is devastating to citrine plantations. The newest threat to citrus groves in the United States is the Asian citrus psyllid.. The Asian citrus psyllid is an aphid-like insect that feeds on the leaves and stems of citrus trees and other citrus-like plants - but the real danger lies in that it can carry a deadly, bacterial tree disease called Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening disease.[25]. In August 2005 citrus greening disease was discovered in the south Florida region around Homestead and Florida City. It has since spread to every commercial citrus grove in Florida. In 2004-2005 USDA Ag statistics reported the total Florida citrus production to be 169.1 million boxes of ...
El sureste español se encuentra localizado en un área que destaca por su importante sector agrícola, reconocido por su alta producción de cultivos como el pimiento y el melón, los cuales se ven afectados por enfermedades causadas por patógenos del suelo, como la tristeza y la fusariosis vascular respectivamente. Una detección temprana de los agentes causantes de estas enfermedades es de gran importancia, para evitar su expansión a nuevos terrenos y mejorar su control mediante una gestión integrada. Por esta razón, desarrollamos un sistema TaqMan para detectar y cuantificar Phytophthora nicotianae específicamente mediante PCR a tiempo real (qPCR) en cultivo puro y en matrices ambientales como suelo, compost y tejido vegetal. Con este sistema se identificó P. nicotianae como el actual causante de la tristeza del pimiento en el "Campo de Cartagena" y su población fue caracterizada mediante el uso de marcadores moleculares y un estudio fenotípico. Además, la aplicación del sistema ...
Hibiscus latent Singapore virus (HLSV) is a member of Tobamovirus and its full-length cDNA clones were constructed. The in vitro transcripts from two HLSV full-length cDNA clones, which contain a hepta-adenosine stretch (pHLSV-7A) and an octo-adenosine stretch (pHLSV-8A), are both infectious. The replication level of HLSV-7A in Nicotiana benthamiana protoplasts was 5-fold lower, as compared to that of HLSV-8A. The replicase proteins of HLSV-7A were produced through programmed -1 ribosomal frameshift (-1 PRF) and the 7A stretch was a slippery sequence for -1 PRF. Mutations to the downstream pseudoknot of 7A stretch showed that the pseudoknot was not required for the frameshift in vitro. The stretch was found to be extended to 8A after subsequent replication cycles in vivo. It is envisaged that HLSV employs the monotonous runs of A and -1 PRF to convert its 7A to 8A to reach higher replication for its survival in plants. © 2013 Elsevier Inc ...
This publication is part of a series about understanding nutrient requirements for citrus trees. For the rest of the series, visit http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_series_citrus_tree_nutrients.. To maintain a viable citrus industry, Florida growers must consistently and economically produce large, high-quality fruit crops from year to year. Efficiently producing maximum yields of high-quality fruit is difficult without understanding soil and nutrient requirements of bearing citrus trees. Most Florida citrus is grown on soils inherently low in fertility with low cation exchange capacity (CEC) and low water-holding capacity, thus soils are unable to retain sufficient quantities of available plant nutrients against leaching caused by rainfall or excessive irrigation.. Seventeen elements are considered necessary for the growth of green plants: carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), sulfur (S), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), iron ...
Oil sprays on the trunks of citrus trees prevent infestation by aphids, mites and mealybugs. These pests will eat a trees young leaves and buds, preventing it from fruiting. Oil sprays can also be used on infested areas of citrus trees to remove the insects without harming any of the delicate growth.
Cold weather is on its way, and many people are concerned about their citrus trees. One of the most common questions I get from gardeners is, How much cold can citrus trees tolerate? Because there are a number of variables, its difficult to pin point a threshold temperature at which it becomes necessary to protect your trees.
Citrus trees start to bloom early in the winter months and they continue to develop throughout the springtime producing minute, green fruits. The fruit grow larger as the seasons progress into summer and fall. The term citrus is a familiar term and type of blossoming plants that belong to the Rutaceae plant ...
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Objetivo: discutir acerca de la reacción de la familia frente al proceso de comunicación de muerte cerebral y posible la donación de órganos. Método: revisión de la literatura integradora, con búsqueda de artículos en bases de datos: BEDENF, SciELO, LILACS, MEDLINE, publicados entre los años de 2008 a 2017. Hemos seleccionado para esta investigación, 14 publicaçoes según los criterios de inclusión y exclusión. Resultados: el principal elemento para que el proceso de donación es satisfactoria es la familia. Y tienen diferentes reacciones para recibir la información de la muerte cerebral y la donación de órganos es posible. Entre estos diversos factores son el lugar donde se realiza la comunicación y de la falta de familia acerca de la opinión de los donantes. Conclusión: para recibir el diagnóstico de muerte cerebral, las habitaciones cuentan con manifestaciones como la tristeza, el llanto y la revuelta. La falta de este tema, trae a la familia a una serie de preguntas y un ...
Thread in the Ask a Question forum forum by knob_creek: Last autumn, my parents gave me this potted orange tree. It was infested with ants-- a problem we w...
I prune mine right after Ive harvested all the fruit but before they begin to flower again. December or January are good months to prune. If you have only a few errant branches you can prune them off now but if you want to do an overall trimming, prune in winter or wait until just before new spring growth begins ...
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I noticed on serveral MS sites they recommend eating Beets. Based on some of the research I have seen I have to recommend to stay away from beets and beet root and beet sugar. I recently develop the early signs ...
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Citrus Council News. Find breaking news, commentary, and archival information about Citrus Council From The tribunedigital-orlandosentinel
Naspers-owned, online payments service provider PayU has agreed to buy Mumbai-based payments platform Citrus Pay for $130 million (Rs 865 crore). Jitendra Gupta, Founder, Citrus Pay, talks to ET Now about the same.
The Citrus Heights City Council meets on the 2nd and 4th Thursday of the month at 7 p.m. in the Citrus Heights Council Chambers. Visit our City Council Meetings page for more information ...
Citrus County SCORE offers the opportunity to serve your community through SCORE Volunteer. This is an ongoing opportunity located in Lecanto, Florida.
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Great interview. Dont worry, the MSS has informed us on the piece, that copious amounts of $ is going to go to research whether there is a connection or not, but until then, they categorically state that nothing is proven, ...
Preliminary forecasts show the countrys in for a longer and more intense winter than last years uncommonly mild weather, a senior climatologist warns.
October 17, 2016. After the discovery in September of an insect that can carry a disease fatal to citrus trees, the California Department of Food and Agriculture has placed trees in a 118-square-mile area near Lincoln under quarantine.. The quarantine zone is bordered on the north by Riosa Road; on the south by the Roseville city limit; on the west by Brewer Road; and on the east by Fowler Road. The quarantine map for Placer County is available online at: http://maps.cdfa.ca.gov/QuarantineBoundaries/ACP/ACP_147.pdf.. The quarantine prohibits the movement of citrus and curry leaf tree nursery stock, including all plant parts except fruit, out of the quarantine area and requires that all citrus fruit be cleaned of leaves and stems prior to moving out of the quarantine area. An exception may be made for nursery stock and budwood grown in U.S. Department of Agriculture-approved structures, which are designed to keep the insects and other insects out. Residents with backyard citrus trees in the ...
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MIAMI (AP) - A plant illness that could endanger Floridas $9 billion citrus industry has been found for the first time in the United States, agriculture officials said Friday.
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Citrus fruits like lemons and limes are great sources of important nutrients. Find citrus tips and helpful ideas to incorporate citrus into your diet.
Horticultural Science with a concentration in Citrus - the only one of its kind in the country - is taught by industry leaders who deeply understand the science and business of citrus.
Drill Powered Citrus Juicer: The Drill Powered Citrus Juicer is a great value and can pump out many ounces of fresh squeezed juice in around a minute and with different sizes of cones so you can fit large and small citrus inside and get the maximum amount of juice and pulp....
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Our French-made citrus stripper produces the perfect aromatic ribbon of peel to garnish salads and desserts or add a twist to drinks. Its sharp cutting edge creates thick spiral strips. • A classic tool for creating thick strips of citrus p…
Armed with a 3-year extension from ABC Sports, Florida Citrus Bowl officials Wednesday secured a tie-in with the Southeastern Conference that will match an SEC team against the Big Ten runner-up or
i am in need of 100 citrus seedlings, lemons, or oranges for an experiment. Does anyone know where i can buy some reasonable? chaz ...
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Second annual Citrus Seminar, group of people standing under University banner in front of building. Peter Henry Rolfs is standing in the fourth row, fourth from left. Effie Stone Rolfs is standing center right, next to the woman in the pale dress. ...
Map of This detail shows county lines and county seats current to the period, major towns and cities, and railroad routes and stations for Citrus County. The Townships are subdivided into sections, and those sections offered for sale by the land department ...
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What is it? The most common variety is the garden beet: deep red in color and bulbous in shape. It was first discovered in the Mediterranean some...
The information contained herein has been obtained from sources that the Company believes to be reliable, however, the Company has not independently verified or confirmed the information and the recipient acknowledges that no representations or warranties are being made in connection with the use of the information.. ...
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We have led the way in the development of what has been hailed as a major breakthrough in molecular biology: silencing gene expression by RNA interference (RNAi). CSIROs RNAi gene silencing technology is enabling researchers around the world to protect plants and animals from diseases, and to develop new plant varieties with beneficial attributes.
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Used to be, back in the good old days of the Internet, like five years ago, that you could do a search for, oh, I dont know,transplanting roses or citrus leaf curl or compost pile and come up with some reasonably good resources, mostly university extension websites, some gardening magazines, and the sites of actual experts who have devoted their lives to the curling leaves of citrus trees or the delicate work of transplanting roses or some such thing. Martha Stewarts site would turn up in the first few pages of a search, offering detailed, accurate advice from an actual expert, and that was fine too. You had the feeling that, even in the Wild West that is the internet, there were adults around - adults who knew things, and would tell them to you.. Now? eHow. And Suite 101, Ask, LoveToKNow, HowStuffWorks, InfoPlease, About, Examiner, GardenGuides, AllExperts, Mahalo, Answers, Life123, ezinearticles, essortment-it goes on and on. Increasingly crowding out real, useful information written ...
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The Citrus Zinger by Zing Anything is a practical and easy way to extract juice and flavor from citrus fruits and infuse them directly into your water bottle. Great for taking along to the gym, office, and around town. Its not only refreshing, its al
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Along with antioxidants red beets also contain naturally occurring betaine and nitrates. Two compounds that are the reason red beets and beet juice is also being studied for possible support of cardiovascular health and for energy
Sodium content and RDA percentage, per serving and per 100g, in 9 types of beets. The amount of Sodium is 285 mg to 21 mg per 100g, in beets.
Down To Earth™ Citrus Mix 6-3-3 is specially formulated with primary and secondary plant nutrients plus selected micronutrients that promote lush new growth
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The Citrus Place, which has been in Tillett’s family for decades, has been described as a hidden gem. The tiny juice shop sits on the corner of Interstate 275 and US-19 in Terra Ceia and greets...
There is no doubt the current statewide water shortage is negatively impacting citrus growers in the nations top agriculture producing county, but
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Beneath the humble looking exterior of a beet lies a phenomenal nutritional and DIY secret. Tap into its versatility and youll discover a wonderful world of fun, crafty and eternally eco-friendly applications!
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Various tests are performed for the diagnosis of viruses and virus like organisms. These tests are classified into three categories namely the Biological assays, Serological assays and Molecular assays. Priority diseases are Citrus Tristeza Virus, Pepino Mosaic Virus, Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus, Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus, Potato Spindle Tuber Viroid (PSTVd), Grapevine Flavescence Dorée and Plum Pox Virus. Identification is either done locally, or abroad, as necessary. Biological assays include mechanical transmission of viruses on specific herbaceous indicators. These are used for the confirmation of infection by quarantine pathogens. Serological assays involve mainly Double Antibody Sandwich - Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (DAS-ELISA) testing and Immunoprinting ELISA. Molecular assays include the use of Reverse Transcriptase - Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR).​ ...
Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) cause severe damage to many commercial crops, including grapevine. This is largely because of their ability to transmit various grapevine viral diseases, in particular grapevine leafroll-associated viruses (GLRaVs). Grapevine leafroll is one of the most wide-spread grapevine diseases worldwide. Managing the field-spread of grapevine leafroll disease requires, amongst others, stringent mealybug control. Mealybug monitoring and control methods rely on timely and accurate identification of the species present. However, proper identification of mealybug species is problematic, time-consuming and requires an expert taxonomist. In most cases, only adult females can be reliably identified morphologically. Immature insects, males and damaged specimens cannot be assigned to species. In this study, a molecular method was developed to rapidly and accurately distinguish three mealybug species associated with grapevine, namely the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus ...
Infestation of an exotic insect known as Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) and a bacterial disease called huanglongbing (HLB) have been detected in host plants in the city of San Gabriel. Direct injury caused by ACP results from the withdrawal of large amounts of sap from the plant as they feed and produce copious amounts of honeydew. The honeydew coats the leaves of the tree, encouraging sooty mold to grow. However, the most serious damage caused by the ACP is its ability to transmit the huanglongbing disease to citrus trees. The HLB disease is fatal to citrus trees. Establishment of ACP and HLB in California will negatively impact all of Californias citrus industry and all backyard citrus trees through death of the diseased trees.. A public meeting will be held on Tuesday, May 16 from 5:30 to 7:00 p.m. at the San Gabriel Library, Multi-Purpose Room, 500 S Del Mar Avenue. The CDFA and cooperating agencies will be present to answer any questions regarding the program for interested citizens in the ...
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Everyone loves a good diner, but what about a great diner? Find out for yourself at Citrus Diner in Westmont, where five-star ratings rule the menu. Bring your whole brood to this restaurant, where families can dig in to tasty and kid-friendly fare together.Cant find your khakis? No problem! Throw on a pair of your most comfortable jeans and youll blend right in at Citrus Diner. With food this good, youll be running into this restaurant to pick it up yourself.Parking is accessible and not far from the restaurant. Cyclists will love the spacious bike racks outside of Citrus Diner.Typical diners should plan to spend about $30 per person on Citrus Diners moderately priced fare. Come taste the difference in Citrus Diners food. Youll be able to see for yourself why its so highly-rated.
Use a fertilizer formulated for citrus to keep your tree in good health. There are many brands and their formulations may vary, so use the application rate specified on the package. Just be sure that in addition to the standard nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium macronutrients, it also has iron, zinc and manganese micronutrients to prevent interveinal chlorosis (pale leaves with dark green veins). FLOWERING AND HARVEST Depending upon the variety, citrus trees flower from late winter to early spring. They are likely to set more fruit than they can support. Sometime around June, when the young fruits are about the size of a marble, the tree sheds the excess; no manual thinning is needed. As the fruit approaches full size and color, you may become eager to begin harvest. Keep in mind the normal season of maturity of your variety. An orange rind color is no indication of maturity. It just means night temperatures have been dropping and the chlorophyll that has been masking the true color of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection of negative-stranded hepatitis C virus RNA using a novel strand-specific reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. AU - Mizutani, Tetsuya. AU - Ikeda, Masanori. AU - Saito, Satoru. AU - Sugiyama, Kazuo. AU - Shimotohno, Kunitada. AU - Kato, Nobuyuki. PY - 1998/2/1. Y1 - 1998/2/1. N2 - We developed a novel single-tube reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the specific detection of negative-stranded hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA. By using in vitro synthesized positive- and negative-stranded HCV RNAs, it was demonstrated that as few as 50 copies of negative-stranded HCV RNA could be specifically detected with a set of primers that amplify a 232-base pair sequence unique to the 5-non-coding region of HCV RNA, while 108 copies of positive-stranded HCV RNA were not detected. In addition, we demonstrated that this method allows the detection as few as 100 copies of negative-stranded HCV RNA even with the coexistence of a 100-fold excess of ...
Citrus trees typically grow in warm climates where insects abound. These insects are typically noticed during the spring, when trees are developing new shoots and leaves.
Closterovirus-associated Peach rosette mosaic virus decline Peach rosette mosaic virus Petunia asteroid mosaic Petunia asteroid ...
Genus Closterovirus. *Genus Crinivirus. *Genus Velarivirus. *Familie Endornaviridae (früher als dsRNA klassifiziert) ...
"ViralZone: Closterovirus". ViralZone: Closterovirus. SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, 2008. Web. 10 Nov. 2014. Fraenkel- ... Using Citrus tristeza virus as an example of closterovirus, it is possible to observe two different types of movement: one from ... Alzhanova, D. (2001). Cell-to-cell movement and assembly of a plant closterovirus: roles for the capsid proteins and Hsp70 ... These are characteristics from the Closterovirus genus. There was a suspected case found in the Netherlands that was originally ...
... (GRLaV2) is a virus infecting grapevine in the genus Closterovirus. It is associated with ...
... (GRLaV-1) is a virus infecting grapevine in the genus Closterovirus. List of viruses ...
... (GRLaV-4) is a virus infecting grapevine in the genus Closterovirus. Escobar, P.F.; ...
Rott, M.E.; Jelkmann, W. (2002). "Detection and Partial Characterization of a Second Closterovirus Associated with Little ...
In the related genus Closterovirus, these secondary structures have been found to be important in viral RNA replication. ...
... (GLRaV) is a name for a group of viruses infecting grapevine in the genus Closterovirus. ...
It is a whitefly-transmitted closterovirus vectored by Trialeurodes vaporariorum, which is known to cause a yellowing disease ...
... (CTV) is a viral species of the Closterovirus genus that causes the most economically damaging disease to ...
... and apple chlorotic leaf spot virus appears not to be a closterovirus but a new genus of the Potexviridae. Evolution The ...
Closterovirus Beet yellow stunt virus Beet yellows virus Burdock yellows virus Carnation necrotic fleck virus Carrot yellow ...
Closterovirus Beet yellow stunt virus Beet yellows virus Burdock yellows virus Carnation necrotic fleck virus Carrot yellow ...
... closterovirus MeSH B04.715.110.175 --- crinivirus MeSH B04.715.150.150 --- comovirus MeSH B04.715.150.250 --- fabavirus MeSH ... closterovirus MeSH B04.820.110.175 --- crinivirus MeSH B04.820.150.150 --- comovirus MeSH B04.820.150.250 --- fabavirus MeSH ...
Chloriridovirus Chlorovirus Chrysovirus Cilevirus Circovirus Citrivirus Cjwunalikevirus Clavavirus Closterovirus Cocadviroid ...
... , also known as beet yellows viral group, is a genus of viruses, in the family Closteroviridae. Plants serve as ... Closterovirus". Livieratos IC, Eliasco E, Müller G, et al. (July 2004). "Analysis of the RNA of Potato yellow vein virus: ... Viruses in Closterovirus are non-enveloped, with flexuous and Filamentous geometries. The diameter is around 10-13 nm, with a ... Viralzone: Closterovirus ICTV Rfam entry for the 3'-terminal pseudoknot in BYV[permanent dead link]. ...
Comparative effectiveness of ELISA and RT-PCR for detecting grapevine leafroll- associated closterovirus-3 in field samples. Am ...
Closterovirus, also known as beet yellows viral group, is a genus of viruses, in the family Closteroviridae. Plants serve as ... Closterovirus". Livieratos IC, Eliasco E, Müller G, et al. (July 2004). "Analysis of the RNA of Potato yellow vein virus: ... Viruses in Closterovirus are non-enveloped, with flexuous and Filamentous geometries. The diameter is around 10-13 nm, with a ... Viralzone: Closterovirus ICTV Rfam entry for the 3-terminal pseudoknot in BYV[permanent dead link]. ...
Full-length cloned cDNAs of lettuce infectious yellows closterovirus (LIYV) RNAs 1 and 2 were constructed and fused to the ... In vitro transcripts from cloned cDNAs of the lettuce infectious yellows closterovirus bipartite genomic RNAs are competent for ... in mesophyll protoplasts and that infectious in vitro transcripts can be derived from the cloned cDNAs of a closterovirus ...
Find out information about Closterovirus. A genus of plant viruses belonging to the family Closteroviridae that has a wide host ... range and is transmitted primarily by aphids; beet yellows virus is... Explanation of Closterovirus ... Closterovirus. Also found in: Wikipedia. Closterovirus. [¦klä·stə·rə′vī·rəs] (virology) A genus of plant viruses belonging to ... Closterovirus , Article about Closterovirus by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Closterovirus ...
f Virion RNA of Beet Yellows Closterovirus: Cell-free Translation and Some Properties ... Virion RNA of Beet Yellows Closterovirus: Cell-free Translation and Some Properties, Page 1 of 1 ...
This concerns members in the Potexvirus, Cucumovirus, Bromovirus, Tospovirus, Closterovirus, Curtovirus, Polerovirus, and ... Closterovirus. The genome organization of Closteroviridae displays complex and diversified coding capacities. Among the 10 ... Closterovirus proteins. Closteroviruses form long filamentous particles bearing a tail composed of several proteins involved in ... Closterovirus, Mastrevirus, Begomovirus, Dianthovirus, Carmovirus, Necrovirus, Tobamovirus, Sobemovirus, and Benyvirus (Table ...
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The International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses (ITCV) has divided the BYDVs into two viruses, BYDV (PAV and MAV) and cereal yellow dwarf polero-virus, CYDV (RPV) (DArcy et al., 1999), according to the previous grouping based on cytopathology (Gill and Chong, 1979), serology and nucleic acid sequences (Martin and DArcy, 1990).. Barley yellow dwarf luteoviruses are restricted to the Poaceae (Gramineae). Cultivated hosts include all the major cereal crops: barley, maize, oat, rice, rye and wheat, as well as many annual and perennial cultivated and wild grasses. BYD has been reported from over 50 countries (Lister and Ranieri, 1995). Symptoms caused by BYDVs differ with the host species and cultivar, the age and the physiological condition of the host plant at the time of infection, the strain and the environmental conditions; and they can be easily confused with nutritional and abiotic disorders. In wheat, one symptom includes leaf discoloration from tip to base and from margin to centre, ...
Genus Closterovirus. *Genus Crinivirus. *Genus Velarivirus. *Familie Endornaviridae (früher als dsRNA klassifiziert) ...
beet yellows closterovirus;. GFP,. green fluorescent protein;. HSP70h,. HSP70 homolog;. MP,. movement protein;. GUS,. β- ... 9). What is the function commissioned to HSP70 by a closterovirus? It was shown earlier (20, 21) and confirmed in this study ... To reveal the function of HSP70h in closterovirus infection, we have employed a reverse-genetic approach on a cDNA clone of a ... To facilitate studies of the function of HSP70 homolog (HSP70h) in viral infection, the beet yellows closterovirus (BYV) was ...
Closterovirus Filamentous Non-enveloped Linear Monopartite Ampelovirus Filamentous Non-enveloped Linear Monopartite Life cycle ... Closterovirus Plants None Viral movement; mechanical inoculation Viral movement Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Mechanical inoculation: ...
Closterovirus. Genus. Ampelovirus. Genus. Crinivirus. Family. Flaviviridae. Genus. Flavivirus. Genus. Pestivirus. Genus. ...
Closterovirus:. beet yellows virus. Plants. Comoviridae:. Comovirus. cowpea mosaic virus. Plants. Fabavirus. broad bean wilt ...
grapevine leafroll-associated closterovirus 2. Rank i. SPECIES. Lineage i. › Viruses. › ssRNA viruses. › ssRNA positive-strand ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Elimination of citrus tristeza closterovirus (ctv) and production of certified ... Elimination of citrus tristeza closterovirus (ctv) and production of certified citrus plants through shoot-tip micrografting. ... Elimination of citrus tristeza closterovirus (ctv) and production of certified citrus plants through shoot-tip micrografting. ... Elimination of citrus tristeza closterovirus (ctv) and production of certified citrus plants through shoot-tip micrografting. ...
The family comprises four genera, Closterovirus, Ampelovirus, Crinivirus and Velarivirus, which differ in genome type ( ... A characterising trait of three genera (Closterovirus, Ampelovirus and Crinivirus) is the type of vectors that mediate ... Genome organisation of the two representatives of the genus Closterovirus. (a) BYV, the type species of the genus showing the ... Agranovsky AA, Boyko VP, Karasev AV, Koonin EV and Dolja VV (1991) Putative 65 kDa protein of Beet yellows closterovirus is a ...
Genus Closterovirus; Wheat yellow leaf virus (WYLV) Wheat yellow mosaic. Genus Bymovirus; Wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV) (syn ...
"ViralZone: Closterovirus". ViralZone: Closterovirus. SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, 2008. Web. 10 Nov. 2014. Fraenkel- ... Using Citrus tristeza virus as an example of closterovirus, it is possible to observe two different types of movement: one from ... Alzhanova, D. (2001). Cell-to-cell movement and assembly of a plant closterovirus: roles for the capsid proteins and Hsp70 ... These are characteristics from the Closterovirus genus. There was a suspected case found in the Netherlands that was originally ...
STRAWBERRY CHLOROTIC FLECK DISEASE MAY BE CAUSED BY A NOVEL CLOSTEROVIRUS - Tzanetakis, I.E., Martin, R.R. 2006. Strawberry ... STRAWBERRY CHLOROTIC FLECK: A NEW CLOSTEROVIRUS ASSOCIATED WITH THE DISEASE - Tzanetakis, I.E., Martin, R.R. 2005. Strawberry ... Strawberry chlorotic fleck: Identification and Characterization of a Novel Closterovirus Associated with the Disease - ... Strawberry chlorotic fleck: Identification and characterization of a novel Closterovirus associated with the disease. Virus ...
citrus tristeza stem pitting SY568 closterovirus RNase protection This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check ...
Blueberry virus A (BVA)-genus Closterovirus; family Closteroviridae. Fruit drop. Virus-possibly a new genus; family ...
Detection and partial characterization of a second closterovirus associated with little cherry disease, Little cherry virus-2. ... Partial characterization of a closterovirus associated with apple mealybug-transmitted little cherry disease in North America. ... Complete genome structure and phylogenetic analysis of little cherry virus, a mealybug transmissible closterovirus. J. Gen. ...
Little cherry closterovirus 1, 2 & 3 (LchV-1, LchV-2, LchV-3). little cherry disease. Virus. ...
Closterovirus bipolar virion: evidence for initiation of assembly by minor coat protein and its restriction to the genomic RNA ... An engineered closterovirus RNA replicon and analysis of heterologous terminal sequences for replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U ...
Tomato chlorosis virus: a new whitefly-transmitted, Phloem-limited, bipartite closterovirus of tomato.. *Gail C. Wisler, ...
  • To reveal the function of HSP70h in closterovirus infection, we have employed a reverse-genetic approach on a cDNA clone of a prototype closterovirus, beet yellows virus (BYV). (pnas.org)
  • One of the viruses implicated in these symptoms is Raspberry leaf mottle virus (RLMV), a closterovirus that is transmitted by the large raspberry aphid, Amphorophora agathonica . (sare.org)
  • CTV is a member of the closterovirus group of plant viruses with long flexuous rod-shaped particles. (ufl.edu)
  • Viruses in Closterovirus are non-enveloped, with flexuous and Filamentous geometries. (wikipedia.org)
  • These data also indicated that the C-terminally truncated PVX CP lacked a movement function which could be provided in trans by the CPs of other filamentous viruses, whereas another movement determinant specified by some region outside the most C-terminal part of the PVX CP could not be complemented either by potyvirus or closterovirus CPs. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Greenhouse whitefly vectors closteroviruses that affect cucurbitaceous species and, Tomato Infectious Chlorosis ClosteroVirus (TICV). (agriculture-xprt.com)
  • otros trabajos ilustraron la presencia del vector Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldi) y de razas severas del virus, en diferentes regiones del pais. (cgiar.org)
  • Adicionalmente, los aislamientos colectados fueron inoculados por medio de injerto en plantas de lima mexicana libres del virus para evaluar la expresión de síntomas típicos de la enfermedad. (cgiar.org)
  • To facilitate studies of the function of HSP70 homolog (HSP70h) in viral infection, the beet yellows closterovirus (BYV) was modified to express green fluorescent protein. (pnas.org)
  • From a cellular point of view, recent data indicate that p23 accumulates preferentially in the nucleolus, being the first closterovirus protein with such a subcellular localization, as well as in plasmodesmata. (gva.es)
  • This closterovirus penetrates the host cell and proceeds to release the viral genomic RNA into the cell's cytoplasm. (tsusinvasives.org)
  • Closterovirus infection and mealybug exposure are necessary for the development of mealybug wilt of pineapple disease. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Full-length cloned cDNAs of lettuce infectious yellows closterovirus (LIYV) RNAs 1 and 2 were constructed and fused to the bacteriophage T3 RNA polymerase promoter. (nih.gov)