A family of plant viruses containing the largest single-stranded RNA genomes. Infections typically involve yellowing and necrosis, particularly affecting the phloem.
A genus of plant viruses in the family CLOSTEROVIRIDAE. Transmission is by whiteflies. Lettuce infectious yellows virus is the type species.
A genus of plant viruses in the family CLOSTEROVIRIDAE containing highly flexuous filaments. Some members are important pathogens of crop plants. Natural vectors include APHIDS, whiteflies, and mealybugs. The type species is Beet yellows virus.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The first digit on the radial side of the hand which in humans lies opposite the other four.
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.
Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)
The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE known for allergenic pollen (ALLERGENS).
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.
The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.
A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that is the source of the familiar flavoring used in foods and medicines (FLAVORING AGENTS).
A plant genus of the family Paeoniaceae, order Dilleniales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. These perennial herbs are up to 2 m (6') tall. Leaves are alternate and are divided into three lobes, each lobe being further divided into three smaller lobes. The large flowers are symmetrical, bisexual, have 5 sepals, 5 petals (sometimes 10), and many stamens.
The study of infectious diseases associated with plants.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.
A heterogeneous group of infections produced by coxsackieviruses, including HERPANGINA, aseptic meningitis (MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC), a common-cold-like syndrome, a non-paralytic poliomyelitis-like syndrome, epidemic pleurodynia (PLEURODYNIA, EPIDEMIC) and a serious MYOCARDITIS.
Infectious disease processes, including meningitis, diarrhea, and respiratory disorders, caused by echoviruses.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 10 serotypes, mostly coxsackieviruses.
A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.
Hoofed mammals with four legs, a big-lipped snout, and a humped back belonging to the family Camelidae.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
Sticks used as walking aids. The canes may have three or four prongs at the end of the shaft.
The mechanical process of cooling.
Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.
Insulated enclosures in which temperature, humidity, and other environmental conditions can be regulated at levels optimal for growth, hatching, reproduction, or metabolic reactions.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The number of mutations that occur in a specific sequence, GENE, or GENOME over a specified period of time such as years, CELL DIVISIONS, or generations.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.

Functional specialization and evolution of leader proteinases in the family Closteroviridae. (1/17)

Members of the Closteroviridae and Potyviridae families of the plant positive-strand RNA viruses encode one or two papain-like leader proteinases. In addition to a C-terminal proteolytic domain, each of these proteinases possesses a nonproteolytic N-terminal domain. We compared functions of the several leader proteinases using a gene swapping approach. The leader proteinase (L-Pro) of Beet yellows virus (BYV; a closterovirus) was replaced with L1 or L2 proteinases of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV; another closterovirus), P-Pro proteinase of Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV; a crinivirus), and HC-Pro proteinase of Tobacco etch virus (a potyvirus). Each foreign proteinase efficiently processed the chimeric BYV polyprotein in vitro. However, only L1 and P-Pro, not L2 and HC-Pro, were able to rescue the amplification of the chimeric BYV variants. The combined expression of L1 and L2 resulted in an increased RNA accumulation compared to that of the parental BYV. Remarkably, this L1-L2 chimera exhibited reduced invasiveness and inability to move from cell to cell. Similar analyses of the BYV hybrids, in which only the papain-like domain of L-Pro was replaced with those derived from L1, L2, P-Pro, and HC-Pro, also revealed functional specialization of these domains. In subcellular-localization experiments, distinct patterns were observed for the leader proteinases of BYV, CTV, and LIYV. Taken together, these results demonstrated that, in addition to a common proteolytic activity, the leader proteinases of closteroviruses possess specialized functions in virus RNA amplification, virus invasion, and cell-to-cell movement. The phylogenetic analysis suggested that functionally distinct L1 and L2 of CTV originated by a gene duplication event.  (+info)

Effects of modification of the transcription initiation site context on citrus tristeza virus subgenomic RNA synthesis. (2/17)

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a member of the Closteroviridae, has a positive-sense RNA genome of about 20 kb organized into 12 open reading frames (ORFs). The last 10 ORFs are expressed through 3'-coterminal subgenomic RNAs (sgRNAs) regulated in both amounts and timing. Additionally, relatively large amounts of complementary sgRNAs are produced. We have been unable to determine whether these sgRNAs are produced by internal promotion from the full-length template minus strand or by transcription from the minus-stranded sgRNAs. Understanding the regulation of 10 sgRNAs is a conceptual challenge. In analyzing commonalities of a replicase complex in producing so many sgRNAs, we examined initiating nucleotides of the sgRNAs. We mapped the 5' termini of intermediate- (CP and p13) and low- (p18) produced sgRNAs that, like the two highly abundant sgRNAs (p20 and p23) previously mapped, all initiate with an adenylate. We then examined modifications of the initiation site, which has been shown to be useful in defining mechanisms of sgRNA synthesis. Surprisingly, mutation of the initiating nucleotide of the CTV sgRNAs did not prevent sgRNA accumulation. Based on our results, the CTV replication complex appears to initiate sgRNA synthesis with purines, preferably with adenylates, and is able to initiate synthesis using a nucleotide a few positions 5' or 3' of the native initiation nucleotide. Furthermore, the context of the initiation site appears to be a regulatory mechanism for levels of sgRNA production. These data do not support either of the established mechanisms for synthesis of sgRNAs, suggesting that CTV sgRNA production utilizes a different mechanism.  (+info)

Complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3, type member of the genus Ampelovirus. (3/17)

This study reports on the complete genome sequence of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3, the type member of the genus Ampelovirus. The genome is 17 919 nt in size and contains 13 open reading frames (ORFs). Previously, the sequence of 13 154 nt of the 3'-terminal of the genome was reported. The newly sequenced portion contains a 158 nt 5' UTR, a single papain-like protease and a methyltransferase-like (MT) domain. ORF1a encodes a large polypeptide with a molecular mass of 245 kDa. With a predicted +1 frameshift, the large fusion protein generated from ORF1a/1b would produce a 306 kDa polypeptide. Phylogenetic analysis using MT domains further supports the creation of the genus Ampelovirus for mealy-bug-transmitted viruses in the family Closteroviridae.  (+info)

Genetic variability and population structure of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 isolates. (4/17)

The genetic variability and population structure of a collection of 45 Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) isolates were studied by single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and sequence analysis of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), heat-shock protein 70 homologue (HSP-70) and coat protein (CP) genes. The distribution of SSCP profiles was not correlated with the geographical origin of the isolates, indicating that GLRaV-3 is a single, undifferentiated population. The majority of the isolates showed an SSCP profile and a population structure that were composed of a single predominant variant. However, 10% of the isolates for the RdRp and HSP-70 genes and 15% for the CP gene were composed of a combination of two or more variants. Estimation of genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis disclosed the possible existence of vines with mixed infections by diverging sequence variants, showing, in some cases, possible recombination events. Furthermore, differences in the genetic diversity and constraints existing in the three regions analysed indicated a higher variability in the CP gene. The epidemiological and biological implications of this finding are discussed.  (+info)

Transmission of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 by the vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus). (5/17)

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Genetic variability of natural populations of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 in Pacific Northwest vineyards. (6/17)

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Mealybug transmission of Grapevine leafroll viruses: an analysis of virus-vector specificity. (7/17)

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3'-coterminal subgenomic RNAs and putative cis-acting elements of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 reveals 'unique' features of gene expression strategy in the genus Ampelovirus. (8/17)

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INTRODUCTION. Grapevine leafroll disease is widely accepted to be the most damaging grapevine virus disease in South Africa, with grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) the most prevalent leafroll-associated virus (Pietersen, 2006). The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is the most common and efficient vector of GLRaV-3 in South Africa (Walton & Pringle, 2004; Douglas & Krüger, 2008). Currently, the industry strategy to limit leafroll infection in newly planted, leafroll-free vineyards in South Africa is based on a multi-pronged approach that includes treating young grapevines with a systemic insecticide like imidacloprid shortly after planting; monitoring for leafroll symptoms in these vineyards over two seasons, and removing all leafroll-infected grapevines, known as rogueing (Pietersen, 2006); monitoring and controlling mealybug in adjacent leafroll-infected vineyards where rogueing is not feasible; and ensuring that workers and equipment do ...
Read Occurrence of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 5 in Portugal: genetic variability and population structure in field-grown grapevines, Archives of Virology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) cause severe damage to many commercial crops, including grapevine. This is largely because of their ability to transmit various grapevine viral diseases, in particular grapevine leafroll-associated viruses (GLRaVs). Grapevine leafroll is one of the most wide-spread grapevine diseases worldwide. Managing the field-spread of grapevine leafroll disease requires, amongst others, stringent mealybug control. Mealybug monitoring and control methods rely on timely and accurate identification of the species present. However, proper identification of mealybug species is problematic, time-consuming and requires an expert taxonomist. In most cases, only adult females can be reliably identified morphologically. Immature insects, males and damaged specimens cannot be assigned to species. In this study, a molecular method was developed to rapidly and accurately distinguish three mealybug species associated with grapevine, namely the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus ...
Diaz-Lara, A.; Klassen, V.; Sudarshana, M. R.; A., Rowhani; Maree, H. J.; Chooi, K. M.; Blouin, A. G.; Habili, N.; Aram, K.; Arnold, K.; Cooper, M. L.; Wunderlich, L.; Battany, M. C.; Bettiga, L. J.; Smith, R. J.; Preece, J. E.; Golino, D. and Al Rwahnih (2018). Characterization of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 genetic variants and application towards RT-qPCR assay design ...
The vine mealybug (VMB) was first identified as a new pest in the Coachella Valley (CV) and shortly thereafter moved north into the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). We report on VMB population dynamics and parasitoid effectiveness in these two different regions. In CV vineyards, VMB density followed a well-known pattern, increasing from spring through early summer, followed by a dramatic decline in May and June. Two parasitoids were recovered - Anagyrus pseudococci and Leptomastidea abnormis. Both parasitoids increased with VMB densities, however - Anagyrus appeared before Leptomastidea. In SJV vineyards, VMB similarly concentrated on the lower trunk and roots in winter and progressively moved from these protected areas during spring. However, comparison of CV and SJV data showed important differences in VMB seasonal abundance, distribution, and parasitism. In CV, there were 2 distinct adult VMB peaks, while 3 occurred in SJV - with adult and crawler densities highest in June. In SJV there were also ...
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Classical biological control is one of the key approaches to the management of invasive alien pests. This typically involves the importation and release of natural enemies from the pests area of origin. Due to increased concerns about the ecological safety of imported biocontrol agents, regulatory requirements for information during the importation process have increased considerably in recent years. Thus, a considerable amount of knowledge has to be generated before a natural enemy can be introduced. This also means that a considerable amount of time can be lost before implementation of biological control program. In principle, the process can be speeded up if research on potential threats is done in advance. However, the challenge to such a pre-emptive approach is that there are many potential threats and only limited resources. This paper discusses ongoing pre-emptive research on Planococcus minor, a high risk pest threat to the United States and other countries in the Caribbean Basin. It also
Definition of mealybug in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of mealybug. What does mealybug mean? Information and translations of mealybug in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Like tiny Russian dolls, the mealybugs that infest your houseplants carry bacteria inside their cells that are themselves infected with another type of bacteria. A new study by researchers at the University of California, Davis, shows that instead of spreading from bug to bug, the second set of bacteria infected the first several times in the past and are now being passed along and evolving with them. ...
First off, if this is in the wrong place i apologize, mods feel free to move it if it is. Well, my aunt gave me an orchid around xmas time, and just t
In case you havent noticed, its cold and flu season. And its a bad one. And once again, patients (not to mention friends and family) are telling me on a daily basis,
Characteristics or Features of Grapevine Communication Grapevine refers to the informal channel of communication that possesses a set of distinct features
Two formulations of tetracycline, N-pyrrolidinomethyl tetracycline and oxytetracycline hydrochloride, were tested for their efficacy by high-pressure or syringe injection on cherry trees affected with buckskin disease and by high-pressure, syringe injection or gravity bag infusion on peach trees affected with yellow leafroll (PYLR). The trees were treated in August 1983 and evaluated before harvest in 1984. The disease rating of cherry trees affected with buckskin disease was reduced from severe to mild by both antibiotic formulations when 4 g a.i. was injected per tree, providing economic control. When peach trees affected with PYLR were injected with 2 g a.i. of antibiotic per tree, the average disease rating of the trees was reduced from severe to moderate by high-pressure injection, syringe injection, and gravity bag infusion of both formulations. No significant differences in efficacy were found between the two tetracycline formulations or between the method of application in either cherry ...
Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a member of the Closteroviridae, has a 19.3-kb positive-stranded RNA genome that is organized into 12 open reading frames (ORFs) with the 10 3 genes expressed via a nested set of nine or ten 3-coterminal subgenomic mRNAs (sgRNAs). Relatively large amounts of negative-stranded RNAs complementary to both genomic and sgRNAs accumulate in infected cells. As is characteristic of RNA viruses, wild-type CTV produced more positive than negative strands, with the plus-to-minus ratios of genomic and sgRNAs estimated at 10 to 20:1 and 40 to 50:1, respectively. However, a mutant with all of the 3 genes deleted replicated efficiently, but produced plus to minus strands at a markedly decreased ratio of 1 to 2:1. Deletion analysis of 3-end genes revealed that the p23 ORF was involved in asymmetric RNA accumulation. A mutation which caused a frameshift after the fifth codon resulted in nearly symmetrical RNA accumulation, suggesting that the p23 protein, not a cis-acting element within
All of the above products should be applied as a soil drench, or as a spray directed to the surface of the soil, followed with enough overhead watering to wash them into the soil. Stop watering before water begins dripping out the bottom of the pots. Avoid over-watering for the next two days to all plenty of time for the insecticides to be absorbed. Marathon, Discus and Celero may take a week or more before you see dead mealybugs and aphids, but they also last the longest (six weeks or longer). Safari and Flagship work somewhat faster, and you may dead insects within a few days to a week. They should continue working for at least 2 to 4 weeks. Aria will work very quickly, with dead insects being seen in one to three days. Most of the Aria will be gone from the plant within a week. The products listed above can also be used as a foliar spray. Foliar sprays work because of contact activity. Most of the benefit from the foliar sprays is in the first week after spraying. For heavy infestations a ...
This gene encodes a cytokine that functions in inflammation and the maturation of B cells. In addition, the encoded protein has been shown to be an endogenous pyrogen capable of inducing fever in people with autoimmune diseases or infections. The protein is primarily produced at sites of acute and chronic inflammation, where it is secreted into the serum and induces a transcriptional inflammatory response through interleukin 6 receptor, alpha. The functioning of this gene is implicated in a wide variety of inflammation-associated disease states, including suspectibility to diabetes mellitus and systemic juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2015 ...
Ministry of Public Health, July 07 2016) - The Ministry of Public Health in its continued efforts to enhance the quality of health services it provides to citizens, is conducting a quarterly review, of the work done by the Maternal and Child Health/Expanded Programme of Immunization (MCH/EPI).. This three-day review meeting will focus on a number of pertinent issues within the local public health setting with emphasis on: Strengthening Health Systems and Services across Guyana, Exploring opportunities for Family Planning, Improving Surveillance for Yellow Fever, Using Data for Decision Making and ZIKA Management in Pregnancy.. In some brief remarks made by the PAHO/WHO Country Representative, Dr. William Adu-Krow, he expressed his satisfaction that the Ministry of Public Health is making positive strides in reducing the maternal and neo-natal mortality. He observed however, that much work is yet to be done in Guyana, if the Ministry is determined to realise universal equitable access to the best ...
Cacti and succulents dont have many enemies, but one annoying pest is the mealybug. When you find those telltale wisps of cottony material, there are steps you can take to save your plant. - Mealybugs - Cacti and Succulents at BellaOnline
Whiteflies do not like shoofly plants and thus will not go near your shielded plant. For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://dld.bz/pApn
Fig. 4 Functional screen reveals cryptococcal factors contributing to penetration of the blood-brain barrier.. (A and B) Venn diagram on distribution of the depleted sgRNAs. Transcytosis, sgRNAs depleted in penetration of the HBMEC monolayer in vitro; Brain IV, sgRNAs depleted in brain invasion after intravenous infection; Brain IN, sgRNAs depleted in disseminating from lung to brain after intranasal infection; Brain IV & IN & Transcytosis, overlap of depleted sgRNAs between Transcytosis, Brain IV, and Brain IN; YPD, sgRNAs depleted in in vitro growth; Lung IN, sgRNAs depleted in lung survival. Threshold of depletion defined as normalized log2 fold change ≤ −1. (C) Heat map showing the enrichment change of the depleted sgRNAs. Each column corresponds to a sample, and rows represent the 144 sgRNAs that were depleted during transcytosis and intravenous and intranasal infection (normalized log2 fold change ≤ −1). Sequencing read counts of the sgRNA were normalized and log2-transformed and ...
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Grapevines are susceptible to a number of pests. Mites, scales and mealybugs are only a few of the insects that are likely to plague vineyards at one time or another. However, since the grapes on your grapevine will ultimately be consumed, even organic pesticides should be avoided. The first step to controlling pests ...
Grapevine Texas Lawn Care Service and Grapevine Community events brought to our Grapevine Texas residence. Let Grapevine Lawn Care not only help you with your Lawn Care Service needs but keep you updated about the community.
Environmental Entomology publishes reports on the interaction of insects with the biological, chemical, and physical aspects of their environment.
Poser: GrapeVine Pattern for Fungi Dishes - GrapeVine Pattern for Fungi Dishes (FungiDishes available in free section of Renderosity.com) http://www.renderosity.com/mod/freestuff/details.php?item_id=59319 Also, you get 4 textures for the
PELLIONIA INSECTS Mealybugs look like white puffs of cotton. They suck plant juices and heavy infestations will coat the leaves with sticky honeydew.
DIEFFENBACHIA INSECTS Mealybugs look like white puffs of cotton. They suck plant juices and heavy infestations will coat the leaves with sticky ho...
Grape growing in California dates back to the 1800s when the Spanish planted vineyards with each mission they established. This photographic mural shows a row of staked grape vines disappearing into the morning fog.
In other parts of the world biological control of citrus mealybug varied. Kennett et al. (1999) report that in Western Australia, where P. citri and other mealybug species were serious pests of citrus, highly successful control was obtained simply by transferring Cryptolaemus from New South Wales (Wilson 1960). In other areas, results following introduction of Cryptolaemus have generally followed the patter shown in California, with failure of the beetle to become permanently established attributed to its inability to overwinter (Wood 1963, Rosen 1967, Argyriou 1969, Beingolea 1969, Greathead 1976). The beetle established only in more tropical climates such as Florida and Hawaii and in some Mediterranean countries (Muma 1955, Greathead 1976). Reports from Spain (Gomez-Clemente 1954) and Italy (Mineo 1967) point to the production and periodic colonization of Cryptolaemus giving some success. Parasitoid introductions were of course also made into other countries, but with limited success (Zinna ...
Abstract. Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are small, plant-sucking insects which comprise the second largest family of scale insects (Coccoidea). Relationships among many pseudococcid genera are poorly known and there is no stable higher level classification. Here we review previous hypotheses on relationships and classification and present the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of the Pseudococcidae based on analysis of nucleotide sequence data. We used three nuclear genes, comprising two noncontiguous fragments of elongation factor 1α (EF-1α 5′ and EF-1α 3′), fragments of the D2 and D10 expansion regions of the large subunit ribosomal DNA gene (28S), and a region of the small subunit ribosomal DNA gene (18S). We sampled sixty-four species of mealybug belonging to thirty-five genera and representing each of the five subfamilies which had been recognized previously, and included four species of Puto (Putoidae) and one species each of Aclerda (Aclerdidae) and Icerya ...
Cryptolaemus Mail-Back, Pack of 5 Orcon Cryptolaemus Mail-Back (ORCM) Cryptolaemus are often called inch Mealybug Destroyers inch because of their voracious appetite for Mealybugs! They look like small ladybugs with an orange head and tail and a black body. Their first choice is Mealybugs, but they also eat aphids, immature scale and immature whitefly. Manufacturers Product Information MSRP each $ 41.95 UPC 045501063116 Dimensions 0.25 x 8 x 4 Case Weight 1 Case Quantity 5 Cryptolaemus Mail-Back, Pack of 5 [hf-ORCM] - Pest & Disease Control - Gardening & Hydroponics Store -
Local resource for horse veterinarians in Grapevine. Includes detailed information on local clinics that provide access to horse veterinarians, as well as advice and content on horseback care, animal healthcare, and horse grooming.
It sounds as though your shrubs are hosting a population of sucking insect pests. Aphids, scales and mealybugs all suck the fluids out of the tissues of a plant and exude a sticky substance called honeydew. It can attract all kinds of other insects, flies and bees included. Carefully inspect your plants for colonies of aphids, mealy bugs or scale insects. Insecticidal soaps work well against aphids and usually on mealybugs. Hope you find out what the insect pests are so you can properly treat them ...
The results of a soil test will tell you if you should be fertilizing your grapevines. If so, take a look at this article to find out when to feed grapevines and how to fertilize grapes. Click here for more information.
Paisley Elliott is not your average 7-year-old. The Grapevine girl has been advocating on behalf of families who have been separated at the U.S.-Mexico...
Many of these items are contrary to AA philosophy. Their publication here does not mean that the Grapevine endorses or approves them; they are offered solely for your information.
Find wines and information about Buehler Vineyards, including history, maps, photos, and reviews about the Buehler Vineyards wines.
See ratings and reviews, wine tasting notes, food pairings, and find where to buy Vintage NV Bogle Vineyards Petite Sirah Clarksburg Port
Wow, danced to this JM in early 70s in The Grapevine, Pboro UK... incrdible place, caught Black Sabbath there once or twice too...may go some way to explaining how the 1st two 7 45s I bought were Freda Payne(?) and Led Zep ...
Biological control: Several natural enemies have been identified that are effective at controlling citrus mealybug. Leptomastidea abnormis (Girault), Leptomastix dactylopii Howard, Chrysoplatycerus splendens Howard, and Anagyrus pseudococci (Girault) are common wasps parasitic of second and third instar nymphs (Anonymous 2007, Griffiths and Thompson 1957). Some insects are susceptible to infections by the entomopathogenic fungus, Entomophthora fumosa (Speare 1922). Common predators include brown lacewing, Sympherobius barberi (Banks) and green lacewing, Chrysopa lateralis Guérin, trash bugs, syrphid fly larvae, and scale-eating caterpillars, Laetitia coccidivora (Watson 1918). Australian mealybug lady beetles, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant, little mealybug-eating lady beetles, Decadiomus bahamicus (Casey), and pictured ladybeetles, Scymnus flavifrons Melsheimer feed primarily on mealybugs. Two other lady beetles, Chilocorus stigma (Say) and Olla abdominalis var. plagiata (Say) occasionally ...
In all branches of life there are plenty of symbiotic associations. Insects are particularly well suited to establishing intracellular symbiosis with bacteria, providing them with metabolic capabilities they lack. Essential primary endosymbionts can coexist with facultative secondary symbionts which can, eventually, establish metabolic complementation with the primary endosymbiont, becoming a co-primary. Usually, both endosymbionts maintain their cellular identity. An exception is the endosymbiosis found in mealybugs of the subfamily Pseudoccinae, such as Planococcus citri, with Moranella endobia located inside Tremblaya princeps. We report the genome sequencing of M. endobia str. PCVAL and the comparative genomic analyses of the genomes of strains PCVAL and PCIT of both consortium partners. A comprehensive analysis of their functional capabilities and interactions reveals their functional coupling, with many cases of metabolic and informational complementation. Using comparative genomics, we confirm
Roll the newspapers gently to encourage earwigs to crawl into the paper folds and leave the rolled papers outdoors overnight. For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://dld.bz/pApn
This journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects, including types of insects, insecticides, biological control, and crop protection.
Sedums such as Hens and Chicks are generally pest-free. If insects are attacking your plants, it may indicate the plants are under stress of some sort. If the insects fly away when disturbed, they might be aphids or whiteflies. If they remain stationary, they might be mealybugs or scales. You can wash aphids and whiteflies away to temporarily discourage them. You can pry mealybugs or scale insects from the plants with a fingernail ...
The Kids Table - Vine Tries To Make A Commercial For Vine In Vine. Look its going on vine so it can only be 6 seconds long. It has to be. Complete Full Transcript, Dialogue, Remarks, Saying, Quotes, Words And Text.
Cayayaanka iyo Cudurka gacantaCayayaankaMealybug ( mealybug Cacao )Astaamaha: waxyeelo toos ah uu nuugo dheecaanka dhirta , iyo heerka waxyeellada daran oo keeni kara in Iscelin ee koritaanka dhirta iyo khasaaro sababta oo ah miro yar yar . Dadban , boodada ku soo saaro malab dharab sida Jasa SEO Bergaransinoloshooda fangas sooty .Control : hab farsamaysan waxa : gooyaa iyo fayadhowrka fieldSidee bayoolaji : isticmaalka cadaawayaashoodii oo dabiici ah sida ku nooli ay madow , iyo fangaska fresenii parasitEmpusa , bahal Cryptolaemus . Isticmaalka cadaawayaashoodii oo dabiici ah sida ku nooli ay madow , fangaska iyo dulin fresenii Empusa , Cryptolaemus montrouzieri bahal ( Coccinellidae ) iyo abnormis Leptomastidae ( Encyrtidae ) .Kiimikada macnaheedu waa : Isticmaal -kaneecooyinka Lebaycid 550 foojigan 0.2 % ( gobolka hagaajiyay ee dahaar warshaddaBorer Miraha ( cramerella Acrocercops )Astaamaha: dhiiqada ay dirxiga iyo god hoose ee maqaarka midhaha iyo tegaayo xaarka sameeyo . Classnobr mararka ...
Grapevines thrive in vineyards around the world but can also flourish in the wild. Unfortunately, it can be hard to identify a grapevine unless the vine is heavy with a plump fruit harvest. The fruit harvest isnt the only thing grapevines are good for. The vines and leaves can be used to cook food on a grill, ...
Grapevine protection is an important issue in viticulture. To reduce pesticide use, sustainable disease control strategies are proposed, including a promis
Many of these items are contrary to AA philosophy. Their publication here does not mean that the Grapevine endorses or approves them; they are offered solely for your information.. The most signficant potential in the work is that it may confirm, as many now suspect, that alcoholism is caused by chemical abnormalities rather than being a psychosocial phenomenon.. -- Loretta McLaughlin. Boston, Mass.. This is a preview. To view the full article, use the link below to begin a free 7-day trial! ...
A virulent vine disease has broken out in Piedmont causing widespread devastation in some areas and prompting fears that hundreds of hectares of vineyard could be lost.
"The family Closteroviridae revised." Archives of Virology 147, no. 10 (2002): 2039-2044. Liu, H-Y., G. C. Wisler, and J. E. ...
... is associated with two filamentous plant viruses of the family Closteroviridae, little cherry virus-1 ( ... "New genus Velarivirus in the family Closteroviridae and new species Cordyline Virus1 to be assigned to the new genus", G. P. ... "The family Closteroviridae revised". Archives of Virology. 147 (10): 2039-2044. doi:10.1007/s007050200048. PMID 12376765. S2CID ...
... , also known as beet yellows viral group, is a genus of viruses, in the family Closteroviridae. Plants serve as ... Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Martellivirales Family: Closteroviridae Genus: Closterovirus Arracacha virus 1 Beet yellow stunt virus ... ICTV Report: Closteroviridea Viralzone: Closterovirus "Genus: Closterovirus - Closteroviridae' - Positive-sense RNA Viruses". ... "ICTV Report Closteroviridae". "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. Livieratos IC, Eliasco E, Müller G, et al. (July ...
This virus is non-enveloped, being a member of the closteroviridae virus family. Carrot yellow-leaf virus is a variant of beet ... however there is a general pattern in the family Closteroviridae that might apply to this particular virus. Closteroviruses are ... the Baltimore system and the International Committee of Taxonomy of Viruses system classifies this virus as closteroviridae, or ...
The Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV) is a plant pathogen of the Closteroviridae family. It is a whitefly-transmitted ...
... (CNFV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Closteroviridae. Family Groups - The Baltimore ...
... (LIYV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Closteroviridae. ICTVdB-The Universal Virus ...
The following families are recognized: Bromoviridae Closteroviridae Endornaviridae Kitaviridae Mayoviridae Togaviridae ...
ICTV Report: Closteroviridae Viralzone: Crinivirus Rfam entry for 3'-terminal pseudoknot in SPCSV Rfam entry for 3'-terminal ... Crinivirus, formerly the lettuce infectious yellows virus group, is a genus of viruses, in the family Closteroviridae. They are ... Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Martellivirales Family: Closteroviridae Genus: Crinivirus Abutilon yellows virus Bean yellow disorder ... "ICTV Report Closteroviridae". ICTVdB Management (2006). 00.017.0.02. Crinivirus. In: ICTVdB-The Universal Virus Database, ...
... (GLRaV-3) is a grapevine infecting virus in the family Closteroviridae, genus Ampelovirus ...
... includes Norwalk virus Family Carmotetraviridae Family Closteroviridae Family Flaviviridae - includes Yellow fever virus, West ...
Caliciviridae Carmotetraviridae Caulimoviridae Chaseviridae Chrysoviridae Chuviridae Circoviridae Clavaviridae Closteroviridae ...
"ICTV Report Closteroviridae". "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV Report: Closteroviridae Viralzone: ... Closteroviridae is a family of viruses. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are currently 56 species in this family, divided ... Closteroviridae". The Journal of General Virology. 101 (4): 364-365. doi:10.1099/jgv.0.001397. PMID 32134375. " ... vein banding-associated virus Olive leaf yellowing-associated virus Persimmon virus B Viruses in the family Closteroviridae are ...
Familie Closteroviridae. *Genus Ampelovirus. *Genus Closterovirus. *Genus Crinivirus. *Genus Velarivirus. *Familie ...
修道院病毒科 Closteroviridae. *豇豆镶嵌病毒科 Comoviridae ...
修道院病毒科 Closteroviridae. *豇豆镶嵌病毒科 Comoviridae ...
When retroviruses have integrated their own genome into the germ line, their genome is passed on to a following generation. These endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), contrasted with exogenous ones, now make up 5-8% of the human genome.[7] Most insertions have no known function and are often referred to as "junk DNA". However, many endogenous retroviruses play important roles in host biology, such as control of gene transcription, cell fusion during placental development in the course of the germination of an embryo, and resistance to exogenous retroviral infection. Endogenous retroviruses have also received special attention in the research of immunology-related pathologies, such as autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis, although endogenous retroviruses have not yet been proven to play any causal role in this class of disease.[8] While transcription was classically thought to occur only from DNA to RNA, reverse transcriptase transcribes RNA into DNA. The term "retro" in retrovirus refers to ...
The hepatitis envelope proteins are composed of subunits made from the viral preS1, preS2, and S genes. The L (for "large") envelope protein contains all three subunits. The M (for "medium") protein contains only preS2 and S. The S (for "small") protein contains only S. The genome portions encoding these envelope protein subuntis share both the same frame and the same stop codon (generating nested transcripts on a single open reading frame. The pre-S1 is encoded first (closest to the 5' end), followed directly by the pre-S2 and the S. When a transcript is made from the beginning of the pre-S1 region, all three genes are included in the transcript and the L protein is produced. When the transcript starts after the pro-S1 at the beginning of the pre-S2 the final protein contains the pre-S2 and S subunits only and therefore is an M protein. The smallest envelope protein containing just the S subunit is made most because it is encoded closest to the 3' end and comes from the shortest transcript. ...
Viruses in Betanodavirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral geometries, and T=3 symmetry. The diameter is around 30 nm. Genomes are linear and segmented, bipartite, around 21.4kb in length.[8]. The crystal structure of a betanodavirus- T=3 Grouper nervous necrosis virus (GNNV)-like particle has been determined by X-ray crystallography. The virus-like particle contains 180 subunits of the capsid protein, and each capsid protein (CP) shows three major domains: (i) the N-terminal arm, an inter-subunit extension at the inner surface; (ii) the shell domain (S-domain), a jelly-roll structure; and (iii) the protrusion domain (P-domain) formed by three-fold trimeric protrusions. [10]. ...
Nucleic acid analysis suggests a very long association of the viruses with the wasps (greater than 70 million years).. Two proposals have been advanced for how the wasp/virus association developed. The first suggests that the virus is derived from wasp genes. Many parasitoids that do not use PDVs inject proteins that provide many of the same functions, that is, a suppression of the immune response to the parasite egg. In this model, the braconid and ichneumonid wasps packaged genes for these functions into the viruses-essentially creating a gene-transfer system that results in the caterpillar producing the immune-suppressing factors. In this scenario, the PDV structural proteins (capsids) were probably "borrowed" from existing viruses.. The alternative proposal suggests that ancestral wasps developed a beneficial association with an existing virus that eventually led to the integration of the virus into the wasp's genome. Following integration, the genes responsible for virus replication and the ...
Louis Pasteur was unable to find a causative agent for rabies and speculated about a pathogen too small to be detected using a microscope.[21] In 1884, the French microbiologist Charles Chamberland invented a filter (known today as the Chamberland filter or the Pasteur-Chamberland filter) with pores smaller than bacteria. Thus, he could pass a solution containing bacteria through the filter and completely remove them from the solution.[22] In 1892, the Russian biologist Dmitri Ivanovsky used this filter to study what is now known as the tobacco mosaic virus. His experiments showed that crushed leaf extracts from infected tobacco plants remain infectious after filtration. Ivanovsky suggested the infection might be caused by a toxin produced by bacteria, but did not pursue the idea.[23] At the time it was thought that all infectious agents could be retained by filters and grown on a nutrient medium - this was part of the germ theory of disease.[2] In 1898, the Dutch microbiologist Martinus ...
The Herpesvirales naming system originated in 1973 and has been elaborated considerably since. All herpesviruses described since this system was adopted have been named in accordance with it. The recommended naming system specifies that each species name consists of three parts: a first word, a second word, and finally a number. The first word should be derived from the taxon (family or subfamily) to which its primary natural host belongs. The subfamily name is used for viruses from members of the family Bovidae or from primates (the virus name ending in -ine, e.g. bovine), and the host family name for other viruses (ending in -id, e.g. equid). Human herpesviruses have been treated as an exception (human rather than hominid). Following the host-derived term, species in the family Herpesviridae, which are divided into subfamilies Alphaherpesvirinae, Betaherpesvirinae, and Gammaherpesvirinae, will have the word alphaherpesvirus, betaherpesvirus, or gammaherpesvirus added, respectively. Species in ...
Despite his other successes, Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) was unable to find a causative agent for rabies and speculated about a pathogen too small to be detected using a microscope.[1] In 1884, the French microbiologist Charles Chamberland (1851-1931) invented a filter - known today as the Chamberland filter - that had pores smaller than bacteria. Thus, he could pass a solution containing bacteria through the filter and completely remove them from the solution.[2] In 1876, Adolf Mayer, who directed the Agricultural Experimental Station in Wageningen was the first to show that what he called "Tobacco Mosaic Disease" was infectious, he thought that it was caused by either a toxin or a very small bacterium. Later, in 1892, the Russian biologist Dmitry Ivanovsky (1864-1920) used a Chamberland filter to study what is now known as the tobacco mosaic virus. His experiments showed that crushed leaf extracts from infected tobacco plants remain infectious after filtration. Ivanovsky suggested the infection ...
Gammaherpesviruses are of primary interest due to the two human viruses, EBV and KSHV and the diseases they cause. The gammaherpesviruses replicate and persist in lymphoid cells but some are capable of undergoing lytic replication in epithelial or fibroblast cells. Gammaherpesviruses may be a cause of chronic fibrotic lung diseases in humans and in animals.[10] Murid herpesvirus 68 is an important model system for the study of gammaherpesviruses with tractable genetics. The gammaherpesviruses, including HVS, EBV, KSHV, and RRV, are capable of establishing latent infection in lymphocytes.[9] Attenuated virus mutants represent a promising approach towards gamma-herpesvirus infection control. Surprisingly, latency-deficient and, therefore, apathogenic MHV-68 mutants are found to be highly effective vaccines against these viruses.[8] Research in this area is almost exclusively performed using MHV68 as KSHV and EBV (the major human pathogens of this family) do not productively infect model organisms ...
The Birnaviridae genome encodes several proteins: Birnaviridae RNA-directed RNA polymerase (VP1), which lacks the highly conserved Gly-Asp-Asp (GDD) sequence, a component of the proposed catalytic site of this enzyme family that exists in the conserved motif VI of the palm domain of other RNA-directed RNA polymerases.[3] The large RNA segment, segment A, of birnaviruses codes for a polyprotein (N-VP2-VP4-VP3-C) [4] that is processed into the major structural proteins of the virion: VP2, VP3 (a minor structural component of the virus), and into the putative protease VP4.[4] VP4 protein is involved in generating VP2 and VP3.[4] recombinant VP3 is more immunogenic than recombinant VP2.[5] Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), a birnavirus, is an important pathogen in fish farms. Analyses of viral proteins showed that VP2 is the major structural and immunogenic polypeptide of the virus.[6][7] All neutralizing monoclonal antibodies are specific to VP2 and bind to continuous or discontinuous ...
Mononegavirales adalah ordo virus RNA yang berada dalam filum Negarnaviricota dan kelas Monjiviricetes.[1] Nama Mononegavirales berasa dari bahasa Yunani μóνος [monos] yang merujuk pada genom untai tunggal pada sebagian besar ordo ini, bahasa Latin negare yang merujuk pada sifat sense-negatif genom virus, serta akhiran -virales yang menunjukkan ordo virus.[2] Anggota ordo ini yang dikenal di antaranya virus rabies dan virus Ebola yang dapat menyebabkan penyakit, baik pada manusia maupun hewan. ...
Astroviridae · Barnaviridae · Bromoviridae · Caliciviridae · Closteroviridae · Comoviridae · Dicistroviridae · Flaviviridae · ...
"ICTV Report Closteroviridae". "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV Report: Closteroviridae Viralzone: ... Closteroviridae is a family of viruses. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are currently 56 species in this family, divided ... Closteroviridae". The Journal of General Virology. 101 (4): 364-365. doi:10.1099/jgv.0.001397. PMID 32134375. " ... vein banding-associated virus Olive leaf yellowing-associated virus Persimmon virus B Viruses in the family Closteroviridae are ...
Closteroviridae is a family of viruses. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are currently 39 species in this family, divided ... Closteroviridae is a family of viruses. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are currently 39 species in this family, divided ... Viruses in Closteroviridae are non-enveloped, with flexuous and filamentous geometries. The diameter is around 10-13 nm, with a ...
... is a family of plant viruses withfilamentous, helically constructed particles showing distinct cross‐banding ... 2002) The family Closteroviridae revised. Archives of Virology 147: 2039-2044. Martelli GP and Russo M (1984) Use of thin ... Closteroviridae. Giovanni P Martelli, University of Bari, Bari, Italy Thierry Candresse, UMR GDPP, IBVM, INRA, Villenave ... Closteroviridae is a family of plant viruses with filamentous, helically constructed particles showing distinct cross‐banding ...
"The family Closteroviridae revised." Archives of Virology 147, no. 10 (2002): 2039-2044. Liu, H-Y., G. C. Wisler, and J. E. ...
Closteroviridae. Family: Closteroviridae. Chapter Version: ICTV Ninth Report; 2009 Taxonomy Release. Virion properties. ... List of other related viruses which may be members of the family Closteroviridae but have not been approved as species. ... Hence, the transcriptional strategy of members of the family Closteroviridae follows the mechanism of other "alpha-like" ... have the same particle morphology as those of the family Closteroviridae. However, the sequence of the CP of members of this ...
Members of the genus Closterovirus whose genomes have been sequenced show three types of genome organization exemplified by those of BYV (Figure 1.Closterovirus), CTV (Figure 2.Closterovirus) and beet yellow stunt virus (BYSV): (i) the BYV genome contains eight ORFs flanked by 5′- and 3′-UTRs of 107 and 181 nt, respectively; (ii) the genome of CTV has 12 ORFs and UTRs of 107 nt at the 5′-end and 275 nt at the 3′-end, and differs from the BYV genome in having two papain-like protease domains in the ORF1a-encoded protein, an extra 5′-proximal ORF (ORF2) encoding a 33 kDa product with no similarity to any other protein in databases, and two extra 3′-proximal ORFs (ORF9 and ORF11); and (iii) the genome of BYSV has 10 ORFs and a 3′-UTR of 241 nt, intermediate between that of the BYSV and CTV UTRs. A further difference with the BYSV genome rests in the presence of an extra ORF (ORF2) encoding a 30 kDa polypeptide with no similarity to any other protein in databases. This ORF is located ...
Closteroviridae - Martellie, G.P., Agranovsky, A.A., Bar-Joseph, M., Boscia, D., Candresse, T., Coutts, R., Dolja, V.V., Hu, J ... Closteroviridae. In: King, A.M.Q., Adams, M.J., Carstens, E.B. and Lefkowitz, E.J. editiors. Virus Taxonomy: Classification and ... CHARACTERIZATION OF A NOVEL MEMBER OF THE CLOSTEROVIRIDAE FAMILY FROM MENTHA - Tzanetakis, I.E., Postman, J.D., Martin, R.R. ... a member of the closteroviridae from mint with similarities to all three genera of the family.. Plant Disease. 89(6):654-658. ...
... family Closteroviridae) Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV). Additionally, by producing a p22-deficient ToCV infectious mutant clone ...
Familie Closteroviridae. *Genus Ampelovirus. *Genus Closterovirus. *Genus Crinivirus. *Genus Velarivirus. *Familie ...
Family Closteroviridae. Pages 987-1001 in: Virus Taxonomy-Ninth Report on the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. A ...
Closteroviridae. Genus. Closterovirus. Genus. Ampelovirus. Genus. Crinivirus. Family. Flaviviridae. Genus. Flavivirus. Genus. ...
O. Family Closteroviridae. P. Family Luteoviridae. Q. Floating Genera. IV. Retroelements. A. Family Pseudoviridae. B. Family ... F. Family Closteroviridae. G. Family Luteoviridae. H. Floating Genera. IX. Summary and Discussion. Chapter 7 Expression of ...
Read Plant Virology by Roger Hull by Roger Hull by Roger Hull for free with a 30 day free trial. Read eBook on the web, iPad, iPhone and Android
Familia: Closteroviridae Genus: Crinivirus Species: Tomato infectious chlorosis virus Name[edit]. Tomato infectious chlorosis ...
Familia: Closteroviridae Genus: Velarivirus Species: Cordyline virus 2 Name[edit]. Cordyline virus 2 ...
Study Virology term 1 - positive strand viruses. flashcards from Isabel Leach
Blueberry virus A (BVA)-genus Closterovirus; family Closteroviridae. Fruit drop. Virus-possibly a new genus; family ...
修道院病毒科 Closteroviridae. *豇豆镶嵌病毒科 Comoviridae ...
修道院病毒科 Closteroviridae. *豇豆镶嵌病毒科 Comoviridae ...
Closteroviridae. Grapevine leafroll associated viruses (GLRaV) (eight virus types: 1-7 & 9 are detected). ...
2002) The family Closteroviridae revised. Archives of Virology 147: 2039-2044.. Martelli GP, Ghanem‐Sabanadzovic NA, Agranovsky ... 2012) Taxonomic revision of the family Closteroviridae with special reference to the grapevine leafroll‐associated members of ...
Family Closteroviridae. *Family Comoviridae. *Family Dicistroviridae. *Family Flaviviridae - includes Yellow fever virus, West ...
The genome organization of Closteroviridae displays complex and diversified coding capacities. Among the 10 proteins encoded by ...
2008). It is a crinivirus in the family Closteroviridae. CYSDV can persist in the whitefly adult for up to 9 days, the longest ...
The family Closteroviridae revised. Martelli, GP; Agranovsky, AA; Bar-Joseph, M; Boscia, D; Candresse, T; Coutts, RHA; Dolja, ... Genomic and biological analyses of a virus from a symptomless grapevine support a new genus within the family Closteroviridae ...
The family Closteroviridae revised. Martelli, GP; Agranovsky, AA; Bar-Joseph, M; Boscia, D; Candresse, T; Coutts, RH; Dolja, VV ... Functional specialization and evolution of the leader protease of the family Closteroviridae ... Cloning and sequencing was family Closteroviridae, a family of arthropod-transmitted done as described [3]. The GenBank ... Cloning and sequencing was family Closteroviridae, a family of arthropod-transmitted done as described [3]. The GenBank ...
CTV is a single-stranded positive sense RNA virus belonging to genus Closterovirus in Closteroviridae family. The virus has ...
A closterovirus (family: Closteroviridae) isolated from tobacco crops in Northern Greece (Macedonia). Chatzivassiliou, E.K. ; ...
  • Genera: Ampelovirus Closterovirus Crinivirus Velarivirus Unassigned species: Actinidia virus 1 Alligatorweed stunting virus Blueberry virus A Megakespama mosaic virus Mint vein banding-associated virus Olive leaf yellowing-associated virus Persimmon virus B Viruses in the family Closteroviridae are non-enveloped, with flexuous and filamentous geometries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate that the Nicotiana benthamiana RDR6 is involved in defence against the bipartite crinivirus (genus Crinivirus, family Closteroviridae) Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV). (nih.gov)
  • PYVV is classified as a tentative species of the Crinivirus genus in the Closteroviridae family. (scielo.org.co)
  • Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) and Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV) are two emergent viruses that belong to the genus Crinivirus in the family Closteroviridae. (scialert.net)
  • As for other bipartite criniviruses (genus Crinivirus, family Closteroviridae), the genome of Tomato chlorosis virus encodes an RNA silencing suppressor, the protein p22, in the 3′-proximal region of RNA1. (ebscohost.com)
  • Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV) (family Closteroviridae, genus Crinivirus) is an emerging virus which causes severe diseases on melon (Cucumis melo) plants. (nih.gov)
  • Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV) is a bipartite cucurbit-infecting crinivirus within the family Closteroviridae . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Le Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus ( CYSDV ), qui appartient à la famille des Closteroviridae et au genre Crinivirus , infecte les cucurbitacées au Moyen-Orient et dans le pourtour méditerranéen (Egypte, Maroc, Espagne, Portugal, Sud de la France depuis 2001). (sediag.com)
  • NEW KIT - CYSDV (DAS-ELISA) - Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus ( CYSDV ) belongs to the Closteroviridae family and to the genus Crinivirus . (sediag.com)
  • Título en ingles: Comparison of RNA isolation methods for Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV) detection by RT-PCR in different organs of Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja Título corto: comparación de métodos de extracción de RNAResumen Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV, Crinivirus/Closteroviridae), contiene genoma tripartita de ssRNA(+), se limita al floema y causa pérdidas en la producción. (unal.edu.co)
  • Abstract Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV, Crinivirus/Closteroviridae), contains a tripartite genome with ssRNA(+), is phloem limited and can affect yield reduction. (unal.edu.co)
  • Genus Tequatrovirus ( T4virus , T4-ähnliche Viren , en. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2012) Taxonomic revision of the family Closteroviridae with special reference to the grapevine leafroll‐associated members of the genus Ampelovirus and the putative species unassigned to the family. (els.net)
  • CTV is a single-stranded positive sense RNA virus belonging to genus Closterovirus in Closteroviridae family. (hindawi.com)
  • A genus of plant viruses in the family CLOSTEROVIRIDAE. (dictionary.net)
  • Sequence data revealed the presence of two viral genomes, one with properties congruent with members of the genus Potyvirus (family Potyviridae ), and the other with members of the genus Ampelovirus (family Closteroviridae ). (springer.com)
  • Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) (genus Closterovirus, family Closteroviridae) is the causal agent of devastating epidemics that changed the course of the citrus industry. (gva.es)
  • Based on the phylogenetic analysis of HSP70h amino acid sequences of Closteroviridae family members, LChV-1-TA was grouped into a well-supported cluster with the members of the genus Velarivirus and was also closely related to other LChV-1 isolates. (naver.com)
  • Closteroviridae is a family of viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Closteroviridae is a family of plant viruses with filamentous, helically constructed particles showing distinct cross‐banding and varying in length from 650 nm (species with fragmented genome) to over 2000 nm (species with monopartite genome). (els.net)
  • Closteroviridae is a growing family of plant viruses with currently four genera. (els.net)
  • The family Closteroviridae revised. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloning and sequencing was family Closteroviridae, a family of arthropod-transmitted done as described [3]. (deepdyve.com)
  • Closterovirus coat protein (IPR002679) This family consist of coat proteins from closterovirus, which belong to the Closteroviridae, which have a positive strand ssRNA genome with no DNA stage during replication. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The family Closteroviridae , to which Citrus tristeza virus [CTV] belongs, comprises members with single-stranded (ss)-, positive polarity RNA genomes that are the largest among plant-infecting viruses. (springer.com)
  • Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is caused by a complex of several virus species (grapevine leafroll-associated viruses, GLRaV) in the family Closteroviridae. (jove.com)
  • The phylogenetic analysis using the CP nucleotide sequences of these two viruses compared with other viruses in the family Closteroviridae (the family includes all other known leafroll associated viruses) showed that these two viruses have closer relationship to GLRaV-5 and -9. (avf.org)
  • Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a member of the family Closteroviridae. (citrusindustry.net)
  • 2001. Functional specialization and evolution of the leader proteinases in the family closteroviridae. (ommegaonline.org)
  • Viruses in Closteroviridae are non-enveloped, with flexuous and filamentous geometries. (eol.org)
  • Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a member of the Closteroviridae , has a 19.3-kb positive-stranded RNA genome that is organized into 12 open reading frames (ORFs) with the 10 3' genes expressed via a nested set of nine or ten 3'-coterminal subgenomic mRNAs (sgRNAs). (unl.edu)
  • Tristeza is caused by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a member of the Closteroviridae with a single-stranded and positive sense RNA-genome of 19.3 kb [ 16 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although the pathogens are members of the α-proteobacteria and Closteroviridae , respectively, both are restricted to phloem cells in infected citrus and are transmitted by insect vectors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • En este trabajo se estimó la estructura poblacional y variación genética del virus del amarillamiento de las venas de la papa (PYVV) infectando cultivos en Colombia por medio del análisis de 69 secuencias nucleotídicas y aminoácidos deducidos de la proteína mayor de la cápside (CP) reportados en el banco de genes (GenBank). (scielo.org.co)
  • Los aislamientos de PYVV fueron obtenidos de los hospederos Solanum tuberosum (ST ) y Solanum phureja (SP) en diferentes regiones de Colombia, predominantemente los departamentos de Cundinamarca, Antioquia y Nariño localizados en la región Central y Sur Oeste del país respectivamente. (scielo.org.co)
  • El análisis bioinformático reveló que a pesar de la amplia distribución geográfica de los hospederos y diferentes años de colecta, PYVV mantiene un similitud genética entre 97,1 y 100,0% indicando una gran estabilidad genética espacial y temporal en la CP. (scielo.org.co)
  • PYVV se detectó por RT-PCR en todos los órganos analizados por los tres métodos de extracción. (unal.edu.co)
  • The complete nucleotide sequences of PYVV RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and Northern hybridization analysis showed that PYVV RNA 1 contained the replication module and an additional open reading frame (p7), while two distinct species, RNAs 2 and 3, contain the Closteroviridae hallmark gene array. (herts.ac.uk)
  • Essais et analyses en virologie végétale - Détection de virus, viroïdes et phytoplasmes des végétaux. (sediag.com)
  • Es un virus re-emergente y cuarentenario en Europa y Estados Unidos. (unal.edu.co)
  • Se desconoce como es la distribución del virus en plantas infectadas lo que hace necesario establecer un método de extracción de RNA, que sea eficiente en la obtención de material a partir de diferentes órganos. (unal.edu.co)
  • además, permitió la detección del virus por RT-PCR en todos los órganos evaluados. (unal.edu.co)
  • The Company's product, CNDO-109, is a lysate (disrupted Closteroviridae (CTV)-1 cells, cell membrane fragments, cell proteins and other cellular components) that activates donor Natural Killer (NK) cells. (watchlistnews.com)
  • a common strategy among members of the Closteroviridae family [23]. (herbafrost.com)