Closteroviridae: A family of plant viruses containing the largest single-stranded RNA genomes. Infections typically involve yellowing and necrosis, particularly affecting the phloem.Crinivirus: A genus of plant viruses in the family CLOSTEROVIRIDAE. Transmission is by whiteflies. Lettuce infectious yellows virus is the type species.Closterovirus: A genus of plant viruses in the family CLOSTEROVIRIDAE containing highly flexuous filaments. Some members are important pathogens of crop plants. Natural vectors include APHIDS, whiteflies, and mealybugs. The type species is Beet yellows virus.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Thumb: The first digit on the radial side of the hand which in humans lies opposite the other four.MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Beer: An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.Portraits as Topic: Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)Nobel PrizeBrazilMedicine in ArtHong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.Solidago: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE known for allergenic pollen (ALLERGENS).Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.GermanyRed Cross: International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.Classification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Indigo Carmine: Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.BooksVanilla: A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that is the source of the familiar flavoring used in foods and medicines (FLAVORING AGENTS).Paeonia: A plant genus of the family Paeoniaceae, order Dilleniales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. These perennial herbs are up to 2 m (6') tall. Leaves are alternate and are divided into three lobes, each lobe being further divided into three smaller lobes. The large flowers are symmetrical, bisexual, have 5 sepals, 5 petals (sometimes 10), and many stamens.Plant Pathology: The study of infectious diseases associated with plants.Book SelectionHistory, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Thiamine: 3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".Enterovirus B, Human: A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.Enterovirus InfectionsCoxsackievirus Infections: A heterogeneous group of infections produced by coxsackieviruses, including HERPANGINA, aseptic meningitis (MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC), a common-cold-like syndrome, a non-paralytic poliomyelitis-like syndrome, epidemic pleurodynia (PLEURODYNIA, EPIDEMIC) and a serious MYOCARDITIS.Echovirus Infections: Infectious disease processes, including meningitis, diarrhea, and respiratory disorders, caused by echoviruses.Poliovirus: A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.Enterovirus A, Human: A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 10 serotypes, mostly coxsackieviruses.Coronavirus: A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.Camels: Hoofed mammals with four legs, a big-lipped snout, and a humped back belonging to the family Camelidae.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Coronavirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Canes: Sticks used as walking aids. The canes may have three or four prongs at the end of the shaft.Refrigeration: The mechanical process of cooling.Plastics: Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Vitis: A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.Food Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.Incubators: Insulated enclosures in which temperature, humidity, and other environmental conditions can be regulated at levels optimal for growth, hatching, reproduction, or metabolic reactions.Saccharum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.SARS Virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mutation Rate: The number of mutations that occur in a specific sequence, GENE, or GENOME over a specified period of time such as years, CELL DIVISIONS, or generations.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.

Functional specialization and evolution of leader proteinases in the family Closteroviridae. (1/17)

Members of the Closteroviridae and Potyviridae families of the plant positive-strand RNA viruses encode one or two papain-like leader proteinases. In addition to a C-terminal proteolytic domain, each of these proteinases possesses a nonproteolytic N-terminal domain. We compared functions of the several leader proteinases using a gene swapping approach. The leader proteinase (L-Pro) of Beet yellows virus (BYV; a closterovirus) was replaced with L1 or L2 proteinases of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV; another closterovirus), P-Pro proteinase of Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV; a crinivirus), and HC-Pro proteinase of Tobacco etch virus (a potyvirus). Each foreign proteinase efficiently processed the chimeric BYV polyprotein in vitro. However, only L1 and P-Pro, not L2 and HC-Pro, were able to rescue the amplification of the chimeric BYV variants. The combined expression of L1 and L2 resulted in an increased RNA accumulation compared to that of the parental BYV. Remarkably, this L1-L2 chimera exhibited reduced invasiveness and inability to move from cell to cell. Similar analyses of the BYV hybrids, in which only the papain-like domain of L-Pro was replaced with those derived from L1, L2, P-Pro, and HC-Pro, also revealed functional specialization of these domains. In subcellular-localization experiments, distinct patterns were observed for the leader proteinases of BYV, CTV, and LIYV. Taken together, these results demonstrated that, in addition to a common proteolytic activity, the leader proteinases of closteroviruses possess specialized functions in virus RNA amplification, virus invasion, and cell-to-cell movement. The phylogenetic analysis suggested that functionally distinct L1 and L2 of CTV originated by a gene duplication event.  (+info)

Effects of modification of the transcription initiation site context on citrus tristeza virus subgenomic RNA synthesis. (2/17)

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a member of the Closteroviridae, has a positive-sense RNA genome of about 20 kb organized into 12 open reading frames (ORFs). The last 10 ORFs are expressed through 3'-coterminal subgenomic RNAs (sgRNAs) regulated in both amounts and timing. Additionally, relatively large amounts of complementary sgRNAs are produced. We have been unable to determine whether these sgRNAs are produced by internal promotion from the full-length template minus strand or by transcription from the minus-stranded sgRNAs. Understanding the regulation of 10 sgRNAs is a conceptual challenge. In analyzing commonalities of a replicase complex in producing so many sgRNAs, we examined initiating nucleotides of the sgRNAs. We mapped the 5' termini of intermediate- (CP and p13) and low- (p18) produced sgRNAs that, like the two highly abundant sgRNAs (p20 and p23) previously mapped, all initiate with an adenylate. We then examined modifications of the initiation site, which has been shown to be useful in defining mechanisms of sgRNA synthesis. Surprisingly, mutation of the initiating nucleotide of the CTV sgRNAs did not prevent sgRNA accumulation. Based on our results, the CTV replication complex appears to initiate sgRNA synthesis with purines, preferably with adenylates, and is able to initiate synthesis using a nucleotide a few positions 5' or 3' of the native initiation nucleotide. Furthermore, the context of the initiation site appears to be a regulatory mechanism for levels of sgRNA production. These data do not support either of the established mechanisms for synthesis of sgRNAs, suggesting that CTV sgRNA production utilizes a different mechanism.  (+info)

Complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3, type member of the genus Ampelovirus. (3/17)

This study reports on the complete genome sequence of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3, the type member of the genus Ampelovirus. The genome is 17 919 nt in size and contains 13 open reading frames (ORFs). Previously, the sequence of 13 154 nt of the 3'-terminal of the genome was reported. The newly sequenced portion contains a 158 nt 5' UTR, a single papain-like protease and a methyltransferase-like (MT) domain. ORF1a encodes a large polypeptide with a molecular mass of 245 kDa. With a predicted +1 frameshift, the large fusion protein generated from ORF1a/1b would produce a 306 kDa polypeptide. Phylogenetic analysis using MT domains further supports the creation of the genus Ampelovirus for mealy-bug-transmitted viruses in the family Closteroviridae.  (+info)

Genetic variability and population structure of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 isolates. (4/17)

The genetic variability and population structure of a collection of 45 Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) isolates were studied by single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and sequence analysis of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), heat-shock protein 70 homologue (HSP-70) and coat protein (CP) genes. The distribution of SSCP profiles was not correlated with the geographical origin of the isolates, indicating that GLRaV-3 is a single, undifferentiated population. The majority of the isolates showed an SSCP profile and a population structure that were composed of a single predominant variant. However, 10% of the isolates for the RdRp and HSP-70 genes and 15% for the CP gene were composed of a combination of two or more variants. Estimation of genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis disclosed the possible existence of vines with mixed infections by diverging sequence variants, showing, in some cases, possible recombination events. Furthermore, differences in the genetic diversity and constraints existing in the three regions analysed indicated a higher variability in the CP gene. The epidemiological and biological implications of this finding are discussed.  (+info)

Transmission of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 by the vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus). (5/17)

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Genetic variability of natural populations of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 in Pacific Northwest vineyards. (6/17)

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Mealybug transmission of Grapevine leafroll viruses: an analysis of virus-vector specificity. (7/17)

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3'-coterminal subgenomic RNAs and putative cis-acting elements of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 reveals 'unique' features of gene expression strategy in the genus Ampelovirus. (8/17)

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INTRODUCTION. Grapevine leafroll disease is widely accepted to be the most damaging grapevine virus disease in South Africa, with grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) the most prevalent leafroll-associated virus (Pietersen, 2006). The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is the most common and efficient vector of GLRaV-3 in South Africa (Walton & Pringle, 2004; Douglas & Krüger, 2008). Currently, the industry strategy to limit leafroll infection in newly planted, leafroll-free vineyards in South Africa is based on a multi-pronged approach that includes treating young grapevines with a systemic insecticide like imidacloprid shortly after planting; monitoring for leafroll symptoms in these vineyards over two seasons, and removing all leafroll-infected grapevines, known as rogueing (Pietersen, 2006); monitoring and controlling mealybug in adjacent leafroll-infected vineyards where rogueing is not feasible; and ensuring that workers and equipment do ...
Read "Occurrence of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 5 in Portugal: genetic variability and population structure in field-grown grapevines, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) cause severe damage to many commercial crops, including grapevine. This is largely because of their ability to transmit various grapevine viral diseases, in particular grapevine leafroll-associated viruses (GLRaVs). Grapevine leafroll is one of the most wide-spread grapevine diseases worldwide. Managing the field-spread of grapevine leafroll disease requires, amongst others, stringent mealybug control. Mealybug monitoring and control methods rely on timely and accurate identification of the species present. However, proper identification of mealybug species is problematic, time-consuming and requires an expert taxonomist. In most cases, only adult females can be reliably identified morphologically. Immature insects, males and damaged specimens cannot be assigned to species. In this study, a molecular method was developed to rapidly and accurately distinguish three mealybug species associated with grapevine, namely the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus ...
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Classical biological control is one of the key approaches to the management of invasive alien pests. This typically involves the importation and release of natural enemies from the pests area of origin. Due to increased concerns about the ecological safety of imported biocontrol agents, regulatory requirements for information during the importation process have increased considerably in recent years. Thus, a considerable amount of knowledge has to be generated before a natural enemy can be introduced. This also means that a considerable amount of time can be lost before implementation of biological control program. In principle, the process can be speeded up if research on potential threats is done in advance. However, the challenge to such a pre-emptive approach is that there are many potential threats and only limited resources. This paper discusses ongoing pre-emptive research on Planococcus minor, a high risk pest threat to the United States and other countries in the Caribbean Basin. It also
Definition of mealybug in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of mealybug. What does mealybug mean? Information and translations of mealybug in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Like tiny Russian dolls, the mealybugs that infest your houseplants carry bacteria inside their cells that are themselves infected with another type of bacteria. A new study by researchers at the University of California, Davis, shows that instead of spreading from bug to bug, the second set of bacteria infected the first several times in the past and are now being passed along and evolving with them. ...
First off, if this is in the wrong place i apologize, mods feel free to move it if it is. Well, my aunt gave me an orchid around xmas time, and just t
In case you havent noticed, its cold and flu season. And its a bad one. And once again, patients (not to mention friends and family) are telling me on a daily basis,
... Communication Grapevine refers to the informal channel of communication that possesses a set of distinct features
Two formulations of tetracycline, N-pyrrolidinomethyl tetracycline and oxytetracycline hydrochloride, were tested for their efficacy by high-pressure or syringe injection on cherry trees affected with buckskin disease and by high-pressure, syringe injection or gravity bag infusion on peach trees affected with yellow leafroll (PYLR). The trees were treated in August 1983 and evaluated before harvest in 1984. The disease rating of cherry trees affected with buckskin disease was reduced from severe to mild by both antibiotic formulations when 4 g a.i. was injected per tree, providing economic control. When peach trees affected with PYLR were injected with 2 g a.i. of antibiotic per tree, the average disease rating of the trees was reduced from severe to moderate by high-pressure injection, syringe injection, and gravity bag infusion of both formulations. No significant differences in efficacy were found between the two tetracycline formulations or between the method of application in either cherry ...
All of the above products should be applied as a soil drench, or as a spray directed to the surface of the soil, followed with enough overhead watering to wash them into the soil. Stop watering before water begins dripping out the bottom of the pots. Avoid over-watering for the next two days to all plenty of time for the insecticides to be absorbed. Marathon, Discus and Celero may take a week or more before you see dead mealybugs and aphids, but they also last the longest (six weeks or longer). Safari and Flagship work somewhat faster, and you may dead insects within a few days to a week. They should continue working for at least 2 to 4 weeks. Aria will work very quickly, with dead insects being seen in one to three days. Most of the Aria will be gone from the plant within a week. The products listed above can also be used as a foliar spray. Foliar sprays work because of contact activity. Most of the benefit from the foliar sprays is in the first week after spraying. For heavy infestations a ...
This gene encodes a cytokine that functions in inflammation and the maturation of B cells. In addition, the encoded protein has been shown to be an endogenous pyrogen capable of inducing fever in people with autoimmune diseases or infections. The protein is primarily produced at sites of acute and chronic inflammation, where it is secreted into the serum and induces a transcriptional inflammatory response through interleukin 6 receptor, alpha. The functioning of this gene is implicated in a wide variety of inflammation-associated disease states, including suspectibility to diabetes mellitus and systemic juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2015 ...
Cacti and succulents dont have many enemies, but one annoying pest is the mealybug. When you find those telltale wisps of cottony material, there are steps you can take to save your plant. - Mealybugs - Cacti and Succulents at BellaOnline
Whiteflies do not like shoofly plants and thus will not go near your shielded plant. For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://dld.bz/pApn
Grapevines are susceptible to a number of pests. Mites, scales and mealybugs are only a few of the insects that are likely to plague vineyards at one time or another. However, since the grapes on your grapevine will ultimately be consumed, even organic pesticides should be avoided. The first step to controlling pests ...
Environmental Entomology publishes reports on the interaction of insects with the biological, chemical, and physical aspects of their environment.
TOLMIEA INSECTS Mealybugs look like white puffs of cotton. They suck plant juices and heavy infestations will coat the leaves with sticky honeydew.
DIEFFENBACHIA INSECTS Mealybugs look like white puffs of cotton. They suck plant juices and heavy infestations will coat the leaves with sticky ho...
Grape growing in California dates back to the 1800s when the Spanish planted vineyards with each mission they established. This photographic mural shows a row of staked grape vines disappearing into the morning fog.
In other parts of the world biological control of citrus mealybug varied. Kennett et al. (1999) report that in Western Australia, where P. citri and other mealybug species were serious pests of citrus, highly successful control was obtained simply by transferring Cryptolaemus from New South Wales (Wilson 1960). In other areas, results following introduction of Cryptolaemus have generally followed the patter shown in California, with failure of the beetle to become permanently established attributed to its inability to overwinter (Wood 1963, Rosen 1967, Argyriou 1969, Beingolea 1969, Greathead 1976). The beetle established only in more tropical climates such as Florida and Hawaii and in some Mediterranean countries (Muma 1955, Greathead 1976). Reports from Spain (Gomez-Clemente 1954) and Italy (Mineo 1967) point to the production and periodic colonization of Cryptolaemus giving some success. Parasitoid introductions were of course also made into other countries, but with limited success (Zinna ...
Abstract. Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are small, plant-sucking insects which comprise the second largest family of scale insects (Coccoidea). Relationships among many pseudococcid genera are poorly known and there is no stable higher level classification. Here we review previous hypotheses on relationships and classification and present the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of the Pseudococcidae based on analysis of nucleotide sequence data. We used three nuclear genes, comprising two noncontiguous fragments of elongation factor 1α (EF-1α 5′ and EF-1α 3′), fragments of the D2 and D10 expansion regions of the large subunit ribosomal DNA gene (28S), and a region of the small subunit ribosomal DNA gene (18S). We sampled sixty-four species of mealybug belonging to thirty-five genera and representing each of the five subfamilies which had been recognized previously, and included four species of Puto (Putoidae) and one species each of Aclerda (Aclerdidae) and Icerya ...
Cryptolaemus Mail-Back, Pack of 5 Orcon Cryptolaemus Mail-Back (ORCM) Cryptolaemus are often called inch Mealybug Destroyers inch because of their voracious appetite for Mealybugs! They look like small ladybugs with an orange head and tail and a black body. Their first choice is Mealybugs, but they also eat aphids, immature scale and immature whitefly. Manufacturers Product Information MSRP each $ 41.95 UPC 045501063116 Dimensions 0.25 x 8 x 4 Case Weight 1 Case Quantity 5 Cryptolaemus Mail-Back, Pack of 5 [hf-ORCM] - Pest & Disease Control - Gardening & Hydroponics Store -
Local resource for horse veterinarians in Grapevine. Includes detailed information on local clinics that provide access to horse veterinarians, as well as advice and content on horseback care, animal healthcare, and horse grooming.
It sounds as though your shrubs are hosting a population of sucking insect pests. Aphids, scales and mealybugs all suck the fluids out of the tissues of a plant and exude a sticky substance called honeydew. It can attract all kinds of other insects, flies and bees included. Carefully inspect your plants for colonies of aphids, mealy bugs or scale insects. Insecticidal soaps work well against aphids and usually on mealybugs. Hope you find out what the insect pests are so you can properly treat them ...
The results of a soil test will tell you if you should be fertilizing your grapevines. If so, take a look at this article to find out when to feed grapevines and how to fertilize grapes. Click here for more information.
See ratings and reviews, wine tasting notes, food pairings, and find where to buy Vintage NV Bogle Vineyards Petite Sirah Clarksburg Port
Find wines and information about Buehler Vineyards, including history, maps, photos, and reviews about the Buehler Vineyards wines.
Wow, danced to this JM in early 70s in The Grapevine, Pboro UK... incrdible place, caught Black Sabbath there once or twice too...may go some way to explaining how the 1st two 7 45s I bought were Freda Payne(?) and Led Zep ...
Biological control: Several natural enemies have been identified that are effective at controlling citrus mealybug. Leptomastidea abnormis (Girault), Leptomastix dactylopii Howard, Chrysoplatycerus splendens Howard, and Anagyrus pseudococci (Girault) are common wasps parasitic of second and third instar nymphs (Anonymous 2007, Griffiths and Thompson 1957). Some insects are susceptible to infections by the entomopathogenic fungus, Entomophthora fumosa (Speare 1922). Common predators include brown lacewing, Sympherobius barberi (Banks) and green lacewing, Chrysopa lateralis Guérin, trash bugs, syrphid fly larvae, and scale-eating caterpillars, Laetitia coccidivora (Watson 1918). Australian mealybug lady beetles, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant, little mealybug-eating lady beetles, Decadiomus bahamicus (Casey), and pictured ladybeetles, Scymnus flavifrons Melsheimer feed primarily on mealybugs. Two other lady beetles, Chilocorus stigma (Say) and Olla abdominalis var. plagiata (Say) occasionally ...
Roll the newspapers gently to encourage earwigs to crawl into the paper folds and leave the rolled papers outdoors overnight. For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://dld.bz/pApn
Sedums such as Hens and Chicks are generally pest-free. If insects are attacking your plants, it may indicate the plants are under stress of some sort. If the insects fly away when disturbed, they might be aphids or whiteflies. If they remain stationary, they might be mealybugs or scales. You can wash aphids and whiteflies away to temporarily discourage them. You can pry mealybugs or scale insects from the plants with a fingernail ...
The Kids Table - Vine Tries To Make A Commercial For Vine In Vine. Look its going on vine so it can only be 6 seconds long. It has to be. Complete Full Transcript, Dialogue, Remarks, Saying, Quotes, Words And Text.
Cayayaanka iyo Cudurka gacantaCayayaankaMealybug ( mealybug Cacao )Astaamaha: waxyeelo toos ah uu nuugo dheecaanka dhirta , iyo heerka waxyeellada daran oo keeni kara in Iscelin ee koritaanka dhirta iyo khasaaro sababta oo ah miro yar yar . Dadban , boodada ku soo saaro malab dharab sida Jasa SEO Bergaransinoloshooda fangas sooty .Control : hab farsamaysan waxa : gooyaa iyo fayadhowrka fieldSidee bayoolaji : isticmaalka cadaawayaashoodii oo dabiici ah sida ku nooli ay madow , iyo fangaska fresenii parasitEmpusa , bahal Cryptolaemus . Isticmaalka cadaawayaashoodii oo dabiici ah sida ku nooli ay madow , fangaska iyo dulin fresenii Empusa , Cryptolaemus montrouzieri bahal ( Coccinellidae ) iyo abnormis Leptomastidae ( Encyrtidae ) .Kiimikada macnaheedu waa : Isticmaal -kaneecooyinka Lebaycid 550 foojigan 0.2 % ( gobolka hagaajiyay ee dahaar warshaddaBorer Miraha ( cramerella Acrocercops )Astaamaha: dhiiqada ay dirxiga iyo god hoose ee maqaarka midhaha iyo tegaayo xaarka sameeyo . Classnobr mararka ...
Grapevines thrive in vineyards around the world but can also flourish in the wild. Unfortunately, it can be hard to identify a grapevine unless the vine is heavy with a plump fruit harvest. The fruit harvest isnt the only thing grapevines are good for. The vines and leaves can be used to cook food on a grill, ...
Many of these items are contrary to AA philosophy. Their publication here does not mean that the Grapevine endorses or approves them; they are offered solely for your information.. The most signficant potential in the work is that it may confirm, as many now suspect, that alcoholism is caused by chemical abnormalities rather than being a psychosocial phenomenon.. -- Loretta McLaughlin. Boston, Mass.. This is a preview. To view the full article, use the link below to begin a free 7-day trial! ...
A virulent vine disease has broken out in Piedmont causing widespread devastation in some areas and prompting fears that hundreds of hectares of vineyard could be lost.
On several occasions in 2011, succulents (Crassulaceae) for sale at retail stores in Florida were found with infestations of the mealybug Vryburgia trionymoides DeLotto. A traceback revealed that the succulents originated in California, where this mealybug is known as an occasional greenhouse pest. Vryburgia trionymoides was first detected in Florida in 2002 at several discount retailers in Volusia, Lake, and Palm Beach counties, and was not detected again until 2005, again in Volusia County. After 2005, Vryburgia trionymoides was not seen again in Florida until 2011, when it was spotted in Nassau County.. ...
If there is any doubt as to the political leanings of Fox News, one has only to watch the "Grapevine" segment on Fox News "Special Report" to see evidence of a political agenda pitched to a specific group. This unbalanced reporting encompasses certain basic themes, chief among them being the culture war (persecuted or triumphant Christians/morally deficient liberals particularly gays), science (global warming is a hoax), and politics (perceived or real malfeasance on the part of Democrats while ignoring that of Republicans). "Grapevine" provides affirmation and validation for their core demographic. Because of this tilt, certain right wing organizations are given "pride of place" in "Grapevine" segments - one of them being, "The Culture and Media Institute" which is a project of the Media Research Center whose leader is Fox fave, Brent Bozell. So it was no surprise that Friday nights (December 19th) "Grapevine" treated us to a little goody from those whose mission is "to preserve and help ...
All 800 pounds of rooted cuttings have arrived, and we will start this week to get them planted before they dry out. The planting actually starts at Maple Woods vineyard where we are replacing vines that died during the winter. We are not expanding our vineyards this year but are only replacing vines that died in past years.. We have a special sprayer that allows us to carefully spray Roundup just under our vines without impacting the vines themselves. Our objective is to kill weeds that will compete with the vines for water later in the season.. The fungicide sprays are just the first in a 7-10 day schedule of applications designed to keep fungus on the defensive. We will spray all the way up until just before the first frost.. Finally, our Foch and some of our Frontenac are very slow to break bud this season and weve delayed pruning them as a result. We will take 2-3 people to focus on pruning these vines late this week.. ...
Learn more about tree and shrub insects that cause problems in South Florida, including aphids, soft scales, mealybugs, and more.
When you grow a vineyard to create homemade wine, sharing a bottle of wine made from your own vineyard harvest is sublime. Includes information on grape varieties, establishing the vineyard, pruning and kniffin and high-renewal training diagrams.
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Pelidnota punctata, Grapevine Beetle image
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Pelidnota punctata, Grapevine beetle image
Plant Disease 85:910-918...Plant Disease 85:910-918...Survey Methods for Assessment of Citrus tristeza virus Incidence in Citrus Nurseries...G. Hughes , Institute of Ecology and Resource Management, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, EH9 3JG, Scotland, UK ; and T. R. Gottwald , USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Ft. Pierce, FL 34945...
This paper deals with the Purification method of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) from infected sweet orange(Citrus sinensis[L]. Osbeck). The frozen and infected tissues were homogenized with 0.1mol/L Tris-buffer pH8.4 which contains 0.15% TritonX-100. After several differential centrifugations including two times of precipitation with PEG (MW 6,000), the supernatant was centrifuged by incontinuous sucrose density gradient of 200-400mg/ml and 600 mg/ml at 30,000 r/m (Hitachi, RPT 40 rot) for 3 hours. Then the ba...
According to the formula, the grower needs to measure three parameters each year: the actual number of vines per acre, the number of clusters per vine, and the cluster weight. These parameters are discussed below with examples. • Actual number of bearing vines per acre (ANV): The maximum number of vines per acre is determined by row and vine spacing. For example, spacing of a 6 X 9 feet vineyard will have 807 vines per acre. Almost always the "actual number" is lower than the "maximum number" of vines per acre due to missing vines for several reasons such as disease (e.g., crown gall), winter injuries, replanting, etc. For these reasons, each year, growers need to count missing vines, then subtract that number from the maximum number to get an accurate count of bearing vines. If 5% of the 807 vines per acre (i.e., about 40 vines) were missing or nonbearing, then the actual number of bearing vines per acre is 767.. • Number of clusters per vine (NC): This number will depend on how many nodes ...
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Learn how to get rid of bugs on basil plants naturally. Covers mealybugs, caterpillars, whiteflies, aphids, and more pests! DIY remedies.
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¿Buscás algo que hacer en Grapevine? Seas residente, nuevo en la ciudad o simplemente estés de paso, tenemos un montón de sugerencias y eventos. Podés explorar por ubicación, por popularidad, por nuestras mejores selecciones, eventos gratis... lo que te parezca. ¿Listo?
Grapevine High School is warning parents and staff after a tenth grader came down with a confirmed case of pertussis, which is also known as whooping cough.
Based on what your needs are, growing vines in Houston is easy. Keep in mind that most vines do require some pruning to maintain their shape and growth habit.
Technology Networks is an internationally recognised publisher that provides access to the latest scientific news, products, research, videos and posters.
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Looking for grapevine stopper? Find out information about grapevine stopper. A device that allows temporary grip on a large-diameter cable at high tension; consists of a webbed sleeve that contracts under tension Explanation of grapevine stopper
Cicadellidae: Laevicephalus minimus Dlg1948, Pendarus magnus Dlg1948; Pseudococcidae: Heterococcus arenae (Sand Mealybug) [found underneath leaf sheaths; this insect is more common in western USA, although it also occurs in Missouri & New Jersey] SN2014, Heterococcus nudus (Naked Grass Mealybug) [found on the crown & underneath leaf sheaths of host plants; this insect is widely distributed in northern USA & California] SN2014 ...
Hi Dennis: Do these ants eat pollen or are they actually herding aphids or mealybugs around? _________________________________________________________________ Gratis Internet Explorer 8 optimizado para MSN http://ie8.msn.com/microsoft/internet-explorer-8/… ...
Rycar Insecticide: Superior whitefly and aphid control neonicotinoids IPM program Aphids Chili Thrips Leafhoppers Mealybugs Whiteflies
Connect with Dr. Edward Clark, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Grapevine, TX. Video chat, send a message, ask a text question, or make a virtual appointment on the doctors Virtual Practice on HealthTap.
Photographed by Kirk Irwin, California Central Coast Vineyards wall mural from Murals Your Way will add a distinctive touch to any room. Choose a pre-set size, or customize to your wall.
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Emmanuel Giboulot, a biodynamic winemaker in Beaune, has been threatened with a €30,000 fine and six months in prison for not treating his vines against the flavesence dorée disease.
Wednesday morning gave us frost. The sky was clear and there was no wind, so it didnt really feel cold. Callie and I wandered the deer paths that wind between the parcels of grape vines and around the patches of woods. I would guess that about fifty percent of the parcels out back have been pruned ...
And now some fresh pickings from the Political Grapevine... Money in the Bank While Americans were struggling with a sluggish economy congressional leaders actually saw their net worth rise in the past year.
I am from the typical French provincial bourgeoisie, from Burgundy where my family has produced wine for generations, and my only ambition is that people would say I read a Latour 1992 with the same pleasure as they would say I drank a Latour 1992! I have still a long way to go, as you…
A tradução deste artigo se encontra no nosso site: mvtimes.com/category/portuguese-translation/. Following my last column regarding the topic of immigration, I decided to continue to talk ...
A Comprehensive Succulent Resource with images, information, maps, growing tips, sowing tips. History and Distribution of Succulent plants. Cultivation and propagation of succulents. Medicinal Succulents
Viticulture biosecurity AG0091 Black spot of grapevines AG0198 Collecting samples for nematode analysis citrus and grapevines AG1369 Soft Scales (Coccidae) on Grapevines in Australia
Previous studies have shown a large difference in soluble EPCR levels across EPCR Ser219Gly variant groups, being 2-fold higher in Ser/Gly and 4-fold higher in Gly/Gly compared to noncarriers of Gly.2,4-6 The current analysis has confirmed the higher levels of sEPCR identified for the Gly allele. The large variability in levels for the "Gly" allele, which can be seen in the current study by the large SD for the Gly allele, has been suggested to be caused at least in part by alternative splicing of the mRNA for this allele, resulting in a longer protein that is expressed, but which does not associate with the membrane. A minor portion of plasma sEPCR has been identified as this alternatively spliced variant in carriers of the Gly allele.18 It has been suggested that the plasma level of the alternatively spliced variant may be related to inflammatory processes.18 The levels of sEPCR in the current study were measured in health and, as the alternatively spliced variant would be expected to be ...
Damage from low winter temperatures is arguably the greatest risk to sustainable profitable winegrape production in the eastern US. The majority of Maryland vineyards had not experienced a significant amount of low temperature damage over the past decade or so, however vineyards throughout Maryland have experienced damage over the past three winters. The following "TimelyVit" will give an overview of how vines attempt to prevent damage, the conditions which influence the level of damage, and types of damage. Please see the complement "TimelyVit" in the series on "Assessing Grapevine Bud Damage," which discusses how to assess the damage and how to modify your pruning based on the assessment.. ...
Coconut Grove Grapevine - Daily updates on whats up in Coconut Grove. We cover news, events, gossip and happenings in the Grove, happening neighborhoods, Miami news, Miami art news
Coconut Grove Grapevine - Daily updates on whats up in Coconut Grove. We cover news, events, gossip and happenings in the Grove, happening neighborhoods, Miami news, Miami art news
Millesima offers Turley Wine Cellars : Kirschenmann Vineyard Zinfandel 2015 available in our store or online for fast and reliable delivery. Provenance guaranteed. Advice and services at 212-639-9463.
Box Of Chocolate is a Quadrupel (Quad) style beer brewed by Charleville Vineyard Microbrewery in Sainte Genevieve, MO. 4.1 average with 308 ratings, reviews and opinions.
Results for vineyard spray equipment from AAMS, Agil, agrobac and other leading brands. Compare and contact a supplier near you on agriculture-xprt.com
It suddenly seems necessary to remind the leadership of the Steamship Authority that the boat line was created and exists for Islanders.
OK I have moved into a house share (out of my parents at last ). I have a proper signed by both parties contract. I have found out the last tenant was booted out due to not paying his rent, and the grapevine says he owes about £16k to other parties. I am concerned about Bailiffs turning up. The l...
Its hard to say what values you should use because of the lack of available data. The 1.038 potential seems a little high so I would use 82.0% for DBFG, 1.5% for FG-CG and 3.5% for moisture. That should put potential at around 1.036. Hopefully that gets you in the ballpark when formulating your recipes ...
Familie Closteroviridae. *Genus Ampelovirus. *Genus Closterovirus. *Genus Crinivirus. *Genus Velarivirus. *Familie ...
修道院病毒科 Closteroviridae. *豇豆镶嵌病毒科 Comoviridae ...
修道院病毒科 Closteroviridae. *豇豆镶嵌病毒科 Comoviridae ...
"The family Closteroviridae revised." Archives of Virology 147, no. 10 (2002): 2039-2044. Liu, H-Y., G. C. Wisler, and J. E. ...
ICTV proposal 2012.001a-fP, "New genus Velarivirus in the family Closteroviridae and new species Cordyline Virus1 to be ... Little cherry disease is associated with two filamentous plant viruses of the family Closteroviridae, little cherry virus-1 ( ... "The family Closteroviridae revised". Archives of Virology. 147 (10): 2039-2044. doi:10.1007/s007050200048. PMID 12376765. ICTV ...
... is a genus of viruses, in the family Closteroviridae. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are currently three ... Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Closteroviridae Genus: Velarivirus Cordyline virus 1 Grapevine leafroll-associated ...
... pathogenic virus of the family Closteroviridae. WYLV virions are 1600-1850 nm in length and 10 nm in diameter. The virus, like ...
This virus is non-enveloped, being a member of the closteroviridae virus family. Carrot yellow-leaf virus is a variant of beet ... There is no research specifically on the cytopathic effect of CYLV, however there is a general pattern in the Closteroviridae ... the Baltimore system and the International Committee of Taxonomy of Viruses system classifies this virus as closteroviridae, or ...
... (BYV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Closteroviridae. Beet yellows virus is transmitted by ...
The Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV) is a plant pathogen of the Closteroviridae family. It is a whitefly-transmitted ...
... (CNFV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Closteroviridae. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus ...
... (LIYV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Closteroviridae. ICTVdB-The Universal Virus ...
... , also known as beet yellows viral group, is a genus of viruses, in the family Closteroviridae. Plants serve as ... Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Closteroviridae Genus: Closterovirus Beet yellow stunt virus Beet yellows virus ...
... , formerly the lettuce infectious yellows virus group, is a genus of viruses, in the family Closteroviridae. They are ... Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Closteroviridae Genus: Crinivirus Abutilon yellows virus Bean yellow disorder virus ...
... (GLRaV-3) is a grapevine infecting virus in the family Closteroviridae, genus Ampelovirus ...
Closteroviridae Genus: Ampelovirus Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 Grapevine ...
... includes Norwalk virus Family Carmotetraviridae Family Closteroviridae Family Flaviviridae - includes Yellow fever virus, West ...
Caliciviridae Carmotetraviridae Caulimoviridae Chordopoxvirinae Chrysoviridae Circoviridae Clavaviridae Closteroviridae ...
... is a family of viruses. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are currently 39 species in this family, divided ... Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Closteroviridae Genus: Ampelovirus Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 Grapevine ... Viruses in Closteroviridae are non-enveloped, with flexuous and filamentous geometries. The diameter is around 10-13 nm, with a ...
When retroviruses have integrated their own genome into the germ line, their genome is passed on to a following generation. These endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), contrasted with exogenous ones, now make up 5-8% of the human genome.[7] Most insertions have no known function and are often referred to as "junk DNA". However, many endogenous retroviruses play important roles in host biology, such as control of gene transcription, cell fusion during placental development in the course of the germination of an embryo, and resistance to exogenous retroviral infection. Endogenous retroviruses have also received special attention in the research of immunology-related pathologies, such as autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis, although endogenous retroviruses have not yet been proven to play any causal role in this class of disease.[8] While transcription was classically thought to occur only from DNA to RNA, reverse transcriptase transcribes RNA into DNA. The term "retro" in retrovirus refers to ...
The hepatitis envelope proteins are composed of subunits made from the viral preS1, preS2, and S genes. The L (for "large") envelope protein contains all three subunits. The M (for "medium") protein contains only preS2 and S. The S (for "small") protein contains only S. The genome portions encoding these envelope protein subuntis share both the same frame and the same stop codon (generating nested transcripts on a single open reading frame. The pre-S1 is encoded first (closest to the 5' end), followed directly by the pre-S2 and the S. When a transcript is made from the beginning of the pre-S1 region, all three genes are included in the transcript and the L protein is produced. When the transcript starts after the pro-S1 at the beginning of the pre-S2 the final protein contains the pre-S2 and S subunits only and therefore is an M protein. The smallest envelope protein containing just the S subunit is made most because it is encoded closest to the 3' end and comes from the shortest transcript. ...
Viruses in Betanodavirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral geometries, and T=3 symmetry. The diameter is around 30 nm. Genomes are linear and segmented, bipartite, around 21.4kb in length.[8]. The crystal structure of a betanodavirus- T=3 Grouper nervous necrosis virus (GNNV)-like particle has been determined by X-ray crystallography. The virus-like particle contains 180 subunits of the capsid protein, and each capsid protein (CP) shows three major domains: (i) the N-terminal arm, an inter-subunit extension at the inner surface; (ii) the shell domain (S-domain), a jelly-roll structure; and (iii) the protrusion domain (P-domain) formed by three-fold trimeric protrusions. [10]. ...
Nucleic acid analysis suggests a very long association of the viruses with the wasps (greater than 70 million years).. Two proposals have been advanced for how the wasp/virus association developed. The first suggests that the virus is derived from wasp genes. Many parasitoids that do not use PDVs inject proteins that provide many of the same functions, that is, a suppression of the immune response to the parasite egg. In this model, the braconid and ichneumonid wasps packaged genes for these functions into the viruses-essentially creating a gene-transfer system that results in the caterpillar producing the immune-suppressing factors. In this scenario, the PDV structural proteins (capsids) were probably "borrowed" from existing viruses.. The alternative proposal suggests that ancestral wasps developed a beneficial association with an existing virus that eventually led to the integration of the virus into the wasp's genome. Following integration, the genes responsible for virus replication and the ...
Louis Pasteur was unable to find a causative agent for rabies and speculated about a pathogen too small to be detected using a microscope.[21] In 1884, the French microbiologist Charles Chamberland invented a filter (known today as the Chamberland filter or the Pasteur-Chamberland filter) with pores smaller than bacteria. Thus, he could pass a solution containing bacteria through the filter and completely remove them from the solution.[22] In 1892, the Russian biologist Dmitri Ivanovsky used this filter to study what is now known as the tobacco mosaic virus. His experiments showed that crushed leaf extracts from infected tobacco plants remain infectious after filtration. Ivanovsky suggested the infection might be caused by a toxin produced by bacteria, but did not pursue the idea.[23] At the time it was thought that all infectious agents could be retained by filters and grown on a nutrient medium - this was part of the germ theory of disease.[2] In 1898, the Dutch microbiologist Martinus ...
The Herpesvirales naming system originated in 1973 and has been elaborated considerably since. All herpesviruses described since this system was adopted have been named in accordance with it. The recommended naming system specifies that each species name consists of three parts: a first word, a second word, and finally a number. The first word should be derived from the taxon (family or subfamily) to which its primary natural host belongs. The subfamily name is used for viruses from members of the family Bovidae or from primates (the virus name ending in -ine, e.g. bovine), and the host family name for other viruses (ending in -id, e.g. equid). Human herpesviruses have been treated as an exception (human rather than hominid). Following the host-derived term, species in the family Herpesviridae, which are divided into subfamilies Alphaherpesvirinae, Betaherpesvirinae, and Gammaherpesvirinae, will have the word alphaherpesvirus, betaherpesvirus, or gammaherpesvirus added, respectively. Species in ...
Closteroviridae is a family of viruses. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are currently 39 species in this family, divided ... Closteroviridae is a family of viruses. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are currently 39 species in this family, divided ... Viruses in Closteroviridae are non-enveloped, with flexuous and filamentous geometries. The diameter is around 10-13 nm, with a ...
... is a family of plant viruses withfilamentous, helically constructed particles showing distinct cross‐banding ... 2002) The family Closteroviridae revised. Archives of Virology 147: 2039-2044. Martelli GP and Russo M (1984) Use of thin ... Closteroviridae. Giovanni P Martelli, University of Bari, Bari, Italy Thierry Candresse, UMR GDPP, IBVM, INRA, Villenave ... Closteroviridae is a family of plant viruses with filamentous, helically constructed particles showing distinct cross‐banding ...
Closteroviridae is a family of viruses. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are currently 39 species in this family, divided ... Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Closteroviridae Genus: Ampelovirus Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 Grapevine ... Viruses in Closteroviridae are non-enveloped, with flexuous and filamentous geometries. The diameter is around 10-13 nm, with a ...
Closteroviridae. Family: Closteroviridae. Chapter Version: ICTV Ninth Report; 2009 Taxonomy Release. Virion properties. ... List of other related viruses which may be members of the family Closteroviridae but have not been approved as species. ... Hence, the transcriptional strategy of members of the family Closteroviridae follows the mechanism of other "alpha-like" ... have the same particle morphology as those of the family Closteroviridae. However, the sequence of the CP of members of this ...
Members of the genus Closterovirus whose genomes have been sequenced show three types of genome organization exemplified by those of BYV (Figure 1.Closterovirus), CTV (Figure 2.Closterovirus) and beet yellow stunt virus (BYSV): (i) the BYV genome contains eight ORFs flanked by 5′- and 3′-UTRs of 107 and 181 nt, respectively; (ii) the genome of CTV has 12 ORFs and UTRs of 107 nt at the 5′-end and 275 nt at the 3′-end, and differs from the BYV genome in having two papain-like protease domains in the ORF1a-encoded protein, an extra 5′-proximal ORF (ORF2) encoding a 33 kDa product with no similarity to any other protein in databases, and two extra 3′-proximal ORFs (ORF9 and ORF11); and (iii) the genome of BYSV has 10 ORFs and a 3′-UTR of 241 nt, intermediate between that of the BYSV and CTV UTRs. A further difference with the BYSV genome rests in the presence of an extra ORF (ORF2) encoding a 30 kDa polypeptide with no similarity to any other protein in databases. This ORF is located ...
Closteroviridae - Martellie, G.P., Agranovsky, A.A., Bar-Joseph, M., Boscia, D., Candresse, T., Coutts, R., Dolja, V.V., Hu, J ... Closteroviridae. In: King, A.M.Q., Adams, M.J., Carstens, E.B. and Lefkowitz, E.J. editiors. Virus Taxonomy: Classification and ... CHARACTERIZATION OF A NOVEL MEMBER OF THE CLOSTEROVIRIDAE FAMILY FROM MENTHA - Tzanetakis, I.E., Postman, J.D., Martin, R.R. ... a member of the closteroviridae from mint with similarities to all three genera of the family.. Plant Disease. 89(6):654-658. ...
... family Closteroviridae) Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV). Additionally, by producing a p22-deficient ToCV infectious mutant clone ...
Familie Closteroviridae. *Genus Ampelovirus. *Genus Closterovirus. *Genus Crinivirus. *Genus Velarivirus. *Familie ...
Family Closteroviridae. Pages 987-1001 in: Virus Taxonomy-Ninth Report on the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. A ...
Closteroviridae. Genus. Closterovirus. Genus. Ampelovirus. Genus. Crinivirus. Family. Flaviviridae. Genus. Flavivirus. Genus. ...
O. Family Closteroviridae. P. Family Luteoviridae. Q. Floating Genera. IV. Retroelements. A. Family Pseudoviridae. B. Family ... F. Family Closteroviridae. G. Family Luteoviridae. H. Floating Genera. IX. Summary and Discussion. Chapter 7 Expression of ...
Family: Closteroviridae. Declared Pest, Prohibited - s12 (C1 Prohibited). Synonyms: Closterovirus Cucumber yellows virus, ...
Read Plant Virology by Roger Hull by Roger Hull by Roger Hull for free with a 30 day free trial. Read eBook on the web, iPad, iPhone and Android
Familia: Closteroviridae Genus: Crinivirus Species: Tomato infectious chlorosis virus Name[edit]. Tomato infectious chlorosis ...
Familia: Closteroviridae Genus: Velarivirus Species: Cordyline virus 2 Name[edit]. Cordyline virus 2 ...
Blueberry virus A (BVA)-genus Closterovirus; family Closteroviridae. Fruit drop. Virus-possibly a new genus; family ...
Study Virology term 1 - positive strand viruses. flashcards from Isabel Leach
修道院病毒科 Closteroviridae. *豇豆镶嵌病毒科 Comoviridae ...
修道院病毒科 Closteroviridae. *豇豆镶嵌病毒科 Comoviridae ...
Closteroviridae. Grapevine leafroll associated viruses (GLRaV) (eight virus types: 1-7 & 9 are detected). ...
"The family Closteroviridae revised." Archives of Virology 147, no. 10 (2002): 2039-2044. Liu, H-Y., G. C. Wisler, and J. E. ...
ICTV proposal 2012.001a-fP, "New genus Velarivirus in the family Closteroviridae and new species Cordyline Virus1 to be ... Little cherry disease is associated with two filamentous plant viruses of the family Closteroviridae, little cherry virus-1 ( ... "The family Closteroviridae revised". Archives of Virology. 147 (10): 2039-2044. doi:10.1007/s007050200048. PMID 12376765. ICTV ...
2002) The family Closteroviridae revised. Archives of Virology 147: 2039-2044.. Martelli GP, Ghanem‐Sabanadzovic NA, Agranovsky ... 2012) Taxonomic revision of the family Closteroviridae with special reference to the grapevine leafroll‐associated members of ...
Family Closteroviridae. *Family Comoviridae. *Family Dicistroviridae. *Family Flaviviridae - includes Yellow fever virus, West ...
The genome organization of Closteroviridae displays complex and diversified coding capacities. Among the 10 proteins encoded by ...
  • Essais et analyses en virologie végétale - Détection de virus, viroïdes et phytoplasmes des végétaux. (sediag.com)
  • The Company's product, CNDO-109, is a lysate (disrupted Closteroviridae (CTV)-1 cells, cell membrane fragments, cell proteins and other cellular components) that activates donor Natural Killer (NK) cells. (watchlistnews.com)