Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Plasma Volume: Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Erythrocyte Volume: Volume of circulating ERYTHROCYTES . It is usually measured by RADIOISOTOPE DILUTION TECHNIQUE.Blood Volume Determination: Method for determining the circulating blood volume by introducing a known quantity of foreign substance into the blood and determining its concentration some minutes later when thorough mixing has occurred. From these two values the blood volume can be calculated by dividing the quantity of injected material by its concentration in the blood at the time of uniform mixing. Generally expressed as cubic centimeters or liters per kilogram of body weight.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Residual Volume: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Plasma Substitutes: Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Isotonic Solutions: Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Hypotonic Solutions: Solutions that have a lesser osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Functional Residual Capacity: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Hypovolemia: An abnormally low volume of blood circulating through the body. It may result in hypovolemic shock (see SHOCK).Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Fluid Therapy: Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional: Echocardiography amplified by the addition of depth to the conventional two-dimensional ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY visualizing only the length and width of the heart. Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging was first described in 1961 but its application to echocardiography did not take place until 1974. (Mayo Clin Proc 1993;68:221-40)Closing Volume: The lung volume at which the dependent lung zones cease to ventilate presumably as a result of airway closure.Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.Lung Compliance: The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Expiratory Reserve Volume: The extra volume of air that can be expired with maximum effort beyond the level reached at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. Common abbreviation is ERV.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Plethysmography: Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Osmosis: Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Fluid Shifts: Translocation of body fluids from one compartment to another, such as from the vascular to the interstitial compartments. Fluid shifts are associated with profound changes in vascular permeability and WATER-ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE. The shift can also be from the lower body to the upper body as in conditions of weightlessness.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Osmotic Pressure: The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Thorax: The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives: Starches that have been chemically modified so that a percentage of OH groups are substituted with 2-hydroxyethyl ether groups.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Ventricular Function, Right: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the right HEART VENTRICLE.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine: A type of imaging technique used primarily in the field of cardiology. By coordinating the fast gradient-echo MRI sequence with retrospective ECG-gating, numerous short time frames evenly spaced in the cardiac cycle are produced. These images are laced together in a cinematic display so that wall motion of the ventricles, valve motion, and blood flow patterns in the heart and great vessels can be visualized.Plethysmography, Whole Body: Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Hypertonic Solutions: Solutions that have a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.Diuresis: An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Saline Solution, Hypertonic: Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Anatomy, Cross-Sectional: Descriptive anatomy based on three-dimensional imaging (IMAGING, THREE-DIMENSIONAL) of the body, organs, and structures using a series of computer multiplane sections, displayed by transverse, coronal, and sagittal analyses. It is essential to accurate interpretation by the radiologist of such techniques as ultrasonic diagnosis, MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, and computed tomography (TOMOGRAPHY, X-RAY COMPUTED). (From Lane & Sharfaei, Modern Sectional Anatomy, 1992, Preface)Positive-Pressure Respiration: A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.Erythrocyte Indices: ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Atrial Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the LEFT ATRIUM.Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity: The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Hydrostatic Pressure: The pressure due to the weight of fluid.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Health Facility Size: The physical space or dimensions of a facility. Size may be indicated by bed capacity.Body Surface Area: The two dimensional measure of the outer layer of the body.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Diastole: Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Ventricular Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Dye Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of dye into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Forced Expiratory Flow Rates: The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.Urination: Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.Radiotherapy, Conformal: Radiotherapy where there is improved dose homogeneity within the tumor and reduced dosage to uninvolved structures. The precise shaping of dose distribution is achieved via the use of computer-controlled multileaf collimators.Radiometry: The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Supine Position: The posture of an individual lying face up.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Artifacts: Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Blood Circulation: The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Surgery Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers all departmental functions and the provision of surgical diagnostic and therapeutic services.Thoracic Wall: The outer margins of the thorax containing SKIN, deep FASCIA; THORACIC VERTEBRAE; RIBS; STERNUM; and MUSCLES.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Gastric Emptying: The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.Respiratory Dead Space: That part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT or the air within the respiratory tract that does not exchange OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE with pulmonary capillary blood.Serum Albumin, Radio-Iodinated: Normal human serum albumin mildly iodinated with radioactive iodine (131-I) which has a half-life of 8 days, and emits beta and gamma rays. It is used as a diagnostic aid in blood volume determination. (from Merck Index, 11th ed)Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Gadolinium DTPA: A complex of gadolinium with a chelating agent, diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA see PENTETIC ACID), that is given to enhance the image in cranial and spinal MRIs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p706)Compliance: Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Mean Platelet Volume: A measure of the size of PLATELETS.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Ventilators, Mechanical: Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Water-Electrolyte Imbalance: Disturbances in the body's WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Dehydration: The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Central Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the central large VEINS of the body. It is distinguished from peripheral venous pressure which occurs in an extremity.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Gated Blood-Pool Imaging: Radionuclide ventriculography where scintigraphic data is acquired during repeated cardiac cycles at specific times in the cycle, using an electrocardiographic synchronizer or gating device. Analysis of right ventricular function is difficult with this technique; that is best evaluated by first-pass ventriculography (VENTRICULOGRAPHY, FIRST-PASS).Hemodilution: Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.Ultrafiltration: The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
Surfactant effects in model airway closure experiments. (1/8)The capillary instability that occurs on an annular film lining a tube is studied as a model of airway closure. Small waves in the film can amplify and form a plug across the tube. This dynamical behavior is studied using theoretical models and bench-top experiments. Our model predicts the initial growth rate of the instability and its dependence on surfactant effects. In experiments, an annular film is formed by infusion of water into an initially oil-filled glass capillary tube. The thickness of the oil film varies with the infusion flow rate. The instability growth rate and closure time are measured for a range of film thicknesses. Our theory predicts that a thinner film and higher surfactant activity enhance stability; surfactant can decrease the growth rate to 25% of its surfactant-free value. In experiments, we find that surfactant can decrease the growth rate to 20% and increase the closure time by a factor of 3.8. Functional values of a critical film thickness for closure support the theory that it increases in the presence of surfactant. (+info)
The lung volume at which shunting occurs with inhalation anesthesia. (2/8)The relationship between functional residual capacity (FRC) and shunt development with halothane anesthesia in 18 nonobese surgical patients (age, 21-34 yr) was studied. FRC was measured by helium dilution, and intrapulmonary shunt was distinguished from ventilation-perfusion inequality by multiple tracer inert gas elimination analysis. Awake supine FRC was 34.6 +/- 6.6% (mean +/- SD) of total lung capacity (TLC), and closing capacity (CC) was 29.8 +/- 5.3% of TLC. Anesthesia, muscle paralysis, tracheal intubation, and mechanical ventilation produced an average 14.6 +/- 13.3% FRC reduction to an average anesthesia FRC 29.8% of TLC (P = 0.002). Shunt increased from 1.2% +/- 1.5% awake to 8.6 +/- 8.3% during anesthesia (P = 0.005). A nonlinear relationship was found between shunt and FRC/TLC so that anesthetized subjects with an FRC less than awake CC had an average 11.4 +/- 8.3% shunt, whereas subjects with an FRC greater than CC had a 2.4 +/- 2.8% shunt (P = 0.025). Nonsmokers developed shunt only if FRC was less than CC. Smokers showed a significantly higher shunt for a given (FRC-CC)/TLC compared to nonsmokers (P less than 0.001). The slope of the regression of shunt on BMI (body mass index = weight/height2) showed a significant increase during anesthesia (P = 0.005), and smokers had a significantly higher slope compared to nonsmokers (P = 0.001). These findings suggest a gravity-dependent mechanism for intrapulmonary shunting during anesthesia. Therefore, shunting was due to dependent regional lung volume reduction associated with an FRC decrease to less than closing capacity. The enhanced intrapulmonary shunting in smokers may have been related to the increased dependent regional residual volume associated with smoking. (+info)
Pulmonary densities during anesthesia with muscular relaxation--a proposal of atelectasis. (3/8)Twenty patients (23-76 yr) were studied with regard to lung tissue changes prior to and following induction of general anesthesia with muscular relaxation, and another four subjects were studied for a longer period awake. The transverse thoracic area and the structure of the lung tissue were determined by computerized tomography. No abnormalities in the lung tissue were noted before anesthesia. Within 5 min after induction, including muscular relaxation, all subjects had developed crest-shaped changes of increased density in the dependent regions of both lungs. They were largest in the most caudal segment (4.8 +/- 0.8% of the transverse lung area, mean +/- SE) and smaller in the cephalad exposures (3.4 +/- 0.7% of the transverse area). The size of the densities showed no correlation to age. The densities did not increase after a further 20 min of anesthesia and were not affected by the inspiratory oxygen fraction. When the subjects were moved from the supine to the lateral position, the crest-shaped densities disappeared in the nondependent lung and remained in the dorsal part of the dependent lung. The application of positive end-expiratory pressure of 10 cmH2O eliminated or reduced the densities. The four awake subjects showed no lung densities after 90 min in the supine position. It is suggested that these crest-shaped densities represent atelectases, which develop by compression of lung tissue rather than by resorption of gas. (+info)
A factor analytic approach to an effective lung function screening protocol. (4/8)Interrelationships among simple indices of pulmonary function derived from flow-volume curves and single-breath nitrogen tests were investigated by performing a factor analysis on data obtained from a generally healthy office working population (n = 388). Smoking was regarded as the major contribution to pulmonary dysfunction. Delta nitrogen was largely independent of all other measures, while flow-volume measures, including flow rates at high and low lung volumes, were highly intercorrelated but largely independent of closing volume and closing capacity. Delta nitrogen was most affected by smoking in both sexes. Scores derived from flow-volume measurements and from closing-volume measurements were significantly different, on the average, between male smokers and male nonsmokers. The methods and results presented prove to be useful in the design of protocols for effective pulmonary testing of large populations. (+info)
Contribution of the closure of pulmonary units to impaired oxygenation during anesthesia. (5/8)Associations between airway closure, alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference (A-aDO2), and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) were investigated in anesthetized, paralyzed, artifically ventilated patients. The difference between closing capacity (CC) and functional residual capacity (FRC) was measured with a modified standard technique using a bolus of N2 to detect airway closure in denitrogenated patients. At FIO2 = 0.4 during anesthesia before application of PEEP, A-aDO2 was larger than expected in comparable conscious subjects and increased at about 1 mmHg/yr of age. CC was below FRC in young subjects but above FRC in older subjects, the two coinciding at about age 43 yr. Thus, during anesthesia both A-aDO2 and CC-FRC increased with age. The proximity and point of coincidence of CC and FRC suggested that CC is reduced during anesthesia. In patients whose CC exceeded FRC, imposition of PEEP estimated to be sufficient to elevate FRC above CC decreased A-aDO2 to a level comparable to that in patients exhibiting airway closure below FRC without PEEP. Patients in whom CC was initially below FRC failed to improve oxygenation with PEEP. At least half of the decrease in A-aDO2 associated with application of PEEP persisted for 20-30 min after the withdrawal of PEEP, although the withdrawal resulted in an immediate recurrence of airway closure above FRC. The authors conclude that closure of pulmonary units operates in some circumstances to contribute to pulmonary dysfunction in anesthetized patients but is neither the only nor necessarily the most important such mechanism. (+info)
Closing volume during normal pregnancy. (6/8)Serial lung function studies were performed in ten healthy, primiparous women aged 21--28. Measurements were made at two-monthly intervals during pregnancy and included functional residual capacity (FRC), total lung capacity (TLC), vital capacity (VC), specific conductance (SGaw) and closing volume (CV) on each occasion. Closing volume expressed as formular: (see text), showed a progressive rise during pregnancy in all subjects with a linear relationship to time (P less than 0.001, P greater than 0.01, respectively). No consistent changes in lung volume could be shown during pregnancy over the study period. It is suggested that the increase in closing volume during pregnancy might result in abnormalities of distribution of ventilation sufficient to explain the maternal blood gas disturbances of pregnancy. (+info)
Reproducibility of pulmonary function tests under laboratory and field conditions. (7/8)The reproducibility of pulmonary function tests in the laboratory and in a mobile field survey vehicle has been studied. Groups of laboratory workers were studied at base and a random sample of 38 coalminers was examined in the mobile laboratory. The intra-subject variability of some newer tests of lung function, including closing volume and maximum flow at low lung volumes, has been compared with that of well-established tests, such as lung volumes and forced expiratory volume from two measurements made more than one day apart. Most measurements were slightly less reproducible in the study of coalminers than in the laboratory personnel. Conventional tests, such as forced expiratory volume in one second, lung volumes, single breath CO transfer factor, and exercise ventilation were very reproducible, the coefficients of variation (cov) being generally between 5% and 10%. The closing volume test, maximum expiratory flow at low lung volumes, and the single breath N2 index were less reproducible: cov between 15% and 39% in the miners. The forced expired time and volume of isoflow, measured only on laboratory workers, however, exhibited greater reproducibility than previously reported (cov = 10% and 15% respectively). It is suggested that, when assessing the repeatability of lung function tests, account should be taken of the circumstances in which the intra-subject variability was measured. (+info)
Mechanisms of reduced pulmonary function after a saturation dive. (8/8)Deep saturation diving has been shown to have prolonged effects on pulmonary function. We wanted to assess the relative contribution of various factors that could contribute to these effects. Pulmonary function was, therefore, measured before and after 17 different saturation diving operations to depths of 5-450 m of sea water, corresponding to absolute pressures of 0.15-4.6 MPa. Four to fifteen divers participated in each operation. The measurements included static and dynamic lung volumes and flows, transfer factor of the lungs for carbon monoxide (TLCO), and closing volume. The dives were characterized by the cumulative hyperoxic and hyperbaric exposures, and the load of venous gas microemboli encountered during decompression was measured in 41 divers in three dives to 0.25, 1.2 and 3.7 MPa. TLCO was reduced by 8.3 +/- 7.0% mean +/- SD after the dives, this correlated with cumulative hyperoxic exposure and load of venous gas microembolism, independently of each other. Closing volume was increased and forced mid-expiratory flow rate reduced, in correlation with cumulative hyperoxic exposure. An increase in total lung capacity correlated with cumulative hyperbaric exposure. We conclude that hyperoxia, hyperbaria, and venous gas microembolism all contribute to the changes in pulmonary function after a single saturation dive, and all may explain some of the long-term effects of diving on pulmonary function. (+info)
This is because closing capacity is equal to closing volume plus residual volume. This means that there is normally enough air ... The closing capacity is greater than the residual volume (RV), the amount of gas that normally remains in the lungs during ... The closing capacity (CC) is the volume in the lungs at which its smallest airways, the respiratory bronchioles, collapse. The ... Lung volumes Rodarte JR, Hyatt RE, Cortese DA (July 1975). "Influence of expiratory flow on closing capacity at low expiratory ...
Alveolar air equation
Relationship to aging and closing volume in normal subjects. Respir Care 22:491-500, 1977 Suwa K, Geffin B, Pontoppidan H, et ... and VD/VT is the ratio of physiologic dead space over tidal volume. R = P E C O 2 ( 1 − F I O 2 ) P i O 2 − P E O 2 − ( P E C O ...
A nitrogen washout can obtain the following parameters: Closing volume (CV); the amount of air remaining in the lungs when the ... 1] thefreedictionary.com > closing volume Citing: The American Heritage Medical Dictionary Copyright 2007 and Mosby's Medical ... Closing capacity (CC), which equals CV + (TLC - VC), with VC taken from the curve acquired from the nitrogen washout test. As a ... expired volume is obtained by increasing the nitrogen concentration from zero to the percentage of nitrogen in the alveoli. The ...
Closing volume: chronological catalogue of used song-, melody- and choirbooks, and the last additions ... The Oxford History of Western Music - Volume I (Music in the Earliest Notations to the sixteenth century), p. 753-8 (Oxford: ...
List of chorale harmonisations by Johann Sebastian Bach
... closing volume: chronological catalogue of used song-, melody- and choirbooks, and the last supplements) BWV2a, pp. 471-481 Uwe ... A second volume of 100 was issued by the same publisher in 1769, edited by J. F. Agricola. C. P. E. Bach criticised this ... Some editions contain an alphabetical index at the end of the compilation, for instance at the end of the final volume of C. P ... Separate volumes at Internet Archive: I (1889): Zweizeilige bis fünfzeilige Melodien (melodies in two to five lines), Nos. 1- ...
... closing volume: chronological catalogue of used song-, melody- and choirbooks, and the last supplements) Anon. 1980. "Chorale ... Separate volumes at Internet Archive: I (1889): Zweizeilige bis fünfzeilige Melodien (melodies in two to five lines), Nos. 1- ... Separate volumes at Google Books: I (1843): Der Evangelische Kirchengesang im ersten Jahrhunderte der Kirchenverbesserung ( ... Carl von Winterfeld (de) published three volumes of Der evangelische Kirchengesang und sein Verhältniss zur Kunst des Tonsatzes ...
Pavane for a Dead Girl
... they were only able to publish the first volume before closing in May 2011 due to bankruptcy. Takenomaru Sagami is a violinist ... In volume 3, she and Takenomaru go on a date which eventually leads to them sleeping together. Then, the day after they get in ... Snow Wildsmith, writing for ICv2, a pop culture trade news site, gave the first volume 1 out of 5 stars. Her chief complaint ... It is ongoing, with six volumes to date. English-language distribution was being handled by Tokyopop; however ...
List of MeSH codes (E01)
... lung volume measurements MeSH E01.370.386.700.485.750 --- total lung capacity MeSH E01.370.386.700.485.750.150 --- closing ... expiratory reserve volume MeSH E01.370.386.700.485.750.275.650 --- residual volume MeSH E01.370.386.700.485.750.900 --- vital ... inspiratory reserve volume MeSH E01.370.386.700.485.750.900.350.750 --- tidal volume MeSH E01.370.386.700.615 --- ... maximal expiratory flow-volume curves MeSH E01.370.386.700.660.225.510 --- maximal midexpiratory flow rate MeSH E01.370.386.700 ...
List of MeSH codes (G09)
... closing volume MeSH G09.772.765.850.390 --- functional residual capacity MeSH G09.772.765.850.390.360 --- expiratory reserve ... blood volume MeSH G09.330.553.400.214.370 --- erythrocyte volume MeSH G09.330.553.400.214.610 --- plasma volume MeSH G09.330. ... blood volume MeSH G09.188.250.313.370 --- erythrocyte volume MeSH G09.188.250.313.610 --- plasma volume MeSH G09.188.250.340 ... residual volume MeSH G09.772.765.850.970 --- vital capacity MeSH G09.772.765.850.970.360 --- expiratory reserve volume MeSH ...
Tokyopop released three volumes total before closing its North American publishing division in April 2011. It remains unclear ... Sequential Tart gave the first two volumes both a grade of 7, saying that the first book was a solid set up for the series and ... The second volume also was said to focus too much on secondary characters with no plot advancement. Newsarama called the ... The second volume had more mixed feelings with the focus on Seine and learning more about her background and relationships ...
Coyote Ragtime Show
... which managed to release two of its three volumes before closing its doors; the third volume was still listed on the Broccoli ...
Bodyguard of Lies
Volume V : Closing the Ring (1952), Chapter 21 (Teheran: The Crux), p. 338. Low (1976) MacDonald (1976) LLoyd Jones (1984) ...
Fujitsuka's name came up in Kaichō wa Maid-sama!'s 5th volume during the closing credits and Fujiwara also listed her as 'Yuki- ... "Maid Sama! Volume 1". Tokyopop. Archived from the original on March 23, 2010. Retrieved March 21, 2010. "TBSアニメーション・｢会長はメイド様!｣公 ... It already has 13 volumes published in Japan. Besides authoring the manga, Fujiwara has also illustrated the furoku or freebies ... s volume one. For year 2006, she made her last one-shot titled Kaichō wa Maid-sama! (会長はメイド様!, lit. Class President is a Maid ...
Stock correlation network
The time series data can be daily closing prices, daily trading volumes, daily opening prices, and daily price returns. Step 2 ...
B-Sides & Rarities (CKY album)
... such as acoustic versions of An Answer Can Be Found and Volume 1 closing songs "Don't Hold Your Breath" and "To All of You". ... as well as songs from the 1999 album Volume 2. New song "Afterworld" was released as a single. Announcing B-Sides & Rarities in ...
Since the close of business on January 13 (7156 volume at closing), the EGX 30 Index has shed 45 percent of its volume - a drop ... X-stream is designed to support the increasing volume of trading on EGX as well as the simultaneous trading multiple product ...
Berlin Brandenburg Airport
The traffic volumes would also cause frequent closings of the Britz tunnel on the A100. Over 10% of passengers are expected to ... In 1991, the combined passenger volume of the city's airports was at 7.9 million per year. By 2014, this number had risen to 28 ... The A100 and A113 do not have enough lanes to support the expected volume of traffic. The approach to BER was deemed ... declared on 16 September 2017 that the bankruptcy of Air Berlin has no imminent impact towards the expected traffic flow volume ...
In low pressure the tube is slightly pressurized to a fixed volume during the closing of the die (this used to be called the ... However, the process is limited by the very high closing force required in order to seal the dies, especially for large panels ... in fact, the die closing force can be very high, both in tube and sheet hydroforming and may easily overcome the maximum ... Similar limitations and risks can be listed as in SHF; however, the maximum closing force is seldom a limiting factor in THF. ...
Vancouver Police Department
... submitted the results of his report in 1994 in a four volume package entitled Closing the Gap: Policing and the Community. In ... ISBN 1-895811-45-7. Wally Oppal (1994). Closing the Gap: Policing and the Community. B.C. - Introducing INSET-Vancouver Chief ...
Roman Inscriptions of Britain
... is a continuation of Volume I, containing all the lapidary inscriptions found from the closing date of volume I through 31 ... Volume II is broadly the inscriptions found on instrumentum domesticum (domestic utensils). Volume III (edited by R.S.O. Tomlin ... The first volume, "Inscriptions on Stone" was then edited by R.G. Collingwood and R.P. Wright with an addenda by R.S.O. Tomlin ... RIB 1726 refers to entry 1726 in volume I, in this particular case it is a part of an altar with the inscription [I(ovi)] O( ...
6th Guards Tank Brigade (United Kingdom)
Correspondence in Winston Churchill's The Second World War (Volume V: Closing the Ring, Annex C) in April 1944 appears to ... Volume V: Closing the Ring, Reprint Society, London, 1954 (Hardback), Appendix C, notes of 4 April 1944, 4 April 1944, and 9 ...
Alfred Denning, Baron Denning
In 1983 he published the final volume of his autobiography The Closing Chapter and a year later published Landmarks in the Law ... The Closing Chapter. Butterworths. ISBN 0-406-17612-4. de Burgh, Hugo, ed. (2000). Investigative Journalism: Context and ...
San Francisco Mining Exchange
... but that the exchange was closing due to low trading volume. After the final gong was rung at the second-level trading floor on ...
The FI is calculated by multiplying the difference between the last and previous closing prices by the volume of the commodity ... The strength of the force is determined by a larger price change or by a larger volume. The FI was created by Alexander Elder. ... yielding a momentum scaled by the volume. ...
... and a leaderboard allowing brokers to see the volume of deals closing instantly. In 2013 the company expanded to California and ...
Battle of Sio
On 10 December, Edgar brought all three of his battalions into the line and by 14 December they were closing in on Lakona, a ... Volume VI (1st ed.). Canberra: Australian War Memorial. OCLC 2028994. Drea, Edward J. (1992). MacArthur's Ultra: Codebreaking ... 1959). Volume IV: Amphibian Engineer Operations. Engineers of the Southwest Pacific 1941-1945. Washington, DC: Government ...
Effect of ovalbumin and anti-foam B on the survivability of spore forming bacteria collected in a Wetted Wall Cyclone<...
TY - GEN. T1 - Effect of ovalbumin and anti-foam B on the survivability of spore forming bacteria collected in a Wetted Wall Cyclone. AU - Kassab, Asmaa S.. AU - King, Maria D.. AU - Guo, Bing. AU - McFarland, Andrew R.. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - The effect of different collection fluids in maintaining the survivability, defined as the culturability in the archived sample divided by the culturability in the as-collected sample, were experimentally determined for Bacillus globigii (BG). The spores were collected using a 100 L/min Wetted Wall Cyclone (WWC) and archived for five days at 25°C and 4°C. Aqueous solutions of 0.01% Tween20 and 30% Ethylene glycol (EG), with or without 0.5% ovalbumin (OA), were used as collection fluids with 0.2% Antifoam B (A-F). The spores were more stable in EG and at 4°C, very likely due to the surfactant effect of the Tween20, which would remove the spore coat and initiate germination. Adding OA significantly increased the survivability, especially at RT while ...
A common non-ionic surfactant, Triton X-100, was used to modify the chemical bath deposition (CBD) of CdS buffer layers on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) data demonstrate that films produced with the surfactant have about the same levels of impurities as films grown without it. For thin, ~130 ..ANG.. CdS layers and relative to devices made without the surfactant, average absolute cell efficiencies were increased from 10.5% to 14.8%, or by a relative 41%. Visual inspection of the CdS depositions reveals one possible mechanism of the surfactants effects: bubbles that form and adhere to the CIGS surface during the CBD reaction are almost completely eliminated with the addition of the TX-100. Thus, pinholes and thin areas in the CdS layers caused by poor wetting of the substrate surface are sharply reduced, leading to large increases in the open circuit voltage in devices produced with the surfactant.
Mrs. Hall was a frequent visitor to the pulmonary unit in the small urban community hospital. She acquired COPD from years of smoking, gained 30 pounds and needed frequent medication changes just to maintain her current oxygenation needs. Alex was the nurse assigned to care for Mrs. Hall and remembered her from previous admissions. What Alex didnt realize was that Mrs. Hall lived alone and had been cared for inconsistently by multiple unlicensed caregivers since her last discharge. Since Alex "knew" the patient and was unusually busy that shift, the admission assessment was unfortunately swift and incomplete.. Tara, a new physical therapist, was assigned to evaluate Mrs. Halls mobility. Before the assessment, she read the patients history and physical exam report and quickly identified Mrs. Hall as being at high risk for pressure ulcers. Tara asked Alex and a nursing student, Angela, to help her with getting Mrs. Hall out of bed. Without hesitation, both the nurse and the nursing student ...
Abstract: We present a large range of experimental data concerning the influence of surfactants on the well-known Landau-Levich-Derjaguin experiment where a liquid film is generated by pulling a plate out of a bath. The thickness h of the film was measured as a function of the pulling velocity V for different kinds of surfactants (C12E6, which is a nonionic surfactant, and DeTAB and DTAB, which are ionic) and at various concentrations near and above the critical micellar concentration (cmc). We report the thickening factor alpha = h/h(LLD), where h(LLD) is the film thickness obtained without a surfactant effect, i.e., as for a pure fluid but with the same viscosity and surface tension as the surfactant solution, over a wide range of capillary numbers (Ca = eta V/gamma, with eta being the surfactant solution viscosity and gamma its surface tension) and identify three regimes: (i) at small Ca alpha is large due to confinement and surface elasticity (or Marangoni) effects, (ii) for increasing Ca ...
Video articles in JoVE include Studying Surfactant Effects on Hydrate Crystallization at Oil-Water Interfaces using a Low-Cost Integrated Modular Peltier Device, In Vitro Model of Human Cutaneous Hypertrophic Scar using Macromolecular Crowding, Potato Virus X-based microRNA Silencing (VbMS) In Potato., Performing Colonoscopic-Guided Pinch Biopsies in Mice and Evaluating Subsequent Tissue Changes, Transcriptome-Wide Profiling of Protein-RNA Interactions by Cross-Linking and Immunoprecipitation Mediated by FLAG-Biotin Tandem Purification, Rapid, Seamless Generation of Recombinant Poxviruses using Host Range and Visual Selection, Application of Atomic Force Microscopy to Detect Early Osteoarthritis, A 3D Spheroid Model for Glioblastoma, A Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry (HDX-MS) Platform for Investigating Peptide Biosynthetic Enzymes, Using a Chemical Biopsy for Graft Quality Assessment.
The policy of the Navy Experimental Diving Unit ( NEDU) is that before issuing this drug, the diver had to place the patch and wear it 24 hours on dry land and then be interviewed by one of the Diving Medical Officers to ensure there were no undesirable side effects before diving. The patch had then to be placed four hours before leaving shore, but once in place, it could be worn even while diving. The only problem was, that since it was placed behind an ear, it would sometimes fall off without being noticed until that queasy feeling set in. Before it could be decided to recommend it for general use in Navy divers, the US Navy performed a study where divers on a 18-msw air saturation dive that lasted five days were each given a patch containing either the scopolamine or a placebo. It was a blinded study - that is, none of the diver subjects knew which patch they received. Divers performed psychomotor studies several times during the dive and were also asked to write down anything that occurred ...
Patente US8066692 - Medical male luer connector with increased closing volume - Google Patentes
Medical male luer connector with increased closing volume. ... Medical male luer connector with increased closing volume. US ... Material layer volume determination with correction band. US4781702. 16 Jun 1987. 1 Nov 1988. Contempo Products, P. Herrli. ... Automatically-closing connector for connecting a liquid injection head to an injection outlet. ... an increased volume is created within the intermediate region of the housing and near the first portion of the valve member; ...http://www.google.es/patents/US8066692
Pilot study of closing volume in byssinosis. | Occupational & Environmental Medicine
Recent evidence of the magnitude of variability in closing volume manoeuvres suggests that our chosen level of change was too ... and closing volume (CV) in the detection of subjects with byssinosis was carried out in a North Carolina cotton mill. ... A study of the relative sensitivities of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMF), ... In contrast only six workers exhibited a 10% increase in closing capacity, while ten showed a 10% increase in CV. ...http://oem.bmj.com/content/32/3/235
Geriatrics Flashcards by Josh Newby | Brainscape
epidural volume tends to result in more extensive cephalad spread, but accompanied by a shorter _______ and _____ ... what happens to the lung volume and capacity in the elderly: ERV. ... what happens to the lung volume and capacity in the elderly: IC. ... what happens to the lung volume and capacity in the elderly: RV ... what happens to the lung volume and capacity in the elderly: FRC ... what happens to the lung volume and capacity in the elderly: CC ...https://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/geriatrics-3097399/packs/4718934
Regional Lung Opening and Closing Pressures in Patients With Acute Lung Injury
... clinicaltrials.gov The purpose of this study is the measurement of regional opening and closing pressures of lung tissue by ... Closing Volume. The lung volume at which the dependent lung zones cease to ventilate presumably as a result of airway closure. ... volume ventilation with a constant volume decelerating flow (pressure controlled volume guarantee)... ... low flow pressure volume manoeuvre. Location. Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Medical ...https://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/trial/65797/Regional-Lung-Opening-and-Closing-Pressures-in-Patients-With-Acute-Lung-Injury.html
Respiratory Quiz #1 Flashcards by Joshua Voss | Brainscape
the volume at which these small airways close is called closing capacity. ◦ closing capacity is less than FRC, but the gap gets ... so its important to have some residual volume (closing volume) left to prevent collapse. -Cartilage. Trachea:. -Adventitia ( ... the volume of the lung changes very easily with very little pressure, but changes very little. when the lung volume is high ... pulmonary blood volume. • age. • bronchial smooth muscle tone. • disease. • lung volume (the fibers can only stretch so far, ...https://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/respiratory-quiz-1-3047332/packs/4787196
Distensible | definition of distensible by Medical dictionary
The mysterious closing volume. 8) The venous system is more likely to transmit pressure when the veins are overloaded and less ... a two litre distensible bag to increase the volume of the reservoir; and a 5 cm[H.. The Glostavent: evolution of an anaesthetic ... and can hold an air volume of ,1600 mL with little or no increase in intragastric pressure (6).. Intestinal perforation caused ...https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/distensible
MCV (disambiguation) | definition of MCV (disambiguation) by Medical dictionary
closing volume (CV) the volume of gas in the lungs in excess of the residual volume at the time small airways in the dependent ... packed-cell volume (PCV) hematocrit.. plasma volume the total volume of blood plasma, i.e., the extracellular fluid volume of ... blood volume the plasma volume added to the red cell volume; see also blood volume. ... red cell volume the total volume of red cells in the body; see also blood volume. ...http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/MCV+
A - B - C - Medical Abbreviation - GlobalRPH
critical closing volume. CF. cystic fibrosis. CGL. chronic granulocytic leukemia. CHF. congestive heart failure. ...https://globalrph.com/abbrev/abc/
Patent US5492147 - Dry break coupling - Google Patents
Medical male luer connector with increased closing volume. US8070739. 8 Aug 2006. 6 Dec 2011. Medimop Medical Projects Ltd.. ... Self closing connector. EP2968896A4 *. 13 Mar 2014. 17 May 2017. Joseph P Schultz. Medical connector contamination prevention ...http://www.google.ca/patents/US5492147
Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)
Categories: Closing Volume Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 2 ...https://phil.cdc.gov/AdvancedSearchResults.aspx?Search=Closing+Volume&parentid=25951&catid=6584
Patent US5549566 - Valved intravenous fluid line infusion device - Google Patents
Medical male luer connector with increased closing volume. US8100869. Aug 10, 2007. Jan 24, 2012. Nypro Inc.. Medical valve ... Medical Valve with Fluid Volume Alteration. US20120109077 *. Jan 12, 2012. May 3, 2012. Ryan Dana Wm. Swabbable Needle-Free ... Medical valve with fluid volume alteration. US9155863. Oct 3, 2012. Oct 13, 2015. Becton, Dickinson And Company. Multiple use ... Medical connector with automatic valves and volume regulator. US8469928. Feb 10, 2010. Jun 25, 2013. Becton, Dickinson And ...http://www.google.com/patents/US5549566?dq=5,545,531
Patent US6029946 - Needleless valve - Google Patents
Upon deactivation, the plug contracts, the interior volume decreases, and the resiling plug wall forces residual fliud within ... Upon deactivation, the plug resiles and its interior volume returns to rest volume, closing the fluid flow path and displacing ... Medical male luer connector with increased closing volume. US8100866. Mar 24, 2005. Jan 24, 2012. B. Braun Medical Inc.. ... The plug, by being stretched to increase the interior volume during activation, resiles and decreases that volume during ...http://www.google.com/patents/US6029946?dq=6,243,373
Pulmonary maturation in canine foetuses from early pregnancy to parturition.
4808813 - Closing volume and pregnancy.. 163173 - Pharmacologic regulation of alveolar surfactant in fetal and newborn rabbits ... Title: Reproduction in domestic animals = Zuchthygiene Volume: 44 Suppl 2 ISSN: 1439-0531 ISO Abbreviation: Reprod. Domest. ...http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Pulmonary-maturation-in-canine-foetuses/19754553.html
Traditional Healers and Global Surveillance Strategies for Emerging Diseases: Closing the Gap - Volume 2, Number 4-October 1996...
Volume 2, Number 4-October 1996 Commentary. Traditional Healers and Global Surveillance Strategies for Emerging Diseases: ... Traditional Healers and Global Surveillance Strategies for Emerging Diseases: Closing the Gap. Emerging Infectious Diseases. ... Groce, N. E., & Reeve, M. E. (1996). Traditional Healers and Global Surveillance Strategies for Emerging Diseases: Closing the ... Traditional Healers and Global Surveillance Strategies for Emerging Diseases: Closing the Gap. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(4):351- ...https://wwwnc-origin.cdc.gov/eid/article/2/4/96-0412
Pulmonary Function Test, what are the correct billing codes? | Medical Billing and Coding Forum - AAPC
1-94260 :Thoracic Gas Volume. 1-94350-59: HET. 1-94360-59: DET of Resistance Airflow. 1-94370 : DET of Airway Closing Volume. 1 ...https://www.aapc.com/discuss/threads/pulmonary-function-test-what-are-the-correct-billing-codes.13807/?s=1c774e708fd41043fee7071b01d5c815
Amniotic fluid embolism.
7295449 - Closing volume in normal pregnancy.. 24937969 - Fertility-sparing partial hysterectomy for gestational trophoblastic ... Volume: 13 Issue: 3. First Page: 129 Last Page: 135. ID: 2823093. Publisher Id: IJCCM-13-129. PubMed Id: 20040809. DOI: 10.4103 ... 2193269 - Standardized measurement of amniotic fluid volume by correlation of sonography with dye.... 7792279 - Maternal plasma ... Volume: 13 ISSN: 1998-359X ISO Abbreviation: Indian J Crit Care Med Publication Date: 2009 Jul-Sep. ...http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Amniotic-fluid-embolism/20040809.html
NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Basic View
Closing volume in coal miners. Authors. Lapp-NL; Block-J; Boehlecke-B; Lippmann-M; Morgan-WKC; Reger-RB ...http://www2a.cdc.gov/nioshtic-2/BuildQyr.asp?s1=respiratory&f1=%2A&Startyear=&Adv=0&terms=1&EndYear=&Limit=10000&sort=&D1=10&PageNo=8671&RecNo=8671&View=b&
NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View
Closing volume and closing capacity are determined in 82 working Appalachian coal miners and in a comparable group of control ... Abnormalities of closing volume and closing capacity are related to other measurements of pulmonary function. The relationship ... and presence of pneumoconiosis and bronchitis to elevations of closing volume and closing capacity is determined. Neither ... nor the radiographic presence of pneumoconiosis is found to be associated with an elevation of closing volume or closing ...http://www2a.cdc.gov/nioshtic-2/BuildQyr.asp?s1=respiratory&f1=%2A&Startyear=&Adv=0&terms=1&EndYear=&Limit=10000&sort=&D1=10&PageNo=868&RecNo=8672&View=f&
Erratum | Occupational & Environmental Medicine
Pilot study of closing volume in byssinosis.. R P Fairman J Hankinson H Imbus N L Lapp W K Morgan ...http://oem.bmj.com/content/32/4/336.2
Pulmonary & Respiratory Services
Lung volume testing. *Airway resistance testing. *Diffusion capacity testing. *Closing volume testing ...https://www.hancockregionalhospital.org/healthcare-services/pulmonary-respiratory-services/
Respiratory responses to one year of daily use of a cosmetic hair spray | Springer for Research & Development
Lung and forced expiratory volumes, derivatives of MEFV curves, closing volume information and the phase III slope, determined ... Closing volume data did not change. The only consistent trend with time was a fall in the phase III slope from an unexplained ... Buist, A. S.: Early detection of airways obstruction by the closing volume technique. Chest64, 495-499 (1973)CrossRefPubMed ... Hair spray Spirometry MEFV curves Closing volume Alveolar plateau Small airways Read at the New Jersey Thoracic Society Fifth ...https://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02730705
Closing capacity - Wikipedia
This is because closing capacity is equal to closing volume plus residual volume. This means that there is normally enough air ... The closing capacity is greater than the residual volume (RV), the amount of gas that normally remains in the lungs during ... The closing capacity (CC) is the volume in the lungs at which its smallest airways, the respiratory bronchioles, collapse. The ... Lung volumes Rodarte JR, Hyatt RE, Cortese DA (July 1975). "Influence of expiratory flow on closing capacity at low expiratory ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Closing_capacity
CV/VC - What does CV/VC stand for? The Free Dictionary
Closing Volume/Vital Capacity Ratio. Suggest new definition. Want to thank TFD for its existence? Tell a friend about us, add a ...https://acronyms.thefreedictionary.com/CV%2FVC
The History of Pulmonary Function Testing | SpringerLink
Predicted values for closing volumes using a modified single breath nitrogen test. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1973b;107(5):744-52. ... Closing volume as a simple, sensitive test for the detection of peripheral airway disease. Chest J. 1973a;63(4_Supplement):29S- ... The lung volume and its subdivisions: i. Methods of measurement. J Clin Invest. 1932;11(6):1099-118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Determination of lung volume by single- and multiple-breath nitrogen washout. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1976;114(1):131-6.PubMedGoogle ...https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-319-94159-2_2
WHO EMRO | Closing the door on illicit tobacco trade, opens the way to better tobacco control | Volume 21, issue 6 | EMHJ...
Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal , Past issues , Volume 21, 2015 , Volume 21, issue 6 , Closing the door on illicit tobacco ... Closing the door on illicit tobacco trade, opens the way to better tobacco control ...http://www.emro.who.int/emhj-volume-21-2015/volume-21-issue-6/closing-the-door-on-illicit-tobacco-trade-opens-the-way-to-better-tobacco-control.html
- A study of the relative sensitivities of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMF), and closing volume (CV) in the detection of subjects with byssinosis was carried out in a North Carolina cotton mill. (bmj.com)
- Randomized controlled trial comparing low inspiratory and expiratory flow during variable volume ventilation with a constant volume decelerating flow (pressure controlled volume guarantee). (bioportfolio.com)
- Black, L. F., Offord, K., Hyatt, R. E.: Variability in the maximal expiratory flow volume curve in asymptomatic smokers and in nonsmokers. (springer.com)
- We have therefore chosen to organize this chapter by test, as one would see on a typical PFT result sheet: spirometry, lung volumes, diffusing capacity, and bronchoprovocation. (springer.com)
- Spirometry is the most common test to evaluate pulmonary function, specifically the amount (volume) of air and the speed (flow) of it being inhaled and exhaled. (hubpages.com)
- In this section spirometry , measurement of closing volume , density-dependence of flow indices and diffusing capacity is evaluated. (hubpages.com)
- Upon deactivation, the plug contracts, the interior volume decreases, and the resiling plug wall forces residual fliud within the valve to be expelled through the outlet, purging the residual fluid from the valve. (google.com)
- Closing volume slowly decreases because of aging process, however pulmonary diseases such as asthma can also contribute to this impairment. (hubpages.com)
- The closing capacity is greater than the residual volume (RV), the amount of gas that normally remains in the lungs during respiration, and specifically, after forced expiration. (wikipedia.org)
- This is because closing capacity is equal to closing volume plus residual volume. (wikipedia.org)
- Normally, this value is greater than residual volume. (hubpages.com)
- Residual volume is a determined amount of air that remains in the lungs until death and prevent them from pathological collapse. (hubpages.com)
- Since the 2000s, there has been a trend towards decreasing tidal volumes for positive pressure ventilation during surgery. (bioportfolio.com)
- Ventilation according to the open lung concept (OLC) consists of recruitment maneuvers, followed by low tidal volume and high positive end-expiratory pressure, aiming at minimizing atelectasis. (biomedcentral.com)
- Conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) consisted of volume-controlled ventilation with 5 cmH 2 O positive end-expiratory pressure and a tidal volume of 8-10 ml/kg. (biomedcentral.com)
- The peak inspiratory pressure was set to obtain a tidal volume of 6-8 ml/kg. (biomedcentral.com)
- Buist, A. S.: Early detection of airways obstruction by the closing volume technique. (springer.com)
- The closing capacity (CC) is the volume in the lungs at which its smallest airways, the respiratory bronchioles, collapse. (wikipedia.org)
- The small airways begin to collapse at a higher volume/before expiration is complete). (wikipedia.org)
- These values might help the setting of positive endexpiratory pressure during artificial ventilation to avoid the cyclic opening and closing of alveoli. (bioportfolio.com)
- During artificial ventilation the cyclic opening and closing of alveoli during artificial ventilation results in patients with acute lung injury (ALI) in a higher mortality. (bioportfolio.com)
- The distribution of ventilation in patients with ALI is extremely inhomogeneous, consequently there are different regional opening pressures needed to open up the alveoli and avoid closing. (bioportfolio.com)
- A ventilator setting guided by regional opening and closing pressures might help reducing the impairment of the lung by artificial ventilation. (bioportfolio.com)
- Intraoperative use of low volume ventilation to decrease postoperative mortality, mechanical ventilation, lengths of stay and lung injury in adults without acute lung injury. (bioportfolio.com)
- Small airway disease in infants is characterised by abnormal lung volume and uneven ventilation distribution. (ersjournals.com)
- To quantify the degree of functional abnormalities of the lung and to study the therapeutic effect of inhaled bronchodilators or topical anti-inflammatory drugs, an accurate and easy-to-use technique to measure lung volume and ventilation distribution in infants is necessary. (ersjournals.com)
- The aim of this study was to develop a simple technique able to measure lung volume (FRC) and ventilation inhomogeneities in spontaneously breathing infants without altering the infant's breathing and reducing problems due to leak. (ersjournals.com)
- The RV end-systolic pressure-volume relationship, representing RV afterload, during steady-state OLC ventilation (2.7 ± 1.2 mmHg/ml) was not significantly different compared with CMV (3.6 ± 2.5 mmHg/ml). (biomedcentral.com)
- Compared with baseline, the LV end-diastolic volume (66 ± 4 ml) decreased significantly during OLC (56 ± 5 ml) ventilation and not during CMV (61 ± 3 ml). (biomedcentral.com)
- In contrast only six workers exhibited a 10% increase in closing capacity, while ten showed a 10% increase in CV. (bmj.com)
- The relationship of smoking history, dust exposure, and presence of pneumoconiosis and bronchitis to elevations of closing volume and closing capacity is determined. (cdc.gov)
- Neither bronchitic symptoms nor the radiographic presence of pneumoconiosis is found to be associated with an elevation of closing volume or closing capacity. (cdc.gov)
- Assessment of the patient's hydration status includes monitoring lab data for such signs as increased packed red blood cell volume, increased plasma protein level, elevated specific gravity of urine, and increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) out of proportion to a change in serum creatinine. (thefreedictionary.com)
- 2. A needleless valve as in claim 1 further comprising said rod being elongated coaxially of said valve and said expander means comprising a plurality of longitudinal ribs extending outwardly therefrom, said ribs cooperating with said plug in said increase in said interior volume and in said decrease in said interior volume. (google.com)
- We were managing a very large quantity of refinance transactions, but we have been fortunate in that we have successfully diversified our mix of closings to include purchases, reverse mortgages, short sales, bank-owned properties and other types of closings in addition to the refinances. (dispatch.com)
- These types of closings are less contingent on interest rates, and they have helped stabilize our closing volume. (dispatch.com)
- Patients at risk for profound and potentially fatal fluid volume deficit, as in severe burns, should be assessed frequently for mental acuity status and orientation to person, place, and time. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Fortunately, in the beginning, most of the closings they sent me were closings that no one else wanted closings that were scheduled at 9 or 10 p.m. in rural areas and this worked perfectly for my schedule at the time. (dispatch.com)