Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Liver Regeneration: Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Liver Extracts: Extracts of liver tissue containing uncharacterized specific factors with specific activities; a soluble thermostable fraction of mammalian liver is used in the treatment of pernicious anemia.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Liver Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the liver as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental: Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.Liver, Artificial: Devices for simulating the activities of the liver. They often consist of a hybrid between both biological and artificial materials.Liver Glycogen: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.End Stage Liver Disease: Final stage of a liver disease when the liver failure is irreversible and LIVER TRANSPLANTATION is needed.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Kupffer Cells: Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Living Donors: Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.Rats, Inbred F344Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Phenobarbital: A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Liver Abscess, Pyogenic: Single or multiple areas of PUS due to bacterial infection within the hepatic parenchyma. It can be caused by a variety of BACTERIA, local or disseminated from infections elsewhere such as in APPENDICITIS; CHOLECYSTITIS; PERITONITIS; and after LIVER TRANSPLANTATION.Hepatic Veins: Veins which drain the liver.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Adenoma, Liver Cell: A benign epithelial tumor of the LIVER.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Liver Diseases, Parasitic: Liver diseases caused by infections with PARASITES, such as tapeworms (CESTODA) and flukes (TREMATODA).gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningBiotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Hepatitis, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.Hepatic Stellate Cells: Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Drug-Induced Liver Injury, Chronic: Liver disease lasting six months or more, caused by an adverse drug effect. The adverse effect may result from a direct toxic effect of a drug or metabolite, or an idiosyncratic response to a drug or metabolite.Diethylnitrosamine: A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Hepatomegaly: Enlargement of the liver.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Hepatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Thioacetamide: A crystalline compound used as a laboratory reagent in place of HYDROGEN SULFIDE. It is a potent hepatocarcinogen.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Hepatitis, Alcoholic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)GalactosamineGene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.2-Acetylaminofluorene: A hepatic carcinogen whose mechanism of activation involves N-hydroxylation to the aryl hydroxamic acid followed by enzymatic sulfonation to sulfoxyfluorenylacetamide. It is used to study the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of aromatic amines.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic: Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Hepatitis, Autoimmune: A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.TriglyceridesOxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Portal System: A system of vessels in which blood, after passing through one capillary bed, is conveyed through a second set of capillaries before it returns to the systemic circulation. It pertains especially to the hepatic portal system.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Biliary Tract: The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Glucuronosyltransferase: A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Hepatic Encephalopathy: A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Albumins: Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1: An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Biliary Atresia: Progressive destruction or the absence of all or part of the extrahepatic BILE DUCTS, resulting in the complete obstruction of BILE flow. Usually, biliary atresia is found in infants and accounts for one third of the neonatal cholestatic JAUNDICE.Orphan Nuclear Receptors: A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.Hep G2 Cells: A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases: A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.Dimethylnitrosamine: A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties. It causes serious liver damage and is a hepatocarcinogen in rodents.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A: A cytochrome P-450 suptype that has specificity for a broad variety of lipophilic compounds, including STEROIDS; FATTY ACIDS; and XENOBIOTICS. This enzyme has clinical significance due to its ability to metabolize a diverse array of clinically important drugs such as CYCLOSPORINE; VERAPAMIL; and MIDAZOLAM. This enzyme also catalyzes the N-demethylation of ERYTHROMYCIN.Tissue and Organ Procurement: The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.Cholestasis, Intrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).Mice, Inbred BALB CGlutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Hepatitis, Viral, Human: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Cod Liver Oil: Oil obtained from fresh livers of the cod family, Gadidae. It is a source of VITAMIN A and VITAMIN D.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Choline Deficiency: A condition produced by a deficiency of CHOLINE in animals. Choline is known as a lipotropic agent because it has been shown to promote the transport of excess fat from the liver under certain conditions in laboratory animals. Combined deficiency of choline (included in the B vitamin complex) and all other methyl group donors causes liver cirrhosis in some animals. Unlike compounds normally considered as vitamins, choline does not serve as a cofactor in enzymatic reactions. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Orotic AcidMicrobodies: Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Waiting Lists: Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Elasticity Imaging Techniques: Non-invasive imaging methods based on the mechanical response of an object to a vibrational or impulsive force. It is used for determining the viscoelastic properties of tissue, and thereby differentiating soft from hard inclusions in tissue such as microcalcifications, and some cancer lesions. Most techniques use ultrasound to create the images - eliciting the response with an ultrasonic radiation force and/or recording displacements of the tissue by Doppler ultrasonography.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Ethionine: 2-Amino-4-(ethylthio)butyric acid. An antimetabolite and methionine antagonist that interferes with amino acid incorporation into proteins and with cellular ATP utilization. It also produces liver neoplasms.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Biliary Tract Diseases: Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Clofibrate: A fibric acid derivative used in the treatment of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III and severe HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIA. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p986)Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Cholangiocarcinoma: A malignant tumor arising from the epithelium of the BILE DUCTS.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Aflatoxin B1: A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Organ Preservation Solutions: Solutions used to store organs and minimize tissue damage, particularly while awaiting implantation.Ascites: Accumulation or retention of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Cholangitis, Sclerosing: Chronic inflammatory disease of the BILIARY TRACT. It is characterized by fibrosis and hardening of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary ductal systems leading to bile duct strictures, CHOLESTASIS, and eventual BILIARY CIRRHOSIS.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Cysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Hepatolenticular Degeneration: A rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by the deposition of copper in the BRAIN; LIVER; CORNEA; and other organs. It is caused by defects in the ATP7B gene encoding copper-transporting ATPase 2 (EC 3.6.3.4), also known as the Wilson disease protein. The overload of copper inevitably leads to progressive liver and neurological dysfunction such as LIVER CIRRHOSIS; TREMOR; ATAXIA and intellectual deterioration. Hepatic dysfunction may precede neurologic dysfunction by several years.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Tacrolimus: A macrolide isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Streptomyces tsukubaensis that has strong immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation in vitro.Warm Ischemia: A tissue or organ remaining at physiological temperature during decreased BLOOD perfusion or in the absence of blood supply. During ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION it begins when the organ reaches physiological temperature before the completion of SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS and ends with reestablishment of the BLOOD CIRCULATION through the tissue.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
CNN-IBN, IBN Live. 16 November 2012. "Salman Khurshid closely following developments in Savita Halappanavar death case". The ... "Savita death case: MEA summons Irish envoy after row over abortion, Updated". IBN Live. ...
Below are some of the most notable people who were either born, or spent most of their lives in Podgorica: *Božidar Vuković, ... It is followed closely by Montenegrin, at 41.17%. Other significant languages spoken in Podgorica are Albanian (5.53%) and ... At that time there were about 1,500 houses in Podgorica, with more than 8.000 people living there - of Orthodox, Roman Catholic ... Although, in mid-2014, some 30% of Montenegro's citizens lived in Podgorica, the municipality accounted for 44% of the ...
Atlas of Living Australia. "Eupoecila miskini , Atlas of Living Australia". bie.ala.org.au. Retrieved 2014-08-04. ... It is closely related to Eupoecila inscripta. "Eupoecila miskini - Information on Eupoecila miskini - Encyclopedia of Life". ...
The Hernici were an ancient Italic people, closely related to the Latins; they lived southeast of Latium. During the first two ...
Prince Saud worked closely with King Khalid, King Fahd and King Abdullah. Prince Saud was firmly anti-Soviet and was an Arab ... Prince Saud lived in Jeddah. Unlike other members of the Al Saud, he often spoke publicly and interacted with reporters. Prince ... Prince Saud was closely involved in philanthropy. He was a founding member of the King Faisal Foundation and chairman of the ...
They live in groups of closely related individuals, amidst tropical reefs and sponges.[60] Each group has one breeding female; ... Eusociality has arisen among some crustaceans that live in groups in a restricted area. Synalpheus regalis are snapping shrimp ... They usually live in harsh or limiting environments. However, a study conducted by O'Riain and Faulkes in 2008 suggests that ... As with other eusocial societies, there is a single shared living space for the colony members, and the non-breeding members ...
The closely associated habitation site is one of the oldest discovered (ca. 5000 years). "C̓ƏSNAʔƏM". Musqueam: A Living ... The relations of soul or souls, and conceptions of the lands of the living and the dead, were complex and mutable. Vision quest ... The Coast Salish is a group of ethnically and linguistically related indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast, living ... Nuxalk (Bella Coola) nation are usually included in the group, although their language is more closely related to Interior ...
Chatwin lives in South Queensferry. He works closely with his brother, London-based percussionist and graphic designer Jordan ... He has performed live globally. Besides his own work, Chatwin does bespoke music for adverts such as Calvin Klein, Louis ...
He currently lives in Herbster, Wisconsin. Wisconsin Walleye War Crandon mine Walter Bresette Wisconsin Green Party "History of ... In many of these causes, Koehn worked closely with Walter Bresette. He is considered a founding member of the Wisconsin Green ...
... s live in tropical rainforests. They also live in gallery forests adjacent to savannas, as well as rocky forests, ... Although they look superficially like baboons, they are more closely related to Cercocebus mangabeys. Mandrills are found in ... Mandrills mostly live in tropical rainforests. They live in very large groups. Mandrills have an omnivorous diet consisting ... Mandrills can live up to 31 years in captivity. Females reach sexual maturity at about 3.5 years. The mandrill is found in ...
This was closely followed by a series of five talks between the underground representatives and the Government represented by ... The Naga traditionally live in villages. The village is a well-defined entity with distinct land demarcation from neighbouring ... from the family, a person's time living in the morung was the most important part of education and acculturation. The morungs ... In addition, some other Naga tribes are living in the contiguous adjoining states of Manipur, Assam, and Arunachal Pradesh, ...
He lived around the year 460. Antonius wrote a life of his master Simeon, whom he knew closely. It was written in Greek, and ...
Her exhibitions are intended to improve the reputations of animals who are "maligned" and "overlooked". Mother Pigeon lives in ... Some art lovers say the pigeons seem real until examined closely. Guzman, Sandra (16 October 2015). "Think Pigeons Are a ... Alexandra (12 October 2015). "Mother Pigeon". The Only Living Girl in New York. Retrieved 1 February 2016. Official website A ...
These genes are synergistic and are physically closely linked. AL2 is a long-lived strain. Insertion of linear mitochondrial ... Mn19 is a long-lived strain used to study senescence. It is derived from strain A+-84-11 after grown on manganese (Mn). This ... Δgrisea is a long-lived strain and copper uptake mutant. This strain has lower affinity to copper and thus lower intracellular ... In general, the mitochondrion and mitochondrial chromosome is investigated (note that animals, closely related to fungi, ...
The Uttamabhadras lived in the Punjab. Uttamabhadras originally were people of Balkh who had entered India in Vedic times. In ... Vedic times, they were closely related to Kurus and the Purus. In Kurukshetra war, we also find Madras associated with the ...
The family lives in Turku, Finland. The boy was taken into child custody on 4 February 2010. Robert attended to school but ... Russian media followed closely the incident for weeks. The boy escaped from school to his parents and Russia's Commissioner for ...
They live in the Upper Nile. The Jumjum people are closely related to the Burun and the Mabaan people.. ...
Testudo marginata is also closely related to the Greek or common tortoise (Testudo graeca). Both have very similar bodily ... The marginated tortoise lives in more mountainous regions than Hermann's tortoise. It can be found in elevations as high as ... Notably, a similar situation is found in Hermann's tortoises living in the same region.[7][3] ... The young animals lead cautious and secretive lives, normally remaining in the shade. They avoid full sunlight because of the ...
Every information exchange between living organisms - i.e. transmission of signals that involve a living sender and receiver ... Development of civilization has been closely linked with progress in telecommunication. Contents. ... Once proximity has formed awareness, living creatures begin interpreting any signals received.[4] Some of the functions of ... Biosemiotics which examines communication in and between living organisms in general.. The channel of communication can be ...
The theme of children's stamp is closely related to childhood. The"My Favourite Toys and Games" and "Paper Folding Fun" ... Children can feel related to their lives. The children's stamp aims at promoting Chinese culture among children. The "Chinese ...
The chambers in the shell closely resemble those present in the cuttlebone of modern cuttlefish. Belosaepia lived close to the ...
Campus pastors supervised members' lives very closely. Disobeying one's pastor, or "shepherd," was considered tantamount to ... Instead, members were told to focus on serving God and then he would bring a mate into their lives. An ex-member of MCM ... 1968-, Crews, Terry,. Manhood : how to be a better man-- or just live with one (First edition ed.). New York. ISBN ... As advocated by Derek Prince, members agreed to live in mutual accountability to protect their "purity in Christ." As was ...
He said that according to intelligence services, Saif al-Arab was not dead but was living in another unspecified country. In ... "Knowing Muammar al-Gaddafi's Children More Closely". World News Connection. 24 February 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2011. "Nato ... Libya portal Biography portal "Libya Live Blog". Al Jazeera. 30 April 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2011. " ...
Dobrović's works are closely related to the principles of Geometric abstraction and Neo-constructivism. He lives and works in ...
UK Live for Life (Vivre pour vivre) • France Elvira Madigan • Sweden L'immorale • France/Italy Closely Observed Trains (Ostre ... "Live for Life (Vivre pour vivre)" - Francis Lai "If Ever I Would Leave You" - Camelot "Talk to the Animals" - Doctor Dolittle " ... "Circles in the Water" - Live for Life (Vivre pour vivre) "Please Don't Gamble with Love" - Ski Fever "Thoroughly Modern Millie ...
Look forward to the day when all men and women will be free citizens of one fatherland and live together as brothers and ... The Socialist education movement in America was closely connected with certain of the foreign language federations of the SPA, ... An even larger network of American Socialist Sunday Schools, closely paralleling the British movement, was launched by members ... British publications and experiences were closely followed by American SSS activists.[19] American SSS workers traveled to ...
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... is a rare congenital cholestatic liver disease that progresses to end stage liver disease. It is associated with fat soluble ... Childhood liver disease research network. Bone density in children with chronic liver disease correlated with growth and ... Dose was adjusted based on lab parameters [14]. Spot urine Ca/Creatinine ratio was closely monitored and levels were maintained ... is a rare congenital cholestatic liver disease that progresses to end stage liver disease. It is associated with fat soluble ...
Scientists dont know enough yet to say whether increasingly popular herbal treatments for liver disease -- such as milk ... Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Diet, Food & Fitness. * Diet & Weight Management ... Alcoholism-related liver disease, for example, is the leading cause of cirrhosis and liver-related deaths, but no therapy for ... Milk thistle (silymarin), a commonly used alternative medication for liver problems, is well established as liver-protective, ...
Surface location and high affinity for calcium of a 500-kd liver membrane protein closely related to the LDL-receptor suggest a ... The mRNA for this protein is most abundant in liver, brain and lung. By using an antibody raised against a 13-amino acid ... We describe a cell surface protein that is abundant in liver and has close structural and biochemical similarities to the low ... of the carboxy-terminus of the protein we have demonstrated its existence on the cell surface and its abundance in liver. Like ...
You really dont want to meet your heroes. - Dont look too closely at the lives and ways of those you grew up admiring, its ... Total Fark :: TotalFark , TF Live , TF Advice , TF Discussion , Commented , Top Voted , Greenlit ...
You really dont want to meet your heroes. - Dont look too closely at the lives and ways of those you grew up admiring, its ... If theres anything that history has taught us, its that a live-action Avatar adaptation without them can only go well ( io9. ... Total Fark :: TotalFark , TF Live , TF Advice , TF Discussion , Commented , Top Voted , Greenlit ... The original creators of Avatar: The Last Airbender have left the live-action Netflix series. ...
Find out 7 gorilla facts you should know about the largest living primates and one of our closest animal relatives. ... Do gorillas live alone?. Gorillas move around in family groups that can range from a couple of individuals to more than 40 ... How closely related to gorillas are humans?. Charismatic and intelligent animals, gorillas share 98.3% of their DNA with humans ... Gorillas, the largest living primates, make their homes in central and east Africa. They function in a well-developed social ...
Dont read too closely into Wired. Two things. First, Wired practices very fast-and-loose journalism, so take it with a grain ... Live vs modal. Im a bit new to this, but it might help to see "live programming" as a gradual rejection of modal programming, ... The goal of live programming. The goal of live programming is to let you quickly see the results of code changes. ... You dont need live. You dont need live programming to adopt a view of programming languages as user interfaces. ...
Living. Few Parents Plan For Future Of Children With Disabilities, Study Finds. Many parents of those with intellectual and ...
Engineering Living Scaffolds for Building Materials. Bone and mollusk shells are composite systems that combine living cells ... Borrowing from this amazing complexity, researchers have been exploring a new class of materials called engineered living ...
Campaigns more closely split between home-grown and imported dollars. David Beard, The Dominion Post. August 5, 2018 3:29 pm. ... the two 1st District House campaigns are more closely split between home-grown and imported dollars. ... Healthy Living. *Dr. Trembush and Dr. Stout. *Dr. Michael Hogan. *Life & Leisure *Marquee ...
The liver takes up toxic substances and converts them... ... Think of the liver as a big factory in the body for metabolism ... Manage Your Liver. All Topic Hepatitis B Hepatitis C NAFLD & NASH Liver Cirrhosis Liver Cancer General Health About YHK About ... Manage Your Liver All Topic Hepatitis B Hepatitis C NAFLD & NASH Liver Cirrhosis Liver Cancer General Health About YHK About Us ... Cirrhosis is scarring of the liver caused by long-term liver damage. The loss of liver cells turns into scar tissue which ...
WatchHow to live to 100 (according to science). Among centenarians, one constant is that theyre often super active well into ... "Canada is watching very closely what is happening with Interpol. Canada, of course, is very aware of the ways in which Russia ... Canadian government watching very closely as Putin ally likely to take Interpol presidency. Canada is very aware of the ways ... Canadian government watching very closely as Putin ally likely to take Interpol presidency ...
Coffee: Liver Health Nutraceutical: Coffee Indication: Liver Health Source: Hepatology; DOI: 10.1002/hep.27367 Research: Coffee ... "Our findings indicate that vitamin D is associated more closely with glucose metabolism than obesity," said one of the studys ... may have hepatoprotective effects and higher coffee consumption has been associated inversely with levels of liver enzymatic ...
I am a district nurse and I feel that if I could work more closely with hospital staff it would benefit both patients and my ... Nursing Times events to look out for in 2019 Nursing Times Careers Live will return in 2019 with seven events across England ... I am a district nurse and I feel that if I could work more closely with hospital staff it would benefit both patients and my ... Next, outline what could have been done better and how working more closely. with the hospital team would have improved patient ...
Home / Verdicts & Settlements / Liver laceration during biopsy leads to fatal hemorrhaging. Liver laceration during biopsy ... 22, 2013, the plaintiffs decedent, 49, was found to have an enlarged liver with multiple lesions. An abdominal CT on March 5, ... On March 18, the plaintiffs decedent underwent a CT-guided liver biopsy performed by the defendant radiologist. The decedent ...
Hospital Performance Closely Linked to Heart Failure Survival. March 26, 2018. CardioSmart News ... Healthy Living * Eat Better * Lose Weight * Move More * Stop Smoking * Manage Stress ...
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We Live in America: Maskless Woman Throws Epic Fit at Supermarket (WATCH) Alberto LuperonAug 9th, 2020, 3:24 pm ... Closely Coordinated With Clinton Foundation After Benghazi Attacks. Chris WhiteMar 22nd, 2016, 2:55 pm ... DA Drops Charge Against Woman Facing Felony Over Pro-Black Lives Matter Retweet Colin KalmbacherAug 8th, 2020, 4:00 pm ... DA Drops Charge Against Woman Facing Felony Over Pro-Black Lives Matter Retweet ...
Belarus Admits Using Live Ammunition On Protesters As Pompeo Vows U.S. Action ... Authoritarian Leaders Are Watching The Turmoil In Belarus Closely. So Are The People Tiring Of Their Rule. ... Authoritarian Leaders Are Watching The Turmoil In Belarus Closely. So Are The People Tiring Of Their Rule. ...
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... is closely associated with obesity and type-2 diabetes. Its rise is reflective of the social problems of poor diets and ... is closely associated with obesity and type-2 diabetes. Its rise is reflective of the social problems of poor diets and ... Diabetes patients at higher risk of deadly liver disease, finds study Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely ... Live West Indies vs Bangladesh Live Cricket Score Online, World Cup 2019 LIVE: Hope, Hetmyer guide West Indies to 321/8 ...
  • Vitamin World's version of this classic tonic comes in a rapid-release softgel and features Nor-Gold Premium™ Cod Liver Oil, sourced from the finest deep sea cold water fish. (vitaminworld.com)
  • A person who donates part of his or her liver can have a normal-sized liver again within just a few weeks of donating the tissue because livers are organs that grow new cells on their own (called regeneration). (kidshealth.org)
  • Our findings indicate that vitamin D is associated more closely with glucose metabolism than obesity," said one of the study's authors, Manuel Macías-González, PhD, of Complejo Hospitalario de Málaga (Virgen de la Victoria) and the University of Málaga. (nutraceuticalsworld.com)
  • Taking cod liver oil may help control blood sugar in people with diabetes during pregnancy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Taking cod liver oil doesn't seem to help with blood sugar control in people with type 1 diabetes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Naveed Sattar from the University of Glasgow said, "Doctors treating patients with diabetes already have a lot to check on - eyes, kidneys, heart risks - but these results remind us that we should not neglect the liver, nor forget to consider the possibility of NASH. (indianexpress.com)
  • In fact, type-2 diabetes surges the risk of liver associated death by up to 22-fold in patients with NAFLD, as per National Center for Biotechnology. (indianexpress.com)
  • Losing weight and managing diabetes can slow or sometimes reverse the deposit of fat in the liver. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The present study demonstrates a key role for the oxysterol receptor liver X receptor β (LXRβ) in the etiology of diabetes insipidus (DI). (pnas.org)
  • People who eat a lot of fish and take cod liver oil don't have a lower risk of developing this condition compared to people who just eat a lot of fish. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Taking cod liver oil by mouth might reduce a specific type of irregular heartbeat in some people. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Early research shows that taking cod liver oil doesn't seem to lower cholesterol levels in people with familial hypercholesterolemia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Taking cod liver oil by mouth doesn't lower cholesterol levels in people with high cholesterol. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Taking cod liver oil by mouth seems to slightly lower blood pressure in healthy people and those with slightly high blood pressure. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Taking cod liver oil might reduce joint pain in some people with this condition. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Taking cod liver oil along with an NSAID doesn't reduce swelling in people with osteoarthritis better than taking an NSAID alone. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Also, taking cod liver oil and fish oil seems to reduce the need to use medicine to treat joint swelling in people with this condition. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Taking cod liver oil seems to increase blood levels of vitamin D in some people. (medlineplus.gov)
  • But it's not clear if cod liver oil increases vitamin D to normal levels in people with low levels of vitamin D. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most of the time, liver problems have happened in people taking more than 4,000 milligrams of acetaminophen in a day. (drugs.com)
  • Also, people who had liver problems were often using more than 1 drug that had acetaminophen in it. (drugs.com)
  • Rosa is an author and blogger who dedicates to helping people thrive in the work and live with purpose. (lifehack.org)
  • People often use the phrases inflation and cost of living as if they were synonymous. (investopedia.com)
  • Most people feel the effects of cost-of-living increases in their daily lives. (investopedia.com)
  • While there's no debate that being severely obese will raise the risk of all kinds of illnesses and even cut some lives short, it's less clear what happens to people who are less overweight. (kuow.org)
  • At a time when we're bombarded with weight-loss messages, Flegal says it isn't popular to suggest that heavier people may live longer. (kuow.org)
  • Dr. Steven Hymsfield, of the Pennington Biomedical Research Center in Baton Rouge, La., says there are a couple of scenarios in which extra body weight might help people live longer. (kuow.org)
  • Blogging: The views of people living on a lower or relatively lower income level. (angelfire.com)
  • At the same time, while our opponents will harbor or consort with spirit people, we utterly and categorically reject such in our own lives, and wish nothing more than to be rid of them. (angelfire.com)
  • The company also serves people living in assisted living or a care facility. (kansascity.com)
  • What will attract people to the rural area is their ability to live there and work elsewhere. (city-data.com)
  • Healthy people live in healthy communities. (lww.com)
  • When people think of an animal, they think of a macroscopic, multicellular, complex organism, and now they'll have to expand their definition of an animal to include very simple microscopic organisms," study co-author Paulyn Cartwright, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Kansas,told Live Science. (livescience.com)
  • In 2009, the FDA reported that acetaminophen, the active ingredient in Tylenol-brand medications, was the leading cause of acute liver failure in the U.S. between 1998 and 2003. (prweb.com)
  • There, a team of surgeons, liver specialists (hepatologists), a transplant coordinator, nurses, nutritionists, psychologists, and social workers will evaluate your child to determine whether he or she is a good candidate for the procedure. (kidshealth.org)
  • A persistent fibrotic microenvironment is conducive to the initiation and exacerbation of HCC, and is closely associated with HCC cell proliferation, metastasis, and drug resistance . (techfromastranger.com)
  • Milk thistle (silymarin), a commonly used alternative medication for liver problems, is well established as liver-protective, says Peter Ferenci, MD, a professor of medicine at the University of Vienna, Austria. (webmd.com)
  • The function of the kidneys is closely related to the condition of the blood and also the body's ability to absorb nutrients and discharge waste. (yhktherapy.com)
  • When our liver and kidneys are over-worked or their function decreases, our body's ability to process waste, toxins, fats, sugar, etc. will be reduced. (yhktherapy.com)
  • By using an antibody raised against a 13-amino acid peptide corresponding to the deduced amino acid sequence of the carboxy-terminus of the protein we have demonstrated its existence on the cell surface and its abundance in liver. (nih.gov)
  • The Firm is evaluating Tylenol lawsuits on behalf of individuals who sustained serious and life-threatening liver injuries, allegedly due to the acetaminophen in Tylenol brand over-the-counter medications. (prweb.com)
  • Our Firm continues to hear from consumers who allegedly suffered acetaminophen-induced liver damage due to their use of Tylenol products. (prweb.com)
  • Among other things, plaintiffs claim that the public was not provided with adequate warnings regarding the liver injury risk associated with the acetaminophen in Tylenol. (prweb.com)
  • Liver problems have happened with the use of acetaminophen. (mskcc.org)
  • She is portrayed as a stoic, aggressive and family-oriented woman who is generally loving and supportive, but often interferes in her friends' and relatives' lives through any means necessary. (wikipedia.org)
  • The liver has many jobs, like cleansing the blood of toxins, producing bile (which helps to break down food during digestion), and storing energy in the form of a sugar. (kidshealth.org)
  • This happens when the liver's bile ducts (tubes that carry bile out of the liver) are missing or blocked. (kidshealth.org)
  • But they could build up thick enough to add pressure to the liver, they can swell and push against a nerve, causing pain, one of the blood vessels could burst causing bruising, they could result in an enlarged liver, cause nausea. (city-data.com)
  • Improving on traditional screening tests for potential anti-cancer drugs, scientists at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute have developed a laboratory technique that more closely simulates the real-world conditions in which tumor cells mingle with the body's normal cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • A Paleolithic diet reduced liver fat and IMCL content, while there was a tissue-specific heterogeneous response to added exercise training. (springer.com)
  • Recent transgenic cell and mouse models of the tau pathology reveal that the pathological degeneration of synapses and neurons is closely related to aggregation, and that it is reversible. (mpg.de)
  • By studying a special group of closely-related fish species inhabiting the Great Lakes of Africa, researchers have uncovered clues to understanding how the components of color vision can undergo change over a relatively short period of evolutionary time. (innovations-report.com)
  • This isn't the first time researchers have raised questions about the link between body weight and how long someone will live. (kuow.org)
  • Approximately 20 million women and 10 million men suffer from a significant eating disorder at some time in their lives. (additudemag.com)
  • Bobby Schindler, Terri Schiavo's brother, has written about Lauren in an editorial earlier this year, ' False Compassion ,' and is working closely with Lauren's father in order to provide expertise that he is uniquely qualified to share during a trying time like this. (freerepublic.com)
  • Fortunately, he hasn't rejected the new liver, but he's lost his appetite and is feeling very fatigued and weak. (medhelp.org)
  • Readers asked questions about allergies and treatment at noon on Wednesday, March 16, during a live web chat with Dr. Maripaz Morales, an allergist at Children's Hospitals of The King's Daughters (CHKD) in Norfolk, and Dr. Ann Zilliox, allergist and immunologist with Allergy and Asthma of Oyster Point in Newport News. (dailypress.com)
  • If the transplant team decides that a liver transplant is the right treatment, your child will be placed on an organ waiting list. (kidshealth.org)
  • Without knowing your liver architecture I can't suggest treatment for HCV. (medhelp.org)
  • The most serious problem is liver toxicity, but this is rare and usually reverses after treatment when the drug is stopped. (thebody.com)
  • The investigator of the study wrote a very interesting book upon retirement, comparing companies to living organisms and looking for the common survival traits of long-lived companies. (crainsdetroit.com)
  • AudioSolutionz will host a live webinar by expert speaker Hank Vanderbeek, MPA, CMI on Wed, August 31, 2016, go provide an understanding of the new REAC inspection rule changes and what it means for property managers, owners and staff. (prweb.com)
  • On Wednesday, August 31, 2016, AudioSolutionz will host a Live Webinar titled " New REAC Inspection Rule Changes and What Do They Mean," presented by expert speaker Hank Vanderbeek, MPA, CMI. (prweb.com)
  • In the new work, the researchers performed physiological and molecular genetic analyses of color vision in cichlid fish from Lake Malawi and demonstrated that differences in color vision between closely related species arise from individual species using different subsets of distinct visual pigments. (innovations-report.com)
  • Mayo Clinic researchers developed one of these noninvasive techniques, magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), which measures liver measures liver damage more accurately than do other imaging modalities. (mayoclinic.org)