Cloprostenol: A synthetic prostaglandin F2alpha analog. The compound has luteolytic effects and is used for the synchronization of estrus in cattle.Prostaglandins F, Synthetic: Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins F that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGF.Prostaglandins, Synthetic: Compounds obtained by chemical synthesis that are analogs or derivatives of naturally occurring prostaglandins and that have similar activity.Luteolysis: Degradation of CORPUS LUTEUM. In the absence of pregnancy and diminishing trophic hormones, the corpus luteum undergoes luteolysis which is characterized by the involution and cessation of its endocrine function.Corpus Luteum: The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Luteolytic Agents: Chemical compounds causing LUTEOLYSIS or degeneration.Estrus Synchronization: Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Labor Stage, Third: The final period of OBSTETRIC LABOR that is from the expulsion of the FETUS to the expulsion of the PLACENTA.Callithrix: A genus of the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE occurring in forests of Brazil and Bolivia and containing seventeen species.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Gonadotropins, Equine: Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.Buserelin: A potent synthetic analog of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-serine substitution at residue 6, glycine10 deletion, and other modifications.Abortion, Veterinary: Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.Oxytocics: Drugs that stimulate contraction of the myometrium. They are used to induce LABOR, OBSTETRIC at term, to prevent or control postpartum or postabortion hemorrhage, and to assess fetal status in high risk pregnancies. They may also be used alone or with other drugs to induce abortions (ABORTIFACIENTS). Oxytocics used clinically include the neurohypophyseal hormone OXYTOCIN and certain prostaglandins and ergot alkaloids. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p1157)Luteal Phase: The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Prostaglandins F: (9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.Abortion, Induced: Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)Relaxin: A water-soluble polypeptide (molecular weight approximately 8,000) extractable from the corpus luteum of pregnancy. It produces relaxation of the pubic symphysis and dilation of the uterine cervix in certain animal species. Its role in the human pregnant female is uncertain. (Dorland, 28th ed)Oxytocin: A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.Insemination, Artificial: Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Ovarian Follicle: An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Salts: Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Dietetics: The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.Chemical Safety: Risk or hazard associated with the handling and use of chemicals.Chloral Hydrate: A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Veterinary Drugs: Drugs used by veterinarians in the treatment of animal diseases. The veterinarian's pharmacological armamentarium is the counterpart of drugs treating human diseases, with dosage and administration adjusted to the size, weight, disease, and idiosyncrasies of the species. In the United States most drugs are subject to federal regulations with special reference to the safety of drugs and residues in edible animal products.Education, Veterinary: Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.Schools, Veterinary: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of veterinary medicine.Physiological Processes: The functions and activities of living organisms that support life in single- or multi-cellular organisms from their origin through the progression of life.Telefacsimile: A telecommunication system combining the transmission of a document scanned at a transmitter, its reconstruction at a receiving station, and its duplication there by a copier.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Receptors, Prostaglandin: Cell surface receptors that bind prostaglandins with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their relative affinities for the endogenous prostaglandins. They include those which prefer prostaglandin D2 (DP receptors), prostaglandin E2 (EP1, EP2, and EP3 receptors), prostaglandin F2-alpha (FP receptors), and prostacyclin (IP receptors).Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Receptors, Prostaglandin E: Cell surface receptors which bind prostaglandins with a high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin E receptors prefer prostaglandin E2 to other endogenous prostaglandins. They are subdivided into EP1, EP2, and EP3 types based on their effects and their pharmacology.Receptors, Prostaglandin E, EP2 Subtype: A subtype of prostaglandin E receptors that specifically couples to GS ALPHA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN SUBUNITS and subsequently activates ADENYLYL CYCLASES.

Ovarian follicular responses in dairy cows treated with GnRH and cloprostenol. (1/180)

Lactating, nonpregnant (with a corpus luteum) Holsteins were given 100 ug GnRH (n = 12) or saline (n = 12) and 500 ug cloprostenol 6 d later. Following luteolysis, ovulation occurred 10.1 +/- 0.2 d (range, 9-12 d) after GnRH and 8.6 +/- 1.0 d (range, 3-12 d) after saline (differences between groups: means, P > 0.05; variability, P < 0.001). Treatment with GnRH and cloprostenol resulted in a relatively synchronous ovulation.  (+info)

Synchronization of estrus in beef cattle with norgestomet and estradiol valerate. (2/180)

Fifty-six cows received a norgestomet implant and an injection of norgestomet and estradiol valerate; half (n = 28) received 500 IU equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) at implant removal, 9 d later. A third group (n = 25) received 2 doses of cloprostenol (500 micrograms) 11 d apart. Estrous rate was higher (P < 0.05) for cows given norgestomet and estradiol plus 500 IU eCG (75.0%) than for those receiving cloprostenol (44.0%); for those receiving norgestomet and estradiol alone, it was intermediate (67.8%). Pregnancy rates to artificial insemination (after estrus or timed) were higher (P < 0.05) for cows given norgestomet and estradiol than for those given cloprostenol (23 of 28, 82.1% vs 13 of 25, 52.0%), and intermediate (67.8%) for those given norgestomet and estradiol plus eCG. In a second experiment, for heifers treated with norgestomet and estradiol plus eCG (n = 15) or with 2 doses of cloprostenol (n = 16), estrous rates were 66.7% vs 56.2% (P > 0.5), ovulation rates were 100.0% vs 81.2% (P = 0.08), intervals from implant removal or cloprostenol treatment to estrus were 48.0 +/- 4.4 hours vs 61.3 +/- 7.0 hours (P = 0.12) and to ovulation were 70.4 +/- 4.4 hours vs 93.2 +/- 7.5 hours (P < 0.01), respectively; pregnancy rates were 41.7 and 35.7%, respectively (P > 0.5). Norgestomet and estradiol were as good as (heifers) or superior to (cows) a 2-dose cloprostenol regimen. In cows given norgestomet and estradiol, injecting eCG at implant removal did not significantly improve estrous or pregnancy rates.  (+info)

Functional evidence for divergent receptor activation mechanisms of luteotrophic and luteolytic events in the human corpus luteum. (3/180)

Using a dispersed human luteal cell culture model, progesterone synthesis following treatment by incremental doses of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) and the stable prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) analogue cloprostenol, alone or in combination, was related to corpora lutea (CL) mRNA transcript abundance coding for the luteinizing hormone (LH)/HCG receptor (LH-R) and PGF2alpha-receptor (FP) by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 33 otherwise healthy women, scheduled for surgery due to benign conditions. CL were grouped according to age, based on the occurrence of a preovulatory LH surge where post-LH days 2-5 were designated as early luteal phase, days 6-10 as mid-luteal phase and days 11-14 as late luteal phase. When exposed to HCG, maximal progesterone output was raised 2.2-fold (P = 0.08, n = 5) compared with untreated controls in the early CL, while it increased 5.7- and 4.6-fold in the mid- and late groups respectively (P<0.05, n = 4 mid-luteal phase, n = 3 late luteal phase). This stimulation pattern was found to be concordant with the value of mRNA coding for LH-R in all groups (n = 6 early luteal phase, n = 5 mid-luteal phase, n = 6 late luteal phase). The integrated response to HCG and cloprostenol showed a dose-dependent 60% inhibition of progesterone production; but only in late luteal phase luteal cells (P<0.01, n = 3). FP mRNA values were lowest in early luteal phase, and increased with the age of the CL. Interestingly, lowest CL tissue concentrations of the natural FP agonist PGF2alpha were found during mid-luteal phase while it increased again 1.6-fold during late luteal phase (P<0.05, n = 8 versus mid-luteal phase, n = 6). Collectively, these data demonstrate that (i) the extrinsic functional control (or rescue of CL in the event of pregnancy) occurs when the sensitivity towards LH/HCG is maximal; and (ii) the demise of CL function is mediated via an acquisition of sensitivity towards the intrinsic luteolytic signal, PGF2alpha in the ageing CL.  (+info)

Effect of sodium cloprostenol and flunixin meglumine on luteolysis and the timing of birth in bitches. (4/180)

At birth, the physiological role of prostaglandins in bitches is unclear. Bitches were treated before parturition with either saline, the prostaglandin analogue, sodium cloprostenol, or the prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor, flunixin meglumine. The animals were examined regularly to determine the onset of parturition and a series of blood samples were taken to define the hormonal profiles before, during and after birth. Animals treated with cloprostenol whelped earlier than did controls. In addition, the prostaglandin F2 alpha metabolite surge and decrease in plasma progesterone concentration and rectal temperature were earlier than in controls. Flunixin meglumine disrupted the normal 13,14-dihydro-15-keto prostaglandin F2 alpha profile but did not abolish prostaglandin synthesis completely or delay the onset of labour in treated animals. This study confirms that prostaglandins induce luteolysis and the onset of labour in the bitch. However, the partial inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis does not prevent parturition.  (+info)

Source and site of action of anti-luteolytic interferon in red deer (Cervus elaphus): possible involvement of extra-ovarian oxytocin secretion in maternal recognition of pregnancy. (5/180)

Six conceptuses were collected from red deer hinds on day 22 after synchronization of oestrus with intravaginal progesterone-releasing devices (removal of device = day 0). Within 24 h of culture in vitro, the supernatant from five of six conceptuses showed detectable antiviral activity. Interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) receptors were identified by immunohistochemistry on the luminal surface of the endometrium, in the neurohypophysis and paraventricular hypothalamus, but not in the ovaries of the hinds from which the conceptuses were collected. Another 16 intact hinds were synchronized as above. Injection of 4 mg IFN i.m. twice a day on days 13-15 had no effect on cloprostenol-induced oxytocin secretion on day 15 and did not prevent cloprostenol-induced luteal regression. Sixteen ovariectomized hinds received a protocol of steroid treatment to mimic ovarian hormone secretion during the normal oestrous cycle. On day 16, hinds showed undulant oxytocin secretion that showed a degree of temporal association with uterine PGF2 alpha release. Treatment with 4 mg IFN-alpha I 1 twice a day on days 13-16 had no effect on this spontaneous oxytocin secretion, but reduced the magnitude of cloprostenol-induced oxytocin secretion on day 17 (P < 0.05). These results indicate that red deer conceptuses secrete an anti-luteolytic IFN to which the endometrium expresses a receptor during early pregnancy. The presence of IFN receptors in the hypothalamus and posterior pituitary and the IFN-induced suppression of extra-ovarian oxytocin secretion provides tentative evidence of an involvement of the central nervous system in maternal recognition of pregnancy in deer.  (+info)

Direct effects of ovine follicular fluid on ovarian steroid secretion and expression of markers of cellular differentiation in sheep. (6/180)

The objective of this study was to assess the effect of ovine follicular fluid (FF) treatment (with or without FSH replacement) during the late follicular phase on plasma concentrations of gonadotrophins and the development of the ovulatory follicle. Ovarian steroid secretion and expression of mRNA encoding inhibin alpha and beta A, beta B subunits, P450 aromatase and P450 17 alpha-hydroxylase were used as endpoints. After induction of luteolysis by injection of 100 micrograms cloprostenol on days 10-12, Scottish Blackface ewes were allocated to one of three groups: (1) control (n = 7): no further treatment; (2) FF (n = 9): subcutaneous injections of 3 ml steroid-free ovine follicular fluid at 9 h intervals, 18 and 27 h after cloprostenol injection; (3) FF + FSH (n = 8): injections of follicular fluid as above plus subcutaneous injections of 0.36 iu ovine FSH at 6 h intervals, 18, 24, and 30 h after cloprostenol injection. Jugular venous blood samples were obtained via indwelling cannulae at 6 h intervals from 0 to 36 h after cloprostenol injection, and at 10 min intervals from 12 to 18 h (control phase) and from 30 to 36 h after cloprostenol injection (treatment phase). At laparotomy, 36 h after cloprostenol injection, ovarian venous blood was collected and ovaries were removed and processed for in situ hybridization. Plasma concentrations of FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH) and oestradiol were determined by radioimmunoassay. Follicular fluid treatment resulted in a decrease (P < 0.001) in FSH concentrations associated with an acute decrease in ovarian steroid secretion (P < 0.01) and a specific depression in P450 aromatase, (P < 0.001), inhibin-activin beta B subunit (P < 0.05) and thecal LH receptor (P < 0.001) expression. Follicular fluid treatment had no effect on inhibin-activin alpha and beta A, subunit or P450 17 alpha-hydroxylase expression. FSH co-treatment with follicular fluid restored circulating FSH concentrations to normal values and reversed some of the effects of follicular fluid (androstenedione, testosterone and progesterone secretion, and inhibin beta B and thecal LH receptor expression) but not oestradiol secretion or P450 aromatase expression. It was concluded that the actions of follicular fluid are mediated via both central effects on pituitary FSH secretion and by direct ovarian effects on granulosa cell aromatase activity. The results indicate that follicular fluid contains a factor that inhibits aromatase activity of granulosa cells directly and may play a role in the selection of the dominant follicle.  (+info)

Relationship between the responsiveness to multiple-ovulation treatment and the number of bovine oocytes collected by transvaginal follicle aspiration. (7/180)

To characterize factors affecting the number of bovine oocytes recovered transvaginally, a regression analysis was performed between the responsiveness to multiple-ovulation treatment and the number of oocytes recovered transvaginally. The number of embryos recovered following multiple-ovulation treatment and the number of oocytes recovered transvaginally increased when the number of follicles to be aspirated transvaginally increased (P<0.05. P<0.01). The number of cumulus-oocyte complexes recovered transvaginally also increased when the number of oocytes to be aspirated transvaginally increased (P<0.001). However, the number of viable embryos that recovered following multiple-ovulation treatment had no relation to the number of cumulus-oocyte complexes recovered transvaginally. These results suggested that more oocytes can be recovered from donors that have a high responsiveness to multiple-ovulation treatment.  (+info)

Prostaglandin f(2alpha) induces distinct physiological responses in porcine corpora lutea after acquisition of luteolytic capacity. (8/180)

This study examines differences in intracellular responses to cloprostenol, a prostaglandin (PG)F(2alpha) analog, in porcine corpora lutea (CL) before (Day 9 of estrous cycle) and after (Day 17 of pseudopregnancy) acquisition of luteolytic capacity. Pigs on Day 9 or Day 17 were treated with saline or 500 microgram cloprostenol, and CL were collected 10 h (experiment I) or 0.5 h (experiment III) after treatment. Some CL were cut into small pieces and cultured to measure progesterone and PGF(2alpha) secretion. In experiment I, progesterone remained high and PGF(2alpha) low in luteal incubations from either Day 9 or Day 17 saline-treated pigs. Cloprostenol increased PGF(2alpha) production 465% and decreased progesterone production 87% only from Day 17 luteal tissue. Cloprostenol induced prostaglandin G/H synthase (PGHS)-2 mRNA (0.5 h) and protein (10 h) in both groups. In cell culture, cloprostenol or phorbol 12, 13-didecanoate (PDD) (protein kinase C activator), induced PGHS-2 mRNA in luteal cells from both groups. However, acute cloprostenol treatment (10 min) decreased progesterone production and increased PGF(2alpha) production only from Day 17 luteal cells. Thus, PGF(2alpha) production is induced by cloprostenol in porcine CL with luteolytic capacity (Day 17) but not in CL without luteolytic capacity (Day 9). However, this change in PGF(2alpha) production is not explained by a difference in induction of PGHS-2 mRNA or protein.  (+info)

In unilateral OHT-monkeys, NCX 470 effectively controlled IOP following AM dosing at 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours post dose. Furthermore, when tested head-to-head with equimolar PM doses of bimatoprost, NCX 470 was a more effective IOP-lowering agent compared to bimatoprost, confirming the additional IOP-lowering contribution exerted by NO as in previous work performed with compounds that release NO and the PGF2α analogue, latanoprost.18,20 The IOP-lowering activity of NCX 470 depends on the concomitant release of bimatoprost and bimatoprost acid as well as of NO in target ocular tissues. Bimatoprost and bimatoprost acid (the latter being released from bimatoprost via the action of amido-pepdidase21) are also the active molecular species following bimatoprost treatment.22 It is known, however, that rabbits, more than higher species, rapidly hydrolyze bimatoprost to bimatoprost acid.21 In our study, the levels of bimatoprost in rabbit AH, CR, and ICB were equally low following NCX 470 or bimatoprost ...
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Given that BAC toxicity has been shown to be related to a pro-oxidative effect, 5 6 an antioxidant action of the prostaglandins could be suspected. Oxidative stress assays that we used highlighted that the prostaglandins exerted an antioxidative action. This was particularly true for latanoprost, which had H2DCF-DA and hydroethidine probes that detected the presence of ROS, mainly H2O2, and O?2, respectively, and for travoprost using the H2DCF-DA test. No statistical difference was found on viability and oxidative stress assays with bimatoprost; thus, it may present neither protective nor antioxidant properties, but its very low toxicity may not allow protective or antioxidative effects to appear. Antioxidative activity can result from various mechanisms: direct anti-free radical mechanism, activation of the endogenous antioxidative defenses, or reduction in the overproduction of ROS. A direct anti-free radical effect could not be shown with the tests we carried out. This type of study requires ...
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Animal Data In an embryofetal development rat study, abortion was observed in pregnant rats administered bimatoprost orally during organogenesis at 0.6 mg/kg/day (94 times the human systemic exposure to bimatoprost 0.03% dosed bilaterally once daily, based on AUC). The No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for abortion was 0.3 mg/kg/day (estimated at 47 times the human systemic exposure to bimatoprost 0.03% dosed bilaterally once daily, based on AUC). No abnormalities were observed in rat fetuses at doses up to 0.6 mg/kg/day. In an embryofetal development mouse study, abortion and early delivery were observed in pregnant mice administered bimatoprost orally during organogenesis at doses greater than or equal to 0.3 mg/kg/day (33 times the human systemic exposure to bimatoprost 0.03% dosed bilaterally once daily, based on AUC). The NOAEL for abortion and early delivery was 0.1 mg/kg/day (2.6 times the human systemic exposure to bimatoprost 0.03% dosed bilaterally once daily, based on AUC). No ...
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The discovery of potent and selective prostamide antagonists provided definitive evidence for a separate pharmacological entity and, in turn, impetus for cloning the receptor. Clues for the identity of the receptor were provided by taking into account the existent, pertinent information at that point in time. This is summarized as follows: 1) prostamide F2α and bimatoprost-responsive preparations also responded to PGF2α (although in many cases PGF2α activation was not accompanied by responses to prostamide F2α and its analogs); 2) bimatoprost-induced ocular hypotensive activity was abolished in FP receptor knockout mice (Crowston et al., 2005; Ota et al., 2005); 3) an FP receptor mRNA splicing variant was shown to be active (Pierce et al., 1997, Fujino et al., 2000); 4) prostanoid receptor heterodimerization was shown to create novel activation/binding sites (Wilson et al., 2004). These data suggested that the FP receptor gene was key to encoding the prostamide receptor. Thus, attention was ...
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Cystic ovarian disease in cows was treated either with a single intramuscular injection of 500 micrograms cloprostenol, a prostaglandin F2 alpha analogue, in 77 cases of luteal cysts or with 500 micrograms gonadorelin or 20 micrograms buserelin, gonadotrophin releasing hormone or its analogue (GnRH), in 116 cases of follicular cysts. Recovery was defined as the absence of cysts and the formation of a corpus luteum either with or without observed oestrus within 10 days after treatment with cloprostenol and 15 days after treatment with GnRH. Recovery occurred in 65 per cent and 52.6 per cent of cases, respectively, in average times of 4.9 and 19 days. Fifteen days after treatment with GnRH, 20 cows with luteinised cysts were treated with cloprostenol and 15 recovered in a mean of 20.4 days, while 10 which still had follicular cysts, were given GnRH and one recovered 31 days after the beginning of treatment. Another 27 cows, in which cysts became luteinised, were treated with cloprostenol seven ...
Why buy Bimat 0.03% (Bimatoprost Ophthalmic Solution)?. Bimat is an FDA approved eye medication. It is used in treating elevated intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma. It helps lower the fluid pressure in the eyes. It can also treat open-angle glaucoma, a condition that may lead to vision loss. Bimat can also give a vast look in your eyes. It provides longer, fuller and darker lashes. One Bimat 3ml eye drop is available here for $14.00 only.. How does Bimat 0.03% (Bimatoprost Ophthalmic Solution) work? Bimat contains Bimatoprost Ophthalmic Solution as an active ingredient. Bimat works by giving an immense look in the eyes. It has a natural extracted chemical called prostaglandin that helps in gradual hair growth. It is also used in treating hypotrichosis. It also controls the growth of glaucoma.. How to use Bimat 0.03% (Bimatoprost Ophthalmic Solution)?. Use Bimat daily for 12 to 16 weeks. Reduce application for 2-3 times a week after 16 weeks. Make sure that the treatment is complete. ...
Enhanced in stress within the eye may lead to spoil the optic nerve of the back of the eyes. When this takes place is turned out with fact called glaucoma. Glaucoma may cause loss of vision if the condition left untreated. If, you have over stress within the eyes, but without any spoil to the optic nerves said to be ocular hypertension. People with ocular hypertension suffer with over threat of later forming glaucoma. Bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03 eyes drops aids to moderate eye stress in people with ocular hypertension, & to safe further eye damage with concern of open-angle glaucoma. Bimatoprost for eyelash growth acts by escalating the drainage of fluid inside the eye. This aids to moderate the stress within the eyes. Bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03 buy online comes in bottle which embrace a stabilizer, & also as single-dose sets which doesnt hold a stabilizer. Occasionally, more than one kind of eye drop is required to maintain the stress in the eyes very low. If, this is the ...
Methods: A prospective study was carried out in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (IOP one eye≥ 18 mmHg and ≤30 mmHg and IOP both eyes ≤30 mmHg).The IOP was measured continuously at 15 days, 1 month, 2 months, 3 months, 4 months, 5 months and 6 months after initiation of treatment with timolol 0.5% twice a day, timolol 0.5% twice a day and travoprost 0.004% once daily, and timolol 0.5%/travoprost 0.004% fixed combination once daily ...
Bimat 0.03% are used to reduce the eye pressure in glaucoma and make the eyelash longer thicker and darker. The main active ingredient is Bimatoprost. You can order bimat bimatoprost ophthalmic solution online from Premiumrxdrugs.com
Numerous synthetic FP-class prostaglandin (PG) analogs stimulated the contraction of isolated non-pregnant female rat uterus in a concentration-dependent manner with the following agonist potencies: bimatoprost acid (17-phenyl-trinor PGF(2alpha); EC(50)=0.68+/-0.06 nM)=cloprostenol (EC(50)=0.73+/-0.01 nM),travoprost acid (EC(50)=1.3+/-0.07 nM),latanoprost acid (EC(50)=2.7+/-0.08 nM),PGF(2alpha) (EC(50)=52+/-11 nM),unoprostone (UF-021; EC(50)=310+/-101 nM),S-1033 (EC(50)=610+/-4 nM),bimatoprost (EC(50)=1130+/-173 nM). The FP-receptor antagonist ...
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DuoTrav eye drops contain two active ingredients, travoprost and timolol maleate. These are both medicines that lower raised pressure within the eye. They work in different ways to produce a combined effect greater than either medicine produces on its own.
Glaukos Corporation announced the completion of patient enrollment in the investigational new drug (IND) phase 2 study of its Travoprost intraocular implant with the iDose delivery system in patients …
Careprost (Bimatoprost Ophthalmic) is a medicated solution applied to the eyes as a treatment for open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension (increased pressure in the eye). The active ingredient in this product can help to increase eyelash growth, and some patients use it for this purpose. When applied to the eyelash using a special brush, it may promote eyelash hair growth.
Manufacturer of Glaucoma API - Bimatoprost, Latanoprost, Timolol Maleate offered by Triveni Interchem Private Limited (Group Of Triveni Chemicals), Vapi, Gujarat.
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether inter-visit intraocular pressure (IOP) range, which reflects extreme and potentially damaging IOP fluctuations, provides additional information on IOP control compared to mean IOP. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of Xalatan/Lumigan/Travatan study data, a masked-evaluator, randomized, parallel-group comparison of 12-week efficacy of latanoprost, bimatoprost, and travoprost in open-angle ...
Bimat eye drops are used by patients who have been diagnosed with intra ocular high pressure, a state which can lead to glaucoma. Left untreated, glaucoma can lead to blindness. By reducing intra ocular pressure, the risk of blindness associated to this condition is drastically reduced.
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I am a plastic surgeon in Ventura, California, where another eyelash enhancer Revitalash was born. Revitalash was developed by a Ventura ophthalmologist, who used (allegedly illegally) a glaucoma drug (bimatoprost, marketed as "Lumigan") as the active ingredient. The results have been incredible-longer, thicker, darker eyelashes in at least 80% of users.. Unfortunately, my local colleague has been forced to discontinue the use of bimatoprost in Revitalash, because the patent is held by the Allergan Corporation. Allergan has dluted their own drug bimatoprost/Lumigan to create Latisse. So, I suspect that if patients already like Revitalash, they will like Latisse.. Even though Revitalash contained a regulated drug, the product was actually sold in just about every hair salon in my county. The public surely appreciated this convenience, but I am not certain whether public safety was served. The marketing and dispensation of Latisse by physicians is certainly more conservative and probably more ...
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Twenty-six dairy cattle were treated with dexamethasone during medium to late pregnancy to induce premature calving. Thirteen produced calves within an average of 5-6 days of treatment. The remainder were given a subsequent injection of cloprostenol 10 days after the steroid treatment and, with one exception, all calved within the following two days. A high incidence of retained placenta was experienced, in common with other methods of inducing parturition, but this was not generally found to be associated with detrimental effects on health or fertility.. ...
Simmental cows on two Kansas ranches received either 2 or 3 ml injections of prostaglandin cloprostenol (Estrumate). Dose levels had little effect on response rate in either small or large cows. However, for each unit ...
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Qualification Visit 1 (Screening) IOP at 16:00 hrs: PG monotherapy patients: ≥ 18 mm Hg; Combination therapy patients: ,= 16 mm Hg. Qualification Visit 2 (post latanoprost run-in) IOP ≥ 20 mm Hg at 08:00 hrs and 10:00 hrs, IOP ≥ 18 mm Hg at 16:00 hrs in study eye(s). (Note: combination therapy may include any combination of topical ocular hypotensive agents ...
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Its rare for the same medication to be used for both medicinal and cosmetic purposes. But bimatoprost (also sold under the brand Careprost®) can do these. In addition to treating glaucoma, it can be used to grow and thicken eyelashes.
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If you are thinking of trying LATISSE (bimatoprost ophthalmic solution) 0.03%, it is important to research in order to discover whether or not LATISSE is right for you. You might have questions about how the solution works, how long results take to appear and the safety of the solution. This section should give you some basic information regarding possible Side effects of Latisse ...
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Prostamides are a class of physiologically active, lipid-like substances chemically related to prostaglandins. They occur naturally in humans and other animals. The first prostamide, called prostamide E2, was discovered in 1997. Prostamides are synthesized in the body from anandamide, which is the ethanolamide of arachidonic acid (ARA). This pathway is parallel to the synthesis of prostaglandins from ARA itself. The enzymes involved are at least partly the same as those responsible for prostaglandin synthesis. It is thought that prostamides act via a specific receptor (or several receptors) which is distinct from the prostaglandin receptors. No such receptor has been identified as of 2015[update]. The names of prostamides are derived from the corresponding prostaglandin. For example, prostamide E2 is the ethanolamide of prostaglandin E2 (dinoprostone). The anti-glaucoma drug bimatoprost is a derivative of prostamide F2α, and is thought to have the same mechanism of action. Woodward, D. F.; ...
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For patients with glaucoma, prostaglandin analogs seem to affect circadian intraocular pressure (IOP)-related patterns, according to a study published in the December issue of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology.
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PURPOSE: To characterize dose and response for intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction and incidence of hyperemia using a model-based meta-analysis of IOP-lowering monotherapy studies to evaluate new ocular antihypertensive therapies for glaucoma. METHODS: Published randomized controlled trials, regulatory documents, and
Haemorrhage into the dominant follicle during the reproductive season is a subtle but definitive cause of infertility in the mare population. This condition however can be of high relevance for an individual in which its incidence is abnormally high. Little is known about the nature and factors affecting the incidence of haemorrhagic anovulatory follicles (HAFs) in the mare. The objectives of the study were to define and characterize the ultrasonographic development and incidence of HAFs and to investigate possible risk factors influencing its occurrence. Detailed reproductive and ultrasound records of seven mares studied during their entire reproductive lives (,10 years and 612 oestrous cycles) were analysed retrospectively and computed into a statistical mixed model. Of all animal studied, two mares were found to have an unusually high incidence of HAFs of approximately 25%. Time of season and use of induction treatments (Cloprostenol) were found to influence its incidence. It appears that ...
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As this eMedTV segment explains, the dose of unoprostone ophthalmic solution is the same for everyone. This page further discusses what to expect when using this medication. It also outlines some tips for when and how this product is applied.
When a cold or flu throws you off your game, its only natural to want to quickly get back to your best. Whether youre looking for daytime or nighttime formulas, there are a wide variety of options that can help relieve your cough, cold or flu symptoms. Choose from several cold, cough & flu products: TYLENOL® Complete. Physician reviewed Tylenol Cold & Flu Severe patient information - includes Tylenol Cold & Flu Severe description, dosage and directions.‎Side Effects · ‎Drug Interactions · ‎¿Cuáles son los efectos.. Xalatan enjoyed a 4-year ingredient tylenol cold and flu as a novel weight to treating glaucoma. 2a, top and bottom, with all six patent members achieving peak sales in. We dime our peak US sales estimate for Rescula to 90m (high 65m) and increase our valuation of Pregnancy analogues Xalatan (now association), Lumigan, Travatan are once-daily eye floaters used most prescribed ingredient tylenol cold and flu. We note that peak sales could be mild higher (up to m). ...
SAN FRANCISCO — The iDose, a titanium implant from Glaukos for continuous drug delivery, has shown positive phase 2 results and is currently in a phase 3 program, according to a speaker here. Designed to be an alternative to topical medications for the treatment of glaucoma, the iDose delivers a novel, uber-potent formulation of travoprost through an implant injected directly into the
Advice for mothers using Unoprostone (Rescula) while breastfeeding. Includes possible effects on breastfed infants and lactation.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Bimatoprost 0.01% in treatment-naive patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. T2 - An observational study in the Korean clinical setting. AU - Park, Ki Ho. AU - Simonyi, Susan. AU - kim, chanyun. AU - Sohn, Yong Ho. AU - Kook, Michael Scott. PY - 2014/12/17. Y1 - 2014/12/17. N2 - Background: This study evaluates the efficacy and tolerability (ie, occurrence and severity of hyperemia) of bimatoprost 0.01% in treatment-naïve patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) or ocular hypertension in the Korean clinical setting. Methods: In this multicenter, open-label, observational study, treatment-naïve patients with OAG, including patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG, defined as IOP ≤21 mm Hg), or ocular hypertension received bimatoprost 0.01% once daily. Hyperemia was assessed at baseline and weeks 6 and 12, graded by a masked evaluator using a photonumeric scale (0, +0.5, +1, +2, +3), and grouped as (0 to +1) and (+2 to +3). Shifts between groupings were ...
Clinical trial for Dry Eye Disease | Eye Disease | Eye Disorders/Infections (Pediatric) | EYE DISORDER | Open Angle Glaucoma | Ocular Hypertension | Eye Disorders/Infections | Pigmentary glaucoma , Evaluation of the Duration of Effect of Bimatoprost SR in Participants With Open-angle Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension
Many dogs with glaucoma face partial or complete loss of vision due to the disease. Glaucoma causes the aqueous humor, the eye s normal fluid, to stop draining properly from the eye. The additional fluid puts pressure called Intraocular Pressure (IOP) -- on the eye that can damage the optic nerve and cause loss of vision. Latanoprost Ophthalmic is a prescription medication that can reverse that process. These eye drops, which are in a class of drugs called prostaglandin F2-alpha agonists, increase the amount of fluid flowing out of the eye, therefore reducing pressure in the eye. Often Latanoprost is prescribed when other ophthalmic treatments for glaucoma have failed. Latanoprost is the generic form of Xalatan. We carry various brands of Latanoprost that all work the same way and come in a convenient dropper top bottle ...
Unoprostone ophthalmic solution is prescribed to treat ocular hypertension and open angle glaucoma. This eMedTV page features more information on unoprostone ophthalmic solution, including potential side effects, safety issues to be aware of, and more.
ABSTRACT. Twelve pony mares were randomly assigned to either a control or a treatment group and inseminated with fresh, raw semen from a single stallion of known fertility in a cross-over trial design. Pregnancy was diagnosed by transrectal ultrasound 12-14 days post-ovulation and then terminated by administration of a luteolytic dose of cloprostenol. Treatment mares received a uterine instillation of 100 ml of electrochemically activated (ECA) saline 4-12 hours post-insemination. Control mares received no treatment post-insemination. Per cycle pregnancy rate was 58.3 % in the control group and 50 % in the treatment group. There was no statistical difference (P = 1.000) in pregnancy rate between the 2 groups. The principles of ECA and applications of ECA saline are discussed.. Key words: electrochemical, endometritis, fresh semen, mare, saline. ...
Careprost eye drops, generic Bimatoprost is one of the best and trusted solution for the management of Open-angle Glaucoma and Hypotrichosis. Bimatoprost is also used for long, dark and dense eyelashes. Buy Careprost - Bimatoprost Online in USA - Chemist247Online
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LATISSE® (bimatoprost ophthalmic solution) 0.03% is the first and only prescription treatment approved by the FDA for inadequate or not enough eyelashes, growing them longer, fuller and darker. Its a once-a-day treatment that works gradually and effectively. You apply the solution topically to the base of your upper eyelashes, as instructed by your doctor. Then, results start to show in as little as 8 weeks, with full results in 16 weeks.. The science behind LATISSE®:. LATISSE® makes lash growth possible because of its active ingredient: bimatoprost. Although the precise mechanism of action is unknown, LATISSE® is believed to affect the growth (anagen) phase of the eyelash hair cycle in two ways: first, it increases the length of this phase, and second, it increases the number of hairs in this growth phase.. Its a product whose time has come.. In 2001, Allergan developed a medicated eye drop used to lower eye pressure (known as IOP or intraocular pressure) in patients with open-angle ...
Careprost is the famous brand to eyelashes growth and medication for glaucoma. The active ingredient of Careprost is Bimatoprost that belongs to a group of medications called prostaglandin analogue.
LATISSE? solution is a prescription treatment for hypotrichosis used to grow eyelashes, making them longer, thicker and darker. What is hypotrichosis of the e
0048] At baseline, no statistically significant differences in mean IOP were observed between each of the investigational treatments and LUMIGAN®. At Hours 0, 4 and 8, respectively, mean IOP (mm Hg) was [Bim 0.01%: 25.1, 23.0, 22.3; Bim 0.0125%: 25.1, 23.0, 22.4; LUMIGAN®: 25.0, 23.2, 22.3]. Mean IOP at follow-up ranged from 16.4 to 17.9 mm Hg for Bim 0.01%, 16.6 to 18.3 mm Hg for Bim 0.0125%, and 16.1 to 17.8 mm Hg for LUMIGAN®. Bim 0.01% was equivalent to LUMIGAN® for mean IOP. For the comparison of Bim 0.01% with LUMIGAN®, at 17/17 timepoints, the CIs (95% or 97.5% according to the Hochberg procedure) of the between-treatment difference were within ±1.50 mm Hg and at 9/17 timepoints were within ±1.00 mm Hg. For the comparison of Bim 0.0125% with LUMIGAN®, at 16/17 timepoints, the CIs (95% or 97.5% according to the Hochberg procedure) of the between-treatment difference were within ±1.50 mm Hg, at 2/17 timepoints were within ±1.00 mm Hg, and at 9/17 timepoints were within ±1.16 mm Hg ...
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes case reports related to the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye.
Bimat eye drops are used for the treatment of a condition called hypotrichosis. This condition causes the eyelashes to grow in a irregular pattern and have a short length. Our eyelashes are important for the integrity of our vision, as they protect our eyes from dirt, sweat, or other microscopic elements getting in.
Bimat eye drops are used for the treatment of a condition called hypotrichosis. This condition causes the eyelashes to grow in a irregular pattern and have a short length. Our eyelashes are important for the integrity of our vision, as they protect our eyes from dirt, sweat, or other microscopic elements getting in.
Lumigan is a commercial name that Bimatoprost - the main ingredient of Latisse used for eyelashes growth a condition called hypotrichosis
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Yamamoto et al. reported results of 2 phase 3 randomized controlled trials in which a fixed-dose combination of 2% carteolol and 0.005% latanoprost, given as a
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Summary A new prostaglandin analogue, 16, 16‐dimethyl‐trans‐Δ2‐PGE1 methyl ester (16 me E1) was used for preoperative cervical dilatation in 23 pregnant women ...
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Travaprost is an opthalmic solution used in the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who are intolerant of other intraocular pressure lowering medications.
Cavalcanti, Alexandre B.; Berwanger, Otavio; Suzumura, Erica A.; Amato, Marcelo B. P.; Tallo, Fernando S.; Rezende, Ederlon A. C.; Telles, Jose M. M.; Romano, Edson; Guimaraes, Helio P.; Regenga, Marisa M.; Takahashi, Luzia N.; Teixeira, Cassiano; Oliveira, Roselaine P.; Carvalho, Vitor O.; Diaz-Quijano, Fredi A.; Carvalho, Carlos R. R.; Kodama, Alessandra A.; Ribeiro, Gisele F. M.; Abreu, Matheus O.; Oliveira, Ivonaldo M.; Guyatt, Gordon; Ferguson, Niall; Walter, Stephen; Vasconcelos, Marcia O. M.; Segundo, Valerio J.; Ferraz, Iris L.; Silva, Rosicley S.; Oliveira Filho, Wilson de; Silva, Nelson B.; Heirel, Debora C. B.; Takatani, Rodrigo R.; Sousa Neto, Jefferson A.; Neto, Jeronimo C. B.; Almeida, Samara D.; Chamy, Gauco; Goncalves Neto, Graciliano J. L.; Dias, Alysson P.; Silva, Rozangela R.; Tavares, Roberta C.; Souza, Marcia L. V. D.; Decio, Janaina C.; Lima, Cyntia M. L. S.; Ferreira Neto, Fleury; Oliveira, Katia R.; Dias, Polyana P. L. C.; Brandao, Andre L. S. B.; Ramos, Joroastro E.; ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - ATP sensitive potassium channel openers. T2 - A new class of ocular hypotensive agents. AU - Roy Chowdhury, Uttio. AU - Dosa, Peter I.. AU - Fautsch, Michael P. PY - 2016/3/2. Y1 - 2016/3/2. N2 - ATP sensitive potassium (KATP) channels connect the metabolic and energetic state of cells due to their sensitivity to ATP and ADP concentrations. KATP channels have been identified in multiple tissues and organs of the body including heart, pancreas, vascular smooth muscles and skeletal muscles. These channels are obligatory hetero-octamers and contain four sulfonylurea (SUR) and four potassium inward rectifier (Kir) subunits. Based on the particular type of SUR and Kir present, there are several tissue specific subtypes of KATP channels, each with their own unique set of functions. Recently, KATP channels have been reported in human and mouse ocular tissues. In ex vivo and in vivo model systems, KATP channel openers showed significant ocular hypotensive properties with no appearance of ...
ACT Latanoprost/Timolol: This is a combination product containing two different medications: latanoprost and timolol. Latanoprost belongs to a class of medications called prostaglandin analogs. It works to reduce the pressure in the eye by allowing fluid in the eye to flow better. Timolol belongs to a class of medications called beta-adrenergic receptor blockers (also known as beta-blockers). Latanoprost - timolol solution is available in an eye-drop form. It is used to reduce the pressure inside the eye for people with open-angle glaucoma or intraocular hypertension (increased pressure in the eye).
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Safety and tolerability of tafluprost in treatment of elevated intraocular pressure in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension Dorota PozarowskaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Medical University, Lublin, PolandAbstract: Glaucoma is one of the most common neuropathies of the optic nerve. An elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a well documented risk factor for the development and progression of this disease. Until now, IOP reduction is the only well documented successful method of glaucoma treatment. Among the many hypotensive drugs, prostaglandin analogs are proved to be the most potent antiglaucoma agents, with very few systemic side effects. A new prostanoid FP receptor analog, tafluprost, has been introduced into the medical treatment of glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Many studies have shown that it is an efficient IOP-lowering drug, and that it is safe and well tolerated. A preservative-free tafluprost formulation is as potent as a preserved one, but it has fewer and milder toxic effects on
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Cloprostenol is another example of such an agent. Wentz AC, Sapp KC. Danazol as a luteolytic agent. Fertil Steril. 1978;29(1): ...
Horses are induced ovulators and studies using combinations of PGF2alpa analogues, Lipsostiol, d-cloprostenol and hCG were able ... Kuhl, Juliane; Aurich, Jörg; Aurich, Christine (2017-10-01). "Effects of the Prostaglandin F2α Analogues Cloprostenol and ...
... cloprostenol (INN) cloprothiazole (INN) cloquinate (INN) cloquinozine (INN) cloracetadol (INN) cloral betaine (INN) ...
... cloprostenol MeSH D10.251.355.255.775 --- thromboxanes MeSH D10.251.355.310 --- fatty acids, essential MeSH D10.251.355.310.166 ...
G02AD02 Dinoprostone G02AD03 Gemeprost G02AD04 Carboprost G02AD05 Sulprostone G02AD06 Misoprostol QG02AD90 Cloprostenol ...
The synthetic analogs that like PGF2α act as selective receptor agonists of FP viz., cloprostenol, flupostenol, latanoprost, ...
... cloprostenol MeSH D23.767.193.184 --- bilirubin MeSH D23.767.193.184.200 --- biliverdine MeSH D23.767.193.727 --- urobilin MeSH ...
... is a synthetic analogue of prostoglandin F2α (PGF2α). It is a potent luteolytic agent; this means that, within ... Plumb, DC (2015). "Cloprostenol Sodium". Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook (8th ed.). Wiley. ISBN 9781118911938. ...
InChI=1S/C26H32N4O4S/c1-20(2)30(16-10-11-17-34-19-24(31)29-35(3,32)33)23-18-27-25(21-12-6-4-7-13-21)26(28-23)22-14-8-5-9-15-22/h4-9,12-15,18,20H,10-11,16-17,19H2,1-3H3,(H,29,31) ...
... , also known as mesalamine or 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), is a medication used to treat inflammatory bowel disease, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.[2] It is generally used for mildly to moderately severe disease.[2] It is taken by mouth or rectally.[2] The formulations which are taken by mouth appear to be similarly effective.[3] Common side effects include headache, nausea, abdominal pain, and fever.[2] Serious side effects may include pericarditis, liver problems, and kidney problems.[2][3] Use in pregnancy and breastfeeding appears safe.[3] In people with a sulfa allergy certain formulations may result in problems.[2] Mesalazine is an aminosalicylate and anti-inflammatory.[2][3] It works by direct contact with the intestines.[2] Mesalazine was approved for medical use in the United States in 1987.[2][4] It is available as a generic medication and sold under many brand names worldwide.[5][2] A month supply in the United Kingdom costs the NHS about £43 as of ...
... is an organic compound, which, especially in its ester form, is called fenamate.[1]:458 serves as a parent structure for several nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including mefenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, flufenamic acid, and meclofenamic acid. These drugs are commonly referred to as "anthranilic acid derivatives" or "fenamates" because fenamic acid is a derivative of anthranilic acid.[2]:235[3]:17[2] ...
... (INN), or benorylate, is an ester-linked codrug of aspirin with paracetamol. It is used as an anti-inflammatory and antipyretic medication. In the treatment of childhood fever, it has been shown to be inferior to paracetamol and aspirin taken separately. In addition, because it is converted to aspirin, benorylate is not recommended in children due to concerns about Reye syndrome.[1] ...
The VIGOR (Vioxx GI Outcomes Research) study, conducted by Bombardier, et al., which compared the efficacy and adverse effect profiles of rofecoxib and naproxen, had indicated a significant 4-fold increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (heart attack) in rofecoxib patients when compared with naproxen patients (0.4% vs 0.1%, RR 0.25) over the 12-month span of the study. The elevated risk began during the second month on rofecoxib. There was no significant difference in the mortality from cardiovascular events between the two groups, nor was there any significant difference in the rate of myocardial infarction between the rofecoxib and naproxen treatment groups in patients without high cardiovascular risk. The difference in overall risk was by the patients at higher risk of heart attack, i.e. those meeting the criteria for low-dose aspirin prophylaxis of secondary cardiovascular events (previous myocardial infarction, angina, cerebrovascular accident, transient ischemic attack, or coronary ...
Acetylsalicylic acid is a weak acid, and very little of it is ionized in the stomach after oral administration. Acetylsalicylic acid is quickly absorbed through the cell membrane in the acidic conditions of the stomach. The increased pH and larger surface area of the small intestine causes aspirin to be absorbed more slowly there, as more of it is ionised. Owing to the formation of concretions, aspirin is absorbed much more slowly during overdose, and plasma concentrations can continue to rise for up to 24 hours after ingestion.[152][153][154] About 50-80% of salicylate in the blood is bound to albumin protein, while the rest remains in the active, ionized state; protein binding is concentration-dependent. Saturation of binding sites leads to more free salicylate and increased toxicity. The volume of distribution is 0.1-0.2 L/kg. Acidosis increases the volume of distribution because of enhancement of tissue penetration of salicylates.[154] As much as 80% of therapeutic doses of salicylic acid is ...
Synthesis of diacylglycerol begins with glycerol-3-phosphate, which is derived primarily from dihydroxyacetone phosphate, a product of glycolysis (usually in the cytoplasm of liver or adipose tissue cells). Glycerol-3-phosphate is first acylated with acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) to form lysophosphatidic acid, which is then acylated with another molecule of acyl-CoA to yield phosphatidic acid. Phosphatidic acid is then de-phosphorylated to form diacylglycerol. Dietary fat is mainly composed of triglycerides. Because triglycerides cannot be absorbed by the digestive system, triglycerides must first be enzymatically digested into monoacylglycerol, diacylglycerol, or free fatty acids.(See Dietary sources of fatty acids, their digestion, absorption, transport in the blood and storage for more detail.) Diacylglycerol is a precursor to triacylglycerol (triglyceride), which is formed in the addition of a third fatty acid to the diacylglycerol under the catalysis of diglyceride acyltransferase. Since ...
CySLTR2 mRNA is co-expressed along with CysLRR1 in human blood eosinophils and platelets, and tissue mast cells, macrophages, airway epithelial cells, and vascular endothelial cells. It is also expressed without CysLTR1 throughout the heart, including Purkinje cells, adrenal gland, and brain as well as some vascular endothelial, airway epithelial, and smooth muscle cells.[10][11][12][13] CysLTR2, similar to CysLTR1, is a G protein-coupled receptor that links to and when bound to its CysLT ligands activates the Gq alpha subunit and/or Ga subunit of its coupled G protein, depending or the cell type. Acting through these G proteins and their subunits, ligand-bound CysLTR1 activates a series of pathways that lead to cell function (see Gq alpha subunit#function and Ga subunit#function for details); the order of potency of the cysLTs in stimulating CysLTR2 is LTD4=LTC4,LTE4 with LTE4 probably lacking sufficient potency to have much activity that operates through CysLTR1 in vivo. By comparison, the ...
... s or prostanoid receptors represent a sub-class of cell surface membrane receptors that are regarded as the primary receptors for one or more of the classical, naturally occurring prostanoids viz., prostaglandin D2, (i.e. PGD2), PGE2, PGF2alpha, prostacyclin (PGI2), thromboxane A2 (TXA2), and PGH2.[1] They are named based on the prostanoid to which they preferentially bind and respond, e.g. the receptor responsive to PGI2 at lower concentrations than any other prostanoid is named the Prostacyclin receptor (IP). One exception to this rule is the receptor for thromboxane A2 (TP) which binds and responds to PGH2 and TXA2 equally well. All of the prostanoid receptors are G protein-coupled receptors belonging to the Subfamily A14 of the rhodopsin-like receptor family except for the Prostaglandin DP2 receptor which is more closely related in amino acid sequence and functionality to chemotactic factor receptors such as the receptors for C5a and leukotriene B4.[2] Prostanoid ...
The COX-2 enzyme was discovered in 1988 by Daniel Simmons, a Brigham Young University researcher.[23] The mouse COX-2 gene was cloned by UCLA scientist Dr. Harvey Herschman, a finding published in 1991.[24]. The basic research leading to the discovery of COX-2 inhibitors has been the subject of at least two lawsuits. Brigham Young University has sued Pfizer, alleging breach of contract from relations BYU had with the company at the time of Dr. Simmons's work.[25][26] A settlement was reached in April 2012 in which Pfizer agreed to pay $450 million.[27][28] The other litigation is based on United States Pat. No. 6,048,850[29] owned by University of Rochester, which claimed a method to treat pain without causing gastro-intestinal distress by selectively inhibiting COX-2. When the patent issued, the university sued Searle (later Pfizer) in a case called, University of Rochester v. G.D. Searle & Co., 358 F.3d 916 (Fed. Cir. 2004). The court ruled in favor of Searle in 2004, holding in essence that ...
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) such as DP2 are integral membrane proteins that, when bound by their cognate ligands (or, in some cases, even when not ligand-bound and thereby acting continuously in a constitutive manner {see Receptor (biochemistry)#Constitutive activity}), mobilize one or more types of Heterotrimeric G proteins. DP2 is classified as a "contractile" prostanoid receptor in that it can cause the contraction of smooth muscle. As evidenced by its initial discovery as a receptor for PGD2 in T-helper type 2 cells, activated DP2 triggers Gi alpha subunit-linked heterotrimeric G proteins to dissociate into their component a) Gi alpha subunits (also termed Giα subunits) inhibit adenylyl cyclase b) G beta-gamma complex of subunits (Gβγ) have many potential functions, including simulation of phospholipase C to cleave phosphatidylinositol triphosphate into inositol triphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG), inhibition or stimulation of adenylyl cyclase depending on the isoform, ...
Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α in prostanoid nomenclature), pharmaceutically termed carboprost, is a naturally occurring prostaglandin used in medicine to induce labor and as an abortifacient.[1] In domestic mammals, it is produced by the uterus when stimulated by oxytocin, in the event that there has been no implantation during the luteal phase. It acts on the corpus luteum to cause luteolysis, forming a corpus albicans and stopping the production of progesterone. Action of PGF2α is dependent on the number of receptors on the corpus luteum membrane. The PGF2α isoform 8-iso-PGF2α was found in significantly increased amounts in patients with endometriosis, thus being a potential causative link in endometriosis-associated oxidative stress.[2] ...
... , as a lipophilic ester, easily penetrates the cornea and is then activated to the carboxylic acid, tafluprost acid. Onset of action is 2 to 4 hours after application, the maximal effect is reached after 12 hours, and ocular pressure remains lowered for at least 24 hours.[2][3] Tafluprost acid is inactivated by beta oxidation to 1,2-dinortafluprost acid, 1,2,3,4-tetranortafluprost acid, and its lactone, which are subsequently glucuronidated or hydroxylated. The cytochrome P450 liver enzymes play no role in the metabolism.[3] An analogous pathway (at least up to the tetranor-metabolites) has been found for latanoprost and travoprost. ...
It is believed that the vasoconstriction caused by thromboxanes plays a role in Prinzmetal's angina. Omega-3 fatty acids are metabolized to produce higher levels of TxA,3 which is relatively less potent than TxA2 and PGI3; therefore, there is a balance shift toward inhibition of vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation. It is believed that this shift in balance lowers the incidence of myocardial infarction (heart attack) and stroke. Vasoconstriction and, perhaps, various proinflammatory effects exerted by TxA on tissue microvasculature, is probable reason why the TxA is pathogenic in various diseases, such as ischemia-reperfusion injury.,[2] hepatic inflammatory processes,[3] acute hepatotoxicity [4] etc. TxB2, a stable degradation product of TxA2, plays a role in acute hepatoxicity induced by acetaminophen.[5][6] ...
... is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Fenoprofen calcium is used for symptomatic relief for rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and mild to moderate pain. Fenoprofen is marketed in the US as Nalfon. As of 2015 the cost for a typical month of medication in the United States is 50 to US$100.[1] ...
The drug is clear with a pH of 10.[7] Its production is inhibited indirectly by NSAIDs, which inhibit the cyclooxygenase enzymes COX1 and COX2. These convert arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), the immediate precursor of prostacyclin. Since thromboxane (an eicosanoid stimulator of platelet aggregation) is also downstream of COX enzymes, one might think that the effect of NSAIDs would act to balance. However, prostacyclin concentrations recover much faster than thromboxane levels, so aspirin administration initially has little to no effect but eventually prevents platelet aggregation (the effect of prostaglandins predominates as they are regenerated). This is explained by understanding the cells that produce each molecule, TXA2 and PGI2. Since PGI2 is primarily produced in a nucleated endothelial cell, the COX inhibition by NSAID can be overcome with time by increased COX gene activation and subsequent production of more COX enzymes to catalyze the formation of PGI2. In contrast, TXA2 is ...
... , also known as selenium sulfide, is a medication used to treat pityriasis versicolor, seborrhoeic dermatitis, and dandruff.[1] It is applied to the affected area as a lotion or shampoo.[2] Dandruff frequently returns if treatment is stopped.[3] Side effects include hair loss, irritation of the skin, weakness, and feeling tired.[1] Use is not recommended in children less than 2-5 years old.[3][1] Use in pregnancy or breastfeeding has not been studied.[4] Selenium disulfide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula SeS2.[5] Selenium disulfide was approved for medical use in the United States at least as early as 1951.[3] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[6] Selenium disulfide is available as a generic medication and over the counter.[2] In the United States a month of treatment costs less than 25 USD.[2] In the United Kingdom 100 ml of 2.5% shampoo costs the NHS about ...
... was available over-the-counter in the United States in the form of 12.5 mg coated tablets (Orudis KT and Actron), but this form has been discontinued. It is available by prescription capsules. Ketoprofen is also available as a 2.5% gel for topical application, and it is also available as a patch for topical analgesia and anti-inflammatory action. However, the gel is not sold in the United States. Brand names in Australia are Orudis and Oruvail. It is available in Japan in a transdermal patch Mohrus Tape, made by Hisamitsu Pharmaceutical. It is available in the UK as Ketoflam and Oruvail, in Ireland as Fastum Gel, in Estonia as Keto, Ketonal, and Fastum Gel, in Finland as Ketorin, Keto, Ketomex, and Orudis; in France as Profénid, Bi-Profénid and Ketum; in Italy as Ketodol, Fastum Gel, Lasonil, Orudis and Oki; in Poland, Serbia, Slovenia and Croatia as Knavon and Ketonal; in Romania as Ketonal and Fastum Gel; in Mexico as Arthril; in Norway as Zon and Orudis; in Russia as ОКИ ...
Cloprostenol is a synthetic analogue of prostoglandin F2α (PGF2α). It is a potent luteolytic agent; this means that, within ... Plumb, DC (2015). "Cloprostenol Sodium". Plumbs Veterinary Drug Handbook (8th ed.). Wiley. ISBN 9781118911938. ...
Learn about Cloprostenol Veyx SW (Canada) for animal usage including: active ingredients, directions for use, precautions, and ... Cloprostenol Veyx SW (Canada). This page contains information on Cloprostenol Veyx SW for veterinary use.. The information ... Cloprostenol Veyx SW Indications. Cloprostenol Veyx SW™ induces farrowing in sows and gilts. Parturition and piglet viability ... Cloprostenol Veyx SW™ (cloprostenol) is a synthetic prostaglandin analogue for use in swine. ...
... cloprostenol explanation free. What is cloprostenol? Meaning of cloprostenol medical term. What does cloprostenol mean? ... Looking for online definition of cloprostenol in the Medical Dictionary? ... cloprostenol. cloprostenol. a prostaglandin analog used in cattle for the treatment of misalliance, termination of pregnancy, ... Cloprostenol , definition of cloprostenol by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/cloprostenol ...
The report generally describes cloprostenol sodium salt, examines its uses, production methods, patents. CLOPROSTENOL SODIUM ... Cloprostenol sodium salt prices in other regions. 7. CLOPROSTENOL SODIUM SALT END-USE SECTOR 7.1. Cloprostenol sodium salt ... Cloprostenol sodium salt market forecast. 6. CLOPROSTENOL SODIUM SALT MARKET PRICES. 6.1. Cloprostenol sodium salt prices in ... 3. CLOPROSTENOL SODIUM SALT MANUFACTURING METHODS. 4. CLOPROSTENOL SODIUM SALT PATENTS. Abstract. Description. Summary of the ...
The cows were treated with 2 mg estradiol valerate and 500 µg cloprostenol and were examined every 12 hr after 24 hr of the ... The cows were treated with 2 mg estradiol valerate and 500 µg cloprostenol and were examined every 12 hr after 24 hr of the ... "Effect of estradiol and cloprostenol combination therapy on expulsion of mummified fetus and subsequent fertility in four ... Effect of estradiol and cloprostenol combination therapy on expulsion of mummified fetus and subsequent fertility in four ...
Each ml contains 263 mcg of cloprostenol sodium, 1 mg chlorocresol as a bactericide, citric acid anhydrous 0.66 mg, sodium ... Two mL of estroPLAN (500 mcg of cloprostenol) should be administered by INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTION for all indications in both ... Cloprostenol Sodium) InjectionExcenel RTU EZ Ceftiofur Hydrochloride Sterile SuspensionVetoquinol Flexprofen Chewable Tablets ... Cloprostenol Sodium) InjectionExcenel RTU EZ Ceftiofur Hydrochloride Sterile SuspensionVetoquinol Flexprofen Chewable Tablets ...
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cloprostenol sodium. Estrumate® (cloprostenol injection). cloprostenol sodium. Species/Class. Lactating dairy cows Lactating ... and when used with cloprostenol sodium as part of a synchronization regimen, the drug can be used to synchronize estrous cycles ...
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Cloprostenol (sodium salt) - Cloprostenol is a synthetic analog of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α). It is 200 times and 100 times ...
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Cloprostenol-induced luteolysis in the marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus). J Reprod Fertil 73(1):133-138. Tardif SD, Layne DG ... Of the available injections, one needs to be administered 3 weeks postpartum and then monthly (Cloprostenol) and another must ... Suppression with an LHRH antagonist and cloprostenol. J Endocrinol 128(3): 465-473. Webley GE, Michael AE, Abayasekara DR. 2010 ...
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Fertility of dairy cows following treatment with progesterone-releasing devices and cloprostenol. ...
Chelsie A. Burden, Patrick M. McCue, Ryan A. Ferris, Effect of Cloprostenol Administration on Interval to Subsequent Ovulation ... Juliane Kuhl, Jörg Aurich, Christine Aurich, Effects of the Prostaglandin F 2α Analogues Cloprostenol and Luprostiol in ... J Cuervo-Arango, The Effect of Systemic Administration of Cloprostenol on Ovulation in Mares Treated with a Prostaglandin ... J Cuervo-Arango, JR Newcombe, Cloprostenol in Equine Reproductive Practice: Something More Than a Luteolytic Drug, Reproduction ...
a hCG+PGF group that received a hCG injection as above, plus a subsequent vulval-mucosal injection of 250 µg cloprostenol (PGF ... Of the hCG-treated sows, 122 also received a vulval-mucosal injection of 250 µg cloprostenol (PGF) 14 days after farrowing. ...
Cloprostenol is another example of such an agent. Wentz AC, Sapp KC. Danazol as a luteolytic agent. Fertil Steril. 1978;29(1): ...
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  • Intrauterine inoculation with saline did not affect pregnancy, but embryonic death, abortion and regression of the corpus luteum occurred 66 to 72 hours after the treatment with cloprostenol. (bmj.com)
  • Non-pregnant cows (n = 188) with mature corpus luteum were treated with cloprostenol and 3 days later if they did not show oestrus, were examined by rectal palpation. (ovid.com)
  • They showed mares treated with cloprostenol had a slightly higher risk of HAF (8%) than mares given human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). (thehorse.com)
  • Fertility of dairy cows following treatment with progesterone-releasing devices and cloprostenol. (nih.gov)
  • El dia 8 se retiro el DISP, se administro im 150 [micron]g de D (+) Cloprostenol (Arsaprost, ARSA) y los animales recibieron aleatoriamente 0,5 o 1 mg de cipionato de estradiol (Grupo CPE05 y CPE1, respectivamente). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Effect of estradiol and cloprostenol combination therapy on expulsion of mummified fetus and subsequent fertility in four crossbred cows', Veterinary Research Forum , 4(2), pp. 85-89. (iranjournals.ir)
  • The cows were treated with 2 mg estradiol valerate and 500 µg cloprostenol and were examined every 12 hr after 24 hr of the treatment for cervical dilatation and other signs related to fetal expulsion. (iranjournals.ir)
  • Various studies demonstrated the cure of pyometra with only a single use of 10 mg/kg of antiprogestin aglepristone subcutaneously on days 1, 2 and 8 of the diestrus, combined with cloprostenol, which induces the opening of the cervix and the resulting drainage of the uterus (13-15). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The diameters of the follicules in ovaria were measured in the cows in groups I and II on day 9, and in the cows in group III 48 h after the second Cloprostenol Na application, using transrectal ultrasonography. (tubitak.gov.tr)
  • GONAbreed ( Abbreviated New Animal Drug Application 200-541) is a sterile injectable solution of gonadorelin acetate, and when used with cloprostenol sodium as part of a synchronization regimen, the drug can be used to synchronize estrous cycles to allow for fixed time artificial insemination in lactating dairy cows and beef cows. (fda.gov)
  • Cloprostenol was given on Days 55 to 60 postpartum, and GnRH was administered 2 days later for synchronization of ovulation. (uzh.ch)
  • Parturition and piglet viability are normal when Cloprostenol Veyx SW™ is administered as early as 1 or 2 days before the expected farrowing date. (drugs.com)
  • Two pregnant cows were inoculated with sterile saline and four pregnant cows were treated with cloprostenol. (bmj.com)
  • Time of season and use of induction treatments (Cloprostenol) were found to influence its incidence. (wiley.com)
  • Newcombe, J.R. The effect of hormone treatments (hCG and cloprostenol) and season on the incidence of hemorrhagic anovulatory follicles in the mare: A field study. (thehorse.com)
  • The cows in group III were artificially inseminated 60 and 84 h after the second Cloprostenol application. (tubitak.gov.tr)
  • An increase in the number of nonviable piglets may result if Cloprostenol Veyx SW™ is used more than two days prior to the average gestation length calculated from farm records. (drugs.com)
  • On D0, a CIDR device was inserted, and the device was replaced with a new one 7 days later, when 37.5µg of d-cloprostenol was administered. (scielo.br)
  • cloprostenol was administered on days 3 to 5. (bvsalud.org)
  • The purpose of this research was to analyse the appropriateness of PPI treatment suggestions buy Cloprostenol (sodium salt) in sufferers discharged from medical center in a big German county. (technumber.com)
  • Addresses were from the Association of Statutory MEDICAL HEALTH INSURANCE Doctors (Proton buy Cloprostenol (sodium salt) pump inhibitor Recognition of individuals Patients one of them research were members from the AOK (screening was performed in 96 (14.2%) of 209 individuals who had a documented top gastrointestinal endoscopy, of whom 44 tested positive. (technumber.com)
  • The most frequent indication for sufficient PPI make use of was non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-prophylaxis buy Cloprostenol (sodium salt) in high-risk individuals. (technumber.com)
  • Endocrine changes stimulated by PGF$\sb2$a and cloprostenol were compared to identify any endocrine events that may have been associated with differences in behavioral response to the compounds. (illinois.edu)