A synthetic prostaglandin F2alpha analog. The compound has luteolytic effects and is used for the synchronization of estrus in cattle.
Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins F that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGF.
Compounds obtained by chemical synthesis that are analogs or derivatives of naturally occurring prostaglandins and that have similar activity.
Degradation of CORPUS LUTEUM. In the absence of pregnancy and diminishing trophic hormones, the corpus luteum undergoes luteolysis which is characterized by the involution and cessation of its endocrine function.
The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
Chemical compounds causing LUTEOLYSIS or degeneration.
Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
The final period of OBSTETRIC LABOR that is from the expulsion of the FETUS to the expulsion of the PLACENTA.
A genus of the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE occurring in forests of Brazil and Bolivia and containing seventeen species.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.
A potent synthetic analog of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-serine substitution at residue 6, glycine10 deletion, and other modifications.
Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.
Drugs that stimulate contraction of the myometrium. They are used to induce LABOR, OBSTETRIC at term, to prevent or control postpartum or postabortion hemorrhage, and to assess fetal status in high risk pregnancies. They may also be used alone or with other drugs to induce abortions (ABORTIFACIENTS). Oxytocics used clinically include the neurohypophyseal hormone OXYTOCIN and certain prostaglandins and ergot alkaloids. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p1157)
The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
(9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.
Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)
A water-soluble polypeptide (molecular weight approximately 8,000) extractable from the corpus luteum of pregnancy. It produces relaxation of the pubic symphysis and dilation of the uterine cervix in certain animal species. Its role in the human pregnant female is uncertain. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.
Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.
Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.
The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.
A board-certified specialty of VETERINARY MEDICINE, requiring at least four years of special education, training, and practice of veterinary surgery after graduation from veterinary school. In the written, oral, and practical examinations candidates may choose either large or small animal surgery. (From AVMA Directory, 43d ed, p278)
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Risk or hazard associated with the handling and use of chemicals.
A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.
Drugs used by veterinarians in the treatment of animal diseases. The veterinarian's pharmacological armamentarium is the counterpart of drugs treating human diseases, with dosage and administration adjusted to the size, weight, disease, and idiosyncrasies of the species. In the United States most drugs are subject to federal regulations with special reference to the safety of drugs and residues in edible animal products.
Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of veterinary medicine.
The functions and activities of living organisms that support life in single- or multi-cellular organisms from their origin through the progression of life.
A telecommunication system combining the transmission of a document scanned at a transmitter, its reconstruction at a receiving station, and its duplication there by a copier.
Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.
Cell surface receptors that bind prostaglandins with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their relative affinities for the endogenous prostaglandins. They include those which prefer prostaglandin D2 (DP receptors), prostaglandin E2 (EP1, EP2, and EP3 receptors), prostaglandin F2-alpha (FP receptors), and prostacyclin (IP receptors).
A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Cell surface receptors which bind prostaglandins with a high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin E receptors prefer prostaglandin E2 to other endogenous prostaglandins. They are subdivided into EP1, EP2, and EP3 types based on their effects and their pharmacology.
A subtype of prostaglandin E receptors that specifically couples to GS ALPHA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN SUBUNITS and subsequently activates ADENYLYL CYCLASES.

Ovarian follicular responses in dairy cows treated with GnRH and cloprostenol. (1/180)

Lactating, nonpregnant (with a corpus luteum) Holsteins were given 100 ug GnRH (n = 12) or saline (n = 12) and 500 ug cloprostenol 6 d later. Following luteolysis, ovulation occurred 10.1 +/- 0.2 d (range, 9-12 d) after GnRH and 8.6 +/- 1.0 d (range, 3-12 d) after saline (differences between groups: means, P > 0.05; variability, P < 0.001). Treatment with GnRH and cloprostenol resulted in a relatively synchronous ovulation.  (+info)

Synchronization of estrus in beef cattle with norgestomet and estradiol valerate. (2/180)

Fifty-six cows received a norgestomet implant and an injection of norgestomet and estradiol valerate; half (n = 28) received 500 IU equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) at implant removal, 9 d later. A third group (n = 25) received 2 doses of cloprostenol (500 micrograms) 11 d apart. Estrous rate was higher (P < 0.05) for cows given norgestomet and estradiol plus 500 IU eCG (75.0%) than for those receiving cloprostenol (44.0%); for those receiving norgestomet and estradiol alone, it was intermediate (67.8%). Pregnancy rates to artificial insemination (after estrus or timed) were higher (P < 0.05) for cows given norgestomet and estradiol than for those given cloprostenol (23 of 28, 82.1% vs 13 of 25, 52.0%), and intermediate (67.8%) for those given norgestomet and estradiol plus eCG. In a second experiment, for heifers treated with norgestomet and estradiol plus eCG (n = 15) or with 2 doses of cloprostenol (n = 16), estrous rates were 66.7% vs 56.2% (P > 0.5), ovulation rates were 100.0% vs 81.2% (P = 0.08), intervals from implant removal or cloprostenol treatment to estrus were 48.0 +/- 4.4 hours vs 61.3 +/- 7.0 hours (P = 0.12) and to ovulation were 70.4 +/- 4.4 hours vs 93.2 +/- 7.5 hours (P < 0.01), respectively; pregnancy rates were 41.7 and 35.7%, respectively (P > 0.5). Norgestomet and estradiol were as good as (heifers) or superior to (cows) a 2-dose cloprostenol regimen. In cows given norgestomet and estradiol, injecting eCG at implant removal did not significantly improve estrous or pregnancy rates.  (+info)

Functional evidence for divergent receptor activation mechanisms of luteotrophic and luteolytic events in the human corpus luteum. (3/180)

Using a dispersed human luteal cell culture model, progesterone synthesis following treatment by incremental doses of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) and the stable prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) analogue cloprostenol, alone or in combination, was related to corpora lutea (CL) mRNA transcript abundance coding for the luteinizing hormone (LH)/HCG receptor (LH-R) and PGF2alpha-receptor (FP) by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 33 otherwise healthy women, scheduled for surgery due to benign conditions. CL were grouped according to age, based on the occurrence of a preovulatory LH surge where post-LH days 2-5 were designated as early luteal phase, days 6-10 as mid-luteal phase and days 11-14 as late luteal phase. When exposed to HCG, maximal progesterone output was raised 2.2-fold (P = 0.08, n = 5) compared with untreated controls in the early CL, while it increased 5.7- and 4.6-fold in the mid- and late groups respectively (P<0.05, n = 4 mid-luteal phase, n = 3 late luteal phase). This stimulation pattern was found to be concordant with the value of mRNA coding for LH-R in all groups (n = 6 early luteal phase, n = 5 mid-luteal phase, n = 6 late luteal phase). The integrated response to HCG and cloprostenol showed a dose-dependent 60% inhibition of progesterone production; but only in late luteal phase luteal cells (P<0.01, n = 3). FP mRNA values were lowest in early luteal phase, and increased with the age of the CL. Interestingly, lowest CL tissue concentrations of the natural FP agonist PGF2alpha were found during mid-luteal phase while it increased again 1.6-fold during late luteal phase (P<0.05, n = 8 versus mid-luteal phase, n = 6). Collectively, these data demonstrate that (i) the extrinsic functional control (or rescue of CL in the event of pregnancy) occurs when the sensitivity towards LH/HCG is maximal; and (ii) the demise of CL function is mediated via an acquisition of sensitivity towards the intrinsic luteolytic signal, PGF2alpha in the ageing CL.  (+info)

Effect of sodium cloprostenol and flunixin meglumine on luteolysis and the timing of birth in bitches. (4/180)

At birth, the physiological role of prostaglandins in bitches is unclear. Bitches were treated before parturition with either saline, the prostaglandin analogue, sodium cloprostenol, or the prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor, flunixin meglumine. The animals were examined regularly to determine the onset of parturition and a series of blood samples were taken to define the hormonal profiles before, during and after birth. Animals treated with cloprostenol whelped earlier than did controls. In addition, the prostaglandin F2 alpha metabolite surge and decrease in plasma progesterone concentration and rectal temperature were earlier than in controls. Flunixin meglumine disrupted the normal 13,14-dihydro-15-keto prostaglandin F2 alpha profile but did not abolish prostaglandin synthesis completely or delay the onset of labour in treated animals. This study confirms that prostaglandins induce luteolysis and the onset of labour in the bitch. However, the partial inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis does not prevent parturition.  (+info)

Source and site of action of anti-luteolytic interferon in red deer (Cervus elaphus): possible involvement of extra-ovarian oxytocin secretion in maternal recognition of pregnancy. (5/180)

Six conceptuses were collected from red deer hinds on day 22 after synchronization of oestrus with intravaginal progesterone-releasing devices (removal of device = day 0). Within 24 h of culture in vitro, the supernatant from five of six conceptuses showed detectable antiviral activity. Interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) receptors were identified by immunohistochemistry on the luminal surface of the endometrium, in the neurohypophysis and paraventricular hypothalamus, but not in the ovaries of the hinds from which the conceptuses were collected. Another 16 intact hinds were synchronized as above. Injection of 4 mg IFN i.m. twice a day on days 13-15 had no effect on cloprostenol-induced oxytocin secretion on day 15 and did not prevent cloprostenol-induced luteal regression. Sixteen ovariectomized hinds received a protocol of steroid treatment to mimic ovarian hormone secretion during the normal oestrous cycle. On day 16, hinds showed undulant oxytocin secretion that showed a degree of temporal association with uterine PGF2 alpha release. Treatment with 4 mg IFN-alpha I 1 twice a day on days 13-16 had no effect on this spontaneous oxytocin secretion, but reduced the magnitude of cloprostenol-induced oxytocin secretion on day 17 (P < 0.05). These results indicate that red deer conceptuses secrete an anti-luteolytic IFN to which the endometrium expresses a receptor during early pregnancy. The presence of IFN receptors in the hypothalamus and posterior pituitary and the IFN-induced suppression of extra-ovarian oxytocin secretion provides tentative evidence of an involvement of the central nervous system in maternal recognition of pregnancy in deer.  (+info)

Direct effects of ovine follicular fluid on ovarian steroid secretion and expression of markers of cellular differentiation in sheep. (6/180)

The objective of this study was to assess the effect of ovine follicular fluid (FF) treatment (with or without FSH replacement) during the late follicular phase on plasma concentrations of gonadotrophins and the development of the ovulatory follicle. Ovarian steroid secretion and expression of mRNA encoding inhibin alpha and beta A, beta B subunits, P450 aromatase and P450 17 alpha-hydroxylase were used as endpoints. After induction of luteolysis by injection of 100 micrograms cloprostenol on days 10-12, Scottish Blackface ewes were allocated to one of three groups: (1) control (n = 7): no further treatment; (2) FF (n = 9): subcutaneous injections of 3 ml steroid-free ovine follicular fluid at 9 h intervals, 18 and 27 h after cloprostenol injection; (3) FF + FSH (n = 8): injections of follicular fluid as above plus subcutaneous injections of 0.36 iu ovine FSH at 6 h intervals, 18, 24, and 30 h after cloprostenol injection. Jugular venous blood samples were obtained via indwelling cannulae at 6 h intervals from 0 to 36 h after cloprostenol injection, and at 10 min intervals from 12 to 18 h (control phase) and from 30 to 36 h after cloprostenol injection (treatment phase). At laparotomy, 36 h after cloprostenol injection, ovarian venous blood was collected and ovaries were removed and processed for in situ hybridization. Plasma concentrations of FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH) and oestradiol were determined by radioimmunoassay. Follicular fluid treatment resulted in a decrease (P < 0.001) in FSH concentrations associated with an acute decrease in ovarian steroid secretion (P < 0.01) and a specific depression in P450 aromatase, (P < 0.001), inhibin-activin beta B subunit (P < 0.05) and thecal LH receptor (P < 0.001) expression. Follicular fluid treatment had no effect on inhibin-activin alpha and beta A, subunit or P450 17 alpha-hydroxylase expression. FSH co-treatment with follicular fluid restored circulating FSH concentrations to normal values and reversed some of the effects of follicular fluid (androstenedione, testosterone and progesterone secretion, and inhibin beta B and thecal LH receptor expression) but not oestradiol secretion or P450 aromatase expression. It was concluded that the actions of follicular fluid are mediated via both central effects on pituitary FSH secretion and by direct ovarian effects on granulosa cell aromatase activity. The results indicate that follicular fluid contains a factor that inhibits aromatase activity of granulosa cells directly and may play a role in the selection of the dominant follicle.  (+info)

Relationship between the responsiveness to multiple-ovulation treatment and the number of bovine oocytes collected by transvaginal follicle aspiration. (7/180)

To characterize factors affecting the number of bovine oocytes recovered transvaginally, a regression analysis was performed between the responsiveness to multiple-ovulation treatment and the number of oocytes recovered transvaginally. The number of embryos recovered following multiple-ovulation treatment and the number of oocytes recovered transvaginally increased when the number of follicles to be aspirated transvaginally increased (P<0.05. P<0.01). The number of cumulus-oocyte complexes recovered transvaginally also increased when the number of oocytes to be aspirated transvaginally increased (P<0.001). However, the number of viable embryos that recovered following multiple-ovulation treatment had no relation to the number of cumulus-oocyte complexes recovered transvaginally. These results suggested that more oocytes can be recovered from donors that have a high responsiveness to multiple-ovulation treatment.  (+info)

Prostaglandin f(2alpha) induces distinct physiological responses in porcine corpora lutea after acquisition of luteolytic capacity. (8/180)

This study examines differences in intracellular responses to cloprostenol, a prostaglandin (PG)F(2alpha) analog, in porcine corpora lutea (CL) before (Day 9 of estrous cycle) and after (Day 17 of pseudopregnancy) acquisition of luteolytic capacity. Pigs on Day 9 or Day 17 were treated with saline or 500 microgram cloprostenol, and CL were collected 10 h (experiment I) or 0.5 h (experiment III) after treatment. Some CL were cut into small pieces and cultured to measure progesterone and PGF(2alpha) secretion. In experiment I, progesterone remained high and PGF(2alpha) low in luteal incubations from either Day 9 or Day 17 saline-treated pigs. Cloprostenol increased PGF(2alpha) production 465% and decreased progesterone production 87% only from Day 17 luteal tissue. Cloprostenol induced prostaglandin G/H synthase (PGHS)-2 mRNA (0.5 h) and protein (10 h) in both groups. In cell culture, cloprostenol or phorbol 12, 13-didecanoate (PDD) (protein kinase C activator), induced PGHS-2 mRNA in luteal cells from both groups. However, acute cloprostenol treatment (10 min) decreased progesterone production and increased PGF(2alpha) production only from Day 17 luteal cells. Thus, PGF(2alpha) production is induced by cloprostenol in porcine CL with luteolytic capacity (Day 17) but not in CL without luteolytic capacity (Day 9). However, this change in PGF(2alpha) production is not explained by a difference in induction of PGHS-2 mRNA or protein.  (+info)

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The discovery of potent and selective prostamide antagonists provided definitive evidence for a separate pharmacological entity and, in turn, impetus for cloning the receptor. Clues for the identity of the receptor were provided by taking into account the existent, pertinent information at that point in time. This is summarized as follows: 1) prostamide F2α and bimatoprost-responsive preparations also responded to PGF2α (although in many cases PGF2α activation was not accompanied by responses to prostamide F2α and its analogs); 2) bimatoprost-induced ocular hypotensive activity was abolished in FP receptor knockout mice (Crowston et al., 2005; Ota et al., 2005); 3) an FP receptor mRNA splicing variant was shown to be active (Pierce et al., 1997, Fujino et al., 2000); 4) prostanoid receptor heterodimerization was shown to create novel activation/binding sites (Wilson et al., 2004). These data suggested that the FP receptor gene was key to encoding the prostamide receptor. Thus, attention was ...
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Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
The Medical Letter 2012; 54:31) In Table 1 on page 31, the formulation column should have included a 0.01% solution of bimatoprost. The size, daily dosage and cost of 0.01% bimatoprost are the same ...
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Cystic ovarian disease in cows was treated either with a single intramuscular injection of 500 micrograms cloprostenol, a prostaglandin F2 alpha analogue, in 77 cases of luteal cysts or with 500 micrograms gonadorelin or 20 micrograms buserelin, gonadotrophin releasing hormone or its analogue (GnRH), in 116 cases of follicular cysts. Recovery was defined as the absence of cysts and the formation of a corpus luteum either with or without observed oestrus within 10 days after treatment with cloprostenol and 15 days after treatment with GnRH. Recovery occurred in 65 per cent and 52.6 per cent of cases, respectively, in average times of 4.9 and 19 days. Fifteen days after treatment with GnRH, 20 cows with luteinised cysts were treated with cloprostenol and 15 recovered in a mean of 20.4 days, while 10 which still had follicular cysts, were given GnRH and one recovered 31 days after the beginning of treatment. Another 27 cows, in which cysts became luteinised, were treated with cloprostenol seven ...
Why buy Bimat 0.03% (Bimatoprost Ophthalmic Solution)?. Bimat is an FDA approved eye medication. It is used in treating elevated intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma. It helps lower the fluid pressure in the eyes. It can also treat open-angle glaucoma, a condition that may lead to vision loss. Bimat can also give a vast look in your eyes. It provides longer, fuller and darker lashes. One Bimat 3ml eye drop is available here for $14.00 only.. How does Bimat 0.03% (Bimatoprost Ophthalmic Solution) work? Bimat contains Bimatoprost Ophthalmic Solution as an active ingredient. Bimat works by giving an immense look in the eyes. It has a natural extracted chemical called prostaglandin that helps in gradual hair growth. It is also used in treating hypotrichosis. It also controls the growth of glaucoma.. How to use Bimat 0.03% (Bimatoprost Ophthalmic Solution)?. Use Bimat daily for 12 to 16 weeks. Reduce application for 2-3 times a week after 16 weeks. Make sure that the treatment is complete. ...
Enhanced in stress within the eye may lead to spoil the optic nerve of the back of the eyes. When this takes place is turned out with fact called glaucoma. Glaucoma may cause loss of vision if the condition left untreated. If, you have over stress within the eyes, but without any spoil to the optic nerves said to be ocular hypertension. People with ocular hypertension suffer with over threat of later forming glaucoma. Bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03 eyes drops aids to moderate eye stress in people with ocular hypertension, & to safe further eye damage with concern of open-angle glaucoma. Bimatoprost for eyelash growth acts by escalating the drainage of fluid inside the eye. This aids to moderate the stress within the eyes. Bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03 buy online comes in bottle which embrace a stabilizer, & also as single-dose sets which doesnt hold a stabilizer. Occasionally, more than one kind of eye drop is required to maintain the stress in the eyes very low. If, this is the ...
Methods: A prospective study was carried out in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (IOP one eye≥ 18 mmHg and ≤30 mmHg and IOP both eyes ≤30 mmHg).The IOP was measured continuously at 15 days, 1 month, 2 months, 3 months, 4 months, 5 months and 6 months after initiation of treatment with timolol 0.5% twice a day, timolol 0.5% twice a day and travoprost 0.004% once daily, and timolol 0.5%/travoprost 0.004% fixed combination once daily ...
Bimat 0.03% are used to reduce the eye pressure in glaucoma and make the eyelash longer thicker and darker. The main active ingredient is Bimatoprost. You can order bimat bimatoprost ophthalmic solution online from Premiumrxdrugs.com
Numerous synthetic FP-class prostaglandin (PG) analogs stimulated the contraction of isolated non-pregnant female rat uterus in a concentration-dependent manner with the following agonist potencies: bimatoprost acid (17-phenyl-trinor PGF(2alpha); EC(50)=0.68+/-0.06 nM)=cloprostenol (EC(50)=0.73+/-0.01 nM),travoprost acid (EC(50)=1.3+/-0.07 nM),latanoprost acid (EC(50)=2.7+/-0.08 nM),PGF(2alpha) (EC(50)=52+/-11 nM),unoprostone (UF-021; EC(50)=310+/-101 nM),S-1033 (EC(50)=610+/-4 nM),bimatoprost (EC(50)=1130+/-173 nM). The FP-receptor antagonist ...
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DuoTrav eye drops contain two active ingredients, travoprost and timolol maleate. These are both medicines that lower raised pressure within the eye. They work in different ways to produce a combined effect greater than either medicine produces on its own.
Glaukos Corporation announced the completion of patient enrollment in the investigational new drug (IND) phase 2 study of its Travoprost intraocular implant with the iDose delivery system in patients …
Careprost (Bimatoprost Ophthalmic) is a medicated solution applied to the eyes as a treatment for open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension (increased pressure in the eye). The active ingredient in this product can help to increase eyelash growth, and some patients use it for this purpose. When applied to the eyelash using a special brush, it may promote eyelash hair growth.
It has long been noticed that one side effect of the glaucoma drug Lumigan (bimatoprost ophthalmic solution; Allergan) is increased eyelash growth, however, nobody could have predicted that cosmetic companies would start using small quantities of prostaglandins in products specifically designed for the beauty market.
Repeat the above process exactly in a similar manner for the appliance to the second eyes. Practice the same procedure for the opposite eye. Lumigan is actually the identical answer as Latisse however is meant to be used as eye drops as in glaucoma patients. Bimatoprost Multichem eye drops 0.03% are used to lower stress inside the eye, known as intraocular strain (IOP) within the therapy of glaucoma, which is raised IOP caused by a build up of fluid (aqueous humour) in the eye. During a second 10-day therapy part a single eye of six of the cats was handled with 0.15% unoprostone isopropyl resolution while a single eye of the remaining six cats was treated with BSS twice daily. He discovered it in a single stroke. You have to keep away from this remedy in case you are affected by eye disorders such as dry eyes or Aphakia the place lens is just not current in the attention.. This physician-administered product has the potential to offer an alternative to patients poorly adherent to their eye ...
Manufacturer of Glaucoma API - Bimatoprost, Latanoprost, Timolol Maleate offered by Triveni Interchem Private Limited (Group Of Triveni Chemicals), Vapi, Gujarat.
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether inter-visit intraocular pressure (IOP) range, which reflects extreme and potentially damaging IOP fluctuations, provides additional information on IOP control compared to mean IOP. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of Xalatan/Lumigan/Travatan study data, a masked-evaluator, randomized, parallel-group comparison of 12-week efficacy of latanoprost, bimatoprost, and travoprost in open-angle ...
Bimat eye drops are used by patients who have been diagnosed with intra ocular high pressure, a state which can lead to glaucoma. Left untreated, glaucoma can lead to blindness. By reducing intra ocular pressure, the risk of blindness associated to this condition is drastically reduced.
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I am a plastic surgeon in Ventura, California, where another eyelash enhancer Revitalash was born. Revitalash was developed by a Ventura ophthalmologist, who used (allegedly illegally) a glaucoma drug (bimatoprost, marketed as Lumigan) as the active ingredient. The results have been incredible-longer, thicker, darker eyelashes in at least 80% of users.. Unfortunately, my local colleague has been forced to discontinue the use of bimatoprost in Revitalash, because the patent is held by the Allergan Corporation. Allergan has dluted their own drug bimatoprost/Lumigan to create Latisse. So, I suspect that if patients already like Revitalash, they will like Latisse.. Even though Revitalash contained a regulated drug, the product was actually sold in just about every hair salon in my county. The public surely appreciated this convenience, but I am not certain whether public safety was served. The marketing and dispensation of Latisse by physicians is certainly more conservative and probably more ...
Teva-Travoprost Z: Travoprost belongs to a class of medications called prostaglandin analogues. It is used to reduce the pressure inside the eye for people with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension (increased pressure in the eye), and for people who do not have a complete response to treatment with other medications used to lower pressure in the eye. Travoprost begins to lower the pressure in the eye approximately 2 hours after using.
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Twenty-six dairy cattle were treated with dexamethasone during medium to late pregnancy to induce premature calving. Thirteen produced calves within an average of 5-6 days of treatment. The remainder were given a subsequent injection of cloprostenol 10 days after the steroid treatment and, with one exception, all calved within the following two days. A high incidence of retained placenta was experienced, in common with other methods of inducing parturition, but this was not generally found to be associated with detrimental effects on health or fertility.. ...
Simmental cows on two Kansas ranches received either 2 or 3 ml injections of prostaglandin cloprostenol (Estrumate). Dose levels had little effect on response rate in either small or large cows. However, for each unit ...
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Qualification Visit 1 (Screening) IOP at 16:00 hrs: PG monotherapy patients: ≥ 18 mm Hg; Combination therapy patients: ,= 16 mm Hg. Qualification Visit 2 (post latanoprost run-in) IOP ≥ 20 mm Hg at 08:00 hrs and 10:00 hrs, IOP ≥ 18 mm Hg at 16:00 hrs in study eye(s). (Note: combination therapy may include any combination of topical ocular hypotensive agents ...
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Its rare for the same medication to be used for both medicinal and cosmetic purposes. But bimatoprost (also sold under the brand Careprost®) can do these. In addition to treating glaucoma, it can be used to grow and thicken eyelashes.
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Cloprostenol is another example of such an agent. "Luteolysis - Google Search". www.google.com. Retrieved 2020-12-18. McCracken ...
... cloprostenol MeSH D10.251.355.255.775 - thromboxanes MeSH D10.251.355.310 - fatty acids, essential MeSH D10.251.355.310.166 - ...
... cloprostenol, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol Delta (computer), a Russian ZX Spectrum clone Delta encoding or delta compression, a ...
... cloprostenol (INN) cloprothiazole (INN) cloquinate (INN) cloquinozine (INN) cloracetadol (INN) cloral betaine (INN) ...
G02AD02 Dinoprostone G02AD03 Gemeprost G02AD04 Carboprost G02AD05 Sulprostone G02AD06 Misoprostol QG02AD90 Cloprostenol ...
The synthetic analogs that like PGF2α act as selective receptor agonists of FP viz., cloprostenol, flupostenol, latanoprost, ...
... cloprostenol MeSH D23.767.193.184 - bilirubin MeSH D23.767.193.184.200 - biliverdine MeSH D23.767.193.727 - urobilin MeSH ...
... is a synthetic analogue of prostoglandin F2α (PGF2α). It is a potent luteolytic agent; this means that, within ... Plumb DC (2015). "Cloprostenol Sodium". Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook (8th ed.). Wiley. ISBN 9781118911938. v t e. ...
InChI=1S/C26H32N4O4S/c1-20(2)30(16-10-11-17-34-19-24(31)29-35(3,32)33)23-18-27-25(21-12-6-4-7-13-21)26(28-23)22-14-8-5-9-15-22/h4-9,12-15,18,20H,10-11,16-17,19H2,1-3H3,(H,29,31) ...
... , also known as mesalamine or 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), is a medication used to treat inflammatory bowel disease, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.[2] It is generally used for mildly to moderately severe disease.[2] It is taken by mouth or rectally.[2] The formulations which are taken by mouth appear to be similarly effective.[3] Common side effects include headache, nausea, abdominal pain, and fever.[2] Serious side effects may include pericarditis, liver problems, and kidney problems.[2][3] Use in pregnancy and breastfeeding appears safe.[3] In people with a sulfa allergy certain formulations may result in problems.[2] Mesalazine is an aminosalicylate and anti-inflammatory.[2][3] It works by direct contact with the intestines.[2] Mesalazine was approved for medical use in the United States in 1987.[2][4] It is available as a generic medication and sold under many brand names worldwide.[5][2] A month supply in the United Kingdom costs the NHS about £43 as of ...
... is an organic compound, which, especially in its ester form, is called fenamate.[1]:458 serves as a parent structure for several nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including mefenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, flufenamic acid, and meclofenamic acid. These drugs are commonly referred to as "anthranilic acid derivatives" or "fenamates" because fenamic acid is a derivative of anthranilic acid.[2]:235[3]:17[2] ...
... (INN), or benorylate, is an ester-linked codrug of aspirin with paracetamol. It is used as an anti-inflammatory and antipyretic medication. In the treatment of childhood fever, it has been shown to be inferior to paracetamol and aspirin taken separately. In addition, because it is converted to aspirin, benorylate is not recommended in children due to concerns about Reye syndrome.[1] ...
The VIGOR (Vioxx GI Outcomes Research) study, conducted by Bombardier, et al., which compared the efficacy and adverse effect profiles of rofecoxib and naproxen, had indicated a significant 4-fold increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (heart attack) in rofecoxib patients when compared with naproxen patients (0.4% vs 0.1%, RR 0.25) over the 12-month span of the study. The elevated risk began during the second month on rofecoxib. There was no significant difference in the mortality from cardiovascular events between the two groups, nor was there any significant difference in the rate of myocardial infarction between the rofecoxib and naproxen treatment groups in patients without high cardiovascular risk. The difference in overall risk was by the patients at higher risk of heart attack, i.e. those meeting the criteria for low-dose aspirin prophylaxis of secondary cardiovascular events (previous myocardial infarction, angina, cerebrovascular accident, transient ischemic attack, or coronary ...
Acetylsalicylic acid is a weak acid, and very little of it is ionized in the stomach after oral administration. Acetylsalicylic acid is quickly absorbed through the cell membrane in the acidic conditions of the stomach. The increased pH and larger surface area of the small intestine causes aspirin to be absorbed more slowly there, as more of it is ionised. Owing to the formation of concretions, aspirin is absorbed much more slowly during overdose, and plasma concentrations can continue to rise for up to 24 hours after ingestion.[152][153][154] About 50-80% of salicylate in the blood is bound to albumin protein, while the rest remains in the active, ionized state; protein binding is concentration-dependent. Saturation of binding sites leads to more free salicylate and increased toxicity. The volume of distribution is 0.1-0.2 L/kg. Acidosis increases the volume of distribution because of enhancement of tissue penetration of salicylates.[154] As much as 80% of therapeutic doses of salicylic acid is ...
Synthesis of diacylglycerol begins with glycerol-3-phosphate, which is derived primarily from dihydroxyacetone phosphate, a product of glycolysis (usually in the cytoplasm of liver or adipose tissue cells). Glycerol-3-phosphate is first acylated with acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) to form lysophosphatidic acid, which is then acylated with another molecule of acyl-CoA to yield phosphatidic acid. Phosphatidic acid is then de-phosphorylated to form diacylglycerol. Dietary fat is mainly composed of triglycerides. Because triglycerides cannot be absorbed by the digestive system, triglycerides must first be enzymatically digested into monoacylglycerol, diacylglycerol, or free fatty acids.(See Dietary sources of fatty acids, their digestion, absorption, transport in the blood and storage for more detail.) Diacylglycerol is a precursor to triacylglycerol (triglyceride), which is formed in the addition of a third fatty acid to the diacylglycerol under the catalysis of diglyceride acyltransferase. Since ...
CySLTR2 mRNA is co-expressed along with CysLRR1 in human blood eosinophils and platelets, and tissue mast cells, macrophages, airway epithelial cells, and vascular endothelial cells. It is also expressed without CysLTR1 throughout the heart, including Purkinje cells, adrenal gland, and brain as well as some vascular endothelial, airway epithelial, and smooth muscle cells.[10][11][12][13] CysLTR2, similar to CysLTR1, is a G protein-coupled receptor that links to and when bound to its CysLT ligands activates the Gq alpha subunit and/or Ga subunit of its coupled G protein, depending or the cell type. Acting through these G proteins and their subunits, ligand-bound CysLTR1 activates a series of pathways that lead to cell function (see Gq alpha subunit#function and Ga subunit#function for details); the order of potency of the cysLTs in stimulating CysLTR2 is LTD4=LTC4,LTE4 with LTE4 probably lacking sufficient potency to have much activity that operates through CysLTR1 in vivo. By comparison, the ...
GLA is obtained from vegetable oils such as evening primrose (Oenothera biennis) oil (EPO), blackcurrant seed oil, borage seed oil, and hemp seed oil. GLA is also found in varying amounts in edible hemp seeds, oats, barley,[3] and spirulina. Normal safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) oil does not contain GLA, but a genetically modified GLA safflower oil available in commercial quantities since 2011 contains 40% GLA.[4] Borage oil contains 20% GLA, evening primrose oil ranges from 8% to 10% GLA, and black-currant oil contains 15-20%.[5] It also constitutes 12.23% of the fats from the fruit of the durian species Durio graveolens.[6] The human body produces GLA from linoleic acid (LA). This reaction is catalyzed by Δ6-desaturase (D6D), an enzyme that allows the creation of a double bond on the sixth carbon counting from the carboxyl terminus. LA is consumed sufficiently in most diets, from such abundant sources as cooking oils and meats. However, a lack of GLA can occur when there is a reduction of ...
... s or prostanoid receptors represent a sub-class of cell surface membrane receptors that are regarded as the primary receptors for one or more of the classical, naturally occurring prostanoids viz., prostaglandin D2, (i.e. PGD2), PGE2, PGF2alpha, prostacyclin (PGI2), thromboxane A2 (TXA2), and PGH2.[1] They are named based on the prostanoid to which they preferentially bind and respond, e.g. the receptor responsive to PGI2 at lower concentrations than any other prostanoid is named the Prostacyclin receptor (IP). One exception to this rule is the receptor for thromboxane A2 (TP) which binds and responds to PGH2 and TXA2 equally well. All of the prostanoid receptors are G protein-coupled receptors belonging to the Subfamily A14 of the rhodopsin-like receptor family except for the Prostaglandin DP2 receptor which is more closely related in amino acid sequence and functionality to chemotactic factor receptors such as the receptors for C5a and leukotriene B4.[2] Prostanoid ...
The COX-2 enzyme was discovered in 1988 by Daniel Simmons, a Brigham Young University researcher.[23] The mouse COX-2 gene was cloned by UCLA scientist Dr. Harvey Herschman, a finding published in 1991.[24]. The basic research leading to the discovery of COX-2 inhibitors has been the subject of at least two lawsuits. Brigham Young University has sued Pfizer, alleging breach of contract from relations BYU had with the company at the time of Dr. Simmons's work.[25][26] A settlement was reached in April 2012 in which Pfizer agreed to pay $450 million.[27][28] The other litigation is based on United States Pat. No. 6,048,850[29] owned by University of Rochester, which claimed a method to treat pain without causing gastro-intestinal distress by selectively inhibiting COX-2. When the patent issued, the university sued Searle (later Pfizer) in a case called, University of Rochester v. G.D. Searle & Co., 358 F.3d 916 (Fed. Cir. 2004). The court ruled in favor of Searle in 2004, holding in essence that ...
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) such as DP2 are integral membrane proteins that, when bound by their cognate ligands (or, in some cases, even when not ligand-bound and thereby acting continuously in a constitutive manner {see Receptor (biochemistry)#Constitutive activity}), mobilize one or more types of Heterotrimeric G proteins. DP2 is classified as a "contractile" prostanoid receptor in that it can cause the contraction of smooth muscle. As evidenced by its initial discovery as a receptor for PGD2 in T-helper type 2 cells, activated DP2 triggers Gi alpha subunit-linked heterotrimeric G proteins to dissociate into their component a) Gi alpha subunits (also termed Giα subunits) inhibit adenylyl cyclase b) G beta-gamma complex of subunits (Gβγ) have many potential functions, including simulation of phospholipase C to cleave phosphatidylinositol triphosphate into inositol triphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG), inhibition or stimulation of adenylyl cyclase depending on the isoform, ...
Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α in prostanoid nomenclature), pharmaceutically termed carboprost, is a naturally occurring prostaglandin used in medicine to induce labor and as an abortifacient.[1] In domestic mammals, it is produced by the uterus when stimulated by oxytocin, in the event that there has been no implantation during the luteal phase. It acts on the corpus luteum to cause luteolysis, forming a corpus albicans and stopping the production of progesterone. Action of PGF2α is dependent on the number of receptors on the corpus luteum membrane. The PGF2α isoform 8-iso-PGF2α was found in significantly increased amounts in patients with endometriosis, thus being a potential causative link in endometriosis-associated oxidative stress.[2] ...
... , as a lipophilic ester, easily penetrates the cornea and is then activated to the carboxylic acid, tafluprost acid. Onset of action is 2 to 4 hours after application, the maximal effect is reached after 12 hours, and ocular pressure remains lowered for at least 24 hours.[2][3] Tafluprost acid is inactivated by beta oxidation to 1,2-dinortafluprost acid, 1,2,3,4-tetranortafluprost acid, and its lactone, which are subsequently glucuronidated or hydroxylated. The cytochrome P450 liver enzymes play no role in the metabolism.[3] An analogous pathway (at least up to the tetranor-metabolites) has been found for latanoprost and travoprost. ...
It is believed that the vasoconstriction caused by thromboxanes plays a role in Prinzmetal's angina. Omega-3 fatty acids are metabolized to produce higher levels of TxA,3 which is relatively less potent than TxA2 and PGI3; therefore, there is a balance shift toward inhibition of vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation. It is believed that this shift in balance lowers the incidence of myocardial infarction (heart attack) and stroke. Vasoconstriction and, perhaps, various proinflammatory effects exerted by TxA on tissue microvasculature, is probable reason why the TxA is pathogenic in various diseases, such as ischemia-reperfusion injury.,[2] hepatic inflammatory processes,[3] acute hepatotoxicity [4] etc. TxB2, a stable degradation product of TxA2, plays a role in acute hepatoxicity induced by acetaminophen.[5][6] ...
... is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Fenoprofen calcium is used for symptomatic relief for rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and mild to moderate pain. Fenoprofen is marketed in the US as Nalfon. As of 2015 the cost for a typical month of medication in the United States is 50 to US$100.[1] ...
The drug is clear with a pH of 10.[7] Its production is inhibited indirectly by NSAIDs, which inhibit the cyclooxygenase enzymes COX1 and COX2. These convert arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), the immediate precursor of prostacyclin. Since thromboxane (an eicosanoid stimulator of platelet aggregation) is also downstream of COX enzymes, one might think that the effect of NSAIDs would act to balance. However, prostacyclin concentrations recover much faster than thromboxane levels, so aspirin administration initially has little to no effect but eventually prevents platelet aggregation (the effect of prostaglandins predominates as they are regenerated). This is explained by understanding the cells that produce each molecule, TXA2 and PGI2. Since PGI2 is primarily produced in a nucleated endothelial cell, the COX inhibition by NSAID can be overcome with time by increased COX gene activation and subsequent production of more COX enzymes to catalyze the formation of PGI2. In contrast, TXA2 is ...
... , also known as selenium sulfide, is a medication used to treat pityriasis versicolor, seborrhoeic dermatitis, and dandruff.[1] It is applied to the affected area as a lotion or shampoo.[2] Dandruff frequently returns if treatment is stopped.[3] Side effects include hair loss, irritation of the skin, weakness, and feeling tired.[1] Use is not recommended in children less than 2-5 years old.[3][1] Use in pregnancy or breastfeeding has not been studied.[4] Selenium disulfide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula SeS2.[5] Selenium disulfide was approved for medical use in the United States at least as early as 1951.[3] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[6] Selenium disulfide is available as a generic medication and over the counter.[2] In the United States a month of treatment costs less than 25 USD.[2] In the United Kingdom 100 ml of 2.5% shampoo costs the NHS about ...
... was available over-the-counter in the United States in the form of 12.5 mg coated tablets (Orudis KT and Actron), but this form has been discontinued. It is available by prescription capsules. Ketoprofen is also available as a 2.5% gel for topical application, and it is also available as a patch for topical analgesia and anti-inflammatory action. However, the gel is not sold in the United States. Brand names in Australia are Orudis and Oruvail. It is available in Japan in a transdermal patch Mohrus Tape, made by Hisamitsu Pharmaceutical. It is available in the UK as Ketoflam and Oruvail, in Ireland as Fastum Gel, in Estonia as Keto, Ketonal, and Fastum Gel, in Finland as Ketorin, Keto, Ketomex, and Orudis; in France as Profénid, Bi-Profénid and Ketum; in Italy as Ketodol, Fastum Gel, Lasonil, Orudis and Oki; in Poland, Serbia, Slovenia and Croatia as Knavon and Ketonal; in Romania as Ketonal and Fastum Gel; in Mexico as Arthril; in Norway as Zon and Orudis; in Russia as ОКИ ...
... supplementation in daily doses of 1,000-1,500 mg for 50 days has been well tolerated during several clinical studies, with no significant side effects reported. All common markers of health, including kidney and liver function,[35] serum lipids,[39] immunity,[40] and platelet aggregation[34] appear to be unaffected with this level and duration of use. Furthermore, higher concentrations of ARA in muscle tissue may be correlated with improved insulin sensitivity.[41] Arachidonic acid supplementation of the diets of healthy adults appears to offer no toxicity or significant safety risk. While studies looking at arachidonic acid supplementation in sedentary subjects have failed to find changes in resting inflammatory markers in doses up to 1,500 mg daily, strength-trained subjects may respond differently. One study reported a significant reduction in resting inflammation (via marker IL-6) in young men supplementing 1,000 mg/day of arachidonic acid for 50 days in combination with ...
Alprostadil is sold in the United States as urethral suppositories and in injectable form. The suppositories are sold under the brand name Muse.[6] The injectable forms are Edex[7] and Caverject.[8] Muse delivers alprostadil as a penile suppository, inserted into the urethra, at least ten minutes before the erection is needed. Caverject and Edex are similarly fast-acting, but instead are injected by syringe directly into the corpus cavernosum of the penis. Alprostadil is also available as a generic. The major cost is that it must be mixed by a compounding pharmacy and supplies may be difficult to obtain. The different formulations, including Bimix and Trimix, may include papaverine and/or phentolamine. A typical mix might be 30 mg of papaverine, 2 mg of phentolamine, and 20 μg alprostadil. As a generic, it is much less expensive than the packaged injectables. It is premixed and must be kept refrigerated and the user must load a syringe with the quantity needed. Most recently, the compound has ...
... , also known as mesalamine or 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), is an aminosalicylate anti-inflammatory drug[2] used to treat inflammatory bowel disease, including ulcerative colitis,[3][4][5] or inflamed anus or rectum,[6] and to maintain remission in Crohn's disease.[3][7] It is sold in an oral form to maintain remission in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease,[3] and as a rectal suppository[4][6] and an enema for the lower bowel conditions.[5] It is generic and sold under many brand names worldwide,[1] and there are many formulations.[8] There are no data on use in pregnant women, but the drug does cross the placenta and is excreted in breast milk. The drug should not be used in children under two, people with kidney disease, or people who are allergic to aspirin.[4] Side effects are primarily gastrointestinal but may also include headache; GI effects include nausea, diarrhea and abdominal pain. There have been scattered reports of various problems when the oral form is used, ...
Cloprostenol is a synthetic analogue of prostoglandin F2α (PGF2α). It is a potent luteolytic agent; this means that, within ... Plumb DC (2015). "Cloprostenol Sodium". Plumbs Veterinary Drug Handbook (8th ed.). Wiley. ISBN 9781118911938. v t e. ...
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Cloprostenol is another example of such an agent. "Luteolysis - Google Search". www.google.com. Retrieved 2020-12-18. McCracken ...
Cloprostenol-induced luteolysis in the marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus). J Reprod Fertil 73(1):133-138. Tardif SD, Layne DG ... Of the available injections, one needs to be administered 3 weeks postpartum and then monthly (Cloprostenol) and another must ... Suppression with an LHRH antagonist and cloprostenol. J Endocrinol 128(3): 465-473. Webley GE, Michael AE, Abayasekara DR. 2010 ...
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  • Cloprostenol Veyx SW™ (cloprostenol) is a synthetic prostaglandin analogue for use in swine. (drugs.com)
  • Cloprostenol is a synthetic prostaglandin analogue, structurally related to prostaglandin F 2 (PGF 2 ). (drugs.com)
  • Cloprostenol is a synthetic analog of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α). (adooq.com)
  • Luteal regression was evaluated following administration of the prostaglandin F₂α analog cloprostenol. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Researchers on another study, this one from Theriogenology , investigated the incidence of HAF formation in mares given either cloprostenol (another form of prostaglandin) or human chorionic gonadotropin, or both. (thehorse.com)
  • Estrumate ® (cloprostenol sodium) is a synthetic prostaglandin analogue structurally related to prostaglandin F2 a (PGF2 a). (lambertvetsupply.com)
  • It consists of the prostaglandin Lutalyse, a synthetic prostaglandin such as cloprostenol, or dopamine or progesterone receptor antagonists. (justanswer.com)
  • Does assigned to Group 1 (prostaglandin-induced oestrus) each initially received single intravaginal CIDR [Controlled Internal Drug Release] devices for 13 days followed by an i.m. injection of 750 mg cloprostenol on Day 12 (15 May) of the subsequent luteal cycle. (eurekamag.com)
  • PG-CL (Cloprostenol Sodium) Alprostadil (PGE1) (Prostaglandin E1) PGF2a (Prostaglandin F2a) Insulin Human Albumin Accutane (Isotretinoin) Furosemide (Lasix) ***** Clomiphene (Clomifene) (Clomid) Tamoxifen (Nolvadex) Toremifene (Fareston) Raloxifene (Evista. (opencroquet.org)
  • In conjunction with the 6 th dose of FOLLTROPIN ® , administer an FDA-approved prostaglandin product (cloprostenol sodium or dinoprost tromethamine) for cattle, using the labeled dosage and administration instructions to cause luteolysis and induce estrus. (nih.gov)
  • Simmental cows on two Kansas ranches received either 2 or 3 ml injections of prostaglandin cloprostenol (Estrumate). (k-state.edu)
  • Therefore, we tried to highlight the effects of repeated administration of Cloprostenol and CIPG isopropyl ester (both prostaglandin F2α analogs) for the male gonad. (curehunter.com)
  • Cloprostenol Veyx SW™ should be administered by deep intramuscular injection. (drugs.com)
  • Two mL of estroPLAN (500 mcg of cloprostenol) should be administered by INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTION for all indications in both beef and dairy cattle. (entirelypetspharmacy.com)
  • Of the hCG-treated sows, 122 also received a vulval-mucosal injection of 250 µg cloprostenol (PGF) 14 days after farrowing. (aasv.org)
  • of cloprostenol) by intramuscular injection). (hyperdrug.co.uk)
  • Administer 500 mcg cloprostenol (as cloprostenol sodium) by intramuscular injection 6 to 8 days after the first GONAbreed injection. (nih.gov)
  • Administer the second GONAbreed injection (1 mL) 30 to 72 hours after the cloprostenol sodium injection. (nih.gov)
  • In another study, cloprostenol induced a faster decrease in progesterone during the first 12 hours after injection compared to dinoprost. (progressivedairy.com)
  • Plasma prolactin increased within 15 minutes after injection of PGF$\sb2$a but more gradually and never to as high a peak after cloprostenol. (illinois.edu)
  • Ten does (5 per group) were blood sampled via indwelling jugular cannulae every 2 h for 72 h from cloprostenol injection or CIDR device withdrawal and the plasma was analysed for concentrations of progesterone and LH by radioimmunoassay. (eurekamag.com)
  • The ovaries of does failing to exhibit oestrus were examined 72 and 86 h after cloprostenol injection or CIDR device withdrawal. (eurekamag.com)
  • Of 3 does not exhibiting oestrus, 2 (Group 2) possessed active corpora lutea at CIDR device withdrawal and 1 (Group 1) possessed a large unruptured follicle 72 and 86 h after cloprostenol injection. (eurekamag.com)
  • The use of cloprostenol ("Estrumate") in the controlled breeding of cattle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Estrumate is supplied at a concentration of 250 mcg cloprostenol per ml. (valleyvet.com)
  • There are two primary PG products available in the U.S., dinoprost tromethamine (Lutalyse and generic ProstaMate) and cloprostenol sodium (Estrumate and generic estroPLAN). (progressivedairy.com)
  • Group I (n = 39): on day 0, 2000 IU hCG IM (Pregnyl^R, Organon) was given, on day 7, 500 \mug Cloprostenol Na IM (Estrumate^R, DİF), and on day 9, 12.6 \mug Buserelin acetate IM (Receptal^R, Hoechst). (tubitak.gov.tr)
  • Group III (n = 39): they received 500 \mug Cloprostenol IM (Estrumate^R, DİF) twice, at 11-d intervals. (tubitak.gov.tr)
  • Each ml contains 263 mcg of cloprostenol sodium, 1 mg chlorocresol as a bactericide, citric acid anhydrous 0.66 mg, sodium citrate 5.03 mg, sodium chloride 6.76 mg. (entirelypetspharmacy.com)
  • Each mL of the colorless aqueous solution contains 263 mcg of cloprostenol sodium (equivalent to 250 mcg of cloprostenol) in a sodium citrate, anhydrous citric acid and sodium chloride buffer containing 0.1% w/v chlorocresol BP as a bactericide. (lambertvetsupply.com)
  • Cloprostenol is a synthetic analogue of prostoglandin F2α (PGF2α). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, although widely used in mares, cloprostenol is labeled only for use in cattle. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • 2004. The effect of cloprostenol or dinoprost, administered at two different sites, on the expression of estrus in postpartum dairy cattle. (iastate.edu)
  • Chauhan, F.S., Mgongo, F.O.K, Kessy, B.M. and Gombe, S.: Effects of intravulvo-submucosal cloprostenol injections on hormonal profiles and fertility in subestrous cattle. (medigraphic.com)
  • They showed mares treated with cloprostenol had a slightly higher risk of HAF (8%) than mares given human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). (thehorse.com)
  • Cloprostenol Veyx SW™ induces farrowing in sows and gilts. (drugs.com)
  • Sows and gilts may then be given Cloprostenol Veyx SW™ as early in gestation as 2 days before this calculated expected farrowing date. (drugs.com)
  • Sows injected with cloprostenol, an analogue of PGF$\sb2$a, did not exhibit an immediate behavioral response. (illinois.edu)
  • In our system we used 500 [micro]g cloprostenol (2ml of Lutalyse) injected intramuscularly. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2) Cloprostenol (0.530mg) - two injections associated with florfenicol treatment or without cloprostenol . (bvsalud.org)
  • The cloprostenol injections of RP hastened the uterine involution and decreased the occurrence of uterine infection , and increased the percentage of animals with corpus luteum between 25 and 40 days after parturition . (bvsalud.org)
  • Estrus may be induced in diestrous mares (having a corpus luteum that is 5 or more days postovulation) by treatment with PGF 2α (10 mg, IM) or cloprostenol (250 mcg, IM) to lyse the corpus luteum. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Both dinoprost and cloprostenol are designed to do the exact same thing: regress the corpus luteum (CL). (progressivedairy.com)
  • Intrauterine inoculation with saline did not affect pregnancy, but embryonic death, abortion and regression of the corpus luteum occurred 66 to 72 hours after the treatment with cloprostenol. (bmj.com)
  • Sinoway Industrial Co.,Ltd is a famous China dl-cloprostenol sodium manufacturer and supplier, welcome to buy GMP and EP dl-cloprostenol sodium from us and check the price with us. (sinoway-chem.com)
  • Heifers were assigned to the PGF2alfa (CLO: cloprostenol sodium or DIN: dinoprost thromethamine) and estrus detection (AED: automated estrus detection or VSI: visual detection of estrus) treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial design. (ufl.edu)
  • Fertility of dairy cows following treatment with progesterone-releasing devices and cloprostenol. (nih.gov)
  • This faster drop in progesterone in the cloprostenol group enhanced the amount of estrogen produced by the pre-ovulatory follicle likely due to greater pulses of the hormone LH that drives the growth of follicles. (progressivedairy.com)
  • Various studies demonstrated the cure of pyometra with only a single use of 10 mg/kg of antiprogestin aglepristone subcutaneously on days 1, 2 and 8 of the diestrus, combined with cloprostenol, which induces the opening of the cervix and the resulting drainage of the uterus (13-15). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • C rdova, S.L. y Castro, G.E.: Utilizaci n de cloprostenol, dinoprost y luprostiol por v a submucosa intravulvar para sincronizar el estro en vaquillas Holstein. (medigraphic.com)
  • C rdova, S.L., Jim nez, K.F., Villa, G.A. y Flores, L.R: Efecto luteol tico del cipionato de estradiol combinado con una dosis reducida de Luprostiol inyectado en la submucosa intravulvar de vaquillas. (medigraphic.com)
  • C rdova, S.L. y Villa, G.A.: Administraci n de dosis reducida de Luprostiol por v a submucosa intravulvar para sincronizar el estro en vaquillas Holstein. (medigraphic.com)
  • Basic information: Product Name: DL-Cloprostenol Sodium Molecular Formula : C22H28ClO6.Na Molecular Weight: 446.9. (sinoway-chem.com)
  • The diameters of the follicules in ovaria were measured in the cows in groups I and II on day 9, and in the cows in group III 48 h after the second Cloprostenol Na application, using transrectal ultrasonography. (tubitak.gov.tr)
  • Greatly reduced doses of cloprostenol (25 mcg) also effectively induce luteolysis in mares while virtually eliminating the unwanted adverse effects of PGF 2α . (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Synchronization of the recipient cows was achieved by knocking off the corpous luteum using cloprostenol 500ug (2ml of lutealyase) and embryo transfer was done at day seven using in vitro produced blastocysts. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • GONAbreed ( Abbreviated New Animal Drug Application 200-541) is a sterile injectable solution of gonadorelin acetate, and when used with cloprostenol sodium as part of a synchronization regimen, the drug can be used to synchronize estrous cycles to allow for fixed time artificial insemination in lactating dairy cows and beef cows. (fda.gov)
  • BI's Cystorelin (gonadorelin) and Synchsure (cloprostenol sodium) now labeled for combination use. (beefmagazine.com)
  • Guzm n, R, Zarco, L. y Lima, V.: Caracter sticas de los perfiles de progesterona plasm tica antes y despu s del tratamiento con dosis reducidas de prostaglandina F2 inyectadas en diferentes sitios de la vulva en ganado Holstein. (medigraphic.com)
  • Two experiments were conducted to study effects of cloprostenol sodium (cloprostenol) and clenbuterol HCl (clenbuterol) during postpartum anestrus on subsequent reproductive performance in cows. (elsevier.com)
  • Cloprostenol was given on Days 55 to 60 postpartum, and GnRH was administered 2 days later for synchronization of ovulation. (uzh.ch)
  • The cows were treated with 2 mg estradiol valerate and 500 µg cloprostenol and were examined every 12 hr after 24 hr of the treatment for cervical dilatation and other signs related to fetal expulsion. (iranjournals.ir)
  • The purpose of this research was to analyse the appropriateness of PPI treatment suggestions buy Cloprostenol (sodium salt) in sufferers discharged from medical center in a big German county. (technumber.com)
  • In Experiment I, 96 cows received either 0.5 mg cloprostenol (PGF, n = 25), 364 mg clenbuterol (CLEN, n = 24), 0.5 mg cloprostenol and 364 mg clenbuterol (CLEN+PGF, n = 21) or no treatment (Control, n = 26) on Day 20 post partum. (elsevier.com)
  • Neither postpartum interval nor pregnancy rate were affected by cloprostenol treatment. (elsevier.com)
  • The intervals from parturition to first artificial insemination (AI) and to conception , as well as the number of AI per conception were reduced in the cloprostenol treatment . (bvsalud.org)
  • Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and Akr1b7(-/-) mice with cloprostenol suggested that decreased adipocyte size resulted from inhibition of lipogenic gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • In a study published last year, 25 mg (5 ml) dinoprost and 500 μg (2 ml) cloprostenol performed the same in lactating dairy cows when it came to the percentage of cows with complete CL regression by 56 hours after treatment. (progressivedairy.com)
  • In Experiment II, anestrous cows were administered cloprostenol (0.5 mg) on either Day 20 (PGF20, n = 27) or Day 35 post partum (PGF35, n = 25), or served as untreated controls (Control, n = 26). (elsevier.com)
  • Effect of estradiol and cloprostenol combination therapy on expulsion of mummified fetus and subsequent fertility in four crossbred cows', Veterinary Research Forum , 4(2), pp. 85-89. (iranjournals.ir)
  • Newcombe, J.R. The effect of hormone treatments (hCG and cloprostenol) and season on the incidence of hemorrhagic anovulatory follicles in the mare: A field study. (thehorse.com)
  • For use with cloprostenol sodium to synchronize estrous cycles to allow for fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI) in lactating dairy cows and beef cows. (nih.gov)
  • Time of season and use of induction treatments (Cloprostenol) were found to influence its incidence. (wiley.com)
  • Field trial results have demonstrated that producers can achieve similar conception rates using cloprostenol. (drugs.com)
  • Di-Cloprostenol Sodium used for controlling the progression of glaucoma or ocular hypertension, by reducing intraocular pressure. (shreejipharmainternational.com)
  • An increase in the number of nonviable piglets may result if Cloprostenol Veyx SW™ is used more than two days prior to the average gestation length calculated from farm records. (drugs.com)
  • The aim of this study was to compare the reproductive efficiency in dairy cows with retained placenta (RP), treated with Florfenicol associated or not with Cloprostenol . (bvsalud.org)
  • Parturition and piglet viability are normal when Cloprostenol Veyx SW™ is administered as early as 1 or 2 days before the expected farrowing date. (drugs.com)
  • 12 mg cloprostenol via SMV, with 24 h prior to expected date of parturition. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Specializing in the research, development and custom manufacturing of dl/d cloprostenol sodium veterinary cas no 55028-72-3 /62561-03-9, SINOWAY, though situated in China, enjoys good reputation among international customers. (sinoway-chem.com)
  • On D0, a CIDR device was inserted, and the device was replaced with a new one 7 days later, when 37.5µg of d-cloprostenol was administered. (scielo.br)