A branch of dentistry dealing with diseases of the oral and paraoral structures and the oral management of systemic diseases. (Hall, What is Oral Medicine, Anyway? Clinical Update: National Naval Dental Center, March 1991, p7-8)
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
A potentially fatal syndrome associated primarily with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) which are in turn associated with dopaminergic receptor blockade (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) in the BASAL GANGLIA and HYPOTHALAMUS, and sympathetic dysregulation. Clinical features include diffuse MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; high FEVER; diaphoresis; labile blood pressure; cognitive dysfunction; and autonomic disturbances. Serum CPK level elevation and a leukocytosis may also be present. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199; Psychiatr Serv 1998 Sep;49(9):1163-72)
Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.
Skeletal muscle relaxant that acts by interfering with excitation-contraction coupling in the muscle fiber. It is used in spasticity and other neuromuscular abnormalities. Although the mechanism of action is probably not central, dantrolene is usually grouped with the central muscle relaxants.
The inability to generate oral-verbal expression, despite normal comprehension of speech. This may be associated with BRAIN DISEASES or MENTAL DISORDERS. Organic mutism may be associated with damage to the FRONTAL LOBE; BRAIN STEM; THALAMUS; and CEREBELLUM. Selective mutism is a psychological condition that usually affects children characterized by continuous refusal to speak in social situations by a child who is able and willing to speak to selected persons. Kussmal aphasia refers to mutism in psychosis. (From Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 1994; 62(9):337-44)
An antipsychotic agent used in SCHIZOPHRENIA.
A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Chronic mental disorders in which there has been an insidious development of a permanent and unshakeable delusional system (persecutory delusions or delusions of jealousy), accompanied by preservation of clear and orderly thinking. Emotional responses and behavior are consistent with the delusional state.
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
Work of Breathing
RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)
A local anesthetic with rapid onset and long action, similar to BUPIVACAINE.
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
A tricylic dibenzodiazepine, classified as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It binds several types of central nervous system receptors, and displays a unique pharmacological profile. Clozapine is a serotonin antagonist, with strong binding to 5-HT 2A/2C receptor subtype. It also displays strong affinity to several dopaminergic receptors, but shows only weak antagonism at the dopamine D2 receptor, a receptor commonly thought to modulate neuroleptic activity. Agranulocytosis is a major adverse effect associated with administration of this agent.
Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The science concerned with the benefit and risk of drugs used in populations and the analysis of the outcomes of drug therapies. Pharmacoepidemiologic data come from both clinical trials and epidemiological studies with emphasis on methods for the detection and evaluation of drug-related adverse effects, assessment of risk vs benefit ratios in drug therapy, patterns of drug utilization, the cost-effectiveness of specific drugs, methodology of postmarketing surveillance, and the relation between pharmacoepidemiology and the formulation and interpretation of regulatory guidelines. (Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 1992;1(1); J Pharmacoepidemiol 1990;1(1))
A double blind comparison of zuclopenthixol acetate with haloperidol in the management of acutely disturbed schizophrenics. (1/11)The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of zuclopenthixol acetate compared with haloperidol in the management of the acutely disturbed schizophrenic patient. Suitable subjects diagnosed as having schizophreniform disorder or acute exacerbation of schizophrenia admitted to the psychiatric wards Hospital Kuala Lumpur were randomised to receive either zuclopenthixol acetate or haloperidol. They were rated blind for three consecutive days using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Clinical Global Impression (CGI) and UKU Side Effects Scale. Apart from repeat injections of the same medication, no other anti-psychotic was given for the duration of the study. 50 subjects entered the study of which 44 completed. 23 were given zuclopenthixol acetate and 21 haloperidol. Both groups significantly reduced BPRS and CGI scores on all 3 days compared to the initial rating (p < 0.001). There was however no difference between the zuclopenthixol acetate and haloperidol group scores on all days (p > 0.05). More subjects on haloperidol than zuclopenthixol required more than 1 injection during the study. Both groups had minimal side effects. Zuclopenthixol acetate was effective in the management of the acutely disturbed schizophrenic. (+info)
The interaction of neuroleptic and muscarinic agents with central dopaminergic systems. (2/11)1. The effect of muscarinic and neuroleptic agents on the turning behaviour induced by methamphetamine and apomorphine in rats with unilateral lesions of the substantia nigra induced by 6-hydroxydopamine has been examined. 2. Turning towards the side of the lesion induced by (+)-methamphetamine (5 mg/kg) was inhibited by alpha-flupenthixol (1 mg/kg) and alpha-clopenthixol (8 mg/kg) but not by high doses of their beta-isomers. 3. Turning was inhibited by chlorpromazine (4 mg/kg) and pimozide (0.2 mg/kg). Thioridazine and clozapine (16 mg/kg) were ineffective. Turning in the same direction produced by scopolamine (10 mg/kg) was also inhibited by alpha-flupenthixol (1 mg/kg) and pimozide (0.25 mg/kg). 4. Turning produced by methamphetamine (5 mg/kg) was inhibited by oxotremorine (0.75 mg/kg) even in the presence of methylatropine (5 mg/kg). 5. Turning away from the side of the lesion induced by apomorphine (0.1 mg/kg) was inhibited by oxotremorine (0.75 mg/kg) but not by thioridazine or clozapine (16 mg/kg). 6. These results are discussed with regard to the mode of action of neuroleptic drugs in producing anti-psychotic effects and drug-induced Parkinsonism. (+info)
Concentrations of cis(Z)-clopenthixol and trans(E)-clopenthixol in a lethal case involving zuclopenthixol, diazepam, and cyamemazine. (3/11)cis(Z)-Clopenthixol and trans(E)-clopenthixol were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detection in necropic samples from a postmortem case. The peripheral blood concentrations of cis(Z)-clopenthixol and trans(E)-clopenthixol were 278 and 177 ng/mL, respectively. The level of the active cis(Z)-isomer is within the toxic range. Other associated drugs' concentrations were within their therapeutic ranges. Postmortem redistribution of the drug and instability of the drug due to trans-isomerization were discussed. (+info)
Flow-injection chemiluminometric determination of some thioxanthene derivatives in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids using the [Ru(dipy)3(2+)]-Ce(IV) system. (4/11)A flow-injection (FI) methodology using tris(2,2'-dipyridyl)ruthenium(II), [Ru(dipy)3(2+)], chemiluminescence (CL) was developed for the rapid and sensitive determination of three thioxanthene derivatives, namely zuclopenthixol hydrochloride, flupentixol hydrochloride and thiothixene. The method is based on the CL reaction of the studied thioxanthenes with [Ru(dipy)3(2+)] and Ce(IV) in a sulfuric acid medium. Under the optimum conditions, calibration graphs were obtained over the concentration ranges 0.002-6 migrograms/ml for zuclopenthixol hydrochloride, 0.5-15 micrograms/ml for flupentixol hydrochloride and 0.05-7.5 micrograms/ml for thiothixene. The limits of detection (s/n = 3) were 4.2 x 10(-9) mol/l zuclopenthixol hydrochloride, 2 x 10(-8) mol/l flupentixol hydrochloride and 4.5 x 10(-8) mol/l thiothixene. The method was successfully applied to the determination of these compounds in dosage forms and biological fluids. (+info)
Comparison of analgesic techniques for antler removal in wapiti. (5/11)The purpose of this research was to compare the effectiveness of ring block anesthesia (LA) and electroanesthesia (A) for antler removal in elk given a long-acting tranquilizer to remove stress from restraint. Thirty-two male wapiti were given 1 mg/kg body weight of zuclopenthixol acetate; the next day, they were restrained in a hydraulic chute, provided with electroanesthesia or a lidocaine ring block, and had their antlers removed. Behavioral response to antler removal was scored. Significantly more (P = 0.032) animals responded to antler removal in the EA group. Heart rates and arterial pressures were measured by a catheter connected to a physiological monitor. Heart rate increased significantly over time with EA, but not with LA. Heart rate increased from baseline significantly more in the EA group immediately prior to antler removal (P = 0.017), immediately post antler removal (P = 0.001), and at 1 min post antler removal (P = 0.037). It was concluded that EA is not as effective a method of anesthesia as is LA for antler removal. (+info)
Rapid tranquillisation: time for a reappraisal of options for parenteral therapy. (6/11)BACKGROUND: When parenteral treatments are indicated for acutely disturbed behaviour, previous guidelines have recommended droperidol or haloperidol in combination with benzodiazepines. However, there has been recent concern over cardiotoxicity and sudden death associated with some antipsychotic medication and droperidol has now been withdrawn. AIMS: To ascertain what alternatives can be recommended to replace intramuscular droperidol. METHOD: Selective review of current guidelines and the literature pertaining to rapid parenteral tranquillisation. RESULTS: Current guidelines recommend haloperidol as an alternative to droperidol. There is evidence of cardiotoxicity with haloperidol and it has a propensity to cause extrapyramidal side-effects that may exacerbate disturbed behaviour and reduce longer-term compliance. The rapid-acting intramuscular formulations of atypical antipsychotic agents show promise. CONCLUSIONS: It is recommended that the mainstay of pharmacological rapid tranquillisation should be parenteral benzodiazepines used with due care. (+info)
Zuclopenthixol in adults with intellectual disabilities and aggressive behaviours: discontinuation study. (7/11)We investigated the effects of zuclopenthixol on aggressive behaviour in patients with intellectual disabilities by randomly withdrawing it after a 6-week period of open treatment. Of the 49 patients responding to the treatment, 39 took part in a randomised withdrawal trial. The placebo subgroup (n=20) showed more aggressive behaviour as indicated by outcomes observed by external raters on the Modified Overt Aggression Scale than did the continuing subgroup (n=19). The results indicate that discontinuation of zuclopenthixolin this population leads to an increase in aggressive behaviour. (+info)
Fatal exertional heat stroke in a patient receiving zuclopenthixol, quetiapine and benztropine. (8/11)OBJECTIVE: To report a case of fatal exertional heat stroke associated with the use of zuclopenthixol, quetiapine and benztropine. CASE SUMMARY: A 36-year-old male with a history of schizophrenia and bipolar disease was working as a roofer during the third day of a heat wave. His medications included zuclopenthixol, quetiapine, benztropine, carbamazepine and levothyroxine. He developed loss of consciousness late in the day and presented to hospital with a Glasgow Coma Scale 3 and a rectal temperature of 42.2 degrees C. He progressed to severe multiple organ dysfunction and asystole, and expired the following morning. Neuroleptic and anticholinergic agents have long been associated with heat alteration, but there are few reports involving the newer antipsychotic agents. Physicians and pharmacists should ensure that appropriate counseling is given to patients receiving these medications regarding early recognition of signs and symptoms and prompt treatment of heat related illness and heat stroke. (+info)
Effects of Thioxanthene Containing Anti-Psychotic and Anti-Platelet Drug Combination on Mean Platelet Volume and Platelet...
Aim: To evaluate the combined and individual effects of thioxanthene containing antipsychotic and anti-platlet drug on Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) and Platelet Distribution Width (PDW) in rats.. Methods: This investigational study comprised of 100 albino rats of both sexual orientation, they were of 300 g to 350 g. We got ten groups, in which each group consisted of 10 rats (n=10).Ozagrel was used as anti-platelet and Zuclopenthixol was used as thioxanthene containing antipsychotic. Rats were treated with defined doses of Ozagrel and thioxanthene containing anti-psychotic (Zuclopenthixol) alone and in joined for three weeks (21 days). Blood test at 0, seventh, fourteenth and last day of study were taken. Mean Platelet Volume and Platelet Distribution Width were estimated from blood tests by using standard research center procedure. Results were accumulated and abridged by applying statistics. Correlation was framed between all days incentive to zero day values.. Results: Anti-psychotic drug and ...
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Schedule H is a class of prescription drugs in India appearing as an appendix to the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945 introduced in 1945. These are drugs which cannot be purchased over the counter without the prescription of a qualified doctor.The manufacture and sale of all drugs are covered under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act and Rules. It is revised at times based on the advice of the Drugs Technical Advisory Board, part of the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization in the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. The most recent schedule H (2006) lists 536 drugs from abacavir to zuclopenthixol. However, enforcement of Schedule H laws in India is lax, compared to the more restrictive Schedule X, for which a mandatory documentation trail must be maintained. ...
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This medicine will add to the effects of alcohol and other CNS depressants (medicines that slow down the nervous system, possibly causing drowsiness). Some examples of CNS depressants are antihistamines or medicine for hay fever, other allergies, or colds; sedatives, tranquilizers, or sleeping medicine; prescription pain medicine or narcotics; barbiturates; medicine for seizures; muscle relaxants; or anesthetics, including some dental anesthetics. Check with your doctor before taking any such depressants while you are using this medicine.. Do not take this medicine within an hour of taking antacids or medicine for diarrhea. Taking them too close together may make this medicine less effective.. Before having any kind of surgery, dental treatment, or emergency treatment, tell the medical doctor or dentist in charge that you are using this medicine. Taking thioxanthenes together with medicines that are used during surgery or dental or emergency treatments may increase the CNS depressant ...
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CD147 as receptor for pilus-mediated adhesion of meningococci to vascular endothelia. WO/2014/016152. Bourdoulous S, O. Join-Lambert, X. Nassif.. Use of phenothiazine derivative in the treatment of infectious purpura or purpura fulminans. WO/2018/083314. Bourdoulous S, Denis K, Le Guennec L.. Use of phenothiazine derivative in the treatment of infections caused by bacteria carrying type IV pili. WO/2019/008141. Bourdoulous S, Denis K, Le Guennec L.. Polypeptides and nucleic acids for treating ErbB2-dependent cancers. WO/2011/036211. Bourdoulous S, Djerbi-Bouillie R.. Development of a High Throughput Screening assay for the discovery of novel small molecules inhibitors of ErbB2/HER2 activity. FR1452246. Bourdoulous S, Faure C.. Zuclopenthixol hydrochloride derivatives and Ebselen derivatives as ErbB2 inhibitors. WO/2017/121755. Bourdoulous S, Faure C.. Diagnosis and/or prognosis of HER2-dependent cancer using moesin as a biomarker. EP17306465.0. Bourdoulous S, Faure C, Domingot A.. Diagnosis ...
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The policies youth football leagues should employ in prevention and response to exertional heat stroke. Includes the critical factors that have led to deaths and resulting litigation.
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patients with different neuroleptic medications 3.1. General features of schizophrenic patients Analysis of the saturation data was carried out using the non-linear least squares regression The mean ages of control, unmedicated, buty- analysis program, LIGAND. The results gathered rophenone-, phenothiazine-, benzisoxazole- and from this computer-assisted analysis were consis- thioxanthene-treated groups were 31.72.2, 24.8 tent with the presence of only one binding site on 2.3, 32.73.5, 33.73.6, 33.44.8 and 28.2 the platelets of control subjects and schizophrenic 2.9 years, respectively. The mean durations of patients. The present data were comparable to illness for the unmedicated, butyrophenone, our previous report ŽGovitrapong et al., phenothiazine, benzisoxazole and thioxanthene groups were 3.1 1.5, 9.92.8, 5.201.1, 9.9 ing to platelets of normal control subjects and 1.9 and 4.81.2 years, respectively. The mean durations of treatment on butyrophenones, patients are shown in Table ...
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Opipramol (OP), a clinically effective antidepressant with a tricyclic structure, is inactive as an inhibitor of biogenic amine uptake. [3H]Opipramol binds saturably to rat brain membranes (apparent KD = 4 nM, Bmax = 3 pmol/mg of protein). [3H]Opipramol binding can be differentiated into haloperidol-sensitive and -resistant components, with Ki values for haloperidol of 1 nM (Bmax = 1 pmol/mg of protein) and 350 nM (Bmax = 1.9 pmol/mg of protein), respectively. The drug specificity of the haloperidol-sensitive component is the same as that of sigma receptors labeled with (+)-[3H]3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-(1-propyl)piperdine. The haloperidol-resistant component does not correspond to any known neurotransmitter receptor or uptake recognition site. It displays high affinity for phenothiazines and related structures such as perphenazine, clopenthixol, and flupenthixol, whose potencies are comparable to that of opipramol. Because certain of these drugs are more potent at the haloperidol-resistant ...
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View a complete table of contents at go.jblearning.com/casa.. For the past 11 years, Casa has worked toward his goal of preventing sudden death in sport at the Department of Kinesiology, Neag School of Education, University of Connecticut. He has published more than 110 peer-reviewed publications and presented more than 300 times on subjects related to exertional heat stroke, heat-related illnesses, hydration and preventing sudden death in sport. Casa has treated more than 130 cases of exertional heat stroke with zero fatalities. In October 2010, the Department of Kinesiology doctoral program at the University of Connecticut was ranked first in the country by the National Academy of Kinesiology.. Preventing Sudden Death in Sport and Physical Activity is available for $83.95 through the Jones & Bartlett website or by calling 800-832-0034. Members of the media interested in ordering a review copy of the book, scheduling an author interview or requesting an excerpt may contact Jody Sullivan, ...
Exertional heat stroke in a young military trainee: is it preventable? | Military Medical Research | Full Text
On the evening of May 23rd 2015, a 23-year-old military trainee was transferred from the District General Hospital Mannar (DGHM) (situated in the dry zone of Sri Lanka) to the Teaching Hospital Anuradhapura (THA) for further management of coma and convulsions. The patient was participating in a 9 mile ruck marching marathon on that same morning. After about four hours, the patient fainted and had a seizure near the finishing line. His companions cooled his body with water and brought him to the DGHM at approximately 9 a.m. that morning.. After admission to DGHM, he regained partial consciousness in a few minutes and was hyperactive, irritable, confused and amnesic. His Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) was 9, and his temperature was 39 °C, pulse was 119 beats per minute, and blood pressure was 115/57 mmHg. His arterial blood gas showed a partially-compensated metabolic acidosis [pH of 7.34 (7.35-7.45), PaCO2 of 27 (35-45) mmHg, HCO3 − of 14.6 (32-26) mEq/L], a blood glucose of 66 mg/dl, a serum ...
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When the psychosis is believed to be triggered by the perceived stress of the treatment environment, it is advisable to transfer the patient as soon as possible to a less intimidating environment, for example from an intensive care unit to a general ward or from a general ward to the patients home, if adequate care is available there. Rapid tranquillisation may be needed if there is aggressive or disruptive behaviour. Chlorpromazine or haloperidol may be given in doses similar to those used in acute mania. If very rapid control of symptoms is required, diazepam can be given intravenously in a dose of 5-10 mg as Diazemuls. Intravenous therapy ensures near immediate delivery of the drug to its site of action and effectively avoids the danger of inadvertent accumulation of slowly absorbed intramuscular doses. Note also that intravenous doses can be repeated after only 5-10 minutes if no effect is observed.51 A recent review of rapid tranquillisation has recommended that the mainstay of ...
Track vet keeps a careful watch for heat stroke | Daily Racing Form
Email. Keeping hydrated and cool is just as important for Thoroughbreds as it is for humans on hot summer days. Heat and humidity, coupled with the stress of racing, can lead to heat stroke in horses. Heat stroke occurs when the brain becomes overheated and fails to function properly. Horses become disoriented and wobbly, sometimes kicking out at things that are not there. In extreme cases, a horse with severe heat stroke will fall to the ground. Dr. Neal Cleary, the chief examining veterinarian for the New York Racing Association, said he and his crew carefully monitor horses for signs of heat stroke after they race. Cleary said each NYRA track has water hoses located near the unsaddling areas and in the paddocks, and they are immediately put into use if a horse appears to be suffering from heat exhaustion. The cooling water from the hoses is also used as a preventive measure against the onset of heat stroke on steamy days. You need to cool the sutaneous veins in the neck, chest, and shoulder ...
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Talking Heat Stroke Warner - This jolly little fellow will tell you the temperature and humidity, as well as let you the chance of catching a cold or heat stroke. The Talking Heat Stroke Warner only speaks in Japanese but the LED will indicate the level of danger. Every 10 minutes this friendly chap will give you an update on t ...
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Expert consensus on standardized diagnosis and treatment for heat stroke | Military Medical Research | Full Text
Heats stroke (HS) is severe sunstroke caused by a rapid increase in ones core temperature in excess of 40 °C from exposure to a hot and humid environment. HS is accompanied by serious clinical syndromes that damage multiple organ systems. These syndromes include burning skin and impaired awareness, such as delirium, convulsions, and loss of consciousness.. Exertional heat stroke (EHS) is caused by a rapid increase in ones core temperature in excess of 40 °C from high intensity physical exercise in a hot and humid environment. EHS is accompanied by extremely serious clinical syndromes that damage multiple organs and multiple systems. Syndromes include impaired awareness, rhabdomyolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), acute liver damage, and acute renal damage. EHS is the most severe type of sunstroke and is characterized by acute onset and rapid progression The case fatality rate can reach more than 50 % if effective treatment is not received in a timely manner. EHS is commonly ...
How to prevent the risk of heat stroke - Vithas Xanit Internacional
Due to the high temperatures and heat waves that are taking place, the risk of heat stroke has increased in recent years.. Heat stroke is a disorder characterized by failure of the functions of various internal organs due to an excessive increase in body temperature. Normally this should be around 37 degrees Celsius, but if it increases and exceeds 40 degrees without our body can eliminate excess heat, our nervous system begins to alter. When we become dehydrated, our body can not sweat enough to cool down and reduce its temperature, so it can increase and produce a heat stroke.. Heat stroke more easily affects the elderly, who often suffer from some previous pathology that is aggravated by the increase in their body temperature, at the same time that these pathologies in many cases prevent them from drinking enough water to rehydrate, or they simply forget to drink, suffer from inappetence, or do not give enough importance to this fact.. Children are also especially vulnerable to heat stroke, ...
A definition of heat stroke - HealthyLifeInfo.com Wellness and Health Information
Source: Adapted from the National Institutes of Health. What does the term heat stroke mean? The term heat stroke refers to a serious failure of the bodys heat-regulating mechanism resulting from excessive exposure to intense heat. also called sunstroke. To find out more about this term, please search the news section of this website for related articles and information.. ...
Preventing Heat Stroke in Kids - Kids Health Center - Everyday Health
Children are at particular risk for heat stroke during the summer. Learn about the symptoms of heat stroke and what you can do to prevent problems.
Heat Stroke - Geriatrics
Heat stroke is a potentially fatal condition. This article explores common signs, symptoms, and preventive measures. - Heat Stroke - Geriatrics at BellaOnline
Heat Stress & Heat Stroke - Greyhound Care & Standards
There are a number of signs to look out for to identify if your dog is suffering from heat stress or heat stroke, as well as measures to prevent this.
Dog Heat Stroke Prevention: 5 Signs to Watch Out For | Spartan Race
Yes, your pup is your top fan and loyal supporter, but also vulnerable to heat and humidity. Stay on top of your dog heat stroke prevention with these tips.
heat stroke question | BackYard Chickens - Learn How to Raise Chickens
It was almost 100 here today and I think one of my hens may have heat stroke.she is laying under the water bucket( mine hang) and was pretty much...
Understanding and Preventing Child Heat Stroke from Hot Cars
Vehicular child deaths from heat stroke - which occurs when a child dies after being left alone in a hot vehicle - are a serious problem in the U.S. Data shows that
So lets just say my hen dies of heat stroke... | BackYard Chickens
Seriously, I almost lost a hen yesterday to heat stroke. We saved her. Super for all. But that got me thinking, what happens when it really happens....
What are the racial predilections for heat stroke?
With the same risk factors and under the same environmental conditions, heat stroke affects all races equally. However, because of differences in social advantages, the annual death rate due to enviro... more
Can Heat Stroke Cause Diarrhea? | FastMed Urgent Care
Heat stroke can cause serious symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, headache, seizures, and even death. Learn to recognize the signs and symptoms.
Prevent and Treat Guinea Pig Heat Stroke
Recognize the symptoms of heat stroke, like dehydration and rapid breathing, and treat your pet guinea pigs so they suffer health consequences.
Heat Stroke. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
ICD-10-CM Drugs Index - Benztropine
The ICD-10-CM Drugs Index is designed to allow medical coders to look up various medical terms and connect them with the appropriate ICD codes. There are 2 terms under the parent term Benztropine in the ICD-10-CM Drugs Index. ...
Benztropine mesylate (By mouth) | Lima Memorial Health System
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites ...
How to Prevent Heat Stroke in Dogs - The blog provides tips on heat stroke prevention - like outdoor activities - & what to do if they become over-heated.
6 Things You Can Learn From Shed Antlers (And 1 You Cant)
Shed antlers are great fun to hunt, collect and admire. But they also provide a lot of information about the bucks that dropped them.
34 (1): 1-6. Jørgensen A, Overø KF (1980). "Clopenthixol and flupenthixol depot preparations in outpatient schizophrenics. III ...
Chlorpromazine binds D3 with the highest affinity, but also binds D1, D2, D4 and D5 Clopenthixol Droperidol is used as an ...
... clopenthixol, chlorprothixene, flupentixol, thiothixene, zuclopenthixol Tricyclic and piperidine: pimethixene, cyproheptadine ...
List of antipsychotics
Bromperidol decanoate Clopenthixol decanoate Flupentixol decanoate Flupentixol palmitate Fluphenazine decanoate Fluphenazine ...
ATC 코드 N05 - 위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전
N05AF02 Clopenthixol. N05AF03 Chlorprothixene. N05AF04 Thiothixene. N05AF05 Zuclopenthixol. N05AG 디페닐부틸피페리딘 계열[편집]. N05AG01 ...
... causes arterial/arteriolar vasodilation leading to a decrease in blood pressure by activating peripheral D1 receptors. It decreases afterload and also promotes sodium excretion via specific dopamine receptors along the nephron. The renal effect of fenoldopam and dopamine may involve physiological antagonism of the renin-angiotensin system in the kidney. In contrast to dopamine, fenoldopam is a selective D1 receptor agonist with no effect on beta adrenoceptors, although there is evidence that it may have some alpha-1  and alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist activity. D1 receptor stimulation activates adenylyl cyclase and raises intracellular cyclic AMP, resulting in vasodilation of most arterial beds, including renal, mesenteric, and coronary arteries. to cause a reduction in systemic vascular resistance. Fenoldopam has a rapid onset of action (4 minutes) and short duration of action (, 10 minutes) and a linear dose-response relationship at usual clinical doses. ...
... (INN), also known as captodiamine, is an antihistamine sold under the trade names Covatine, Covatix, and Suvren which is used as a sedative and anxiolytic. The structure is related to diphenhydramine. A 2004 study suggested captodiame may be helpful in preventing benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome in people discontinuing benzodiazepine treatment. In addition to its actions as an antihistamine, captodiamine has been found to act as a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist and σ1 receptor and D3 receptor agonist. It produces antidepressant-like effects in rats. However, captodiamine is unique among antidepressant-like drugs in that it increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the hypothalamus but not in the frontal cortex or hippocampus. This unique action may be related to its ability to attenuate stress-induced anhedonia and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling in the hypothalamus. ...
The hormone prolactin stimulates lactation (production of breast milk). Dopamine, released by the hypothalamus stops the release of prolactin from the pituitary gland. Domperidone, by acting as an anti-dopaminergic agent, results in increased prolactin secretion, and thus promotes lactation (that is, it is a galactogogue). In some nations, including Australia, domperidone is used off-label, based on uncertain and anecdotal evidence of its usefulness, as a therapy for mothers who are having difficulty breastfeeding. In the United States, domperidone is not approved for this or any other use. A study called the EMPOWER trial was designed to assess the effectiveness and safety of domperidone in assisting mothers of preterm babies to supply breast milk for their infants. The study randomized 90 mothers of preterm babies to receive either domperidone 10 mg orally three times daily for 28 days (Group A) or placebo 10 mg orally three times daily for 14 days followed by domperidone ...
Djaldetti Ruth; Giladi Nir; Hassin-Baer Sharon; Shabtai Hertzel; Melamed Eldad (November-December 2003). "Pharmacokinetics of Etilevodopa Compared to Levodopa in Patient's With Parkinson's Disease: An Open-label, Randomized, Crossover Study". Clinical Neuropharmacology. 26 (6): 322-326. doi:10.1097/00002826-200311000-00012. PMID 14646613 ...
Classen K, Göthert M, Schlicker E (June 1984). "Effects of DU 24565 (6-nitroquipazine) on serotoninergic and noradrenergic neurones of the rat brain and comparison with the effects of quipazine". Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology. 326 (3): 198-202. doi:10.1007/bf00505318. PMID 6206407 ...
... has also been found to increase the analgesic effects of opioid drugs in a dose-dependent manner, in contrast to 5-HT1A agonists such as 8-OH-DPAT which were found to reduce opioid analgesia. However, since 5-HT1A agonists were also found to reduce opioid-induced respiratory depression and WAY-100635 was found to block this effect, it is likely that 5-HT1A antagonists might worsen this side effect of opioids. Paradoxically, chronic administration of the very high efficacy 5-HT1A agonist befiradol results in potent analgesia following an initial period of hyperalgesia, an effect most likely linked to desensitisation and/or downregulation of 5-HT1A receptors (i.e. analogous to a 5-HT1A antagonist-like effect). As with other 5-HT1A silent antagonists such as UH-301 and robalzotan, WAY 100635 can also induce a head-twitch response in rodents. ...
The combination of BZP and TFMPP has been associated with a range of side effects, including insomnia, anxiety, nausea and vomiting, headaches and muscle aches which may resemble migraine, seizures, impotence, and rarely psychosis, as well as a prolonged and unpleasant hangover effect. These side effects tend to be significantly worsened when the BZP/TFMPP mix is consumed alongside alcohol, especially the headache, nausea, and hangover. However, it is difficult to say how many of these side effects are produced by TFMPP itself, as it has rarely been marketed without BZP also being present, and all of the side effects mentioned are also produced by BZP (which has been sold as a single drug). Studies into other related piperazine drugs such as mCPP suggest that certain side effects such as anxiety, headache and nausea are common to all drugs of this class, and pills containing TFMPP are reported by users to produce comparatively more severe hangover effects than those containing only BZP. The ...
Abou-Gharbia MA, Childers WE, Fletcher H, et al. (December 1999). "Synthesis and SAR of adatanserin: novel adamantyl aryl- and heteroarylpiperazines with dual serotonin 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2) activity as potential anxiolytic and antidepressant agents". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 42 (25): 5077-94. doi:10.1021/jm9806704. PMID 10602693 ...
Novartis fought a seven-year, controversial battle to patent Gleevec in India, and took the case all the way to the Indian Supreme Court. The patent application at the center of the case was filed by Novartis in India in 1998, after India had agreed to enter the World Trade Organization and to abide by worldwide intellectual property standards under the TRIPS agreement. As part of this agreement, India made changes to its patent law, the biggest of which was that prior to these changes, patents on products were not allowed, while afterwards they were, albeit with restrictions. These changes came into effect in 2005, so Novartis' patent application waited in a "mailbox" with others until then, under procedures that India instituted to manage the transition. India also passed certain amendments to its patent law in 2005, just before the laws came into effect. The patent application claimed the final form of Gleevec (the beta crystalline form of imatinib mesylate).:3 In 1993, ...
Qar J, Galizzi JP, Fosset M, Lazdunski M (September 1987). "Receptors for diphenylbutylpiperidine neuroleptics in brain, cardiac, and smooth muscle membranes. Relationship with receptors for 1,4-dihydropyridines and phenylalkylamines and with Ca2+ channel blockade". European Journal of Pharmacology. 141 (2): 261-8. doi:10.1016/0014-2999(87)90271-8. PMID 2445589 ...
Melis MR, Succu S, Sanna F, Melis T, Mascia MS, Enguehard-Gueiffier C, Hubner H, Gmeiner P, Gueiffier A, Argiolas A (October 2006). "PIP3EA and PD-168077, two selective dopamine D4 receptor agonists, induce penile erection in male rats: site and mechanism of action in the brain". The European Journal of Neuroscience. 24 (7): 2021-30. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2006.05043.x. PMID 17067298 ...
The present meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the magnitude of the effects of methylphenidate and amphetamine on cognitive functions central to academic and occupational functioning, including inhibitory control, working memory, short-term episodic memory, and delayed episodic memory. In addition, we examined the evidence for publication bias. Forty-eight studies (total of 1,409 participants) were included in the analyses. We found evidence for small but significant stimulant enhancement effects on inhibitory control and short-term episodic memory. Small effects on working memory reached significance, based on one of our two analytical approaches. Effects on delayed episodic memory were medium in size. However, because the effects on long-term and working memory were qualified by evidence for publication bias, we conclude that the effect of amphetamine and methylphenidate on the examined facets of healthy cognition is probably modest overall. In some situations, a small advantage may be ...
Most frequent side effects are nausea, orthostatic hypotension, headaches, and vomiting through stimulation of the brainstem vomiting centre. Vasospasms with serious consequences such as myocardial infarction and stroke that have been reported in connection with the puerperium, appear to be extremely rare events. Peripheral vasospasm (of the fingers or toes) can cause Raynaud's Phenomenon. Bromocriptine use has been anecdotally associated with causing or worsening psychotic symptoms (its mechanism is in opposition of most antipsychotics, whose mechanisms generally block dopamine). Pulmonary fibrosis has been reported when bromocriptine was used in high doses for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Use to suppress milk production after childbirth was reviewed in 2014 and it was concluded that in this context a causal association with serious cardiovascular, neurological or psychiatric events could not be excluded with an overall incidence rate estimated to range between 0.005% ...
Millan MJ, Newman-Tancredi A, Rivet JM, Brocco M, Lacroix P, Audinot V, Cistarelli L, Gobert A (1997). "S 15535, a novel benzodioxopiperazine ligand of serotonin (5-HT)1A receptors: I. Interaction with cloned human (h)5-HT1A, dopamine hD2/hD3 and h alpha2A-adrenergic receptors in relation to modulation of cortical monoamine release and activity in models of potential antidepressant activity". J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 282 (1): 132-147. PMID 9223549 ...
... (Serentil) is a piperidine neuroleptic drug belonging to the class of drugs called phenothiazines, used in the treatment of schizophrenia. It is a metabolite of thioridazine. The drug's name is derived from the methylsulfoxy and piperidine functional groups in its chemical structure. It has central antiadrenergic, antidopaminergic, antiserotonergic and weak muscarinic anticholinergic effects. Serious side effects include akathisia, tardive dyskinesia and the potentially fatal neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Mesoridazine was withdrawn from the United States market in 2004 due to dangerous side effects, namely irregular heart beat and QT-prolongation of the electrocardiogram. It currently appears to be unavailable worldwide. ...
... (MDPPP) is a stimulant designer drug. It was sold in Germany in the late 1990s and early 2000s as an ingredient in imitation ecstasy (MDMA) pills. It shares a similar chemical structure with α-PPP and MDPV, and has been shown to have reinforcing effects in rats. ...
... is used to treat a wide variety of infections, including infections of bones and joints, endocarditis, gastroenteritis, malignant otitis externa, respiratory tract infections, cellulitis, urinary tract infections, prostatitis, anthrax, and chancroid.. Ciprofloxacin only treats bacterial infections; it does not treat viral infections such as the common cold. For certain uses including acute sinusitis, lower respiratory tract infections and uncomplicated gonorrhea, ciprofloxacin is not considered a first-line agent.. Ciprofloxacin occupies an important role in treatment guidelines issued by major medical societies for the treatment of serious infections, especially those likely to be caused by Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For example, ciprofloxacin in combination with metronidazole is one of several first-line antibiotic regimens recommended by the Infectious Diseases Society of America for the treatment of community-acquired abdominal infections in ...
Brand names include Eskazinyl, Eskazine, Jatroneural, Modalina, Stelazine, Terfluzine, Trifluoperaz, Triftazin. In the United Kingdom and some other countries, trifluoperazine is sold and marketed under the brand 'Stelazine'. The drug is sold as tablet, liquid and 'Trifluoperazine-injectable USP' for deep intramuscular short-term use. GP studying pharmacological data has indicated cases of neck vertebrae irreversible fusing leading to NHS preparations being predominantly of the liquid form trifluoperazine as opposed to the tablet form as in Stela zine etc. In the past, trifluoperazine was used in fixed combinations with the MAO inhibitor (antidepressant) tranylcypromine (tranylcypromine/trifluoperazine) to attenuate the strong stimulating effects of this antidepressant. This combination was sold under the brand name Jatrosom N. Likewise a combination with amobarbital (potent sedative/hypnotic agent) for the amelioration of psychoneurosis and insomnia existed under the brand name Jalonac. In ...
... is a synthetic compound that acts as a selective antagonist on D2 dopamine receptors. Its selectivity to the cerebral D2 receptors is characterized by its respective Ki-values, which are as follows: 1.8, 3.5, 2400 and 18000 nM for D2, D3, D4 and D1 receptors respectively. It can be radiolabelled with radioisotopes, e.g. 3H or 11C and used as a tracer for in vitro imaging (autoradiography) as well as in vivo imaging positron emission tomography (PET). Images obtained by cerebral PET scanning (e.g. PET/CT or PET/MRI) allow the non-invasive assessment of the binding capacity of the cerebral D2 dopamine receptor, which can be useful for the diagnosis of movement disorders. In particular, cerebral D2 receptor binding as measured by carbon-11-raclopride (11C-raclopride) has shown to reflect disease severity of Huntington's disease, a genetical disease characterized by selective degeneration of cerebral D2 receptors. Other studies have investigated the relationship of D2 receptor ...
The common, adverse drug reactions (side effects) are the same as with other PDE5 inhibitors. The frequent vardenafil-specific side-effect is nausea; the infrequent side effects are abdominal pain, back pain, photosensitivity, abnormal vision, eye pain, facial edema, hypotension, palpitation, tachycardia, arthralgia, myalgia, rash, itch, and priapism. One possibly serious, but rare, side effect with vardenafil is heart attack. Also, in rare cases, vardenafil use may cause priapism, a very painful emergency condition that can cause impotence if left untreated. On 18 October 2007, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced that a warning about possible deafness (sudden hearing loss) would be added to the drug labels of vardenafil, and other PDE5 inhibitors. ...
In 1960 the Austrian biochemist Oleh Hornykiewicz, while at the University of Vienna, examined results of autopsies of patients who had died with Parkinson's disease. He suggested that the disease was associated with, or caused by, a reduction in the levels of dopamine in the basal ganglia of the brain. Since dopamine itself did not enter the brain, he tried treating twenty patients with a racemic mixture of dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), which could enter the brain and be converted there to dopamine by the action of DOPA decarboxylase. His results were positive, as were those of another trial in Montreal run by André Barbeau. Unfortunately, other investigators were unable to replicate these early results, and the use of DOPA remained in question until 1967, when George Cotzias at the Brookhaven National Laboratories in Upton, New York, used megadoses of DOPA, up to 16 grams per day. Not long after these results became known, Curt Porter at Merck showed that L-DOPA was the active stereoisomer, ...
CLOPENTHIXOL - UK
Clopenthixol - wikidoc
Clopenthixol (Sordinol), also known as clopentixol, is a typical antipsychotic drug of the thioxanthene class. It was ... Gravem A, Engstrand E, Guleng RJ (November 1978). "Cis(Z)-clopenthixol and clopenthixol (Sordinol) in chronic psychotic ... Clopenthixol is a racemic mixture of cis and trans isomers. Zuclopenthixol, the pure cis isomer, was later introduced by ... Thioxanthenes: Chlorprothixene • Clopenthixol • Flupentixol • Thiothixene • Zuclopenthixol; Tricyclics: Amoxapine • Butaclamol ...
Fluphenazine - Wikipedia
Category:Piperazines - Wikimedia Commons
Tropicamide- CAS Number 1508-75-4
Thiamine mononitrate Assay Standard- CAS Number 532-43-4
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment
Molecules | Free Full-Text | Current Concepts and Treatments of Schizophrenia | HTML
Anti-Psychotic Drugs: 10 Things You Should Know About Pills for Delusions and Hallucinations | HubPages
Anti-psychotic drugs are widely used within psychiatric services as a first-line treatment of schizophrenia. A review is presented of the short-term and long-term effectiveness of anti-psychotics in reducing the distress associated with hallucinations and delusions, together with a discussion about the means by which they achieve their outcomes. The wide range of negative side-effects is also listed. It is concluded that anti-psychotic drugs achieve their impact by means of a general slowing of
Patent US5413996 - Targeted drug delivery via phosphonate derivatives - Google Patents
ATC 코드 N05 - 위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전
Cinchocaine - DrugBank
Abnormal serum potassium levels and 6-month all-cause mortality in patients co-treated with antipsychotic and diuretic drugs: A...
Klopentiksol - Wikipedia
RX Psych Drugs Lookup - Mad In America
Frontiers | The Complex Relationship between Antipsychotic-Induced Weight Gain and Therapeutic Benefits: A Systematic Review...
Clozapine: Efficacy and Safety
STP : main GiPCRs
ATC code N05
WHOCC - ATC/DDD Index
Global Antipsychotic Drugs Market Analysis & Trends - Industry Forecast to 2025
220.127.116.11 Sordinol (Clopenthixol). 18.104.22.168.1 Sordinol (Clopenthixol) Market Forecast to 2025 (US$ MN). 22.214.171.124 Loxitane (Loxapine ... Table 14 Global Antipsychotic Drugs Market By Sordinol (Clopenthixol), Market Forecast (2014-2025) (US $MN). Table 15 Global ...
NCBI ROFL: Voodoo allergy cure fail. - Discoblog : Discoblog
PPT - SEDATIVE-HIPNOTICE PowerPoint Presentation - ID:209321
Psychopharmacology and adverse effects of antipsychotic long-acting injections: a review | The British Journal of Psychiatry
Clopenthixol and flupenthixol depot preparations in outpatient schizophrenics. III. Serum levels. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl ... Blood and plasma kinetics of cis(Z)-clopenthixol and fluphenazine in psychiatric patients after intramuscular injection of ... Ahlfors UG, Dencker SJ, Gravem A, Remvig J. Clopenthixol decanoate and perphenazine enanthate in schizophrenic patients. A ...
Table of Contents - July 01, 1968, 114 (512) | The British Journal of Psychiatry
Application # 2017/0239427. A SYRINGE SHOCK ABSORBER FOR USE IN AN INJECTION DEVICE - Patents.com
Classic case: Psychiatric treatment of ghost possession - Mind Hacks
Hale and Pinninti entitled their article Exorcism-resistant ghost possession treated with Clopenthixol. It discusses the case ... Can exorcism and ghost possession be incorporated into the same paradigm of illness that clopenthixol claims to treat ? ... By juxtaposing ghost possession and exorcism-resistance with clopenthixol, and by equating folk explanations with superstition ...
- Compare follicle-stimulating hormone level and also applied drugs that the conventional biological contaminants e.chlorprothixene, clopenthixol, centbutandol, molindone teh recurrent convulsions, blood vessels. (rainierfruit.com)
- It displays high affinity for phenothiazines and related structures such as perphenazine, clopenthixol, and flupenthixol, whose potencies are comparable to that of opipramol. (aspetjournals.org)
- Thioxanthenes: [ex: flupenthixol, clopenthixol] Flupenthixol is use by blocking postsynaptic dopamine receptors in the brain and they also produce an alpha adrenergic blocking effect and depress release of hypothalamic and hypophyseal hormones. (advancejournals.org)
- It was demonstrated that clopenthixol is about twice as potent as chlorpromazine (CPZ) and levomepromazine-maleate is about half as potent as CPZ, measured by the inhibitory effect on the growth of the mycobacterial strains. (semanticscholar.org)
- Assay methodology for several thioxanthenes (see Fig. 1), e.g. zuclopenthixol [the cis(Z)-isomer of clopenthixol], present in serum at levels down to 1 ng/ml or even less. (springer.com)
- Existe incertidumbre sobre el efecto del zuclopenthixol frente a haloperidol en los scores globales de estado mental, el zuclopenthixol no podria no asociarse con eventos adversos evaluados. (bvsalud.org)
- Two Double-Blind Trials with Cis (Z)-Clopenthixol Decanoate and a Discontinuation Study. (zubalbooks.com)
- Both drugs are equally effective as antipsychotics and have similar adverse effect profiles, but clopenthixol is half as active on a milligram-to-milligram basis and appears to produce more sedation in comparison. (wikidoc.org)
- NCBI ROFL: Exorcism-resistant ghost possession treated with clopenthixol. (discovermagazine.com)
- Hale and Pinninti entitled their article Exorcism-resistant ghost possession treated with Clopenthixol . (mindhacks.com)
- By juxtaposing ghost possession and exorcism-resistance with clopenthixol, and by equating folk explanations with superstition, one comes face to face with questions that lie at the heart of culturally sensitive psychiatry and public health. (mindhacks.com)
- Clopenthixol is a racemic mixture of cis and trans isomers . (wikidoc.org)