A thioxanthene with therapeutic actions similar to the phenothiazine antipsychotics. It is an antagonist at D1 and D2 dopamine receptors.
Compounds containing dibenzo-1,4-thiazine. Some of them are neuroactive.

A double blind comparison of zuclopenthixol acetate with haloperidol in the management of acutely disturbed schizophrenics. (1/11)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of zuclopenthixol acetate compared with haloperidol in the management of the acutely disturbed schizophrenic patient. Suitable subjects diagnosed as having schizophreniform disorder or acute exacerbation of schizophrenia admitted to the psychiatric wards Hospital Kuala Lumpur were randomised to receive either zuclopenthixol acetate or haloperidol. They were rated blind for three consecutive days using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Clinical Global Impression (CGI) and UKU Side Effects Scale. Apart from repeat injections of the same medication, no other anti-psychotic was given for the duration of the study. 50 subjects entered the study of which 44 completed. 23 were given zuclopenthixol acetate and 21 haloperidol. Both groups significantly reduced BPRS and CGI scores on all 3 days compared to the initial rating (p < 0.001). There was however no difference between the zuclopenthixol acetate and haloperidol group scores on all days (p > 0.05). More subjects on haloperidol than zuclopenthixol required more than 1 injection during the study. Both groups had minimal side effects. Zuclopenthixol acetate was effective in the management of the acutely disturbed schizophrenic.  (+info)

The interaction of neuroleptic and muscarinic agents with central dopaminergic systems. (2/11)

1. The effect of muscarinic and neuroleptic agents on the turning behaviour induced by methamphetamine and apomorphine in rats with unilateral lesions of the substantia nigra induced by 6-hydroxydopamine has been examined. 2. Turning towards the side of the lesion induced by (+)-methamphetamine (5 mg/kg) was inhibited by alpha-flupenthixol (1 mg/kg) and alpha-clopenthixol (8 mg/kg) but not by high doses of their beta-isomers. 3. Turning was inhibited by chlorpromazine (4 mg/kg) and pimozide (0.2 mg/kg). Thioridazine and clozapine (16 mg/kg) were ineffective. Turning in the same direction produced by scopolamine (10 mg/kg) was also inhibited by alpha-flupenthixol (1 mg/kg) and pimozide (0.25 mg/kg). 4. Turning produced by methamphetamine (5 mg/kg) was inhibited by oxotremorine (0.75 mg/kg) even in the presence of methylatropine (5 mg/kg). 5. Turning away from the side of the lesion induced by apomorphine (0.1 mg/kg) was inhibited by oxotremorine (0.75 mg/kg) but not by thioridazine or clozapine (16 mg/kg). 6. These results are discussed with regard to the mode of action of neuroleptic drugs in producing anti-psychotic effects and drug-induced Parkinsonism.  (+info)

Concentrations of cis(Z)-clopenthixol and trans(E)-clopenthixol in a lethal case involving zuclopenthixol, diazepam, and cyamemazine. (3/11)

cis(Z)-Clopenthixol and trans(E)-clopenthixol were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detection in necropic samples from a postmortem case. The peripheral blood concentrations of cis(Z)-clopenthixol and trans(E)-clopenthixol were 278 and 177 ng/mL, respectively. The level of the active cis(Z)-isomer is within the toxic range. Other associated drugs' concentrations were within their therapeutic ranges. Postmortem redistribution of the drug and instability of the drug due to trans-isomerization were discussed.  (+info)

Flow-injection chemiluminometric determination of some thioxanthene derivatives in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids using the [Ru(dipy)3(2+)]-Ce(IV) system. (4/11)

A flow-injection (FI) methodology using tris(2,2'-dipyridyl)ruthenium(II), [Ru(dipy)3(2+)], chemiluminescence (CL) was developed for the rapid and sensitive determination of three thioxanthene derivatives, namely zuclopenthixol hydrochloride, flupentixol hydrochloride and thiothixene. The method is based on the CL reaction of the studied thioxanthenes with [Ru(dipy)3(2+)] and Ce(IV) in a sulfuric acid medium. Under the optimum conditions, calibration graphs were obtained over the concentration ranges 0.002-6 migrograms/ml for zuclopenthixol hydrochloride, 0.5-15 micrograms/ml for flupentixol hydrochloride and 0.05-7.5 micrograms/ml for thiothixene. The limits of detection (s/n = 3) were 4.2 x 10(-9) mol/l zuclopenthixol hydrochloride, 2 x 10(-8) mol/l flupentixol hydrochloride and 4.5 x 10(-8) mol/l thiothixene. The method was successfully applied to the determination of these compounds in dosage forms and biological fluids.  (+info)

Comparison of analgesic techniques for antler removal in wapiti. (5/11)

The purpose of this research was to compare the effectiveness of ring block anesthesia (LA) and electroanesthesia (A) for antler removal in elk given a long-acting tranquilizer to remove stress from restraint. Thirty-two male wapiti were given 1 mg/kg body weight of zuclopenthixol acetate; the next day, they were restrained in a hydraulic chute, provided with electroanesthesia or a lidocaine ring block, and had their antlers removed. Behavioral response to antler removal was scored. Significantly more (P = 0.032) animals responded to antler removal in the EA group. Heart rates and arterial pressures were measured by a catheter connected to a physiological monitor. Heart rate increased significantly over time with EA, but not with LA. Heart rate increased from baseline significantly more in the EA group immediately prior to antler removal (P = 0.017), immediately post antler removal (P = 0.001), and at 1 min post antler removal (P = 0.037). It was concluded that EA is not as effective a method of anesthesia as is LA for antler removal.  (+info)

Rapid tranquillisation: time for a reappraisal of options for parenteral therapy. (6/11)

BACKGROUND: When parenteral treatments are indicated for acutely disturbed behaviour, previous guidelines have recommended droperidol or haloperidol in combination with benzodiazepines. However, there has been recent concern over cardiotoxicity and sudden death associated with some antipsychotic medication and droperidol has now been withdrawn. AIMS: To ascertain what alternatives can be recommended to replace intramuscular droperidol. METHOD: Selective review of current guidelines and the literature pertaining to rapid parenteral tranquillisation. RESULTS: Current guidelines recommend haloperidol as an alternative to droperidol. There is evidence of cardiotoxicity with haloperidol and it has a propensity to cause extrapyramidal side-effects that may exacerbate disturbed behaviour and reduce longer-term compliance. The rapid-acting intramuscular formulations of atypical antipsychotic agents show promise. CONCLUSIONS: It is recommended that the mainstay of pharmacological rapid tranquillisation should be parenteral benzodiazepines used with due care.  (+info)

Zuclopenthixol in adults with intellectual disabilities and aggressive behaviours: discontinuation study. (7/11)

We investigated the effects of zuclopenthixol on aggressive behaviour in patients with intellectual disabilities by randomly withdrawing it after a 6-week period of open treatment. Of the 49 patients responding to the treatment, 39 took part in a randomised withdrawal trial. The placebo subgroup (n=20) showed more aggressive behaviour as indicated by outcomes observed by external raters on the Modified Overt Aggression Scale than did the continuing subgroup (n=19). The results indicate that discontinuation of zuclopenthixolin this population leads to an increase in aggressive behaviour.  (+info)

Fatal exertional heat stroke in a patient receiving zuclopenthixol, quetiapine and benztropine. (8/11)

OBJECTIVE: To report a case of fatal exertional heat stroke associated with the use of zuclopenthixol, quetiapine and benztropine. CASE SUMMARY: A 36-year-old male with a history of schizophrenia and bipolar disease was working as a roofer during the third day of a heat wave. His medications included zuclopenthixol, quetiapine, benztropine, carbamazepine and levothyroxine. He developed loss of consciousness late in the day and presented to hospital with a Glasgow Coma Scale 3 and a rectal temperature of 42.2 degrees C. He progressed to severe multiple organ dysfunction and asystole, and expired the following morning. Neuroleptic and anticholinergic agents have long been associated with heat alteration, but there are few reports involving the newer antipsychotic agents. Physicians and pharmacists should ensure that appropriate counseling is given to patients receiving these medications regarding early recognition of signs and symptoms and prompt treatment of heat related illness and heat stroke.  (+info)

Clopenthixol is a type of antipsychotic medication that is primarily used to manage and treat symptoms associated with various mental health disorders, such as schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. It belongs to a class of drugs known as "typical" or "first-generation" antipsychotics, which work by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain.

Clopenthixol has potent activity at both dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2 receptors, which contributes to its efficacy in treating positive symptoms of schizophrenia, such as hallucinations and delusions, as well as negative symptoms, like apathy and social withdrawal. It is also used off-label for the treatment of agitation and aggression in individuals with dementia or intellectual disabilities.

The medication is available in two forms: immediate-release tablets (Clopenthixol decanoate) and a long-acting injectable form (Clopenthixol decanoate). The long-acting injection is typically administered every 2-4 weeks, while the oral tablet is taken daily.

Like all medications, clopenthixol can have side effects, which may include extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), such as Parkinsonism, akathisia, and dystonia; weight gain; metabolic changes; sexual dysfunction; and cardiovascular issues. It is essential to monitor patients taking clopenthixol for these potential adverse effects and adjust the treatment plan accordingly.

It's important to note that clopenthixol should only be prescribed and administered under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, and patients should follow their instructions carefully to ensure safe and effective use.

Phenothiazines are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds that contain a phenothiazine nucleus, which consists of a pair of benzene rings fused to a thiazine ring. They have been widely used in medicine as antipsychotic drugs for the treatment of various mental disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

Phenothiazines work by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps to reduce the symptoms of psychosis such as hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking. They also have sedative and antiemetic (anti-nausea) effects. However, they can cause a range of side effects including extrapyramidal symptoms (involuntary muscle movements), tardive dyskinesia (irreversible movement disorder), and neuroleptic malignant syndrome (a rare but potentially fatal reaction to antipsychotic drugs).

Examples of phenothiazine drugs include chlorpromazine, thioridazine, and promethazine. While they have been largely replaced by newer atypical antipsychotics, phenothiazines are still used in some cases due to their lower cost and effectiveness in treating certain symptoms.

... (Sordinol), also known as clopentixol, is a typical antipsychotic drug of the thioxanthene class. It was ... ISBN 978-3-527-31058-6. Gravem A, Engstrand E, Guleng RJ (November 1978). "Cis(Z)-clopenthixol and clopenthixol (Sordinol) in ... Clopenthixol is a mixture of cis and trans isomers. Zuclopenthixol, the pure cis isomer, was later introduced by Lundbeck in ... Clopenthixol at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e (Articles with short description, ...
Clopenthixol • Chlorpromazine • Chlorprothixene • Droperidol • Flupentixol • Fluphenazine • Fluspirilene • Haloperidol • ...
Analogues include chlorprothixene, clopenthixol, flupentixol, and zuclopenthixol. Anvisa (2023-03-31). "RDC Nº 784 - Listas de ...
34 (1): 1-6. Jørgensen A, Overø KF (1980). "Clopenthixol and flupenthixol depot preparations in outpatient schizophrenics. III ...
34 (1): 1-6. Jørgensen A, Overø KF (1980). "Clopenthixol and flupenthixol depot preparations in outpatient schizophrenics. III ...
34 (1): 1-6. Jørgensen A, Overø KF (1980). "Clopenthixol and flupenthixol depot preparations in outpatient schizophrenics. III ...
34 (1): 1-6. Jørgensen A, Overø KF (1980). "Clopenthixol and flupenthixol depot preparations in outpatient schizophrenics. III ...
34 (1): 1-6. Jørgensen A, Overø KF (1980). "Clopenthixol and flupenthixol depot preparations in outpatient schizophrenics. III ...
34 (1): 1-6. Jørgensen A, Overø KF (1980). "Clopenthixol and flupenthixol depot preparations in outpatient schizophrenics. III ...
34 (1): 1-6. Jørgensen A, Overø KF (1980). "Clopenthixol and flupenthixol depot preparations in outpatient schizophrenics. III ...
34 (1): 1-6. Jørgensen A, Overø KF (1980). "Clopenthixol and flupenthixol depot preparations in outpatient schizophrenics. III ...
34 (1): 1-6. Jørgensen A, Overø KF (1980). "Clopenthixol and flupenthixol depot preparations in outpatient schizophrenics. III ...
Bromperidol decanoate Clopentixol decanoate Flupentixol decanoate Fluphenazine decanoate Fluphenazine enanthate Haloperidol ... 34 (1): 1-6. Jørgensen A, Overø KF (1980). "Clopenthixol and flupenthixol depot preparations in outpatient schizophrenics. III ...
34 (1): 1-6. Jørgensen A, Overø KF (1980). "Clopenthixol and flupenthixol depot preparations in outpatient schizophrenics. III ... It is used as an oil vehicle for several depot antipsychotics including clopentixol decanoate, flupentixol decanoate, ...
34 (1): 1-6. Jørgensen A, Overø KF (1980). "Clopenthixol and flupenthixol depot preparations in outpatient schizophrenics. III ...
34 (1): 1-6. Jørgensen A, Overø KF (1980). "Clopenthixol and flupenthixol depot preparations in outpatient schizophrenics. III ...
34 (1): 1-6. Jørgensen A, Overø KF (1980). "Clopenthixol and flupenthixol depot preparations in outpatient schizophrenics. III ...
34 (1): 1-6. Jørgensen A, Overø KF (1980). "Clopenthixol and flupenthixol depot preparations in outpatient schizophrenics. III ...
34 (1): 1-6. Jørgensen A, Overø KF (1980). "Clopenthixol and flupenthixol depot preparations in outpatient schizophrenics. III ...
34 (1): 1-6. Jørgensen A, Overø KF (1980). "Clopenthixol and flupenthixol depot preparations in outpatient schizophrenics. III ...
34 (1): 1-6. Jørgensen A, Overø KF (1980). "Clopenthixol and flupenthixol depot preparations in outpatient schizophrenics. III ...
It is the cis-isomer of clopenthixol (Sordinol, Ciatyl). Clopenthixol was introduced in 1961, while zuclopenthixol was ...
Chlorpromazine binds D3 with the highest affinity, but also binds D1, D2, D4 and D5 Clopenthixol Droperidol is used as an ...
... clopenthixol, chlorprothixene, flupentixol, thiothixene, zuclopenthixol Tricyclic and piperidine: pimethixene, cyproheptadine ...
... clopenthixol MeSH D03.494.953.704.360 - flupenthixol MeSH D03.494.953.704.450 - hycanthone MeSH D03.494.953.704.500 - ...
Clopenthixol (Sordinol) Flupenthixol (Depixol, Fluanxol) Thiothixene (Navane) Zuclopenthixol (Cisordinol, Clopixol, Acuphase) ...
... clopenthixol (INN) cloperastine (INN) cloperidone (INN) clopidogrel (INN) clopidol (INN) clopimozide (INN) clopipazan (INN) ...
The molecular formula C22H25ClN2OS (molar mass: 400.96 g/mol) may refer to: Clopenthixol, a typical antipsychotic drug ...
Bromperidol decanoate Clopenthixol decanoate Flupentixol decanoate Flupentixol palmitate Fluphenazine decanoate Fluphenazine ...
Oxypertine N05AE02 Molindone N05AE03 Sertindole N05AE04 Ziprasidone N05AE05 Lurasidone N05AF01 Flupentixol N05AF02 Clopenthixol ...

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