Infection of the biliary passages with CLONORCHIS SINENSIS, also called Opisthorchis sinensis. It may lead to inflammation of the biliary tract, proliferation of biliary epithelium, progressive portal fibrosis, and sometimes bile duct carcinoma. Extension to the liver may lead to fatty changes and cirrhosis. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A species of trematode flukes of the family Opisthorchidae. Many authorities consider this genus belonging to Opisthorchis. It is common in China and other Asiatic countries. Snails and fish are the intermediate hosts.
A family of intestinal flukes of the class Trematoda which occurs in animals and man. Some of the genera are Heterophyes, Metagonimus, Cryptocotyle, Stellantchasmus, and Euryhelmis.
An anthelmintic used in most schistosome and many cestode infestations.
Agents used to treat cestode, trematode, or other flatworm infestations in man or animals.
A genus of lung flukes of the family Troglotrematidae infecting humans and animals. This genus consists of several species one of which is PARAGONIMUS WESTERMANI, a common lung fluke in humans.
Determination of parasite eggs in feces.
Encysted cercaria which house the intermediate stages of trematode parasites in tissues of an intermediate host.
Infections caused by infestation with worms of the class Trematoda.
The presence of parasites in food and food products. For the presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food, FOOD MICROBIOLOGY is available.
Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.
Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.
The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)
An imaging test of the BILIARY TRACT in which a contrast dye (RADIOPAQUE MEDIA) is injected into the BILE DUCT and x-ray pictures are taken.
Aquatic invertebrates belonging to the phylum MOLLUSCA or the subphylum CRUSTACEA, and used as food.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Long-lasting sonographic and histopathological findings in cured clonorchiasis of rabbits. (1/113)

To ascertain residual sonographic and histopathological findings of clonorchiasis after treatment, the present study evaluated sonographic findings in rabbits which were infected with 500 metacercariae of C. sinensis every 6 months for 18 months after treatment with praziquantel. The sonographic findings were analyzed in terms of intrahepatic bile duct dilatation and periductal echogenicity, and histopathological findings were observed after the last sonographic examination. Compared with the sonographic findings before treatment, dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts became mild to some degree in four of the seven cases and increased periductal echogenicity resolved in four of them. The histopathological specimens after 18 months showed that periductal inflammation has almost resolved but moderate dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts and mucosal hyperplasia persisted. The periductal fibrosis minimally resolved. The long-lasting sonographic findings in cured clonorchiasis make sonography less specific.  (+info)

Case studies in international medicine. (2/113)

Family physicians in the United States are increasingly called on to manage the complex clinical problems of newly arrived immigrants and refugees. Case studies and discussions are provided in this article to update physicians on the diagnosis and management of potentially unfamiliar ailments, including strongyloidiasis, hookworm infection, cysticercosis, clonorchiasis and tropical pancreatitis. Albendazole and ivermectin, two important drugs in the treatment of some worm infections, are now available in the United States.  (+info)

Little effect of praziquantel or artemisinin on clonorchiasis in Northern Vietnam. A pilot study. (3/113)

The first choice for treatment of Clonorchis sinensis infections is praziquantel. Experimental data suggest that artemisinin derivatives are active against C. sinensis. The efficacy of both drugs against clonorchiasis was evaluated in a pilot study in clonorchiasis patients in an endemic area in the North of Vietnam. Twenty-one patients received praziquantel 25 mg/kg o.d. for three days, the regular regimen in that area, and 21 patients were treated with artemisinin 500 mg b.i.d. for 5 days. Faecal egg counts were performed before as well as 6 days and 5 weeks after treatment. In the praziquantel group the faecal egg count decreased significantly from a mean value of 1632 eggs per gram faeces (epg) to 37 epg 5 weeks after treatment (P < 0.01) but, surprisingly, the eradication rate (95% confidence limit) at week 5 was only 29% (11-52%). In the artemisinin-treated group the reduction of the egg count was insignificant: from 1103 to 542 epg (P > 0.05). The proportion of patients (95% c.l.) with C. sinensis eggs in their stool on week 5 was 90% (70-99%) in the artemisinin group and 71% (48-89%) in the praziquantel group (P > 0.05) and the eradication rate (95% c.l.) at week 5 was only 10% (1-30%). With a sensitivity of detection of eggs in stool > 0.89, this implies a statistically significant but clinically unsatisfactory reduction for treatment with praziquantel. Sensitivity is probably less. For artemisinin there was no significant reduction. In conclusion, for human clonorchiasis in the North of Vietnam, the efficacy of praziquantel 25 mg/kg o.d. for 3 days was unsatisfactory and artemisinin for 5 days is not an effective alternative.  (+info)

Usefulness of IgG4 subclass antibodies for diagnosis of human clonorchiasis. (4/113)

The present study analyzed serum IgG subclass antibody reaction to major antigenic bands of Clonorchis sinensis to investigate improvement of its serodiagnosis. Of the four subclass antibodies, IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies were produced but not specific, IgG3 antibody was least produced, and IgG4 antibody was prominent and specific. The serum IgG antibody reaction to any of 43-50, 34-37, 26-28, and 8 kDa bands was found in 65.5% of 168 egg positive cases while IgG4 antibody reaction was found in 22.0% of them. The positive rates of IgG and IgG4 antibodies were directly correlated with the intensity of infection. All of the sera from heavily infected cases over EPG 5,000 showed positive reaction for specific IgG and IgG4 antibodies. The specific serum IgG4 antibody disappeared within 6 months after treatment. The bands of 35 kDa and 67 kDa cross-reacted with IgG antibodies but not with IgG4 antibodies in sera of other trematode infections. The present findings suggest that serum IgG4 antibody reaction to 8 kDa band is specific but not sensitive. Any method to increase its sensitivity is required for improved serodiagnosis.  (+info)

Infection status with trematode metacercariae in pond smelts, Hypomesus olidus. (5/113)

Many Koreans usually eat raw pond smelts, Hypomesus olidus, in the winter. This study was performed to evaluate the infection status with trematode metacercariae in pond smelts from January 1998 through February 1999. Among 1,305 fish collected, 459 were purchased from wholesale dealers in Chinchon-gun, Chungchongbuk-do, and the rest of them were caught with a casting net in Soyangho (Lake), Taehoman (Bay) and Paekkokchosuchi (Pond). Seven species of trematode metacercariae including two unidentified ones were detected from 1,305 pond smelts. The number of detected trematode metacercariae according to the species are as follow: Clonorchis sinensis 8, Holostephanus nipponicus 7, Cyathocotyle orientalis 24, Diplostomum sp. 14, and Metorchis orientalis 7. From the above results, it was confirmed that H. olidus plays a role as the second intermediate host of some kinds of trematode including C. sinensis in Korea. Our report shows possible clonorchiasis caused by eating raw pond smelts.  (+info)

Differentiation of hamster liver oval cell following Clonorchis sinensis infection. (6/113)

Oval cells which appear in the liver after hepatic injuries are suspected to be progenitor cells for both hepatocytes and bile duct cells. Oval cell isolated from the livers of the hamsters treated with diethylnitrosamine and 2-acetylaminofluorene and infected with Clonorchis sinensis (CS). cultured for 2 weeks and evaluated for differentiation and plasticity by electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. In the CS-uninfected group, glycogen granules and peroxisomes were noted in the cells that were cultured for 2 weeks. Starting at 1 week postculture, immunoreactivity of the cells to cytokeratin 19 markedly decreased but that to albumin and alpha-fetoprotein gradually increased. This means that oval cells isolated from hamsters that were not infected with CS differentiated toward hepatocyte lineage. However, in the CS-infected group, cultured cells contained numerous rough endoplasmic reticulum and showed immunoreactivity that was generally in reverse to that of CS-uninfected group, meaning that cells isolated following CS infection were primed by CS and differentiated toward bile duct cell lineage. The results of this study suggested that oval cells are indeed bipolar progenitor cells for hepatocytes and bile duct cells and can differentiate toward either lineage depending upon the priming factor.  (+info)

Infectivity and pathological changes in murine clonorchiasis: comparison in immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice. (7/113)

The main complications of clonorchiasis are periportal inflammation, biliary hyperplasia, periductal fibrosis, and subsequently the development of biliary tumors in the liver. This study was undertaken to compare the infectivity and histopathologic changes between in immunocompetent FVB/NJ and BALB/cA strains, and immunodeficient severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) and athymic nude mice after the metacercariae of Clonorchis (C.) sinensis were infected. The experiment showed that C. sinensis was very infective in all strains studies, but the status of worm development, infectivity, recovery rate, and morphological changes of livers were very different in each strain. FVB/NJ mice showed more worm recovery than any other strain. Histopathologically the liver of FVB/NJ mice at 4 weeks postinfection showed marked cystic and fibrotic changes, in which C. sinensis was fully developed with ovum production, severe infiltration of inflammatory cells, mostly eosinophils, and high degrees of biliary hyperplasia. In SCID and nude mice, there were few foci of inflammatory cells even at 8 weeks postinfection in periportal areas of the liver, associated with no development into adult worm with ovum production. Fibrosis occurring at 4 weeks postinfection was highly correlated with inflammatory infiltration when each strain was compared. We suggest that massive infiltration of eosinophil and plasma cells caused by the infection might initiate cystic formation and fibrosis. These data demonstrate that the infection of C. sinensis might be related to pathologic consequences of inflammatory cell infiltration, cystic formation and fibrosis which might play a role in the defense mechanism against the parasitism in the liver of each strain. The FVB/NJ mouse model might be very helpful in elucidating the mechanism for human clonorchiasis.  (+info)

Cystatin capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serodiagnosis of human clonorchiasis and profile of captured antigenic protein of Clonorchis sinensis. (8/113)

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with crude extracts of adult Clonorchis sinensis has been reported to have a high degree of sensitivity with a moderate degree of specificity for the serodiagnosis of clonorchiasis. The cystatin capture ELISA was investigated for its usefulness for the serodiagnosis of human clonorchiasis. Cystatin bound specifically to cysteine proteinases in crude extracts of adult C. sinensis worms, and its binding capacity was not hindered competitively by the other proteinase inhibitors tested. The cystatin capture ELISA for clonorchiasis showed a higher degree of specificity than the conventional ELISA, which produced some cross-reactivities to sera from patients with cysticercosis, sparganosis, and opisthorchiasis. Immunoglobulin G antibodies to C. sinensis cysteine proteinases were produced in experimental rabbits at week 3, and their levels increased rapidly and remained at a plateau after 8 weeks of infection. Of the proteins from the C. sinensis crude extract captured with cystatin, seven proteins were reactive with the serum from patients with clonorchiasis. The cystatin capture ELISA is indicated to be a sensitive and highly specific immunodiagnostic assay for serodiagnosis of human clonorchiasis.  (+info)

Clonorchiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the trematode worm Clonorchis sinensis, also known as the Chinese liver fluke. This flatworm infects the bile ducts and liver of humans and other animals, leading to inflammation, obstruction, and potential complications such as cholangitis, cirrhosis, and cholangiocarcinoma (bile duct cancer).

Humans become infected with Clonorchis sinensis by consuming raw or undercooked freshwater fish that contain metacercariae, the infective larval stage of the parasite. The larvae excyst in the small intestine and migrate to the bile ducts, where they mature into adult worms and reproduce. Eggs are released into the stool and can contaminate water sources if proper sanitation is not maintained.

Symptoms of clonorchiasis may include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and liver enlargement. In severe cases, patients may experience jaundice, ascites (fluid accumulation in the abdomen), and weight loss. Diagnosis is typically made by detecting eggs in stool samples or identifying the parasite in biopsied tissue. Treatment involves administering anthelmintic drugs such as praziquantel to eliminate the infection. Preventive measures include avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked fish and maintaining good hygiene practices.

Clonorchis sinensis is a tiny parasitic flatworm, also known as the Chinese liver fluke. It belongs to the class Trematoda and the family Opisthorchiidae. This parasite infects the bile ducts of humans and other animals, causing a disease called clonorchiasis.

Humans become infected with C. sinensis by consuming raw or undercooked freshwater fish that carry the parasite's larvae. Once inside the human body, the larvae migrate to the bile ducts and mature into adult flukes, which can live for several years. The presence of these flukes in the bile ducts can cause inflammation, obstruction, and scarring, leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, jaundice, and liver damage.

Preventing clonorchiasis involves avoiding the consumption of raw or undercooked freshwater fish, particularly in areas where the parasite is endemic. Proper cooking and freezing of fish can kill the larvae and prevent infection. In addition, improving sanitation and hygiene practices can help reduce the spread of the parasite from infected individuals to others.

Heterophyidae is a family of small intestinal fluke parasites, which are trematodes. These parasites have a complex life cycle involving one or two intermediate hosts, usually snails and fish, before infecting the definitive host - a mammal, bird, or reptile. The most common species that infect humans include Heterophyes heterophyes, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Haplorchis taichui.

Human infection typically occurs through the consumption of raw or undercooked fish containing metacercariae (the infective stage). Once ingested, the metacercariae excyst in the small intestine, where they mature into adults and attach to the intestinal wall. The adult flukes are relatively small, usually less than 2 mm in length, and feed on blood and tissue fluids from the host's intestinal mucosa.

Light infections may be asymptomatic or cause mild gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, or vomiting. Heavy infections can lead to more severe complications, including intestinal obstruction, malabsorption, and anemia due to blood loss. In some cases, the infection may disseminate to other organs, causing extraintestinal manifestations such as hepatomegaly (enlarged liver), splenomegaly (enlarged spleen), or pulmonary symptoms if larvae migrate to the lungs.

Prevention of heterophyidiasis involves avoiding the consumption of raw or undercooked fish, especially in endemic areas. Proper cooking and freezing techniques can effectively kill metacercariae and prevent infection. Infected individuals should receive appropriate medical treatment with anti-parasitic drugs such as praziquantel to eliminate the parasites and alleviate symptoms.

Praziquantel is an anthelmintic medication, which is used to treat and prevent trematode (fluke) infections, including schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia or snail fever), clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, paragonimiasis, and fasciolopsiasis. It works by causing severe spasms in the muscle cells of the parasites, ultimately leading to their death. Praziquantel is available in tablet form and is typically taken orally in a single dose, although the dosage may vary depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

It's important to note that praziquantel is not effective against tapeworm infections, and other medications such as niclosamide or albendazole are used instead for those infections. Also, Praziquantel should be taken under medical supervision, as it may have some side effects, including abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and headache.

It's important to consult a healthcare professional before taking any medication.

Antiplatyhelmintic agents are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by parasitic flatworms, also known as platyhelminths. These include tapeworms, flukes, and other types of flatworms that can infect various organs of the body, such as the intestines, liver, lungs, and blood vessels.

Antiplatyhelmintic agents work by disrupting the metabolism or reproductive processes of the parasitic worms, leading to their elimination from the body. Some commonly used antiplatyhelmintic agents include praziquantel, niclosamide, and albendazole.

It is important to note that while these medications can be effective in treating platyhelminth infections, they should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as improper use or dosage can lead to serious side effects or treatment failures.

"Paragonimus" is a genus of lung flukes, which are parasitic flatworms that infect the lungs of humans and other mammals. The most common species that infect humans is Paragonimus westermani, also known as the oriental lung fluke.

Humans become infected with these parasites by eating raw or undercooked freshwater crustaceans (such as crabs or crayfish) that harbor the larval stage of the fluke. Once ingested, the larvae migrate from the intestines to the lungs, where they develop into adults and produce eggs. These eggs are coughed up and swallowed, and then passed in the feces. If the eggs reach fresh water, they hatch into miracidia, which infect snails, the first intermediate host.

Inside the snail, the parasites multiply asexually, and then emerge as cercariae, which encyst on the surface of crustaceans. When a human or another mammalian host eats the infected crustacean, the life cycle continues.

Paragonimiasis, the disease caused by Paragonimus infection, can lead to symptoms such as cough, chest pain, fever, and shortness of breath. In severe cases, it can cause lung damage and other complications.

A "Parasite Egg Count" is a laboratory measurement used to estimate the number of parasitic eggs present in a fecal sample. It is commonly used in veterinary and human medicine to diagnose and monitor parasitic infections, such as those caused by roundworms, hookworms, tapeworms, and other intestinal helminths (parasitic worms).

The most common method for measuring parasite egg counts is the McMaster technique. This involves mixing a known volume of feces with a flotation solution, which causes the eggs to float to the top of the mixture. A small sample of this mixture is then placed on a special counting chamber and examined under a microscope. The number of eggs present in the sample is then multiplied by a dilution factor to estimate the total number of eggs per gram (EPG) of feces.

Parasite egg counts can provide valuable information about the severity of an infection, as well as the effectiveness of treatment. However, it is important to note that not all parasitic infections produce visible eggs in the feces, and some parasites may only shed eggs intermittently. Therefore, a negative egg count does not always rule out the presence of a parasitic infection.

Metacercariae are the encysted, infective stage of certain trematode (flatworm) parasites, such as those that cause intestinal schistosomiasis and fascioliasis. They form following a series of developmental stages within intermediate hosts like snails, fish, or crustaceans. Once ingested by the definitive host (usually a mammal), metacercariae excyst in the digestive tract and migrate to their target organs, where they mature into adults and reproduce.

Trematode infections, also known as trematodiasis or fluke infections, are parasitic diseases caused by various species of flatworms called trematodes. These parasites have an indirect life cycle involving one or two intermediate hosts (such as snails or fish) and a definitive host (usually a mammal or bird).

Humans can become accidentally infected when they consume raw or undercooked aquatic plants, animals, or contaminated water that contains the larval stages of these parasites. The most common trematode infections affecting humans include:

1. Schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia): Caused by several species of blood flukes (Schistosoma spp.). Adult worms live in the blood vessels, and their eggs can cause inflammation and damage to various organs, such as the liver, intestines, bladder, or lungs.
2. Liver flukes: Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica are common liver fluke species that infect humans through contaminated watercress or other aquatic plants. These parasites can cause liver damage, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and eosinophilia (elevated eosinophil count in the blood).
3. Lung flukes: Paragonimus spp. are lung fluke species that infect humans through consumption of raw or undercooked crustaceans. These parasites can cause coughing, chest pain, and bloody sputum.
4. Intestinal flukes: Various species of intestinal flukes (e.g., Haplorchis spp., Metagonimus yokogawai) infect humans through consumption of raw or undercooked fish. These parasites can cause abdominal pain, diarrhea, and eosinophilia.
5. Eye fluke: The oriental eye fluke (Drepanotrema spp.) can infect the human eye through contaminated water. It can cause eye inflammation, corneal ulcers, and vision loss.

Prevention measures include avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked aquatic plants, animals, and their products; practicing good hygiene; and treating drinking water to kill parasites. Treatment typically involves administering anthelmintic drugs such as praziquantel, albendazole, or mebendazole, depending on the specific fluke species involved.

Food parasitology is not a commonly used term in medical or scientific communities. However, it generally refers to the study of parasites that are transmitted through food, including parasitic protozoa, helminths (worms), and arthropods (e.g., tapeworms, roundworms, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, etc.). Food parasitology involves understanding the life cycles, epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these foodborne parasites. It is an important field within medical and veterinary parasitology, as well as food safety and public health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Korea" is not a medical term. It refers to a region in East Asia that is divided into two distinct sovereign states: North Korea (officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea) and South Korea (officially the Republic of Korea).

If you're looking for medical terms, I'd be happy to help. Could you please provide more context?

Anthelmintics are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by parasitic worms, also known as helminths. These medications work by either stunting the growth of the worms, paralyzing them, or killing them outright, allowing the body to expel the worms through normal bodily functions. Anthelmintics are commonly used to treat infections caused by roundworms, tapeworms, flukeworms, and hookworms. Examples of anthelmintic drugs include albendazole, mebendazole, praziquantel, and ivermectin.

Helminth antigens refer to the proteins or other molecules found on the surface or within helminth parasites that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. Helminths are large, multicellular parasitic worms that can infect various tissues and organs in humans and animals, causing diseases such as schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, and soil-transmitted helminthiases.

Helminth antigens can be recognized by the host's immune system as foreign invaders, leading to the activation of various immune cells and the production of antibodies. However, many helminths have evolved mechanisms to evade or suppress the host's immune response, allowing them to establish long-term infections.

Studying helminth antigens is important for understanding the immunology of helminth infections and developing new strategies for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Some researchers have also explored the potential therapeutic use of helminth antigens or whole helminths as a way to modulate the immune system and treat autoimmune diseases or allergies. However, more research is needed to determine the safety and efficacy of these approaches.

Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of a foreign substance, known as an antigen. They are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens, neutralizing or marking them for destruction by other immune cells.

Helminths are parasitic worms that can infect humans and animals. They include roundworms, tapeworms, and flukes, among others. Helminth infections can cause a range of symptoms, depending on the type of worm and the location of the infection.

Antibodies to helminths are produced by the immune system in response to an infection with one of these parasitic worms. These antibodies can be detected in the blood and serve as evidence of a current or past infection. They may also play a role in protecting against future infections with the same type of worm.

There are several different classes of antibodies, including IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Antibodies to helminths are typically of the IgE class, which are associated with allergic reactions and the defense against parasites. IgE antibodies can bind to mast cells and basophils, triggering the release of histamine and other inflammatory mediators that help to protect against the worm.

In addition to IgE, other classes of antibodies may also be produced in response to a helminth infection. For example, IgG antibodies may be produced later in the course of the infection and can provide long-term immunity to reinfection. IgA antibodies may also be produced and can help to prevent the attachment and entry of the worm into the body.

Overall, the production of antibodies to helminths is an important part of the immune response to these parasitic worms. However, in some cases, the presence of these antibodies may also be associated with allergic reactions or other immunological disorders.

Parasitic diseases are infections or illnesses caused by parasites, which are organisms that live and feed on host organisms, often causing harm. Parasites can be protozoans (single-celled organisms), helminths (worms), or ectoparasites (ticks, mites, fleas). These diseases can affect various body systems and cause a range of symptoms, depending on the type of parasite and the location of infection. They are typically spread through contaminated food or water, insect vectors, or direct contact with an infected host or contaminated environment. Examples of parasitic diseases include malaria, giardiasis, toxoplasmosis, ascariasis, and leishmaniasis.

Intrahepatic bile ducts are the small tubular structures inside the liver that collect bile from the liver cells (hepatocytes). Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins from food. The intrahepatic bile ducts merge to form larger ducts, which eventually exit the liver and join with the cystic duct from the gallbladder to form the common bile duct. The common bile duct then empties into the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, where bile aids in digestion. Intrahepatic bile ducts can become obstructed or damaged due to various conditions such as gallstones, tumors, or inflammation, leading to complications like jaundice, liver damage, and infection.

Bile ducts are tubular structures that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder for storage or directly to the small intestine to aid in digestion. There are two types of bile ducts: intrahepatic and extrahepatic. Intrahepatic bile ducts are located within the liver and drain bile from liver cells, while extrahepatic bile ducts are outside the liver and include the common hepatic duct, cystic duct, and common bile duct. These ducts can become obstructed or inflamed, leading to various medical conditions such as cholestasis, cholecystitis, and gallstones.

An endemic disease is a type of disease that is regularly found among particular people or in a certain population, and is spread easily from person to person. The rate of infection is consistently high in these populations, but it is relatively stable and does not change dramatically over time. Endemic diseases are contrasted with epidemic diseases, which suddenly increase in incidence and spread rapidly through a large population.

Endemic diseases are often associated with poverty, poor sanitation, and limited access to healthcare. They can also be influenced by environmental factors such as climate, water quality, and exposure to vectors like mosquitoes or ticks. Examples of endemic diseases include malaria in some tropical countries, tuberculosis (TB) in many parts of the world, and HIV/AIDS in certain populations.

Effective prevention and control measures for endemic diseases typically involve improving access to healthcare, promoting good hygiene and sanitation practices, providing vaccinations when available, and implementing vector control strategies. By addressing the underlying social and environmental factors that contribute to the spread of these diseases, it is possible to reduce their impact on affected populations and improve overall health outcomes.

Cholangiography is a medical procedure that involves taking X-ray images of the bile ducts (the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the small intestine). This is typically done by injecting a contrast dye into the bile ducts through an endoscope or a catheter that has been inserted into the body.

There are several types of cholangiography, including:

* Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP): This procedure involves inserting an endoscope through the mouth and down the throat into the small intestine. A dye is then injected into the bile ducts through a small tube that is passed through the endoscope.
* Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC): This procedure involves inserting a needle through the skin and into the liver to inject the contrast dye directly into the bile ducts.
* Operative cholangiography: This procedure is performed during surgery to examine the bile ducts for any abnormalities or blockages.

Cholangiography can help diagnose a variety of conditions that affect the bile ducts, such as gallstones, tumors, or inflammation. It can also be used to guide treatment decisions, such as whether surgery is necessary to remove a blockage.

Medical definitions typically focus on the potential risks or reactions related to a substance, rather than providing a general definition. In the context of medicine, shellfish are often defined by the allergens they contain, rather than as a culinary category.

According to the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (ACAAI), shellfish are divided into two categories: crustaceans and mollusks. Crustaceans include shrimp, crab, lobster, and crayfish. Mollusks include clams, mussels, oysters, scallops, octopus, and squid.

Shellfish allergies are one of the most common food allergies, and they can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. Therefore, in a medical context, it's essential to be specific about which types of shellfish may pose a risk to an individual.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rivers" is not a medical term or concept. It is a geographical term referring to large, flowing bodies of water that usually empty into a sea or an ocean. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Fisheries" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Fisheries are places or practices concerned with the catching, processing, or selling of fish, shellfish, and other forms of aquatic life. They can refer to commercial operations, recreational activities, or scientific research related to aquatic species. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help answer those for you!

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