The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Organisms that live in water.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Organisms whose GENOME has been changed by a GENETIC ENGINEERING technique.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
Animals that have no spinal column.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A genus of ascomycetous FUNGI, family Pneumocystidaceae, order Pneumocystidales. It includes various host-specific species causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in humans and other MAMMALS.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.

Development of nuclear transfer and parthenogenetic rabbit embryos activated with inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. (1/703)

The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of different activation protocols, enucleation methods, and culture media on the development of parthenogenetic and nuclear transfer (NT) rabbit embryos. Electroporation of 25 mM inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate (IP3) in calcium- and magnesium-free PBS immediately induced a single intracellular calcium transient in 6 out of 14 metaphase II-stage rabbit oocytes evaluated during a 10-min recording period. The percentage of oocytes treated with IP3 followed by 6-dimethylaminopurine (IP3 + DMAP) that cleaved (83.9%) and reached the blastocyst stage (50%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those activated with multiple pulses (61.6% and 30.1%, respectively) or treated with ionomycin + DMAP (52.9% and 5.7%, respectively). Development of IP3 + DMAP-activated rabbit oocytes and in vivo-fertilized zygotes in different culture media was studied. Development of activated oocytes to the blastocyst stage in Earle's balanced salt solution (EBSS) supplemented with MEM nonessential amino acids, basal medium Eagle amino acids, 1 mM L-glutamine, 0.4 mM sodium pyruvate, and 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) (EBSS-complete) (40.6%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those that developed in either Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's medium (DMEM)/RPMI + 10% FBS (15.5%) or CR1aa + 10% FBS (4%) medium. In addition, 100% of in vivo-fertilized rabbit zygotes developed to the blastocyst stage in EBSS-complete. A third set of experiments was carried out to study the efficiency of blind versus stained (Hoechst 33342) enucleation of oocytes. Twenty-nine of 48 blind enucleated and IP3 + DMAP-activated oocytes cleaved (60.4%), and 15 (31.2%) subsequently reached the blastocyst stage, whereas 9 of 52 oocytes enucleated using epifluorescence (17.3%) cleaved, and none of these reached the blastocyst stage. When the above parameters that yielded the highest blastocysts were combined in an NT experiment using adult rabbit fibroblast nuclei, 72.2% (39 of 54) of the fused nuclear transplant embryos cleaved and 29.6% (16 of 54) reached the blastocyst stage.  (+info)

Production of cloned calves following nuclear transfer with cultured adult mural granulosa cells. (2/703)

Adult somatic cell nuclear transfer was used to determine the totipotent potential of cultured mural granulosa cells, obtained from a Friesian dairy cow of high genetic merit. Nuclei were exposed to oocyte cytoplasm for prolonged periods by electrically fusing quiescent cultured cells to enucleated metaphase II cytoplasts 4-6 h before activation (fusion before activation [FBA] treatment). Additionally, some first-generation morulae were recloned by fusing blastomeres to S-phase cytoplasts. A significantly higher proportion of fused embryos developed in vitro to grade 1-2 blastocysts on Day 7 with FBA (27.5 +/- 2.5%) than with recloning (13.0 +/- 3.6%; p < 0. 05). After the transfer of 100 blastocysts from the FBA treatment, survival rates on Days 60, 100, 180, and term were 45%, 21%, 17%, and 10%, respectively. Ten heifer calves were delivered by elective cesarean section; all have survived. After the transfer of 16 recloned blastocysts, embryo survival on Day 60 was 38%; however, no fetuses survived to Day 100. DNA analyses confirmed that the calves are all genetically identical to the donor cow. It is suggested that the losses throughout gestation may in part be due to placental dysfunction at specific stages. The next advance in this technology will be to introduce specific genetic modifications of biomedical or agricultural interest.  (+info)

A mutation in the transmembrane/luminal domain of the ryanodine receptor is associated with abnormal Ca2+ release channel function and severe central core disease. (3/703)

Central core disease is a rare, nonprogressive myopathy that is characterized by hypotonia and proximal muscle weakness. In a large Mexican kindred with an unusually severe and highly penetrant form of the disorder, DNA sequencing identified an I4898T mutation in the C-terminal transmembrane/luminal region of the RyR1 protein that constitutes the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor. All previously reported RYR1 mutations are located either in the cytoplasmic N terminus or in a central cytoplasmic region of the 5,038-aa protein. The I4898T mutation was introduced into a rabbit RYR1 cDNA and expressed in HEK-293 cells. The response of the mutant RyR1 Ca2+ channel to the agonists halothane and caffeine in a Ca2+ photometry assay was completely abolished. Coexpression of normal and mutant RYR1 cDNAs in a 1:1 ratio, however, produced RyR1 channels with normal halothane and caffeine sensitivities, but maximal levels of Ca2+ release were reduced by 67%. [3H]Ryanodine binding indicated that the heterozygous channel is activated by Ca2+ concentrations 4-fold lower than normal. Single-cell analysis of cotransfected cells showed a significantly increased resting cytoplasmic Ca2+ level and a significantly reduced luminal Ca2+ level. These data are indicative of a leaky channel, possibly caused by a reduction in the Ca2+ concentration required for channel activation. Comparison with two other coexpressed mutant/normal channels suggests that the I4898T mutation produces one of the most abnormal RyR1 channels yet investigated, and this level of abnormality is reflected in the severe and penetrant phenotype of affected central core disease individuals.  (+info)

How identical would cloned children be? An understanding essential to the ethical debate. (4/703)

The ban on human cloning in many countries worldwide is founded on an assumption that cloned children will be identical to each other and to their nuclear donor. This paper explores the scientific basis for this assumption, considering both the principles and practice of cloning in animals and comparing genetic and epigenetic variation in potential human clones with that in monozygotic twins.  (+info)

A spare or an individual? Cloning and the implications of monozygotic twinning. (5/703)

The creation of Dolly, the cloned sheep, raises the scenario of cloning in humans. Neither the case for, nor against, the ethics of cloning in humans is discussed in this paper. Instead, it considers the neglected issue of the likely happiness or otherwise of the resulting children if they are born as monozygotic twins or triplets. The advantages and disadvantages of twinship are discussed in detail, and it is concluded that recognized medical risks, and incompletely understood psychological effects, should be given serious consideration.  (+info)

Cloning, killing, and identity. (6/703)

One potentially valuable use of cloning is to provide a source of tissues or organs for transplantation. The most important objection to this use of cloning is that a human clone would be the sort of entity that it would be seriously wrong to kill. I argue that entities of the sort that you and I essentially are do not begin to exist until around the seventh month of fetal gestation. Therefore to kill a clone prior to that would not be to kill someone like you or me but would be only to prevent one of us from existing. And even after one of us begins to exist, the objections to killing it remain comparatively weak until its psychological capacities reach a certain level of maturation. These claims support the permissibility of killing a clone during the early stages of its development in order to use its organs for transplantation.  (+info)

Should we clone human beings? Cloning as a source of tissue for transplantation. (7/703)

The most publicly justifiable application of human cloning, if there is one at all, is to provide self-compatible cells or tissues for medical use, especially transplantation. Some have argued that this raises no new ethical issues above those raised by any form of embryo experimentation. I argue that this research is less morally problematic than other embryo research. Indeed, it is not merely morally permissible but morally required that we employ cloning to produce embryos or fetuses for the sake of providing cells, tissues or even organs for therapy, followed by abortion of the embryo or fetus.  (+info)

Persons and their copies. (8/703)

Is cloning human beings morally wrong? The basis for the one serious objection to cloning is that, because of what a clone is, clones would have much worse lives than non-clones. I sketch a fragment of moral theory to make sense of the objection. I then outline several ways in which it might be claimed that, because of what a clone is, clones would have much worse lives than non-clones. In particular, I look at various ideas connected with autonomy. I conclude that there is no basis to the claim that, because of what a clone is, clones would have much worse lives than non-clones. I therefore reject the claim that cloning human beings is morally wrong.  (+info)

Free Essay: In measuring the benefits, human reproductive cloning would be advantageous to the well-being of humans and because it is a fulfillment of...
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently announced its approval of meat and dairy products from cloned animals amidst widespread concern among scientists and food safety advocates. Despite recent consumer opinion polls showing that most Americans do not want food from cloned animals, cloned milk may soon be sold, unlabeled, in grocery stores across the country, and cloned meat will be next. Scientists say that clones may be inherently unhealthy, with potentially harmful consequences for animal foods derived from clones. Moreover, animal cloning is a cruel technology that results in needless animal suffering.. The first cloned mammal was the famed sheep Dolly. But after the hype, few followed the story of Dolly?s demise. Just six years old when euthanized (sheep of Dolly?s breed generally live to 11 or 12), Dolly suffered from arthritis and lung disease usually seen in much older animals. Sadly, Dolly is not unique among clones. Leading cloning scientists say clones are likely to ...
PAN Czytelnia Czasopism, Transgenic mammalian species, generated by somatic cell cloning, in biomedicine, biopharmaceutical industry and human nutrition/dietetics - recent achievements - Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Definitions:. Cloning: the scientific method by which animals or plants can be created which have exactly the same genetic make-up as the original, because the DNA of the original is used.. Reproductive cloning: to make a complete identical animal, possibly a human being.. Stem cell: a cell, most often taken from a 4-5 day old embryo (blastocyst), whose role in the body is yet to be determined.. Therapeutic cloning: removing cells from a patient and treating them in a lab in order to produce stem cells which may be used to treat disorders, e.g. Alzheimers disease.. Therapeutic Cloning:. This is where DNA is taken out of an embryo and replaced with DNA taken from another individual in order to generate stem cells. It is sometimes known as stem cell cloning. The aim is to take the stem cells from the modified embryo and use them in research to find treatments for a range of diseases. According to the law, any embryos used in such a way have to be killed after 14 days. This technology therefore ...
The FDAs draft risk assessment and management plan addressing the food safety issues surrounding cloned animals is better late than never. The agency has been delinquent in waiting five years to begin this public evaluation of cloned animals, requiring consumers to rely on the food industry and cloning companies to voluntarily refrain from introducing cloning animals into the food supply.
cloning technology Essay Topics and ideas for college students. Examples of Research Paper in APA, MLA formats about cloning technology.
The risks of animal cloning are immense. The cloning process is inefficient and cloned animals have been observed to have higher rates of infection, tumour growth, and skeletal abnormalities than normal offspring. Are the risks and disadvantages of cloning because it is a nascent technology that scientists are trying to get to grips with, or are there inherent problems with the cloning process?
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has shown a wide application in the generation of transgenic animals, protection of endangered animals, and therapeutic cloning. However, the efficiency of SCNT remains very low due to some poorly characterized key factors. Compared with fertilized embryos, somatic donor cells lack some important components of sperm, such as sperm small noncoding RNA (sncRNA) and proteins. Loss of these factors is considered an important reason for the abnormal development of SCNT embryo. This study focused on recent advances of SCNT and the roles of sperm in development. Sperm-derived factors play an important role in nucleus reprogramming and cytoskeleton remodeling during SCNT embryo development. Hence, considering the role of sperm may provide a new strategy for improving cloning efficiency.
Human cloning belongs to the eugenics project and is thus subject to all the ethical and juridical observations that have amply condemned it. -- Reflections on Cloning, Pontificia Academia Pro Vita Proponents of therapeutic cloning have set up reproductive cloning as the greater of two evils and then insisted that the public must choose one. This leaves the public with therapeutic cloning as the lesser evil. In fact, we can decide to reject them both as evils, but I see reproductive cloning as the lesser of the two presented evils. Instead of promoting deaths, it promotes life; although, of course, the nature of cloned lives raise many deep concerns and fears. --James Sherley Ph.D., professor of biological engineering at MIT.. ...methods that fail to respect the dignity and value of the person must always be avoided. I am thinking in particular of attempts at human cloning with a view to obtaining organs for transplants: these techniques, insofar as they involve the manipulation and ...
Human cloning belongs to the eugenics project and is thus subject to all the ethical and juridical observations that have amply condemned it. -- Reflections on Cloning, Pontificia Academia Pro Vita Proponents of therapeutic cloning have set up reproductive cloning as the greater of two evils and then insisted that the public must choose one. This leaves the public with therapeutic cloning as the lesser evil. In fact, we can decide to reject them both as evils, but I see reproductive cloning as the lesser of the two presented evils. Instead of promoting deaths, it promotes life; although, of course, the nature of cloned lives raise many deep concerns and fears. --James Sherley Ph.D., professor of biological engineering at MIT.. ...methods that fail to respect the dignity and value of the person must always be avoided. I am thinking in particular of attempts at human cloning with a view to obtaining organs for transplants: these techniques, insofar as they involve the manipulation and ...
is licensed under CC BY 2.0. The New York Times published on February 18 an enthusiastic article about a black-footed ferret, hailing it as the first of any native, endangered animal species in North America to be cloned.. As we have been documenting for many years (see below), grand claims for animal cloning go back to the birth of the first cloned sheep, in 1996. The New York Times was so excited by this event that it ran 17 articles in two weeks about human reproductive cloning. For a few years thereafter, there was much excitement about the prospect of both human and animal clones.. The only claims of human clones were fakes, but there was more plausible talk about cloning at least two dozen animal species. The first cloned endangered animal, a kind of wild cattle called a gaur, was born at 7:30 PM on Monday, January 8, 2001, according to the press release. (Of course there was a press release.) It died two days later. Such failures were much more common than successes; the process was, ...
Sinopsis: Nature has been cloning animals, cells, and molecules for millions of years. Scientists got into the act just 34 years ago when John Gurdon, a professor at Cambridge University in England, cloned a frog. Gurdons experiment did not generate a great deal of interest at the time and was rarely discussed outside the world of research labs. In 1996 when Ian Wilmut, a British biologist, cloned a sheep named Dolly, the reaction was dramatically different. The news of Dollys birth was reported in every major newspaper and magazine around the world, and she quickly became the most celebrated lamb in the history of animal husbandry.. Animal Cloning, Revised Edition discusses all aspects of this new biology, including the scientific, ethical, and legal issues. Completely revised and updated, this edition now features full-color photographs and illustrations as well as further resources and Web sites to guide additional research. Beginning chapters discuss cloning within the context of a natural ...
The short answer is yes. But the real question is what they support doing with cloned human embryos. They apparently support creating cloned human embryos, using the cloning technique of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to create the cloned embryos. This is the cloning technique that was used to create Dolly the cloned sheep. In that case, the cloned sheep embryo was gestated to birth. Some term this use of cloned embryos as reproductive cloning. When the cloned embryos are disaggregated to pluck out their stem cells, some term this use of cloned embryos as therapeutic cloning (even though it ...
Nature has been cloning animals, cells, and molecules for millions of years. Scientists got into the act just 34 years ago when John Gurdon, a professor at Cambridge University in England, cloned a frog. Gurdons experiment did not generate a great deal of interest at the time and was rarely discussed outside the world of research labs. In 1996 when Ian Wilmut, a British biologist, cloned a sheep named Dolly, the reaction was dramatically different. The news of Dollys birth was reported in every major newspaper and magazine around the world, and she quickly became the most celebrated lamb in the history of animal husbandry.. Animal Cloning, Updated Edition discusses all aspects of this new biology, including the scientific, ethical, and legal issues. Completely revised and updated, this edition features full-color photographs and illustrations as well as further resources and websites to guide additional research. Beginning chapters discuss cloning within the context of a natural process that ...
Environment Committee members in Brussels on Tuesday argued that it would be irresponsible to include food from cloned animals in the scope of the Novel Foods regulation, soon to be updated to incorporate emerging areas of science such as nanotechnology and GMOs, as well as cloning. Source: ...
A British animal welfare group has petitioned the government to prevent the entry of products from cloned animals into the food chain.
The FDA had asked producers of cloned livestock not to sell food products from such animals pending its ruling on their safety. It isnt clear whether the FDA will lift this voluntary hold.. While many consumer groups still oppose it, the FDA declaration that cloned animal products are safe would be a milestone for a small cadre of biotech companies that want to make a business out of producing copies of prize dairy cows and other farm animals -- effectively taking the selective breeding practiced on farms for centuries to the cutting edge.. Because of the price tag -- cloned cattle cost $15,000 to $20,000 per copy -- most of the cloned animals will be used for breeding, and it will be three to five years before consumers see milk and meat from their offspring. Some animal breeders in the U.S. have already been experimenting with cloning animals. ViaGen Inc., the largest animal-cloning company in the nation, has cloned animals, such as a cow named Peggy Sue.. Consumer wariness toward cloned food ...
本文收錄於臺大農業推廣通訊雙月刊96期. 文/國立臺灣大學生物科技研究所 宋麗英助理教授. 隨著生物科技的發展日新月異,另類的牧場已然興起,結合現代生殖科技 (Reproductive biotechnology),包括:體外成熟 (in vitro maturation, IVM)、體外受精 (in vitro fertilization, IVF)、體外培養 (in vitro culture, IVC)、胚移殖 (embryo transfer, ET)、卵及胚的冷凍保存 (cryopreservation) 技術、精子與胚之性別控制及鑑定 (sperm or embryo sexing)、基因轉殖(transgenic)、體細胞核移置(somatic cell nuclear transfer, SCNT,又稱動物複製 animal cloning)等相關技術,在培養皿內發展分子牧場已是相關生技公司積極發展的業務之一。 Continue reading →. ...
Lets Not Distort Debates about Human Cloning and Heritable Gene Editing. Cloning is back in the headlines. Researchers managed to create two macaque monkeys by cloning, and immediately there was talk about using the Dolly-the-sheep technique to create human clones. Which leads straightaway to the claim that public concerns about human reproductive cloning echo many of the earlier objections to IVF.. That is historically inaccurate. Its also a notion that promotes, either deliberately or inadvertently, an extreme technological agenda that would lead to the production of not just human clones but also genetically engineered people.. The specter of human cloning was raised in the widely syndicated Associated Press article about the cloned monkeys entitled: Scientists Successfully Clone Monkeys: Are Humans Up Next? It was also featured in Reuters, (picked up by NBC and many others), The Guardian, National Review, and the London Daily Telegraph, for instance; most of them had human in the ...
As many as 3,000 Americans die every day from diseases that may someday be treatable with tissues created through stem cells, according to the Centers for Disease Control. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (therapeutic cloning), which is one way to derive stem cells, shows potential in generating functional replacement cells such as insulin-producing cells associated with diabetes. It also shows promise in reconstituting more complex tissues and organs, such as blood vessels, myocardial patches, kidneys, and even entire hearts. Additionally, it has the potential to eliminate the rejection responses associated with transplantation of non-self tissues, and thus the need for immunosuppressive drugs, which carry the risk of serious and potentially life-threatening complications and enormous cost to the United States health care system ...
View Notes - unit7 cloning animals from BIOCHEM 100 at UMass (Amherst). UNIT 7 Animal Cloning and Epigenetics F08 The first cloned horse. What cell parts would you need to clone a human? (or
Animal cloning is a very complicated and difficult process and involves many failures to achieve one single live clone birth. The following are the top 10
America rejects science without values attached -- we still havemorals and morality prevailed today, she said in a statement.. Family Research Council President Ken Connor said of the vote: Thisis a major victory for the sanctity of human life. The bipartisan votein the House ... has sent Frankenstein packing.. The president of the Biotechnology Industry Organization, whichopposed the bans effect on research, said if the legislation becomeslaw, the progress of new medical treatments will be reversed. In astatement, Carl B. Feldbaum called on the Senate to consider the medicalbenefits and to separate the technologys therapeutic use from its usefor human reproductive cloning, a concept the biotechnology industryfinds to be repugnant and unsafe.. President Bush, who has yet to make a decision about federal fundingof stem-cell research, issued a statement commending the House action.. The moral issues posed by human cloning are profound and haveimplications for today and for future ...
For the first time ever, scientists have successfully used somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) via the process of therapeutic cloning to generate normal human embryonic stem cells (hESC). Recall that there are two kinds of human cloning: therapeutic (which is […]. ...
The findings were published shortly before a National Academy of Sciences meeting next Tuesday, during which scientists will discuss cloning and animal safety issues.. Lanza said he hoped the findings would inject a sense of reality and scientific vigor into the cloning issue. He said his institute joins with other scientists in opposing the reproductive cloning of humans but sees great potential in the medical applications of cell cloning technology.. Pluses for cloning. He said this technology, and advances in the uses of embryonic stem cells, could be used to produce insulin-producing cells to treat diabetes or neurons to help those with Parkinsons or Alzheimers disease.. Commercially, cloning could be used to breed animals that are free from disease, Lanza said.. Since Scottish scientists cloned the first animal, Dolly the sheep, in 1997, whole herds of cattle, sheep and pigs have been cloned.. Human cloning is opposed by most of the worlds scientists, governments and religions. A bill ...
Human cloning is the term used by scientists to describe the process of creating new life by making duplicates of biological material. The cloning technique used to clone Dolly the sheep is called somatic cell nuclear transplantation. This is the same technique for cloning a human being. The process involves removing the nucleus of an unfertilized egg and replacing it with the nucleus of a somatic cell. [A somatic cell is any cell of the human body, except sperm or ovum cells (called germ cells). Thus, your skin cell is a somatic cell and contains in its nucleus the 46 chromosomes that you received from your mother (23 chromosomes) and your father (23 chromosomes) that make you unique.] The unfertilized egg with the now transplanted nucleus is stimulated by an electrical stimulus to make it start to divide and grow and if it does begin to grow, it is a live human being.. As Frankensteinian and unnatural as this is, a new human life will be created by human cloning. Supporters of embryonic stem ...
Reprogramming has been studied extensively for decades. Nuclear transfer into an oocyte gives somatic cells pluripotency to produce cloned animals. For example, Dr J. Gurdon and his colleagues showed that frog somatic cell nuclei can be reprogrammed after transfer into enucleated oocytes, and they develop into feeding tadpoles [1]. Reprogramming in vertebrates was also proven by the creation of cloned animals from sheep [2] and mice [3]. In addition to oocytes, human [4] and mouse embryonic stem (ES) [5] cells also can reprogramme somatic cells into an ES cell-like state after cell fusion. These results demonstrate that terminally differentiated cells can revert to a state of pluripotency in response to external stimulation.. The accumulated understanding of the mechanisms underlying pluripotency in ES cells led to attempts to revert somatic cells into a pluripotent state using defined factors. Twenty-four candidate factors were transduced into mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) by retroviral ...
South Korean researchers success in producing human embryos and stem cells through cloning revives debate about whether such research should be conducted in United States; scientists are nearly unanimous in opposition to reproductive cloning that would create babies, but largely supportive of cloning to make embryonic stem cells for therapeutic purposes; religious groups also line up against reproductive cloning, but are split on therapeutic cloning; several scientists and religious spokesmen comment; photo (M)
Because many eggs are needed for human reproductive cloning attempts, human experimentation could subject more women to adverse health effects - either from
Biology of Reproduction contains original scientific research on a broad range of topics in the field of reproductive biology, as well as minireviews.
Somatic-cell nuclear transfer, known as SCNT, can also be used to create embryos for research or therapeutic purposes. The most likely purpose for this is to produce embryos for use in stem cell research. This process is also called research cloning or therapeutic cloning. The goal is not to create cloned human beings (called reproductive cloning), but rather to harvest stem cells that can be used to study human development and to potentially treat disease. While a clonal human blastocyst has been created, stem cell lines are yet to be isolated from a clonal source.[10]. Therapeutic cloning is achieved by creating embryonic stem cells in the hopes of treating diseases such as diabetes and Alzheimers. The process begins by removing the nucleus (containing the DNA) from an egg cell and inserting a nucleus from the adult cell to be cloned.[11] In the case of someone with Alzheimers disease, the nucleus from a skin cell of that patient is placed into an empty egg. The reprogrammed cell ...
Read this full essay on Therapeutic Cloning. Cloning is the use of technology to compose a precise genetic copy of a living organism. The term cloning can ...
Therapeutic cloning is the manipulation of genetic material from either adult, zygotic or embryonic cells in order to alter the functions of cells or tissues for therapeutic purposes.
Therapeutic cloning could be a breakthrough cure and healing procedure for many. However, it is a new technology and their are some limitations to its use.
SUBJECTS: James Hardie, vaccination against cervical cancer, therapeutic cloning. TRIOLI:. Mr Costello, good morning.. TREASURER:. Good morning Virginia. It is good to be with you. TRIOLI:. Is it your understanding according to what James Hardie is saying, that it is pretty much a tax exempt charity status has now been applied for that fund?. TREASURER:. Well first of all I welcome the fact that this finally seems to be settled and that is good news for the victims and the only thing you can say is that it is regrettable it has taken so long but James Hardie have finally done the right thing. What will happen is that James Hardie will be able to get tax deductibility for the compensation that they pay the victims. So the effect of that is that James Hardies shareholders can claim the full amount, that they will get a tax deduction and that payments will be deducted as against the profits that James Hardie have. So James Hardie gets quite favourable tax treatment. This would never have been in ...
Hans Keirstead and his team at the University of California at Irvine today joined the relatively small group of labs working on therapeutic cloning - a technique to create disease-specific stem-cell lines for research or treatment. This project received approval May 11 from UCIs Institutional Review Board, which under federal regulation reviews all proposed studies \[…\]
The Bush Administration is unequivocally opposed to the cloning of human beings for any reason. President Bush has been consistent and decisive on this issue: I strongly oppose human cloning. We recoil at the idea of growing human beings for spare body parts, or creating life for our convenience. Bush has promised to sign legislation to ban all human cloning.. Kerry voted against invoking cloture and strongly opposed the Human Cloning Prohibition Act, a bill that would have prohibited the creation of cloned human embryos. He is also a supporter of therapeutic cloning. Kerry has maintained that while I oppose cloning for the purposes of creating a human being, I do support therapeutic cloning that has the potential to help cure many diseases.. Eager to find some guidance on these important moral issues, I visited all the official Orthodox Church websites across the various jurisdictions. On each site I searched for any voter guides, or voting pamphlets, or any relevant information on the ...
It is not just bad news for reproductive cloning. It also means the related field of therapeutic cloning _ using embryonic stem cells to grow customized tissues for medical treatment _ may prove harder, too, Schatten said. However, if 95 percent of cells growing in a lab dish have abnormal chromosomes, the remaining good 5 percent still could be used, he added.. ...
Model organisms are essential to study the genetic basis of human diseases. Transgenic mammalian models, especially genetic knock-out mice have catalysed the progress in this area. To continue the advancement, further sophisticated and refined models are crucially needed to study the genetic basis and manifestations of numerous human diseases. Coinciding with the start of the new era of post-genomic research, new tools for establishment of transgenesis, such as nuclear transfer and gene targeting in somatic cells, have become available, offering a unique opportunity for the generation of transgenic animal models. The new technology provides important tools for comparative functional genomics to promote the interpretation and increase the practical value of the data generated in numerous mouse models. This paper discusses the state-of-the-art of the nuclear replacement technology and presents future perspectives ...
It was intriguing last week to read about another advance in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)-based therapeutic cloning of human embryonic stem cells (hESC). The first such work was published last year by Mitalipovs group from OHSU. This second paper to produce so-called nuclear transfer hESC (NT-hESC) made the important advance to show that it could be done using adult and even old human somatic cells. This is a reproducible technology, which is very important. However, key challenges and concerns remain for human therapeutic cloning …Read More. ...
Everyone is genetically unique, without this there would be exact copies of us walking around everywhere. Human cloning and even animal cloning is new to the...
WASHINGTON, D.C. (July 22, 1998) - Carl B. Feldbaum, president of the Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO) today issued the following statement on the announcement by the Roslin Institute of Edinburgh, Scotland of research verifying that Dolly the sheep was the product of somatic cell nuclear transfer cloning:
Kishigami and colleagues [19] were the first to report that TSA treatment improves full term development of mouse embryos obtained by transfer of cumulus cell nuclei. This was confirmed the same year by Rybouchkin and colleagues who reported a remarkable and significant 5-fold increase in the efficiency of cloning from cumulus cells with a transient TSA treatment for 10 hours post activation [20]. In their initial work, Rybouchkin and colleagues suggested that increased acetylation of histones after TSA treatment was linked to the improved developmental rates [20]. In the present work, we confirm the reproducibility of the beneficial effects of TSA treatment on long term developmental potential using another mouse strain and different culture conditions, as reflected by a significantly higher birth rate of live pups. In our laboratory, 3.1% of the TSA-treated SCNT embryos developed to term, which is identical to the 3.1% of clones obtained from ES cells [26] and ten times higher than the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Improvement of a porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer technique by optimizing donor cell and recipient oocyte preparations. AU - Lee, Gabsang. AU - Hyun, Sang Hwan. AU - Kim, Hye Soo. AU - Kim, Dae Young. AU - Lee, So Hyun. AU - Lim, Jeong Mook. AU - Lee, Eun Song. AU - Kang, Sung Keun. AU - Lee, Byeong Chun. AU - Hwang, Woo Suk. PY - 2003/1/1. Y1 - 2003/1/1. N2 - This study was conducted to improve a porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technique by optimizing donor cell and recipient oocyte preparations. Adult and fetal fibroblasts, and cumulus and oviduct cells were used as donor cells, and in vivo- and in vitro-matured oocytes were employed as recipient oocytes. The percentages of fusion and development to the blastocyst stage, the ratio of blastocysts to 2-cell embryos, and cell number of blastocysts were monitored as experimental parameters. In Experiment 1, donor cells of four different types were transferred to enucleated oocytes matured in vitro, and more (P , ...
Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) is a useful method to preserve endangered species and to study the reprogramming event of a nuclear donor cell by the oocyte. Although several studies of iSCNT using murine cells and bovine oocytes have been reported, the development of murine-bovine iSCNT embryos beyond the 8-cell stage has not been successful. In this paper, we examined the developmental potential of embryos reconstructed with a murine embryonic fibroblast as the nuclear donor and a bovine oocyte as the cytoplasm recipient. The reconstructed embryos were cultured in CZB (murine medium) or CR1aa (bovine medium). In addition, for the development of a murine-bovine iSCNT blastocyst, the antioxidant ??mercaptoethanol (??ME) was supplemented to CR1aa medium. Furthermore, to verify the mouse genome activation in murine-bovine iSCNT embryos, RT-PCR analysis of murine Xist was performed. The development of the murine-bovine iSCNT embryos cultured in CR1aa was significantly higher than ...
Interspecies Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Technique for Researching Dog Cloning and Embryonic Stem Cells - Canine;Interspecies;Porcine;Somatic cell Nuclear Transfer;
Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) is a valuable tool for studying the interactions between an oocyte and somatic nucleus. The object of this study was to investigate the developmental competence of in vitro‐matured porcine oocytes after transfer of the somatic cell nuclei of 2 different species (goat and rabbit). Porcine cumulus oocytes were obtained from the follicles of ovaries and matured in TCM‐199. The reconstructed embryos were electrically fused with 2 DC pulses of 1.1 kV/cm for 30 μs in 0.3 M mannitol medium. The activated cloned embryos were cul‐ tured in porcine zygote medium‐3 (PZM‐3), mSOF or RDH medium for 7 days. The blastocyst formation rate of the embryos reconstructed from goat or rabbit fetal fibroblasts was significantly lower than that of the embryos recon‐ structed from porcine fetal fibroblast cells. However, a significantly higher number of embryos reconstructed from goat or rabbit fetal fibroblasts cultured in mSOF or RDH, respectively, developed to
WEDNESDAY, Jan. 24, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Cloning cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) is feasible by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using fetal fibroblasts, according to a study published online Jan. 24 in Cell.. Zhen Liu, from the Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Neuroscience in Shanghai, and colleagues examined the feasibility of cloning cynomolgus monkeys by SCNT to generate genetically uniform non-human primates for establishing animal models for research.. The researchers found that following SCNT, injection of H3K9me3 demethylase Kdm4d mRNA and treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A at one-cell stage correlated with improvement in blastocyst development and the rate of pregnancy of transplanted SCNT embryos in surrogate monkeys. Six pregnancies were confirmed in 21 surrogates for SCNT using fetal monkey fibroblasts, yielding two healthy babies. Twenty-two pregnancies were confirmed in 42 surrogates for SCNT using adult monkey cumulus cells, ...
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) (cloning), being a reproductive or therapeutic method, and mitochondrial DNA transfer, as a strategy to avoid the transmission of mitochondrial diseases, are analyzed within this paper from a bioethics perspective. reduction of individual embryos delimits the moral acceptability of the promising techniques. research CDC42BPA related to the creation of individual Taxifolin pontent inhibitor blastocysts by SCNT. IN-MAY 2005, another group led by Hwang released articles (also in (Kennedy 2006). Around once, Stojkovic et al. (2005) also released a study where they too mentioned that that they had cloned individual embryos towards the blastocyst stage, and they also were regarded as the first to accomplish this technological feat. However, they were unable to derive ESC lines from your biological entities produced by them, so this work could not be considered as an objective demonstration of human being SCNT either. In 2006, Zavos and Illmensee (Zavos and ...
This study investigated whether four cumulus-specific genes: follicular stimulating hormone receptor (FSHr), hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2), prostaglandin synthase 2 (Ptgs2) and steroidogenic acute regulator protein (Star), were correctly reprogrammed to be transcriptionally silent following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in a murine model. Cumulus cells of C57xCBA F1 female mouse were injected into enucleated oocytes, followed by activation in 10 micromol/L strontium chloride for 5 h and subsequent in vitro culture up to the blastocyst stage. Expression of cumulus-specific genes in SCNT-derived embryos at 2-cell, 4-cell and day 4.5 blastocyst stages was compared with corresponding in vivo fertilized embryos by real-time PCR. It was demonstrated that immediately after the first cell cycle, SCNT-derived 2-cell stage embryos did not express all four cumulus-specific genes, which continually remained silent at the 4-cell and blastocyst stages. It is therefore concluded that all four ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Epigenetic reprogramming by somatic cell nuclear transfer in primates. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
I know I wrote an article on this type of media bias just a few days ago. But, they just keep on coming. Perhaps, I should start collecting the erroneous/inaccurate descriptions of somatic cell nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning published in ...
Nobel Prize-winning geneticist Joshua Lederberg advocated cloning and genetic engineering in an article in The American Naturalist in 1966 and again, the following year, in The Washington Post.[3] He sparked a debate with conservative bioethicist Leon Kass, who wrote at the time that the programmed reproduction of man will, in fact, dehumanize him. Another Nobel Laureate, James D. Watson, publicized the potential and the perils of cloning in his Atlantic Monthly essay, Moving Toward the Clonal Man, in 1971.[4] With the cloning of a sheep known as Dolly in 1996 by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), the idea of human cloning became a hot debate topic.[5] Many nations outlawed it, while a few scientists promised to make a clone within the next few years. The first hybrid human clone was created in November 1998, by Advanced Cell Technology. It was created using SCNT - a nucleus was taken from a mans leg cell and inserted into a cows egg from which the nucleus had been removed, and the ...
MEPs beefed up the European Commissions initial proposal, citing high mortality rates at all development stages of cloning and EU citizens animal welfare and ethical concerns.. Due to the negative effects on animal welfare, cloning for farming purposes is rejected by a large majority of consumers. Furthermore, we do not need cloning to ensure meat supplies in the EU. Prohibiting cloning is therefore a matter of European values and principles. Consequently, the ban should apply not only to clones themselves but also to their reproductive material (semen and embryos), their descendants and any products derived from them, including imports. This is necessary because otherwise we would merely promote cloning in third countries, said Environment Committee co-rapporteur Renate Sommer (EPP, DE).. There are two key points that we focused on from the outset: protecting the health of EU citizens and consumers and extending the ban to cover the descendants of cloned animals, said co-rapporteur law ...
Researchers from the CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, the Institute of Neuroscience of CAS and the Shanghai Research Center for Brain Science and Brain-inspired Intelligence cloned five macaque monkeys from the skin fibroblasts of a gene-edited BMAL1-deficient monkey using somatic cell nucleus transfer (SCNT). The BMAL1-deficient monkeys exhibited circadian disruption, sleep deprivation, anxiety, depression and schizophrenia-like sensory processing impairment. Transcriptome analysis also revealed elevated inflammation and stress response in the BMAL1-deficient monkeys. Their condition suggested they could be used to model human maladies such as sleep deprivation, major depressive disorder, and perhaps aging. This represents the first time anywhere in the world that gene-edited macaque monkeys of uniform genetic background have been successfully produced. This advance will help propel research on the mechanisms of human brain disease and early diagnosis and ...
The 2012 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded jointly to Sir John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent. Sir John Gordon pioneered the field of somatic cell nuclear transfer, wherein the nucleus of a mature cell is transplanted into an enucleated egg, to produce a living organism (tadpole).1 The technique, which is commonly referred to as cloning, produced a paradigm shift in developmental biology and paved the way for genome reprogramming for reproductive gains. It led to subsequent cloning of a dozen or so species, with Dolly the sheep being the most famous cloned animal, cloned by Ian Wilmut and colleagues at the Roslin Institute in Scotland in July 1996.2 Although Dolly was euthanized in 2003 because of progressive lung and degenerative joint diseases, the success of the nuclear transfer technique demonstrated that the genome, even when isolated from adult cells, contains the information necessary to ...
In summary, human cloning is a prominent social issue in the world. Even though it is not yet scientifically possible, there is a great deal to be said about it in the way of ethics. Though polls indicate that the general public is against the idea of cloning, there are a variety of opinions on the topic that each has support. It is thought by some that the legalization of cloning could greatly benefit the world as it could be the best way to produce the next generation of human beings. However, many see ethical dilemmas in this outlook and think that cloning should be forbidden entirely. It could spark the dehumanization of our race by turning human lives into something of a commodity and it could also cause a lot of social distress. Finally, the third proposition is that there should be a middle ground. There is a lot of benefit in therapeutic cloning without anywhere near as much of the ethical cost. By legalizing this form of cloning only, research could continue, albeit with limitations. ...
On May 8, 2014, the Federal Circuit released its latest precedential opinion starring Dolly the Sheep. The tale began in 1996 when Dolly the Sheep became the first mammal ever cloned from an adult somatic cell through the successful work of Keith Henry Stockman Campbell and Ian Wilmut. Campbell and Wilmut patented their breakthrough method of cloning mammals using somatic cells. In addition, they applied for a patent claiming the actual cloned animals themselves-U.S. Patent Application No. 09/225,233 (the 233 application).. Keep Reading at: ...
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has emerged as an important tool for producing transgenic animals and deriving transgenic embryonic stem cells. The process of SCNT involves fusion of in vitro matured oocytes with somatic cells to make embryos that are transgenic when the nuclear donor somatic cells carry foreign DNA and are clones when all the donor cells are genetically identical. However, in canines, it is difficult to obtain enough mature oocytes for successful SCNT due to the very low efficiency of in vitro oocyte maturation in this species that hinders canine transgenic cloning. One solution is to use oocytes from a different species or even a different genus, such as bovine oocytes, that can be matured easily in vitro. Accordingly, the aim of this study was: (1) to establish a canine fetal fibroblast line transfected with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene; and (2) to investigate in vitro embryonic development of canine cloned embryos derived from transgenic and non-transgenic ...
Biotechnology allows us to use living organisms or their processes for human needs or purposes. Currently, this topic includes such general examples as cloning, stem cells (adult, umbilical cord, and embryonic), DNA.
Nuclear transfer (NT) is a technique used to investigate the development and reprogramming potential of a single cell. DNA methyltransferase-3-like, which has been characterized as a repressive transcriptional regulator, is expressed in naturally fertilized egg and morula/blastocyst at pre-implantation stages. In this study, we demonstrate that the use of Dnmt3l-knockout (Dnmt3l-KO) donor cells in combination with Trichostatin A treatment improved the developmental efficiency and quality of the cloned embryos. Compared with the WT group, Dnmt3l-KO donor cell-derived cloned embryos exhibited increased cell numbers as well as restricted OCT4 expression in the inner cell mass (ICM) and silencing of transposable elements at the blastocyst stage. In addition, our results indicate that zygotic Dnmt3l is dispensable for cloned embryo development at pre-implantation stages. In Dnmt3l-KO mouse embryonic fibroblasts, we observed reduced nuclear localization of HDAC1, increased levels of the active histone ...
An international team, headed by researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, has identified a key enzyme in the reprogramming process that promotes malignant stem cell cloning and the growth of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a cancer of the blood and marrow that experts say is increasing in prevalence. ... Read the…
An international team, headed by researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, has identified a key enzyme in the reprogramming process that promotes malignant stem cell cloning and the growth of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a cancer of the blood and marrow that experts say is increasing in prevalence.
A potential use of stem cells genetically matched to a patient would be to create cell lines that have genes linked to a patients particular disease. By doing so, an in vitro model could be created, would be useful for studying that particular disease, potentially discovering its pathophysiology, and discovering therapies.[5] For example, if a person with Parkinsons disease donated his or her somatic cells, the stem cells resulting from SCNT would have genes that contribute to Parkinsons disease. The disease specific stem cell lines could then be studied in order to better understand the condition.[6]. Another application of SCNT stem cell research is using the patient specific stem cell lines to generate tissues or even organs for transplant into the specific patient.[7] The resulting cells would be genetically identical to the somatic cell donor, thus avoiding any complications from immune system rejection.[6][8]. Only a handful of the labs in the world are currently using SCNT techniques ...
Single cell cloning and recombinant monoclonal antibodies generation from RA synovial B cells reveal frequent targeting of citrullinated histones of NETs ...
Thats because meat from clones and their offspring isnt labeled. In 2008, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration decided that food from cloned animals doesnt need to be. In the years since, the Biotechnology Industry Organization-a trade group that represents ViaGen and other biotech firms-and the meat industry successfully defeated several bills in Congress that would have required labels for cloned food. The FDA argues that it would be too difficult to label such products anyway. Theres no difference between [cloned products] and food produced by conventional methods. Theres really nothing for us to label, said Dr. Stephen Sundlof, then director of the FDAs Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, during a 2008 press conference.. The FDA and the biotech industry claim that food from clones is safe, but some scientists say there isnt enough evidence to know for certain. To date, no large-scale studies have been done on the health effects of eating meat from cloned animals. The most ...
Stem-cell research lab in the Czech Republic (file photo) February 1997 -- Scotlands Roslin Institute announces it has cloned a sheep from cells taken from an adult ewe. The sheep, Dolly, was the ...
Ian Wilmut is a embryologist and genetic engineer who was the leader of the first research group to successfully clone an animal. He is also credited for birthing the first animal from a frozen embryo. Currently, he serves as the Chair for the Scottish Center for Regenerative Medicine at the University of Edinburgh. The creation of the first cloned animal had created a controversy in the world of engineering and science. Ethical questions have been raised with regard to cloning technology and have shaped the ways in which the global community views genetic engineering[1]. Ian Wilmut was born on July 7th, 1944 in Hampton Lucey, England, and raised in the town of Coventry. [2]. While attending the Scarborough High School for boys, he met with Gordan Whalley, head of the biology department. Despite considering himself an average student at best, Ian enjoyed the scientific research given to him by Whalley and the department, and slowly but surly took a steady interest in research.His true passion ...
The IOMS convened a seminar in 1983 on Reproduction in Islam, in which two papers were presented dealing with the possibility of human cloning as a Tesult of successful cloning in plants, frogs and small marine animals. The Semi1 nar made the following recommendation:. To exercise prudence in giving a Shariah- based opinion on human cloning (as achieved in animals) and to call for further medical and Islamic investigation of these issues. It would be possible to apply genetic engineering of micro-organisms using the recombinant DNA technology to produce medicinal substances in abundant supply .. Since 1993, when an identical twin was produced by splitting a fertilised egg, and later when cloning of Dolly the sheep was announced in February 1997, cloning has returned into the forefront of medical debate with much intensity and urgency. Then followed an announcement on the successful cloning of two monkeys at the University of Oregon in the United States of America. Since the techniques ...
An affiliate of, this is 2 minutes of daily radio news to help form good pro-life thought and good pro-life action, by Jim ...
Dollys remains on display at the Royal Museum in Scotland. 1997: The world learns of the existence of Dolly the sheep, the worlds first successfully cloned mammal. Dolly (named for Dolly Parton, the buxom country-western singer, because it was a mammary cell used in the cloning process) was cloned at the Roslin Institute in Scotland. […]
2010 Cell Methods: [[Group 1 Project - Fluorescent-PCR,Group 1 - Fluorescent-PCR]] , [[Group 2 Project - RNA Interference,Group 2 - RNA Interference]] , [[Group 3 Project- Immunohistochemistry,Group 3 - Immunohistochemistry]] , [[Group 4 Project - Cell Culture,Group 4 - Cell Culture]] , [[Group 5 Project - Electron Microsopy,Group 5 - Electron Microsopy]] , [[Group 6 Project - Confocal Microscopy,Group 6 - Confocal Microscopy]] , [[Group 7 Project - Monoclonal Antibodies,Group 7 - Monoclonal Antibodies]] , [[Group 8 Project - Microarray,Group 8 - Microarray]] , [[Group 9 Project - Fluorescent Proteins,Group 9 - Fluorescent Proteins]] , [[Group 10 Project - Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer,Group 10 - Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer ...
2010 Cell Methods: [[Group 1 Project - Fluorescent-PCR,Group 1 - Fluorescent-PCR]] , [[Group 2 Project - RNA Interference,Group 2 - RNA Interference]] , [[Group 3 Project- Immunohistochemistry,Group 3 - Immunohistochemistry]] , [[Group 4 Project - Cell Culture,Group 4 - Cell Culture]] , [[Group 5 Project - Electron Microsopy,Group 5 - Electron Microsopy]] , [[Group 6 Project - Confocal Microscopy,Group 6 - Confocal Microscopy]] , [[Group 7 Project - Monoclonal Antibodies,Group 7 - Monoclonal Antibodies]] , [[Group 8 Project - Microarray,Group 8 - Microarray]] , [[Group 9 Project - Fluorescent Proteins,Group 9 - Fluorescent Proteins]] , [[Group 10 Project - Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer,Group 10 - Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer ...
Biology of Reproduction contains original scientific research on a broad range of topics in the field of reproductive biology, as well as minireviews.
Dolly was influential in Hoboken and in local Democratic Party circles. She used her knowledge of Italian dialects and fluent English to translate for immigrants during court proceedings, particularly those pertaining to requests for citizenship. This earned her the respect of local politicians, who made her a Democratic ward leader. She was the first immigrant woman to hold that position in her local third ward, where she reliably delivered as many as six hundred votes for Democratic candidates. In 1919, she chained herself to city hall in support of the Womens suffrage movement. She also worked as a midwife, earning $50 for each delivery, a fair amount of money at the time. These activities kept Dolly away from home during much of her sons childhood. According to Kaplan, Dolly also ran an illegal abortions service that earned the nickname Hatpin Dolly. Her reputation as an abortionist led one area church to ban her son from singing there ...
Escucha canciones y álbumes de Dolly, incluyendo Family (feat. Dora and Dolly), Roberta Flack (feat. Dolly), One, Two, Three (feat. Molly, Dolly & Tornillin) y mucho más. Gratis con la suscripción de Apple Music.
I know the Obama camp is fond of claiming that McCain-Palin would be more of the same, but that isnt quite accurate. America would find itself in a much worse position should McCain-Palin win in November. As reported over at Wired today, John McCain would make the simple act of researching somatic cell nuclear transfer (aka therapeutic cloning) illegal, going well-beyond the current Bush administration policy of simply not funding such research. I spent far too much of my life researching stem cell research as a research assitant in graduate school, so it is a topic that is (thankfully no longer) near and dear to my heart (Edit: I need to find a way to use the word research a fourth time in this sentence). The current Bush policy makes us look like morons to the rest of the world, who have been glibly blowing past the United States in this essential technical front. Bush himself is not opposed to stem cell research (or abortion, the issue at the heart of this debate), but uses the issue as ...
In our final issue this semester we open up our pages to the debate over stem cell cloning and DNA testing. On February 28, the U. S. House of Representatives passed a ban on all human cloning and blocked funding for cloned stem cell research. Awaiting passage in the Senate, the bill will put a stop to all stem cell research, as well as, any future human cloning. Supporters of the bill argue that it is immoral to destroy a cloned embryo for research because it has potential as a human being even before implantation in the womb. Congress must act now, said Rep. Sue Myrick, R-NC. We can no longer wait for another biotech company to claim they have cloned children. Anything other than a total ban would license the most ghoulish and dangerous enterprise in human history, she added. We cannot afford to treat the issue of human embryo cloning lightly, said Rep. Bart Stupak, D-Mich., co-author with Rep. Dave Weldon, R-Fla. of a complete ban bill. The human race is not open to experimentation ...
|Who knew there was a term for an animal/human hybrid? Actually, cybrid is short for cytoplasmic hybrid. Wesley Smith has already reported on the story that scientists in the UK - where such things are regulated by the government, unlike in the USA - have requested permission to produce a somatic cell nuclear transfer embryo…
I am a strong supporter of this technology (therapeutic cloning), in particular somatic cell nuclear transfer... Scientific endeavour has been an enduring area of interest to me. I have been particularly concerned with finding an appropriate balance between allowing the cutting-edge research and technology that we have to prosper and needing to protect our community through effective regulation of scientific activity...You need to understand how science progresses. It doesnt progress with a single step that means that you suddenly have cures. It moves incrementally towards a goal, and you gradually put in place bits of the jigsaw and solve various technical problems that are required... Those people who think that there is no moral problem with embryo research should be allowed to carry out that research and should not be prevented from doing so by the power of the law. Those people who think the research is wrong should be allowed to say so and to protest against what they believe to be wrong. ...
The present study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of producing pig transgenic blastocysts expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) and to examine the effects of shape and preparation methods of donor cells on in vitro developmental ability of pig nuclear transferred embryos (NTEs). In experiment 1, the effect of GFP transfection on development of pig NTEs was evaluated. The cleavage and blastocyst rates showed no significant difference between NTEs derived from transfected and non-transfected donors. In experiment 2, the effect of different nuclear donor preparation methods on in vitro development of NTEs was examined. The cleavage rate showed no statistically significant differences among three preparation methods. The blastocyst rates of donor cells treated once at −4 °C and those of freshly digested cells were similar to each other (26.3% vs 17.9%). The lowest blastocyst rates (5.88%) were observed when cells cryopreserved at −196 °C were used as donors. In ...
Developmental Ability of Bovine Embryos Nuclear Transferred with Frozen-thawed or Cooled Donor Cells - Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer;Frozen-thawed;Cooled;Apoptosis;Bovine;
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Study suggests additional hurdles to therapeutic cloning may lie ahead San Diego, Calif. -- Scientists from the Burnham Institute for Medical Research (BIMR) and Illumina Inc., in collaboration with stem cell researchers around the world, have found that the DNA of human embryonic stem cells is chemically modified in a characteristic, predictable pattern. This pattern distinguishes human embryonic stem cells from normal adult cells and cell lines, including cancer cells. The study, which appears online today in Genome Research, should help researchers understand how epigenetic factors contribute to self-renewal and developmental pluripotence, unique characteristics of human embryonic stem cells that may one day allow them to be used to replace diseased or damaged cells with healthy ones in a process called therapeutic cloning. Embryonic stem cells are derived from embryos that are undergoing a period of intense cellular activity, including the chemical addition of methyl groups to specific DNA ...
The developmental efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer has slowly improved over the past five years. Dr. Wilmut achieved a developmental efficiency (recipient oocytes to offspring obtained) of 0.4% in 1996 (Wilmut et al 1997). Dr. Wakayama managed to improve this to 2.8% in subsequent murine research, by using microinjection rather than electrofusion (and other factors) (Wakayama et al 1998). However, the efficiency of development from adult mammalian somatic cells has remained at around 2% since that time (Polejaeva et al 2000). It is anticipated that for every one hundred nuclear transplant embryos, only one or two embryos will result in healthy developmentally normal offspring (Colman 2000). It should be emphasized that this does not mean that 98% of the live-born offspring will be developmentally abnormal, the vast majority of nuclear transplant zygotes do not even get implanted into the uterus. From the scientific literature over the past few years, an averaged developmental ...
What I hope to learn from this topic is what is therapeutic cloning and how it is used today. In addition, I would also like to learn, in general, more about therapeutic cloning. I would like to know what this type of cloning has done from when it was discovered till now and if they are making more discoveries on this topic. Anything to do with stem cells, I am for it. I came to this decision from many different things. This came from personal experiences, because I knew people personal who had treatments done by some type of stem cell treatment. Those treatments helped. Also my teachers daughter was diagnosed with cancer and thanks to stem cells, it had helped her make a recovery. This position also reflects what I have heard from my family. My family is for stem cell treatments of any kind. What me and my family believe is that if it helps you with a disease then it is a good thing. Yeah it may have some negative sides but any treatment or anything in general with have people looking on the ...
Interesting post Erick. I think Adleman read the bill. I guess the whole controversy depends on the interpretation of the definition of human cloning. Both bills prohibit it and both bills provide for the same criminal punishment for engaging in cloning.. However, Adlemans bill defines cloning as the asexual genetic replication of a human being by transferring a preimplantation embryo that has been created by somatic cell nuclear transfer, parthenogenesis, or by other asexual means into a uterus or uterine-like environment with the purpose of creating a human fetus or a human child. Shafers bill defines cloning as human asexual reproduction accomplished by introducing nuclear material from one or more human somatic cells into a fertilized or unfertilized oocyte whose nuclear material has been removed or inactivated so as to produce a living organism at any stage of development that is genetically virtually identical to an existing or previously existing human organism.. Now, Im not a ...
Asexual reproduction in organisms. Sexual reproduction and organs in male and female. The menstrual cycle, fertilisation, ... Research in human reproduction and cloning. Pollination, flowers and dispersal of fruits. The development of fruit and seeds. ... Harms and uses of different plants and animals, overall knowledge of role each organism plays in an ecosystem. Human growth ... Unicellular and multicellular organisms. Adaptation of life to the environment. The evolutionary theory. Scientific ...
That DNA created is then in contact with a host organism. Cloning is also an example of genetic engineering. Since the ... They also play a major role in decay and decomposition with dead organisms. Methanogens are anaerobic organisms, which are ... Any living organism can contract a virus by giving parasites the opportunity to grow. Parasites feed on the nutrients of ... It is used as a model organism because it is easy to grow and has a haploid life cycle that makes genetic analysis simple since ...
The cloning of an organism is a form of asexual reproduction. By asexual reproduction, an organism creates a genetically ... This produces offspring organisms whose genetic characteristics are derived from those of the two parental organisms. Asexual ... The two-fold cost of sexual reproduction is that only 50% of organisms reproduce and organisms only pass on 50% of their genes ... Each of two parent organisms contributes half of the offspring's genetic makeup by creating haploid gametes. Most organisms ...
Alemany A, Florescu M, Baron CS, Peterson-Maduro J, van Oudenaarden A (April 2018). "Whole-organism clone tracing using single- ... August 2017). "Comprehensive single-cell transcriptional profiling of a multicellular organism". Science. 357 (6352): 661-667. ...
Thus, JM109 is useful for cloning and expression systems. E. coli is frequently used as a model organism in microbiology ... Facultative anaerobes are organisms that can grow in either the presence or absence of oxygen.) As long as these bacteria do ... Cui Y, Zhou P, Peng J, Peng M, Zhou Y, Lin Y, Liu L (May 2008). "Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression of cDNA coding for ... E. coli was one of the first organisms to have its genome sequenced; the complete genome of E. coli K12 was published by ...
Vectors incorporate suicide genes for an organism (such as E. coli). The cloning project focuses on replacing the suicide gene ... Suicide genes are often utilized in biotechnology to assist in molecular cloning. ...
He planted 300 cloned redwoods on the U.C. Irvine campus but by 2012 most were dead and the remainder were in poor condition. ... Impacts of Applied Genetics: Micro-organisms, Plants, and Animals. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1981. p. ... Wilson, Janet (10 December 2012). "UCI's cloned redwoods rooted in research". UCI News, University of California, Irvine. (CS1 ...
While Pando is the largest known aspen clone and its age has received considerable attention, other large and old clones exist ... Mihai, Andrei (February 9, 2015). "The Heaviest Living Organism in the World". ZME Science. Retrieved 2015-02-12. Mock, K. E.; ... Due to the progressive replacement of stems and roots, the overall age of an aspen clone cannot be determined from tree rings. ... Michael Grant, Jeffrey Mitton, and Yan Linhart of the University of Colorado at Boulder re-examined the clone in 1992, naming ...
Traditionally DNA was isolated from the cells of organisms. Later, genes came to be cloned from a DNA segment after the ... By crossing an organism containing the recombinase sites flanking the gene of interest with an organism that expresses the SSR ... The organism then transcribes this DNA into RNA and combines this RNA with Cas9 proteins to make double-stranded breaks in the ... The first step is to identify the target gene or genes to insert into the host organism. This is driven by the goal for the ...
Cloning - Dolly the sheep was the first mammal ever cloned from adult animal cells. The cloned sheep was, of course, ... study of chemical processes in living organisms, including living matter. Biochemistry governs all living organisms and living ... This clone was created by taking cells from the udder of a six-year-old ewe and growing them in the lab. Gene therapy - a ... Genetic engineering - taking a gene from one organism and placing it into another. Biochemists inserted the gene for human ...
1995 - Publication of the first complete genome of a free-living organism. 1996 - Dolly the sheep was first clone of an adult ... The Principle of Segregation states that each organism has two genes per trait, which segregate when the organism makes eggs or ... 1958 - John Gurdon used nuclear transplantation to clone an African Clawed Frog; first cloning of a vertebrate using a nucleus ... The Cell Theory states that all organisms are composed of cells (Schleiden and Schwann), and cells can only come from other ...
This driving force has been widely studied in organisms like E. coli. Bacteria reproduces asexually, where daughter cells are ... clones of the parent. This clonal nature leads to random mutations that occur during DNA replication that potentially helps ... Bacterial recombination is a type of genetic recombination in bacteria characterized by DNA transfer from one organism called ... donor to another organism as recipient. This process occurs in three main ways: Transformation, the uptake of exogenous DNA ...
... is one method used to map the interactome of living organisms. Golemis, Erica (2002). Protein-protein ... interactions: a molecular cloning manual. Plainview, N.Y: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. ISBN 0-87969-628-1. Schon, Eric ...
These organisms are now used for several purposes, and are particularly important in producing large amounts of pure human ... Karl Drlica (2004). Understanding DNA and Gene Cloning: A Guide for the Curious (4th ed.). ISBN 978-0-471-43416-0. (Articles ... Genes and other genetic information from a wide range of organisms can be added to a plasmid and inserted into bacteria for ... Malyshev DA, Dhami K, Lavergne T, Chen T, Dai N, Foster JM, Corrêa IR, Romesberg FE (May 2014). "A semi-synthetic organism with ...
... organisms or be modular organisms. Unitary organisms have determinate development (set life stages) from zygote to adult form ... For instance, the bacterial colony is a cluster of identical cells (clones). These colonies often form and grow on the surface ... Obtaining such genetically identical organisms (or pure strains) can be useful; this is done by spreading organisms on a ... Modular organisms save energy by using asexual reproduction during their life. Energy reserved in this way allows them to put ...
A single flagella is present on the organism, emerging from one polar end of the cell. The Thermoplasma volcanium isolates have ... Kocabiyik S; Ozdemir I; Zwickl P; Ozdoğan S (October 2010). "Molecular cloning and co-expression of Thermoplasma volcanium ... sequenced the total genome of Thermoplasma volcanium via fragment cloning. Thermoplasma volcanium possesses a circular genome ... No previous phylogenetic classifications have been made for this organism. Thermoplasma volcanium reproduces asexually via ...
In living organisms, they are essential machinery for many aspects of DNA repair. Defects in certain nucleases can cause ... Nucleases are also extensively used in molecular cloning. There are two primary classifications based on the locus of activity ... DNA mismatch repair in any given organism is effected by a suite of mismatch-specific endonucleases. In prokaryotes, this role ... Both modes play important roles in living organisms, especially in DNA repair. Nonspecific endonucleases involved in DNA repair ...
... to isolate clones of bacteria cells). "Cloning" can also refer to the various means of creating cloned ("clonal") organisms.[ ... Diploid organisms with two copies of the same allele of a given gene are called homozygous at that gene locus, while organisms ... Offspring that are genetically identical to their parents are called clones.[citation needed] Eukaryotic organisms often use ... The set of alleles for a given organism is called its genotype, while the observable traits of the organism are called its ...
The number of clones to get a sampling of all the genes is determined by the size of the organism's genome as well as the ... the genome of an organism can be sequenced to elucidate how genes affect an organism or to compare similar organisms at the ... Genome size varies among different organisms and the cloning vector must be selected accordingly. For a large genome, a vector ... Once a clone from a genomic library is sequenced, the sequence can be used to screen the library for other clones containing ...
... has been shown to be a single clone connected by the root system. It is sometimes considered the world's largest organism by ... King Clone Tumour heterogeneity "Tasmanian bush could be oldest living organism". Discovery Channel. Archived from the original ... Another possible candidate for oldest organism on earth is an underwater meadow of the marine plant Posidonia oceanica in the ... but underground they remain interconnected and are all clones of the same plant. However, it is not always easy to recognize a ...
Cloning is necessary for the assay because it ensures that the promoter is the only factor affecting expression. This step ... often involves extraction of the DNA from the organism it resides in and PCR amplification. Sequence the region. DNA Sequencing ... This is an example procedure for a promoter bashing assay, adapted from Boulin et al.: Clone the region of DNA thought to act ...
The Zebrafish Database Project B. Thisse and C. Thisse (2004). "Fast release clones: a high throughput expression analysis". ... 2008). The Zebrafish Information Network: the zebrafish model organism database provides expanded support for genotypes and ... and clones Gene expression Antibodies Sequence alignments (BLAST) Mutants and transgenic lines Anatomy Genetic maps ZFIN also ... The zebrafish is a widely used model organism for genetic, genomic, and developmental studies, and ZFIN provides an integrated ...
... cloning of organisms, gene therapy, and patenting; for promoting global health research, especially on malaria; and for ...
One such experiment was the cloning of recombinant DNAs derived from highly pathogenic organisms. In addition, neither the ... However, unless the organism made a dangerous product, recombinant DNAs from cold-blooded vertebrates and all other lower ... For these reasons, the other investigators feared that the final step would create cloned SV40 DNA that might escape into the ... Additionally, purified DNA from any source that performed known functions and was judged to be non-toxic could be cloned with ...
The "King Clone" creosote ring is one of the oldest living organisms on Earth. It has been alive an estimated 11,700 years, in ... "King Clone, The World's Oldest Living Thing". Botanical Record-Breakers. Waynesworld. photo links "Creosote bush in desert ... Vasek, F. C. (February 1980). "Creosote Bush: Long-Lived Clones in the Mojave Desert". American Journal of Botany. 67 (2): 246- ... King Clone was identified and its age estimated by Frank Vasek, a professor at the University of California, Riverside. ...
... is the creation of new life by other than the natural means available to an organism. Examples include ... artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, cloning and embryonic splitting, or cleavage. Cutting plants' stems and ...
Streisinger's zebrafish clones were among the earliest successful vertebrate clones created. Its importance has been ... They can be cultured ex-vivo (kept alive outside of the organism) in a multi-well plate, which allows manipulation with drugs ... The researchers cloned oestrogen-sensitive genes and injected them into the fertile eggs of zebrafish. The modified fish turned ... D. rerio is a common and useful scientific model organism for studies of vertebrate development and gene function. Its use as a ...
The genomic DNA for ERCC1 was the first human DNA repair gene to be isolated by molecular cloning. The original method was by ... Similar genes with similar functions are found in all eukaryotic organisms. ... Sep 1984). "Molecular cloning of a human DNA repair gene". Nature. 310 (5976): 425-9. Bibcode:1984Natur.310..425W. doi:10.1038/ ... 1984). "Molecular cloning of a human DNA repair gene". Nature. 310 (5976): 425-9. Bibcode:1984Natur.310..425W. doi:10.1038/ ...
Model organisms have been used in the study of MYD88 function. The gene was originally discovered and cloned by Dan Liebermann ... Bonnert TP, Garka KE, Parnet P, Sonoda G, Testa JR, Sims JE (January 1997). "The cloning and characterization of human MyD88: a ... "The cloning and characterization of human MyD88: a member of an IL-1 receptor related family". FEBS Letters. 402 (1): 81-4. doi ...
... faster than baseline organisms, by developing multiple flagella, whereas the baseline organism has a single flagellum. This ... While P. aeruginosa is generally thought of as an opportunistic pathogen, several widespread clones appear to have become more ... This organism can achieve anaerobic growth with nitrate or nitrite as a terminal electron acceptor. When oxygen, nitrate, and ... The organism is also associated with the skin lesion ecthyma gangrenosum. P. aeruginosa is frequently associated with ...
Therapeutic cloning. *Embryology. *Environmental biotechnology. *Genetic engineering *Genetically modified organism. *Molecular ...
... and its derivatives have many functions in humans and in other organisms. The most notable function is that choline ... "cDNA cloning of phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase from spinach by complementation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and ...
Many are physical contacts with molecular associations between chains that occur in a cell or in a living organism in a ... In: Golemis, E. (ed.) Protein-Protein Interactions - A Molecular Cloning Manual, 2nd ed. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. ... These physiological interactions make up the so-called interactomics of the organism, while aberrant PPIs are the basis of ... Intragenic complementation has been demonstrated in many different genes in a variety of organisms including the fungi ...
Also, among organisms that reproduce only asexually, the concept of a reproductive species breaks down, and each clone is ... When organisms reproduce asexually, as in single-celled organisms such as bacteria and other prokaryotes,[72] and ... defined as a set of organisms with a similar phenotype to each other, but a different phenotype from other sets of organisms.[ ... All species definitions assume that an organism acquires its genes from one or two parents very like the "daughter" organism, ...
All the BCR of any one clone of B cells recognizes and binds to only one particular antigen. A critical difference between B ... The phrase was used almost exclusively by Good and his students and a few other immunologists working with marginal organisms ... In adaptive immunity, pathogen-specific receptors are "acquired" during the lifetime of the organism (whereas in innate ... The principle behind immunization is to introduce an antigen, derived from a disease-causing organism, that stimulates the ...
Mori, H.; Takeda-Yoshikawa, Y.; Hara-Nishimura, I.; Nishimura, M. (1991). "Pumpkin malate synthase Cloning and sequencing of ... of the genes in an organism may have their expression monitored. ...
These polyps reproduce asexually by budding, but remain attached to each other, forming a multi-polyp colony of clones with a ... Many shallow-water corals contain symbiont unicellular organisms known as zooxanthellae within their tissues. These give their ...
Kusumi, Kenro (1997). Positional cloning and characterization of the mouse pudgy locus. (PhD thesis). MIT. hdl:1721.1/ ... which are often used as model organisms in studies of everything from human diseases to embryonic development. The WICGR has ... Segre, Julia (1996). Positional cloning of nude, a fork head transcription factor : genetic, physical and transcriptional maps ...
Colonies of clones in some species; some solitary species. Colonies of clones ... Molecular phylogeny, which attempts to work out the evolutionary family tree of organisms by comparing their biochemistry and ... Colonies of clones in most; one solitary genus. Sessile species often form clumps, but with no active co-operation. ... Bryozoans form colonies consisting of clones called zooids that are typically about 0.5 mm (1⁄64 in) long.[14] Phoronids ...
Barley seeds are found to produce clone 10 in Ignatius et al 1994(a). They find clone 10, a Class I chitinase, in the seed ... Chitinivorous organisms include many bacteria[3] (Aeromonads, Bacillus, Vibrio,[4] among others), which may be pathogenic or ... They attack living arthropods, zooplankton or fungi or they may degrade the remains of these organisms. ... Regulation varies from species to species, and within an organism, chitinases with different physiological functions would be ...
In the sea, plants-and some animals-can simply scatter out genetic clones of themselves to float away and grow elsewhere. This ... Many flowers have close relationships with one or a few specific pollinating organisms. Many flowers, for example, attract only ... While many such symbiotic relationships remain too fragile to survive competition with mainland organisms, flowers proved to be ... leading to the creation of a genetic clone through asexual reproduction. This increases the reliability of producing seeds, the ...
Other organisms, such as the lichen Trapelia involuta or microorganisms such as the bacterium Citrobacter, can absorb ... "Cloning and Overexpression of Alkaline Phosphatase PhoK from Sphingomonas sp. Strain BSAR-1 for Bioprecipitation of Uranium ... this creates the possibility that these organisms could be used in bioremediation to decontaminate uranium-polluted water.[27][ ...
As venomous organisms often use their neurotoxins to subdue a predator or prey very rapidly, toxins have evolved to become ... Carmichael WW, Gorham PR (1978). "Anatoxins from clones of Anabaena flos-aquae isolated from lakes of western Canada". Mitt. ... Neurotoxins can be found in a number of organisms, including some strains of cyanobacteria,[1] that can be found in algal ... As the nervous system in most organisms is both highly complex and necessary for survival, it has naturally become a target for ...
By contrast, organisms such as Pseudomonas, although possessing endotoxin, cause plasma ferritin levels to drop significantly ... De Zoysa M, Lee J (September 2007). "Two ferritin subunits from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): cloning, ... Because iron is an important mineral in mineralization, ferritin is employed in the shells of organisms such as molluscs to ... The protein is produced by almost all living organisms, including archaea, bacteria, algae, higher plants, and animals. It is ...
An organism's phenotype results from two basic factors: the expression of an organism's genetic code, or its genotype, and the ... Once they have been mapped out, cloned, and identified, it can be determined whether a mutation represents a new gene or not. ... An organism's genotype is the set of genes that it carries. An organism's phenotype is all of its observable characteristics - ... is the set of observable characteristics or traits of an organism.[1][2] The term covers the organism's morphology or physical ...
The BAC clones that contain chromosome aberrations have end sequences that do not map to a similar region of the reference ... The genomics era began in the 1990s, with the generation of DNA sequences of many organisms. In the 21st century, the ... These tags are then linked to into ditags, concatenated, cloned, sequenced and mapped back to the reference genome to evaluate ... This research involves studying cancer genomes, transcriptomes and proteomes in model organisms such as mice, identifying ...
Since 1998, it has been possible to clone mice from cells derived from adult animals. ... who was influential in promoting the mouse as a laboratory organism.[10] In 2011, an estimated 83% of laboratory rodents ... The mouse has since been used extensively as a model organism and is associated with many important biological discoveries of ...
Individual organisms, including humans, are part of a species by virtue of their relations with other members of the same ... "Protecting the Endangered Human: Toward an International Treaty Prohibiting Cloning and Inheritable Alterations". American ... is going to be due to both heritable features of the organism as well as the particular environmental features the organism ... might be characterized by one or more characters which are both universally distributed among and limited to the organisms ...
... organisms with enhanced DNA repair systems, such as Deinococcus radiodurans, the most radiation-resistant known organism, ... When clones of these cells were maintained for three years, the new methylation patterns were maintained over that time period. ... The DNA repair ability of a cell is vital to the integrity of its genome and thus to the normal functionality of that organism ... Unregulated cell division can lead to the formation of a tumor (see cancer), which is potentially lethal to an organism. ...
... organisms with multiple plastids show an 80-fold increase in plastid-to-nucleus gene transfer compared with organisms with ... Molecular cloning and functional characterization of two new members of the porin family". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... Some organisms can take opportunistic advantage of a similar process, where they engulf an alga and use the products of its ... a New Study of the Origins of Organisms.[4][5][6] Mereschkowski knew of the work of botanist Andreas Schimper, who had observed ...
The effect of formation of the isthmus on the marine biota of the area was the inverse of its effect on terrestrial organisms, ... Clones, and Biomes. University of Chicago Press. pp. 123-142. doi:10.7208/chicago/9780226649214.003.0007. ISBN 978-0-226-64919- ... Lessios, H.A. (December 2008). "The Great American Schism: Divergence of Marine Organisms After the Rise of the Central ... "The Great American Schism: Divergence of Marine Organisms after the Rise of the Central American Isthmus". Annual Review of ...
C-phycocyanin has a single absorption peak at ~621 nm,[8][9] varying slightly depending on the organism and conditions such as ... Liu J, Zhang X, Sui Z, Zhang X, Mao Y (March 2005). "Cloning and characterization of c-phycocyanin operon from the ... Some filamentous organisms in the Baltic Sea include Nodularia spumigena and Aphanizomenon flosaquae. ...
List of organisms named after the Star Wars series. *Robot Chicken: Star Wars ... Attack of the Clones. *Revenge of the Sith. *The Clone Wars. *The Force Awakens ...
Houdebine, Louis-Marie; Fan, Jianglin (1 June 2009). Rabbit Biotechnology: Rabbit Genomics, Transgenesis, Cloning and Models. ... Therefore, longer ears are meant to aid the organism in detecting predators sooner rather than later in warmer temperatures.[19 ... Thermoregulation is the process that an organism utilizes to maintain an optimal body temperature independent of external ... They are made up of micro-organisms and undigested plant cell walls.[citation needed] ...
Genetically modified organisms in agriculture. Hidden categories: *Webarchive template wayback links. *All articles with dead ...
Deletions are representative of eukaryotic organisms, including humans and not in prokaryotic organisms, such as bacteria. ... In particular, microarray-comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) based on the use of BAC clones promises a sensitive strategy ...
Suchi M, Mizuno H, Kawai Y, Tsuboi T, Sumi S, Okajima K, Hodgson ME, Ogawa H, Wada Y (Mar 1997). "Molecular cloning of the ... Deficiency of the enzyme can be studied in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. The rad-6 strain has a premature stop ... Suchi M, Harada N, Tsuboi T, Asai K, Okajima K, Wada Y, Takagi Y (1990). "Molecular cloning of human UMP synthase". Purine and ... Merging both the fusion order and evolutionary origin, organisms end up having fused UMPS where one of its catalytic domains ...
Multiple cloning sites are sometimes used to ensure that the fragments are inserted in all three possible reading frames so ... tissue or organism) so that the function or the mechanism of the function of that protein may be determined. Phage display is ... This displayed the different peptides on the outer surfaces of the collection of viral clones, where the screening step of the ... Danner S, Belasco JG (November 2001). "T7 phage display: a novel genetic selection system for cloning RNA-binding proteins from ...
The cloning and sequencing of the Norwalk virus genome showed that these viruses have a genomic organization consistent with ... Anonymous (1 May 2010). "Notifiable diseases and causative organisms: how to report - GOV.UK". Public Health ...
When the two planets periodically approach each other in orbit every few hundred years, the organisms form into long strings of ... and mentioning DragonStrike as a superior clone. Addams 1984, p. 100. Hunter, William. "Epyx - The Dot Eaters". Retrieved 14 ...
Ethical, scientific and social implications of cloning in human health  Executive Board, 101 (‎World Health Organization, 1998 ... Implementation of resolutions and decisions: ethical, scientific and social implications of cloning in human health  ...
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Human cloning / edited by James M. Humber, and Robert F. Almeder. by Humber, James M , Almeder, Robert F. ...
Restriction digests of the clone give the following sizes (kb): EcoRI--4.4; HindIII--4.4; EcoRI/HindIII--3.0, 1.45; BglI--4.4; ... Organism. Homo sapiens, human. Clone type. Clone Applications. Molecular biology. Product format. Freeze-dried Shipping ... Restriction digests of the clone give the following sizes (kb): EcoRI--4.4; HindIII--4.4; EcoRI/HindIII--3.0, 1.45; BglI--4.4; ...
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Clone name: cLER-1-D11. Order Clone. Library Name: cLER. Organism: Solanum lycopersicum (formerly Lycopersicon esculentum). ... Clone: SGN-C178479 [TUS-29-E5]. Trace: SGN-T183765. EST: SGN-E370424. Direction: 3. Facility: INRA. ... Clone: SGN-C178479 [TUS-29-E5]. Trace: SGN-T183766. EST: SGN-E370425. Direction: 5. Facility: INRA. ... Microarray: Alias clone SGN-C178479 is on microarray TOM1: SGN-S1-1- There is no map position defined on SGN for this ...
Next-day shipping cDNA ORF clones derived from Jph4 junctophilin 4 available at GenScript, starting from $99.00. ... Organism. Mus musculus(house mouse). Product. junctophilin-4. Comment. Comment: VALIDATED REFSEQ: This record has undergone ... DYK or the vector of your choice as an expression/transfection-ready ORF clone. Not the clone you want? Click here to find your ... Clone ID Related Accession (Same CDS sequence). NM_177049.5 Accession Version. NM_177049.5 Latest version!. Documents for ORF ...
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a community organism. Clin Infect Dis. 1995;21:1308-12. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... 1 clone (2 clones in CC1 and CC45, 3 clones in CC8 and CC59, and 5 clones in CC5). ... Twenty-nine clones were identified, including 7 (22.5%) EMRSA clones and 22 (77.5%) CA-MRSA clones. ... EMRSA Clones. Table 1 shows the 7 EMRSA clones identified: ST22-MRSA-IV (EMRSA-15), ST239-MRSA-III (Aus-2 and Aus-3 EMRSA), ST8 ...
Somatic cell nuclear transfer was successfully used for production of viable cloned puppies despite limited understanding of in ... article is to review dog cloning research and to suggest its applications based on a discussion about the normality of cloned ... Cloning, Organism / adverse effects * Cloning, Organism / veterinary* * Conservation of Natural Resources * Dogs / genetics* ... Lessons learned from cloning dogs Reprod Domest Anim. 2012 Aug;47 Suppl 4:115-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2012.02064.x. ...
Organism. Homo sapiens Lineage. Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; ... GenScript latest version of gene cDNA ORF Clone. * GenScript latest version of gene cDNA ORF Clone ... Orthologs from Annotation Pipeline: 173 organisms have orthologs with human gene TEX49 ...
Cloning, Organism [‎5]‎. Commerce [‎6]‎. Delivery of Health Care [‎48]‎. Delivery of Health Care, Integrated [‎18]‎. ...
Cloning, Organism [‎24]‎. Commerce [‎38]‎. Communicable Disease Control [‎12]‎. Communicable Diseases [‎6]‎. ...
Recombinant Arachis hypogaea Allergen Ara h 1, clone P17 , CSB-YP331779ANE(A4) , CusabioAlternative Name(s): Allergen Ara h I ... Organism Recombinants * All Organism Recombinants * Acinetobacter baumannii Recombinant * Arabidopsis thaliana Recombinant * ... Recombinant Arachis hypogaea Allergen Ara h 1, clone P17 , CSB-YP331779ANE(A4) Cusabio Arachis hypogaea Recombinants ... Recombinant Arachis hypogaea Allergen Ara h 1, clone P17 , CSB-EP331779ANE(A4) Cusabio Arachis hypogaea Recombinants ...
... tissue or organism. Learn about the types and uses in medicine. ... Cloning is the process of creating an exact genetic replica of ... Cloning describes the processes used to create an exact genetic replica of another cell, tissue or organism. The copied ... Statement on Human Cloning (American Association for the Advancement of Science) * What is Cloning? (Genetic Science Learning ... Reproductive cloning, which creates copies of whole animals. *Therapeutic cloning, which creates embryonic stem cells. ...
Organism. Homo sapiens Lineage. Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; ... GenScript latest version of gene cDNA ORF Clone. * GenScript latest version of gene cDNA ORF Clone ... Orthologs from Annotation Pipeline: 316 organisms have orthologs with human gene SPRN ...
Cloning host E. coli Organism Solanum lycopersicum (formerly Lycopersicon esculentum) Cloning vector pBeloBAC11 ... BAC Clones BAC clones can be ordered from the clone ordering page at TFGD ... Show Only Clones With Known contamination. End sequence(s). Overgo probe matches to markers. Computational matches to markers. ... This clone is being sequenced by the Chromosome 2 Sequencing Project. (View projects). Log in as a curator or sequencer to edit ...
How can genetically identical organisms be cloned? This course will offer an integrative study of the development of animals, ... Why are identical twins not perfect "clones" of each other? Why are even cloned animals not perfect "clones"? Why does a ... 181 Adaptation and the Organism. An introduction to the evolution, ecology, and behavior of organisms and how these relate to ... The majority of organisms on earth cause disease or are parasitic, and it could be said that a thorough understanding of ...
Test organisms (species):. Daphnia magna. Details on test organisms:. TEST ORGANISM. - Common name: water flee. - Strain/clone ... of organisms per vessel: 1. - No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 10. - No. of vessels per control (replicates): 10 ...
Next-day shipping cDNA ORF clones derived from col-84 COLlagen available at GenScript, starting from $99.00. ... Organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Definition Caenorhabditis elegans COLlagen (col-84), partial mRNA.. Target ORF information:. ... DYK or the vector of your choice as an expression/transfection-ready ORF clone. Not the clone you want? Click here to find your ... Clone ID Related Accession (Same CDS sequence). NM_064134.5 , NM_064134.6 Accession Version. NM_064134.6 Latest version!. ...
Cloned(Commentary). Cloned (Comment). Organism. the gene is encoded by Ag+ resistance plasmid pMG101, the plasmid is ... Organism. Comment (Nat. Sub.). Natural Products. Comment (Nat. Pro.). Rev.. Reac.. ATP + H2O + Ag+/in. Salmonella sp.. required ... Organism. More. enzyme of the heavy-metal resistance efflux P-type ATPase family. The enzyme has a conserved aspartyl residues ... transferred by conjugation to Escherichia coli, from which it is cloned. Salmonella sp.. ...
SummaryOrganisms in targets/structuresOrganism pipelineStructure statisticsLigands - statisticsLigands - full listInfectious ... Clone Suffix. Experiment Date Start. Experiment Date End. Staff. Lab. Protocol. Status. Vector. ...
Test organisms (species):. Daphnia magna. Details on test organisms:. TEST ORGANISM. - Common name: Waterflea. - Strain/clone: ... Test organisms (species):. other aquatic mollusc: Crassostrea virginica. Details on test organisms:. TEST ORGANISM. - Common ... of organisms per vessel: 20. - Loading of organisms: 25 Daphnia/L. - No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4. - No. of ... of organisms per vessel: 20 (40 per treatment level and the controls). - No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2. - No ...
Organism Cloning 17% * Genes 15% * Polymerase Chain Reaction 11% * Proteins 7% Chemical Compounds. * Fermentation 54% ...
The Seventh-Day Adventist General Conference statement regarding the ethical considerations regarding human cloning. ... Each gene of an organism can exist in slightly different forms. Those small differences are responsible for some of the ... Clones. Two or more individuals with identical genetic material. Human clones occur naturally in the form of "identical twins ... An additional major risk is that cloning could lead to expedient uses of those who are cloned, with their value assigned ...
Organism. Homo sapiens, human. Clone type. Clone Applications. Molecular biology. Product format. Test tube Shipping ...
Unicellular organisms are primed to replicate (clone) themselves by nature. Multi-cellular organisms and higher species ... are opposed to reproductive cloning, but support therapeutic cloning. The international debate to ban all types of cloning, not ... Reproductive cloning versus therapeutic cloning: the global debate. At this time there is a global consensus across all ... Islamic perspectives on cloning. The issue of cloning within the Eastern Mediterranean Region is strongly linked to religious ...
clone. genetically identical copy of a single gene or entire organism. genetic engineering. process of changing an organisms ... organism whose genome has been altered to contain one or more genes from another organism or species. ... genetically engineered DNA that contains genes from more than one organism or species. ... agent that can induce or increase the frequency of mutations in organisms. ...
  • The emergence of multidrug-resistant CA-MRSA clones and the detection of PVL toxin genes in clones previously reported as PVL negative is a major public health concern. (
  • GGTase I peptide sequences were obtained from the purified protein and used to clone the genes encoding both subunits. (
  • Genetics is an academic discipline that studies the genes and heredity in living organisms. (
  • When, as a result of sexual reproduction, organisms shuffle their genes, harmful mutations can be brought together in the same genome, making them more susceptible to the cleansing action of natural selection. (
  • By 1988, Dr. Chalfie was interested in cloning genes and he wanted to know where genes were being expressed in the C. elegans. (
  • In this case, sexual reproduction allows an organism to mix and match its genes with another, facilitating the evolution of defenses against invaders. (
  • Genetics is the study of genes , heredity , and the variation of organisms , as well as the medical practice of diagnosing, treating, and counseling patients with genetic disorders . (
  • Researchers surveyed 501 randomly selected adults, testing their knowledge of G.M.O.s with a series of true/false questions - for example, the cloning of living things produces genetically identical copies (true), or it is not possible to transfer animal genes into plants (false). (
  • The observed distribution of resistance plasmids and β-lactamase genes in several clones indicates a high degree of horizontal transfer. (
  • To examine the activities of the conserved core PKS genes from dermatophytes, we cloned the clusters using yeast recombination 12 followed by expression in Aspergillus nidulans ( Figure S1, Supplementary Information ). (
  • Therefore, cloning in domestic dogs can be applied as an assisted reproductive technique to conserve endangered species, to treat sterile canids or aged dogs, to improve reproductive performance of valuable individuals and to generate disease model animals. (
  • Multi-cellular organisms and higher species replicate naturally through a reproduction mechanism involving male and female germ cells. (
  • Cloning in higher species involves somatic cell nuclear transfer, a process in which the nucleus of a somatic (non-germ) cell is taken out and inserted into an enucleated fertilized female germ cell (egg, ovum). (
  • This is reproductive cloning, and can in theory be applied to any species of mammals, including humans. (
  • Church proposed to use DNA from extinct species to clone and breed new organisms from those species. (
  • Estimates indicate that there may be up to 2 billion living species of organisms, each with conserved and unique biological mechanisms that are vital for survival. (
  • it generates hundreds of thousands of reads per run, which is crucial because the majority of the DNA recovered from fossils is generally not derived from the fossil species, but rather from organisms that have colonized the organism after its death. (
  • These earlier "classic" MRSA strains were genetically similar to each other and may have evolved from a single clone ( 2 ). (
  • Clones are organisms that are genetically identical to each other. (
  • Are Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) safe? (
  • The relapse phenomenon occurs because of genetically programmed shifting of outer surface proteins of the Borrelia that allows a new clone to avoid destruction by antibodies directed against the majority of the original infecting organisms. (
  • The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. (
  • Instead of producing a new plant through fertilisation of a pollen grain and ovule, some plants can reproduce simply by growing more cells by mitosis to create genetically identical offspring or clones . (
  • The FDA, in accordance with the wishes of the large pharmaceutical companies who supply the feedstocks for 90% of all dietary supplements, allows vitamin companies to label their products as "natural," "food-based," or even "organic," even if these supplements are composed of 90% synthetic ingredients, including genetically modified organisms. (
  • The researchers recently revived a frozen population of E. coli and compared the fitness and ultimate fates of four clones representing two genetically distinct lineages. (
  • Most scientists agree that genetically modified organisms, or G.M.O.s, are safe to eat. (
  • Therapeutic cloning, which creates embryonic stem cells . (
  • 5. In 2001, France and Germany requested the United Nations General Assembly to develop international conventions on human reproductive cloning, therapeutic cloning and research on stem cells. (
  • For example, microorganisms, like common yeast, reproduce by splitting into two daughter cells that are clones of the parent cell and each other. (
  • In its simplest form, cloning is defined as the exact replication of cells. (
  • The cytopathic effects of Mahoney infection were comparable in the cell clones and in HEp-2c cells. (
  • The S. pombe cells harboring pPDI10 showed increased PDI activity and accelerated growth, suggesting that the cloned PDI gene is functioning and involved in the yeast growth. (
  • The first successful cloning of a gaur in 2000 by Advanced Cell Technology involved the cells of two animals: an egg cell from a domestic cow and a skin cell from a gaur. (
  • Sometimes called "the father of cloning", German scientist Hans Spemann conducted primitive cloning experiments and studied how embryo cells develop. (
  • Scientists could clone individual cells or portions of DNA, but they will need a lot more than mummified blood cells. (
  • He is one of three scientists to win the 2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their work in developing green fluorescent protein (GFP) to track changes in cells or organisms. (
  • Animal cloning from freeze-dried cells? (
  • Sayaka Wakayama of Yamanashi University in Ionian explains that freeze-dried somatic cells can produce healthy and fertile clones. (
  • Although cloning is not easy, it allows you to get all of the animal's genetic material, not just half, that is contained in the reproductive cells. (
  • The main difference between fission and fragmentation is that in fission, a parent cell splits into daughter cells, whereas, in fragmentation, a parent organism breaks into fragments, developing a new organism . (
  • that type of Asexual mode of reproduction in which one parental body of organism divides into two or more daughter cells is known as fission. (
  • In binary fission the karyokinesis that is division of nucleus is followed by cytokinesis that is division of cytoplasm so nothing is left with the parents ,daughter cells feed grow and repeat the process that's why organism which are undergoing binary fission are also known as immortal. (
  • Ca 2+ is a universal intracellular signalling molecule found in all organisms from prokaryotes to highly specialized animal cells. (
  • to harvesting and cloning fetal cells, saying NO! (
  • 3) I AM OPPOSED to any laboratory use of aborted fetal cells, clones thereof, fetal cell cultures and fetal cell-lines, whether this use be in the course of research, experiment, development, production or testing. (
  • Without the presence of pathogens, the host organism sticks with the tried-and-true method of asexual breeding. (
  • When threatened by a continually evolving pathogen that gets better and better at killing its host, however, the host organism starts seeking out sex partners . (
  • Cloning describes the processes used to create an exact genetic replica of another cell, tissue or organism. (
  • The copied material, which has the same genetic makeup as the original, is referred to as a clone. (
  • A clone is an organism that is a genetic copy of an existing one. (
  • 2. Nuclear transfer is a technique used to duplicate genetic material by creating an embryo through the transfer and fusion of a diploid cell in an enucleated female oocyte.2 Cloning has a broader meaning than nuclear transfer as it also involves gene replication and natural or induced embryo splitting (see Annex 1). (
  • Recent advances in genetic and reproductive biology, however, indicate that techniques for cloning humans may soon be developed. (
  • In a single stand, each tree is a genetic replicate of the other, hence the name a "clone" of aspens used to describe a stand. (
  • Genetic abnormalities resulting from DNA damage were also observed in some individuals, so it was difficult to call them a true clone. (
  • Within organisms , genetic information generally is carried in chromosomes , where it is represented in the chemical structure of particular DNA molecules . (
  • Understanding the amount of genetic variation and the relatedness of strains helps us appreciate the way the organism is changing and interpret our laboratory findings to track and control the spread of infections. (
  • According to modern science mainstream view, organisms develop from genetic inheritance, the genotype, and some plasticity is admitted to the traits which compose an organism's phenotype, which depends on environmental interaction. (
  • The term 'map' refers equally to land masses, countries, societies and the genetic make-ups of organisms and thus indicates some sort of scaled fractal relationship between the particular and the universal. (
  • In 2009, a predominant clone of Clostridium difficile polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ribotype 002 with hyper-sporulation was identified in Hong Kong (China). (
  • Using multilocus sequence/staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec typing, 22 CA-MRSA clones were characterized. (
  • using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) combined with staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCC mec ) typing, established that relatively few major EMRSA clones existed ( 5 ). (
  • This clone is being sequenced by the Chromosome 2 Sequencing Project. (
  • One clone ID might be correlated to multiple accession numbers, which share the same CDS sequence. (
  • 2. Over the years, the international community has tried without success to build a consensus on an international convention against the reproductive cloning of human beings. (
  • 3. Creating awareness among ministries of health in the African Region will provide them with critical and relevant information on the reproductive cloning of human beings and its implications to the health status of the general population. (
  • 7. The WHO Regional Committee for Africa is invited to review this document for information and guidance concerning reproductive cloning of human beings. (
  • 3. Media reports on nuclear transfer are usually about one form, reproductive nuclear transfer, also known as reproductive cloning of human beings . (
  • Cloning technology, however, is perceived as having the potential for reproductive cloning, which raises serious ethical and moral concerns. (
  • When cloning animals, you need a non-reproductive cell (called a somatic cell) that contains all of the individual's DNA. (
  • Development of different organisms from non -sexual reproductive units like fragments, buds, gemmules and spore is known as blastogenesis and asexual reproductive body is known as blastos. (
  • Bacteria " - a living organism that is usually a single cell. (
  • Microbiome " or " Microbiota "- is the civilization of bacteria and other organism that lives somewhere. (
  • Genome editing technologies enable scientists to make changes to the DNA of many organisms, including plants, bacteria, and animals. (
  • These bacteria were members of the Los Angeles Clone (LAC) strain of MRSA. (
  • 1. Cloning is an umbrella term traditionally used by scientists to describe different processes for duplicating biological material. (
  • The concept of human cloning has long been in the imagination of many scientists, scholars and fiction writers [1]. (
  • Scientists have long wondered why organisms bother with sexual reproduction. (
  • How do scientists clone DNA? (
  • The fantasy behind the story is that scientists can clone dinosaurs. (
  • For example, can scientists clone dinosaurs? (
  • By comparing structures from different organisms, the scientists in the Chapman lab realized that there was a continuum of structures rather than a single nucleotide-bound form. (
  • Somatic cell nuclear transfer was successfully used for production of viable cloned puppies despite limited understanding of in vitro dog embryo production. (
  • There are other methods of cloning, for example, embryo splitting, which may occur naturally or be encouraged. (
  • Carbon sequestration is a biochemical process by which atmospheric carbon is absorbed by living organisms, including trees, soil micro-organisms, and crops, and involving the storage of carbon in soils, with the potential to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. (
  • and can engineer micro-organisms to clean-up our environment. (
  • Currently, progress is focused on small things, like individual gene networks or micro-organisms. (
  • We can uncover the genome sequence, complete with epigenetic programming instructions, for practically any extant organism within a few weeks. (
  • The woolly mammoth genome was sequenced in 2008, and Japanese researchers are reputedly cloning it now, using extant elephant relatives as surrogate mothers. (
  • Contains a variety of protocols for genome manipulation with Cas9, including genome editing, troubleshooting in specific organisms, how to detect editing, guide RNA library construction, and CRISPR inhibition or activation screening. (
  • Q Protein is obtained by combining 5 highly antigenic fragments, fused and cloned into E. coli, from 4 Leishmania infantum proteins. (
  • The fragments were cloned and some clones were size-selectd and sequenced. (
  • Although a statewide policy of screening all hospital patients and staff who have lived outside the state for MRSA has prevented the establishment of multidrug-resistant epidemic MRSA, the policy has not prevented SCC mec type IV and type V MRSA clones from becoming established. (
  • Isolation precautions should also be implemented when a multidrug-resistant organism is isolated. (
  • Cloning includes all those processes by which living plants or animals are replicated by asexual means-methods that do not involve the fusion of egg and sperm. (
  • budding, in biology, a form of asexual reproduction in which a new individual develops from some generative anatomical point of the parent organism . (
  • Budding refers to a type of asexual reproduction in which a new organism develops from an outgrowth or bud due to cell division at one particular site, while fragmentation refers to a type of asexual reproduction in which the body of the parent organism breaks off into pieces that subsequently regenerate. (
  • The small animal which cannot mate with male organism have a benefit to reproduce by Asexual mode of reproduction and producing number of young ones without any cost and time expanding this is major advantage of Asexual mode of reproduction. (
  • Morphological and genetical similar individuals which are produced by Asexual mode of reproduction is known as clone. (
  • Design gRNAs and accompanying primers for gRNA cloning, expression, and validating genomic edits. (
  • Viable microorganisms are metabolically active (living) organisms with the potential to reproduce. (
  • Culturable organisms reproduce under controlled conditions. (
  • Why should organisms devote so much of their time and energy to attracting mates, when they can reproduce much more efficiently by cloning themselves? (
  • A new study finds that in organisms that can reproduce alone or with a partner, sexual reproduction is the result of a deadly arms race between host and pathogen. (
  • When threatened by pathogens, then, organisms should be driven to reproduce sexually just to stay ahead. (
  • The organism can reproduce in the absence of a mate in which, in this case, produces offspring which is usually a clone of the parent. (
  • Husain, M , Martin, SAM & Wang, T 2014, ' Identification and characterisation of the IL-27 p28 subunits in fish: Cloning and comparative expression analysis of two p28 paralogues in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar ', Fish & Shellfish Immunology , vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 102-112. (
  • The plasmid pSP65 which has cloned the complete HBV sequence, was amplified by transformation of coli (DH5). (
  • In this study, a gene ( Spbtry1 ) encoding a soybean pod borer serine protease was cloned from the organism's midgut. (
  • In the genomic region encoding the capsid proteins, determinants involved in the resistance of the cell clones to the Mahoney mutants were localized in the amino-terminal part of VP1 (amino acids 22 and 43), the B-C loop of VP1 (amino acids 94-102), and the loop of VP3 connecting its amino-terminal to beta strand B (amino acid 60). (
  • Human cloning / edited by James M. Humber, and Robert F. Almeder. (
  • WHA50.37 of 1997 argues that human cloning is ethically unacceptable and contrary to human integrity and morality. (
  • General Assembly the adoption of a declaration on human cloning by which Member States were called upon to prohibit all forms of human cloning inasmuch as they are incompatible with human dignity and the protection of human life. (
  • WHA50.37, which states "the use of cloning for the replication of human individuals is ethically unacceptable and contrary to human integrity and morality. (
  • For a number of decades, the prospect that new members of the human family might be produced by cloning was considered farfetched. (
  • With this prospect comes the Christian responsibility to address profound ethical issues associated with human cloning. (
  • Concern also exists that human cloning might undermine family relationships. (
  • So long as this form of cloning (non-human) suits human needs, does not cause harm and does not conflict with religious beliefs, it has been considered acceptable. (
  • Reflecting their nature as clones tainted with human DNA, the Aliens were redesigned as more biological than biomechanical, with sharpened and elongated features that appeared more sinister and allowed for underwater movement. (
  • As one facet of this search, we must learn to reconcile the two most fundamental approaches to modeling human cognition, [ connectionism] and [ computationalism]. (
  • When an infected louse feeds on an uninfected human, the organism gains access when the victim crushes the louse or scratches the area where the louse is feeding. (
  • In its purest form, the term 'biotechnology' refers to the use of living organisms or their products to modify human health and the human environment. (
  • Thirty years later, this light-converting molecule was cloned by Douglas C. Prasher, PhD, a scientist at Woods Hole. (
  • Let's look at this from the molecular level, which arguably we have more control over than the organism or ecosystem level. (
  • Organización molecular del complejo II y su rol en la anaerobiosis. (
  • The most famous clone was a Scottish sheep named Dolly. (
  • That is how the first cloned sheep, named "Dolly", was created [3]. (
  • We initiated the cloning strategy by creating an E. coli -yeast- Aspergillus shuttle vector, pYH-wA-pyrG, which consists of a ColE1 origin of replication from SuperCos1, a yeast centromere sequence (CEN) and an autonomously replicating sequence (ARS) 13 , 14 ( Table S1, Materials and Methods ). (
  • And like a regular organism, the virtual ones developed a natural buffer to resist change by mutations. (
  • But the researchers found that the protection only works when the digital organisms were facing a few mutations at a time. (
  • Therapeutic cloning possesses enormous potential for revolutionizing medical and therapeutic techniques. (
  • This is therapeutic cloning. (
  • Mus musculus paired box gene 9, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:11500 IMAGE:3707718), complete cds. (
  • The following Jph4 gene cDNA ORF clone sequences were retrieved from the NCBI Reference Sequence Database (RefSeq). (
  • The answer right now is "No." The reason is that dinosaurs, like humans, are very complicated organisms. (
  • Lice that feed on infected humans acquire the Borrelia organisms that then multiply in the gut of the louse. (
  • The Woods Hole scientist published the details of his cloned gene in 1992 in the journal Gene . (
  • We are a stone's throw away from re-creating extinct organisms. (
  • 6) Clone and express degrading proteins for protein purification. (
  • One major concern for organic consumers is the fact that it's impossible to determine via laboratory testing whether a particular meat or animal byproduct came from a cloned animal or its offspring. (
  • The offspring of cloned dogs also have similar growth performance and health to those of naturally bred puppies. (
  • Ratio of uptake clearance to the rate at which an organism encounters a given contaminant in an environmental medium (e.g., soil, sediment, water, food) being processed by the organism. (
  • Each branch with a cryptic name represents one sediment organism whose nitrite reductase gene I cloned and sequenced. (
  • Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium sequence type 796 - rapid international dissemination of a new epidemic clone. (
  • Using a recombination-based cloning strategy in yeast, we constructed fungal heterologous expression vectors that encode the cryptic clusters. (
  • The researchers created digital organisms that reproduced through sex in the same manner as real organisms. (
  • According to an emergent group of researchers, systemic, relational and evolutionary thought is needed to understand the development of organisms' characteristics and competences. (
  • The discovery that the less-fit organisms out-survived their in-shape counterparts surprised the researchers at first. (
  • By replaying evolution over and over with the clones, the researchers showed that the eventual winners likely prevailed because they had greater potential for further adaptation. (
  • 20 kb) plasmids containing cloned gene clusters. (
  • Clonal cluster groups of S. aureus isolates were obtained by BURP analysis and compared to international important clones. (
  • Lastly, repeat isolates of patients were collected to analyse any possible organism-related factors associated with persistent and recurrent bacteraemia. (
  • Cloned dogs have similar growth characteristics to those born from natural fertilization, with no evidence of serious adverse effects. (
  • What if a bioluminescent protein could cast its light in an organism that was already transparent? (
  • He searched an online database and was shocked to find a new paper in the journal Gene on the cloning of the protein - by Dr. Prasher. (
  • STs, serotypes and PorA VR types as found in Hajj-related N. characterization of invasive isolated in Brazil from 1990 approaches meningitidis serogroup W135 clone. (
  • Wisconsin microbiome study, a cross-sectional investigation of dietary fibre, microbiome composition and antibiotic-resistant organisms: rationale and methods. (
  • We report the isolation and characterization of HEp-2c cell clones obtained after two successive persistent poliovirus (PV) infections. (
  • Once cured, some of the cell clones displayed selective permissivity toward the wild-type Mahoney strain and partial resistance to particular mutants of this strain, including the Sabin 1 strain. (
  • Two cell clones, CI 4 and CI 10, were studied in greater detail. (
  • This capsule encases the entire cell surface, accounts for the large appearance of the organism on gram stain, and provides resistance against many host defense mechanisms. (
  • As the authors of new research on this issue demonstrate, in the long run, even many years of cell storage and cloning can play a role. (
  • Having placed it in an egg cell and using appropriate methods, you can even lead to the development of a new organism. (
  • These became the early embryonic cell lines that were used to bring cloned mice into the world. (
  • We can make a new whole organism from a single stem cell (e.g. (
  • Amastigotes were obtained from the high- and low-virulent clones of the Talahuen strain and fron the G-1 strain. (
  • it circumvents bacterial cloning, in which the vast majority of initial template molecules are lost during transformation and establishment of clones. (
  • Complex II (Succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is an importnat enzyme complex for the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the aerobic respiratory chain of motochondria and procaryotic organisms (12, 24). (
  • The recombinant aequorin gene from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria responsible for the expression of the Ca 2+ -sensitive aequorin photoprotein has been cloned in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus awamori . (