The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Organisms that live in water.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Organisms whose GENOME has been changed by a GENETIC ENGINEERING technique.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
Animals that have no spinal column.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A genus of ascomycetous FUNGI, family Pneumocystidaceae, order Pneumocystidales. It includes various host-specific species causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in humans and other MAMMALS.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.

Development of nuclear transfer and parthenogenetic rabbit embryos activated with inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. (1/703)

The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of different activation protocols, enucleation methods, and culture media on the development of parthenogenetic and nuclear transfer (NT) rabbit embryos. Electroporation of 25 mM inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate (IP3) in calcium- and magnesium-free PBS immediately induced a single intracellular calcium transient in 6 out of 14 metaphase II-stage rabbit oocytes evaluated during a 10-min recording period. The percentage of oocytes treated with IP3 followed by 6-dimethylaminopurine (IP3 + DMAP) that cleaved (83.9%) and reached the blastocyst stage (50%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those activated with multiple pulses (61.6% and 30.1%, respectively) or treated with ionomycin + DMAP (52.9% and 5.7%, respectively). Development of IP3 + DMAP-activated rabbit oocytes and in vivo-fertilized zygotes in different culture media was studied. Development of activated oocytes to the blastocyst stage in Earle's balanced salt solution (EBSS) supplemented with MEM nonessential amino acids, basal medium Eagle amino acids, 1 mM L-glutamine, 0.4 mM sodium pyruvate, and 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) (EBSS-complete) (40.6%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those that developed in either Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's medium (DMEM)/RPMI + 10% FBS (15.5%) or CR1aa + 10% FBS (4%) medium. In addition, 100% of in vivo-fertilized rabbit zygotes developed to the blastocyst stage in EBSS-complete. A third set of experiments was carried out to study the efficiency of blind versus stained (Hoechst 33342) enucleation of oocytes. Twenty-nine of 48 blind enucleated and IP3 + DMAP-activated oocytes cleaved (60.4%), and 15 (31.2%) subsequently reached the blastocyst stage, whereas 9 of 52 oocytes enucleated using epifluorescence (17.3%) cleaved, and none of these reached the blastocyst stage. When the above parameters that yielded the highest blastocysts were combined in an NT experiment using adult rabbit fibroblast nuclei, 72.2% (39 of 54) of the fused nuclear transplant embryos cleaved and 29.6% (16 of 54) reached the blastocyst stage.  (+info)

Production of cloned calves following nuclear transfer with cultured adult mural granulosa cells. (2/703)

Adult somatic cell nuclear transfer was used to determine the totipotent potential of cultured mural granulosa cells, obtained from a Friesian dairy cow of high genetic merit. Nuclei were exposed to oocyte cytoplasm for prolonged periods by electrically fusing quiescent cultured cells to enucleated metaphase II cytoplasts 4-6 h before activation (fusion before activation [FBA] treatment). Additionally, some first-generation morulae were recloned by fusing blastomeres to S-phase cytoplasts. A significantly higher proportion of fused embryos developed in vitro to grade 1-2 blastocysts on Day 7 with FBA (27.5 +/- 2.5%) than with recloning (13.0 +/- 3.6%; p < 0. 05). After the transfer of 100 blastocysts from the FBA treatment, survival rates on Days 60, 100, 180, and term were 45%, 21%, 17%, and 10%, respectively. Ten heifer calves were delivered by elective cesarean section; all have survived. After the transfer of 16 recloned blastocysts, embryo survival on Day 60 was 38%; however, no fetuses survived to Day 100. DNA analyses confirmed that the calves are all genetically identical to the donor cow. It is suggested that the losses throughout gestation may in part be due to placental dysfunction at specific stages. The next advance in this technology will be to introduce specific genetic modifications of biomedical or agricultural interest.  (+info)

A mutation in the transmembrane/luminal domain of the ryanodine receptor is associated with abnormal Ca2+ release channel function and severe central core disease. (3/703)

Central core disease is a rare, nonprogressive myopathy that is characterized by hypotonia and proximal muscle weakness. In a large Mexican kindred with an unusually severe and highly penetrant form of the disorder, DNA sequencing identified an I4898T mutation in the C-terminal transmembrane/luminal region of the RyR1 protein that constitutes the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor. All previously reported RYR1 mutations are located either in the cytoplasmic N terminus or in a central cytoplasmic region of the 5,038-aa protein. The I4898T mutation was introduced into a rabbit RYR1 cDNA and expressed in HEK-293 cells. The response of the mutant RyR1 Ca2+ channel to the agonists halothane and caffeine in a Ca2+ photometry assay was completely abolished. Coexpression of normal and mutant RYR1 cDNAs in a 1:1 ratio, however, produced RyR1 channels with normal halothane and caffeine sensitivities, but maximal levels of Ca2+ release were reduced by 67%. [3H]Ryanodine binding indicated that the heterozygous channel is activated by Ca2+ concentrations 4-fold lower than normal. Single-cell analysis of cotransfected cells showed a significantly increased resting cytoplasmic Ca2+ level and a significantly reduced luminal Ca2+ level. These data are indicative of a leaky channel, possibly caused by a reduction in the Ca2+ concentration required for channel activation. Comparison with two other coexpressed mutant/normal channels suggests that the I4898T mutation produces one of the most abnormal RyR1 channels yet investigated, and this level of abnormality is reflected in the severe and penetrant phenotype of affected central core disease individuals.  (+info)

How identical would cloned children be? An understanding essential to the ethical debate. (4/703)

The ban on human cloning in many countries worldwide is founded on an assumption that cloned children will be identical to each other and to their nuclear donor. This paper explores the scientific basis for this assumption, considering both the principles and practice of cloning in animals and comparing genetic and epigenetic variation in potential human clones with that in monozygotic twins.  (+info)

A spare or an individual? Cloning and the implications of monozygotic twinning. (5/703)

The creation of Dolly, the cloned sheep, raises the scenario of cloning in humans. Neither the case for, nor against, the ethics of cloning in humans is discussed in this paper. Instead, it considers the neglected issue of the likely happiness or otherwise of the resulting children if they are born as monozygotic twins or triplets. The advantages and disadvantages of twinship are discussed in detail, and it is concluded that recognized medical risks, and incompletely understood psychological effects, should be given serious consideration.  (+info)

Cloning, killing, and identity. (6/703)

One potentially valuable use of cloning is to provide a source of tissues or organs for transplantation. The most important objection to this use of cloning is that a human clone would be the sort of entity that it would be seriously wrong to kill. I argue that entities of the sort that you and I essentially are do not begin to exist until around the seventh month of fetal gestation. Therefore to kill a clone prior to that would not be to kill someone like you or me but would be only to prevent one of us from existing. And even after one of us begins to exist, the objections to killing it remain comparatively weak until its psychological capacities reach a certain level of maturation. These claims support the permissibility of killing a clone during the early stages of its development in order to use its organs for transplantation.  (+info)

Should we clone human beings? Cloning as a source of tissue for transplantation. (7/703)

The most publicly justifiable application of human cloning, if there is one at all, is to provide self-compatible cells or tissues for medical use, especially transplantation. Some have argued that this raises no new ethical issues above those raised by any form of embryo experimentation. I argue that this research is less morally problematic than other embryo research. Indeed, it is not merely morally permissible but morally required that we employ cloning to produce embryos or fetuses for the sake of providing cells, tissues or even organs for therapy, followed by abortion of the embryo or fetus.  (+info)

Persons and their copies. (8/703)

Is cloning human beings morally wrong? The basis for the one serious objection to cloning is that, because of what a clone is, clones would have much worse lives than non-clones. I sketch a fragment of moral theory to make sense of the objection. I then outline several ways in which it might be claimed that, because of what a clone is, clones would have much worse lives than non-clones. In particular, I look at various ideas connected with autonomy. I conclude that there is no basis to the claim that, because of what a clone is, clones would have much worse lives than non-clones. I therefore reject the claim that cloning human beings is morally wrong.  (+info)

Free Essay: In measuring the benefits, human reproductive cloning would be advantageous to the well-being of humans and because it is a fulfillment of...
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently announced its approval of meat and dairy products from cloned animals amidst widespread concern among scientists and food safety advocates. Despite recent consumer opinion polls showing that most Americans do not want food from cloned animals, cloned milk may soon be sold, unlabeled, in grocery stores across the country, and cloned meat will be next. Scientists say that clones may be inherently unhealthy, with potentially harmful consequences for animal foods derived from clones. Moreover, animal cloning is a cruel technology that results in needless animal suffering.. The first cloned mammal was the famed sheep Dolly. But after the hype, few followed the story of Dolly?s demise. Just six years old when euthanized (sheep of Dolly?s breed generally live to 11 or 12), Dolly suffered from arthritis and lung disease usually seen in much older animals. Sadly, Dolly is not unique among clones. Leading cloning scientists say clones are likely to ...
PAN Czytelnia Czasopism, Transgenic mammalian species, generated by somatic cell cloning, in biomedicine, biopharmaceutical industry and human nutrition/dietetics - recent achievements - Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Definitions:. Cloning: the scientific method by which animals or plants can be created which have exactly the same genetic make-up as the original, because the DNA of the original is used.. Reproductive cloning: to make a complete identical animal, possibly a human being.. Stem cell: a cell, most often taken from a 4-5 day old embryo (blastocyst), whose role in the body is yet to be determined.. Therapeutic cloning: removing cells from a patient and treating them in a lab in order to produce stem cells which may be used to treat disorders, e.g. Alzheimers disease.. Therapeutic Cloning:. This is where DNA is taken out of an embryo and replaced with DNA taken from another individual in order to generate stem cells. It is sometimes known as stem cell cloning. The aim is to take the stem cells from the modified embryo and use them in research to find treatments for a range of diseases. According to the law, any embryos used in such a way have to be killed after 14 days. This technology therefore ...
The FDAs draft risk assessment and management plan addressing the food safety issues surrounding cloned animals is better late than never. The agency has been delinquent in waiting five years to begin this public evaluation of cloned animals, requiring consumers to rely on the food industry and cloning companies to voluntarily refrain from introducing cloning animals into the food supply.
cloning technology Essay Topics and ideas for college students. Examples of Research Paper in APA, MLA formats about cloning technology.
The risks of animal cloning are immense. The cloning process is inefficient and cloned animals have been observed to have higher rates of infection, tumour growth, and skeletal abnormalities than normal offspring. Are the risks and disadvantages of cloning because it is a nascent technology that scientists are trying to get to grips with, or are there inherent problems with the cloning process?
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has shown a wide application in the generation of transgenic animals, protection of endangered animals, and therapeutic cloning. However, the efficiency of SCNT remains very low due to some poorly characterized key factors. Compared with fertilized embryos, somatic donor cells lack some important components of sperm, such as sperm small noncoding RNA (sncRNA) and proteins. Loss of these factors is considered an important reason for the abnormal development of SCNT embryo. This study focused on recent advances of SCNT and the roles of sperm in development. Sperm-derived factors play an important role in nucleus reprogramming and cytoskeleton remodeling during SCNT embryo development. Hence, considering the role of sperm may provide a new strategy for improving cloning efficiency.
Human cloning belongs to the eugenics project and is thus subject to all the ethical and juridical observations that have amply condemned it. -- Reflections on Cloning, Pontificia Academia Pro Vita Proponents of therapeutic cloning have set up reproductive cloning as the greater of two evils and then insisted that the public must choose one. This leaves the public with therapeutic cloning as the lesser evil. In fact, we can decide to reject them both as evils, but I see reproductive cloning as the lesser of the two presented evils. Instead of promoting deaths, it promotes life; although, of course, the nature of cloned lives raise many deep concerns and fears. --James Sherley Ph.D., professor of biological engineering at MIT.. ...methods that fail to respect the dignity and value of the person must always be avoided. I am thinking in particular of attempts at human cloning with a view to obtaining organs for transplants: these techniques, insofar as they involve the manipulation and ...
Human cloning belongs to the eugenics project and is thus subject to all the ethical and juridical observations that have amply condemned it. -- Reflections on Cloning, Pontificia Academia Pro Vita Proponents of therapeutic cloning have set up reproductive cloning as the greater of two evils and then insisted that the public must choose one. This leaves the public with therapeutic cloning as the lesser evil. In fact, we can decide to reject them both as evils, but I see reproductive cloning as the lesser of the two presented evils. Instead of promoting deaths, it promotes life; although, of course, the nature of cloned lives raise many deep concerns and fears. --James Sherley Ph.D., professor of biological engineering at MIT.. ...methods that fail to respect the dignity and value of the person must always be avoided. I am thinking in particular of attempts at human cloning with a view to obtaining organs for transplants: these techniques, insofar as they involve the manipulation and ...
is licensed under CC BY 2.0. The New York Times published on February 18 an enthusiastic article about a black-footed ferret, hailing it as the first of any native, endangered animal species in North America to be cloned.. As we have been documenting for many years (see below), grand claims for animal cloning go back to the birth of the first cloned sheep, in 1996. The New York Times was so excited by this event that it ran 17 articles in two weeks about human reproductive cloning. For a few years thereafter, there was much excitement about the prospect of both human and animal clones.. The only claims of human clones were fakes, but there was more plausible talk about cloning at least two dozen animal species. The first cloned endangered animal, a kind of wild cattle called a gaur, was born at 7:30 PM on Monday, January 8, 2001, according to the press release. (Of course there was a press release.) It died two days later. Such failures were much more common than successes; the process was, ...
Sinopsis: Nature has been cloning animals, cells, and molecules for millions of years. Scientists got into the act just 34 years ago when John Gurdon, a professor at Cambridge University in England, cloned a frog. Gurdons experiment did not generate a great deal of interest at the time and was rarely discussed outside the world of research labs. In 1996 when Ian Wilmut, a British biologist, cloned a sheep named Dolly, the reaction was dramatically different. The news of Dollys birth was reported in every major newspaper and magazine around the world, and she quickly became the most celebrated lamb in the history of animal husbandry.. Animal Cloning, Revised Edition discusses all aspects of this new biology, including the scientific, ethical, and legal issues. Completely revised and updated, this edition now features full-color photographs and illustrations as well as further resources and Web sites to guide additional research. Beginning chapters discuss cloning within the context of a natural ...
The short answer is yes. But the real question is what they support doing with cloned human embryos. They apparently support creating cloned human embryos, using the cloning technique of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to create the cloned embryos. This is the cloning technique that was used to create Dolly the cloned sheep. In that case, the cloned sheep embryo was gestated to birth. Some term this use of cloned embryos as reproductive cloning. When the cloned embryos are disaggregated to pluck out their stem cells, some term this use of cloned embryos as therapeutic cloning (even though it ...
Nature has been cloning animals, cells, and molecules for millions of years. Scientists got into the act just 34 years ago when John Gurdon, a professor at Cambridge University in England, cloned a frog. Gurdons experiment did not generate a great deal of interest at the time and was rarely discussed outside the world of research labs. In 1996 when Ian Wilmut, a British biologist, cloned a sheep named Dolly, the reaction was dramatically different. The news of Dollys birth was reported in every major newspaper and magazine around the world, and she quickly became the most celebrated lamb in the history of animal husbandry.. Animal Cloning, Updated Edition discusses all aspects of this new biology, including the scientific, ethical, and legal issues. Completely revised and updated, this edition features full-color photographs and illustrations as well as further resources and websites to guide additional research. Beginning chapters discuss cloning within the context of a natural process that ...
Environment Committee members in Brussels on Tuesday argued that it would be irresponsible to include food from cloned animals in the scope of the Novel Foods regulation, soon to be updated to incorporate emerging areas of science such as nanotechnology and GMOs, as well as cloning. Source: ...
A British animal welfare group has petitioned the government to prevent the entry of products from cloned animals into the food chain.
The FDA had asked producers of cloned livestock not to sell food products from such animals pending its ruling on their safety. It isnt clear whether the FDA will lift this voluntary hold.. While many consumer groups still oppose it, the FDA declaration that cloned animal products are safe would be a milestone for a small cadre of biotech companies that want to make a business out of producing copies of prize dairy cows and other farm animals -- effectively taking the selective breeding practiced on farms for centuries to the cutting edge.. Because of the price tag -- cloned cattle cost $15,000 to $20,000 per copy -- most of the cloned animals will be used for breeding, and it will be three to five years before consumers see milk and meat from their offspring. Some animal breeders in the U.S. have already been experimenting with cloning animals. ViaGen Inc., the largest animal-cloning company in the nation, has cloned animals, such as a cow named Peggy Sue.. Consumer wariness toward cloned food ...
本文收錄於臺大農業推廣通訊雙月刊96期. 文/國立臺灣大學生物科技研究所 宋麗英助理教授. 隨著生物科技的發展日新月異,另類的牧場已然興起,結合現代生殖科技 (Reproductive biotechnology),包括:體外成熟 (in vitro maturation, IVM)、體外受精 (in vitro fertilization, IVF)、體外培養 (in vitro culture, IVC)、胚移殖 (embryo transfer, ET)、卵及胚的冷凍保存 (cryopreservation) 技術、精子與胚之性別控制及鑑定 (sperm or embryo sexing)、基因轉殖(transgenic)、體細胞核移置(somatic cell nuclear transfer, SCNT,又稱動物複製 animal cloning)等相關技術,在培養皿內發展分子牧場已是相關生技公司積極發展的業務之一。 Continue reading →. ...
Lets Not Distort Debates about Human Cloning and Heritable Gene Editing. Cloning is back in the headlines. Researchers managed to create two macaque monkeys by cloning, and immediately there was talk about using the Dolly-the-sheep technique to create human clones. Which leads straightaway to the claim that public concerns about human reproductive cloning echo many of the earlier objections to IVF.. That is historically inaccurate. Its also a notion that promotes, either deliberately or inadvertently, an extreme technological agenda that would lead to the production of not just human clones but also genetically engineered people.. The specter of human cloning was raised in the widely syndicated Associated Press article about the cloned monkeys entitled: Scientists Successfully Clone Monkeys: Are Humans Up Next? It was also featured in Reuters, (picked up by NBC and many others), The Guardian, National Review, and the London Daily Telegraph, for instance; most of them had human in the ...
As many as 3,000 Americans die every day from diseases that may someday be treatable with tissues created through stem cells, according to the Centers for Disease Control. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (therapeutic cloning), which is one way to derive stem cells, shows potential in generating functional replacement cells such as insulin-producing cells associated with diabetes. It also shows promise in reconstituting more complex tissues and organs, such as blood vessels, myocardial patches, kidneys, and even entire hearts. Additionally, it has the potential to eliminate the rejection responses associated with transplantation of non-self tissues, and thus the need for immunosuppressive drugs, which carry the risk of serious and potentially life-threatening complications and enormous cost to the United States health care system ...
View Notes - unit7 cloning animals from BIOCHEM 100 at UMass (Amherst). UNIT 7 Animal Cloning and Epigenetics F08 The first cloned horse. What cell parts would you need to clone a human? (or
Animal cloning is a very complicated and difficult process and involves many failures to achieve one single live clone birth. The following are the top 10
America rejects science without values attached -- we still havemorals and morality prevailed today, she said in a statement.. Family Research Council President Ken Connor said of the vote: Thisis a major victory for the sanctity of human life. The bipartisan votein the House ... has sent Frankenstein packing.. The president of the Biotechnology Industry Organization, whichopposed the bans effect on research, said if the legislation becomeslaw, the progress of new medical treatments will be reversed. In astatement, Carl B. Feldbaum called on the Senate to consider the medicalbenefits and to separate the technologys therapeutic use from its usefor human reproductive cloning, a concept the biotechnology industryfinds to be repugnant and unsafe.. President Bush, who has yet to make a decision about federal fundingof stem-cell research, issued a statement commending the House action.. The moral issues posed by human cloning are profound and haveimplications for today and for future ...
For the first time ever, scientists have successfully used somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) via the process of therapeutic cloning to generate normal human embryonic stem cells (hESC). Recall that there are two kinds of human cloning: therapeutic (which is […]. ...
The findings were published shortly before a National Academy of Sciences meeting next Tuesday, during which scientists will discuss cloning and animal safety issues.. Lanza said he hoped the findings would inject a sense of reality and scientific vigor into the cloning issue. He said his institute joins with other scientists in opposing the reproductive cloning of humans but sees great potential in the medical applications of cell cloning technology.. Pluses for cloning. He said this technology, and advances in the uses of embryonic stem cells, could be used to produce insulin-producing cells to treat diabetes or neurons to help those with Parkinsons or Alzheimers disease.. Commercially, cloning could be used to breed animals that are free from disease, Lanza said.. Since Scottish scientists cloned the first animal, Dolly the sheep, in 1997, whole herds of cattle, sheep and pigs have been cloned.. Human cloning is opposed by most of the worlds scientists, governments and religions. A bill ...
Human cloning is the term used by scientists to describe the process of creating new life by making duplicates of biological material. The cloning technique used to clone Dolly the sheep is called somatic cell nuclear transplantation. This is the same technique for cloning a human being. The process involves removing the nucleus of an unfertilized egg and replacing it with the nucleus of a somatic cell. [A somatic cell is any cell of the human body, except sperm or ovum cells (called germ cells). Thus, your skin cell is a somatic cell and contains in its nucleus the 46 chromosomes that you received from your mother (23 chromosomes) and your father (23 chromosomes) that make you unique.] The unfertilized egg with the now transplanted nucleus is stimulated by an electrical stimulus to make it start to divide and grow and if it does begin to grow, it is a live human being.. As Frankensteinian and unnatural as this is, a new human life will be created by human cloning. Supporters of embryonic stem ...
Reprogramming has been studied extensively for decades. Nuclear transfer into an oocyte gives somatic cells pluripotency to produce cloned animals. For example, Dr J. Gurdon and his colleagues showed that frog somatic cell nuclei can be reprogrammed after transfer into enucleated oocytes, and they develop into feeding tadpoles [1]. Reprogramming in vertebrates was also proven by the creation of cloned animals from sheep [2] and mice [3]. In addition to oocytes, human [4] and mouse embryonic stem (ES) [5] cells also can reprogramme somatic cells into an ES cell-like state after cell fusion. These results demonstrate that terminally differentiated cells can revert to a state of pluripotency in response to external stimulation.. The accumulated understanding of the mechanisms underlying pluripotency in ES cells led to attempts to revert somatic cells into a pluripotent state using defined factors. Twenty-four candidate factors were transduced into mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) by retroviral ...
South Korean researchers success in producing human embryos and stem cells through cloning revives debate about whether such research should be conducted in United States; scientists are nearly unanimous in opposition to reproductive cloning that would create babies, but largely supportive of cloning to make embryonic stem cells for therapeutic purposes; religious groups also line up against reproductive cloning, but are split on therapeutic cloning; several scientists and religious spokesmen comment; photo (M)
Because many eggs are needed for human reproductive cloning attempts, human experimentation could subject more women to adverse health effects - either from
Biology of Reproduction contains original scientific research on a broad range of topics in the field of reproductive biology, as well as minireviews.
Somatic-cell nuclear transfer, known as SCNT, can also be used to create embryos for research or therapeutic purposes. The most likely purpose for this is to produce embryos for use in stem cell research. This process is also called research cloning or therapeutic cloning. The goal is not to create cloned human beings (called reproductive cloning), but rather to harvest stem cells that can be used to study human development and to potentially treat disease. While a clonal human blastocyst has been created, stem cell lines are yet to be isolated from a clonal source.[10]. Therapeutic cloning is achieved by creating embryonic stem cells in the hopes of treating diseases such as diabetes and Alzheimers. The process begins by removing the nucleus (containing the DNA) from an egg cell and inserting a nucleus from the adult cell to be cloned.[11] In the case of someone with Alzheimers disease, the nucleus from a skin cell of that patient is placed into an empty egg. The reprogrammed cell ...
Read this full essay on Therapeutic Cloning. Cloning is the use of technology to compose a precise genetic copy of a living organism. The term cloning can ...
Therapeutic cloning is the manipulation of genetic material from either adult, zygotic or embryonic cells in order to alter the functions of cells or tissues for therapeutic purposes.
Therapeutic cloning could be a breakthrough cure and healing procedure for many. However, it is a new technology and their are some limitations to its use.
SUBJECTS: James Hardie, vaccination against cervical cancer, therapeutic cloning. TRIOLI:. Mr Costello, good morning.. TREASURER:. Good morning Virginia. It is good to be with you. TRIOLI:. Is it your understanding according to what James Hardie is saying, that it is pretty much a tax exempt charity status has now been applied for that fund?. TREASURER:. Well first of all I welcome the fact that this finally seems to be settled and that is good news for the victims and the only thing you can say is that it is regrettable it has taken so long but James Hardie have finally done the right thing. What will happen is that James Hardie will be able to get tax deductibility for the compensation that they pay the victims. So the effect of that is that James Hardies shareholders can claim the full amount, that they will get a tax deduction and that payments will be deducted as against the profits that James Hardie have. So James Hardie gets quite favourable tax treatment. This would never have been in ...
Hans Keirstead and his team at the University of California at Irvine today joined the relatively small group of labs working on therapeutic cloning - a technique to create disease-specific stem-cell lines for research or treatment. This project received approval May 11 from UCIs Institutional Review Board, which under federal regulation reviews all proposed studies \[…\]
The Bush Administration is unequivocally opposed to the cloning of human beings for any reason. President Bush has been consistent and decisive on this issue: I strongly oppose human cloning. We recoil at the idea of growing human beings for spare body parts, or creating life for our convenience. Bush has promised to sign legislation to ban all human cloning.. Kerry voted against invoking cloture and strongly opposed the Human Cloning Prohibition Act, a bill that would have prohibited the creation of cloned human embryos. He is also a supporter of therapeutic cloning. Kerry has maintained that while I oppose cloning for the purposes of creating a human being, I do support therapeutic cloning that has the potential to help cure many diseases.. Eager to find some guidance on these important moral issues, I visited all the official Orthodox Church websites across the various jurisdictions. On each site I searched for any voter guides, or voting pamphlets, or any relevant information on the ...
It is not just bad news for reproductive cloning. It also means the related field of therapeutic cloning _ using embryonic stem cells to grow customized tissues for medical treatment _ may prove harder, too, Schatten said. However, if 95 percent of cells growing in a lab dish have abnormal chromosomes, the remaining good 5 percent still could be used, he added.. ...
Model organisms are essential to study the genetic basis of human diseases. Transgenic mammalian models, especially genetic knock-out mice have catalysed the progress in this area. To continue the advancement, further sophisticated and refined models are crucially needed to study the genetic basis and manifestations of numerous human diseases. Coinciding with the start of the new era of post-genomic research, new tools for establishment of transgenesis, such as nuclear transfer and gene targeting in somatic cells, have become available, offering a unique opportunity for the generation of transgenic animal models. The new technology provides important tools for comparative functional genomics to promote the interpretation and increase the practical value of the data generated in numerous mouse models. This paper discusses the state-of-the-art of the nuclear replacement technology and presents future perspectives ...
It was intriguing last week to read about another advance in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)-based therapeutic cloning of human embryonic stem cells (hESC). The first such work was published last year by Mitalipovs group from OHSU. This second paper to produce so-called nuclear transfer hESC (NT-hESC) made the important advance to show that it could be done using adult and even old human somatic cells. This is a reproducible technology, which is very important. However, key challenges and concerns remain for human therapeutic cloning …Read More. ...
Everyone is genetically unique, without this there would be exact copies of us walking around everywhere. Human cloning and even animal cloning is new to the...
WASHINGTON, D.C. (July 22, 1998) - Carl B. Feldbaum, president of the Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO) today issued the following statement on the announcement by the Roslin Institute of Edinburgh, Scotland of research verifying that Dolly the sheep was the product of somatic cell nuclear transfer cloning:
Kishigami and colleagues [19] were the first to report that TSA treatment improves full term development of mouse embryos obtained by transfer of cumulus cell nuclei. This was confirmed the same year by Rybouchkin and colleagues who reported a remarkable and significant 5-fold increase in the efficiency of cloning from cumulus cells with a transient TSA treatment for 10 hours post activation [20]. In their initial work, Rybouchkin and colleagues suggested that increased acetylation of histones after TSA treatment was linked to the improved developmental rates [20]. In the present work, we confirm the reproducibility of the beneficial effects of TSA treatment on long term developmental potential using another mouse strain and different culture conditions, as reflected by a significantly higher birth rate of live pups. In our laboratory, 3.1% of the TSA-treated SCNT embryos developed to term, which is identical to the 3.1% of clones obtained from ES cells [26] and ten times higher than the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Improvement of a porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer technique by optimizing donor cell and recipient oocyte preparations. AU - Lee, Gabsang. AU - Hyun, Sang Hwan. AU - Kim, Hye Soo. AU - Kim, Dae Young. AU - Lee, So Hyun. AU - Lim, Jeong Mook. AU - Lee, Eun Song. AU - Kang, Sung Keun. AU - Lee, Byeong Chun. AU - Hwang, Woo Suk. PY - 2003/1/1. Y1 - 2003/1/1. N2 - This study was conducted to improve a porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technique by optimizing donor cell and recipient oocyte preparations. Adult and fetal fibroblasts, and cumulus and oviduct cells were used as donor cells, and in vivo- and in vitro-matured oocytes were employed as recipient oocytes. The percentages of fusion and development to the blastocyst stage, the ratio of blastocysts to 2-cell embryos, and cell number of blastocysts were monitored as experimental parameters. In Experiment 1, donor cells of four different types were transferred to enucleated oocytes matured in vitro, and more (P , ...
Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) is a useful method to preserve endangered species and to study the reprogramming event of a nuclear donor cell by the oocyte. Although several studies of iSCNT using murine cells and bovine oocytes have been reported, the development of murine-bovine iSCNT embryos beyond the 8-cell stage has not been successful. In this paper, we examined the developmental potential of embryos reconstructed with a murine embryonic fibroblast as the nuclear donor and a bovine oocyte as the cytoplasm recipient. The reconstructed embryos were cultured in CZB (murine medium) or CR1aa (bovine medium). In addition, for the development of a murine-bovine iSCNT blastocyst, the antioxidant ??mercaptoethanol (??ME) was supplemented to CR1aa medium. Furthermore, to verify the mouse genome activation in murine-bovine iSCNT embryos, RT-PCR analysis of murine Xist was performed. The development of the murine-bovine iSCNT embryos cultured in CR1aa was significantly higher than ...
Interspecies Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Technique for Researching Dog Cloning and Embryonic Stem Cells - Canine;Interspecies;Porcine;Somatic cell Nuclear Transfer;
Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) is a valuable tool for studying the interactions between an oocyte and somatic nucleus. The object of this study was to investigate the developmental competence of in vitro‐matured porcine oocytes after transfer of the somatic cell nuclei of 2 different species (goat and rabbit). Porcine cumulus oocytes were obtained from the follicles of ovaries and matured in TCM‐199. The reconstructed embryos were electrically fused with 2 DC pulses of 1.1 kV/cm for 30 μs in 0.3 M mannitol medium. The activated cloned embryos were cul‐ tured in porcine zygote medium‐3 (PZM‐3), mSOF or RDH medium for 7 days. The blastocyst formation rate of the embryos reconstructed from goat or rabbit fetal fibroblasts was significantly lower than that of the embryos recon‐ structed from porcine fetal fibroblast cells. However, a significantly higher number of embryos reconstructed from goat or rabbit fetal fibroblasts cultured in mSOF or RDH, respectively, developed to
WEDNESDAY, Jan. 24, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Cloning cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) is feasible by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using fetal fibroblasts, according to a study published online Jan. 24 in Cell.. Zhen Liu, from the Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Neuroscience in Shanghai, and colleagues examined the feasibility of cloning cynomolgus monkeys by SCNT to generate genetically uniform non-human primates for establishing animal models for research.. The researchers found that following SCNT, injection of H3K9me3 demethylase Kdm4d mRNA and treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A at one-cell stage correlated with improvement in blastocyst development and the rate of pregnancy of transplanted SCNT embryos in surrogate monkeys. Six pregnancies were confirmed in 21 surrogates for SCNT using fetal monkey fibroblasts, yielding two healthy babies. Twenty-two pregnancies were confirmed in 42 surrogates for SCNT using adult monkey cumulus cells, ...
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) (cloning), being a reproductive or therapeutic method, and mitochondrial DNA transfer, as a strategy to avoid the transmission of mitochondrial diseases, are analyzed within this paper from a bioethics perspective. reduction of individual embryos delimits the moral acceptability of the promising techniques. research CDC42BPA related to the creation of individual Taxifolin pontent inhibitor blastocysts by SCNT. IN-MAY 2005, another group led by Hwang released articles (also in (Kennedy 2006). Around once, Stojkovic et al. (2005) also released a study where they too mentioned that that they had cloned individual embryos towards the blastocyst stage, and they also were regarded as the first to accomplish this technological feat. However, they were unable to derive ESC lines from your biological entities produced by them, so this work could not be considered as an objective demonstration of human being SCNT either. In 2006, Zavos and Illmensee (Zavos and ...
This study investigated whether four cumulus-specific genes: follicular stimulating hormone receptor (FSHr), hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2), prostaglandin synthase 2 (Ptgs2) and steroidogenic acute regulator protein (Star), were correctly reprogrammed to be transcriptionally silent following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in a murine model. Cumulus cells of C57xCBA F1 female mouse were injected into enucleated oocytes, followed by activation in 10 micromol/L strontium chloride for 5 h and subsequent in vitro culture up to the blastocyst stage. Expression of cumulus-specific genes in SCNT-derived embryos at 2-cell, 4-cell and day 4.5 blastocyst stages was compared with corresponding in vivo fertilized embryos by real-time PCR. It was demonstrated that immediately after the first cell cycle, SCNT-derived 2-cell stage embryos did not express all four cumulus-specific genes, which continually remained silent at the 4-cell and blastocyst stages. It is therefore concluded that all four ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Epigenetic reprogramming by somatic cell nuclear transfer in primates. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
I know I wrote an article on this type of media bias just a few days ago. But, they just keep on coming. Perhaps, I should start collecting the erroneous/inaccurate descriptions of somatic cell nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning published in ...
Nobel Prize-winning geneticist Joshua Lederberg advocated cloning and genetic engineering in an article in The American Naturalist in 1966 and again, the following year, in The Washington Post.[3] He sparked a debate with conservative bioethicist Leon Kass, who wrote at the time that the programmed reproduction of man will, in fact, dehumanize him. Another Nobel Laureate, James D. Watson, publicized the potential and the perils of cloning in his Atlantic Monthly essay, Moving Toward the Clonal Man, in 1971.[4] With the cloning of a sheep known as Dolly in 1996 by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), the idea of human cloning became a hot debate topic.[5] Many nations outlawed it, while a few scientists promised to make a clone within the next few years. The first hybrid human clone was created in November 1998, by Advanced Cell Technology. It was created using SCNT - a nucleus was taken from a mans leg cell and inserted into a cows egg from which the nucleus had been removed, and the ...
MEPs beefed up the European Commissions initial proposal, citing high mortality rates at all development stages of cloning and EU citizens animal welfare and ethical concerns.. Due to the negative effects on animal welfare, cloning for farming purposes is rejected by a large majority of consumers. Furthermore, we do not need cloning to ensure meat supplies in the EU. Prohibiting cloning is therefore a matter of European values and principles. Consequently, the ban should apply not only to clones themselves but also to their reproductive material (semen and embryos), their descendants and any products derived from them, including imports. This is necessary because otherwise we would merely promote cloning in third countries, said Environment Committee co-rapporteur Renate Sommer (EPP, DE).. There are two key points that we focused on from the outset: protecting the health of EU citizens and consumers and extending the ban to cover the descendants of cloned animals, said co-rapporteur law ...
Researchers from the CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, the Institute of Neuroscience of CAS and the Shanghai Research Center for Brain Science and Brain-inspired Intelligence cloned five macaque monkeys from the skin fibroblasts of a gene-edited BMAL1-deficient monkey using somatic cell nucleus transfer (SCNT). The BMAL1-deficient monkeys exhibited circadian disruption, sleep deprivation, anxiety, depression and schizophrenia-like sensory processing impairment. Transcriptome analysis also revealed elevated inflammation and stress response in the BMAL1-deficient monkeys. Their condition suggested they could be used to model human maladies such as sleep deprivation, major depressive disorder, and perhaps aging. This represents the first time anywhere in the world that gene-edited macaque monkeys of uniform genetic background have been successfully produced. This advance will help propel research on the mechanisms of human brain disease and early diagnosis and ...
The 2012 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded jointly to Sir John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent. Sir John Gordon pioneered the field of somatic cell nuclear transfer, wherein the nucleus of a mature cell is transplanted into an enucleated egg, to produce a living organism (tadpole).1 The technique, which is commonly referred to as cloning, produced a paradigm shift in developmental biology and paved the way for genome reprogramming for reproductive gains. It led to subsequent cloning of a dozen or so species, with Dolly the sheep being the most famous cloned animal, cloned by Ian Wilmut and colleagues at the Roslin Institute in Scotland in July 1996.2 Although Dolly was euthanized in 2003 because of progressive lung and degenerative joint diseases, the success of the nuclear transfer technique demonstrated that the genome, even when isolated from adult cells, contains the information necessary to ...
In summary, human cloning is a prominent social issue in the world. Even though it is not yet scientifically possible, there is a great deal to be said about it in the way of ethics. Though polls indicate that the general public is against the idea of cloning, there are a variety of opinions on the topic that each has support. It is thought by some that the legalization of cloning could greatly benefit the world as it could be the best way to produce the next generation of human beings. However, many see ethical dilemmas in this outlook and think that cloning should be forbidden entirely. It could spark the dehumanization of our race by turning human lives into something of a commodity and it could also cause a lot of social distress. Finally, the third proposition is that there should be a middle ground. There is a lot of benefit in therapeutic cloning without anywhere near as much of the ethical cost. By legalizing this form of cloning only, research could continue, albeit with limitations. ...
On May 8, 2014, the Federal Circuit released its latest precedential opinion starring Dolly the Sheep. The tale began in 1996 when Dolly the Sheep became the first mammal ever cloned from an adult somatic cell through the successful work of Keith Henry Stockman Campbell and Ian Wilmut. Campbell and Wilmut patented their breakthrough method of cloning mammals using somatic cells. In addition, they applied for a patent claiming the actual cloned animals themselves-U.S. Patent Application No. 09/225,233 (the 233 application).. Keep Reading at: ...
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has emerged as an important tool for producing transgenic animals and deriving transgenic embryonic stem cells. The process of SCNT involves fusion of in vitro matured oocytes with somatic cells to make embryos that are transgenic when the nuclear donor somatic cells carry foreign DNA and are clones when all the donor cells are genetically identical. However, in canines, it is difficult to obtain enough mature oocytes for successful SCNT due to the very low efficiency of in vitro oocyte maturation in this species that hinders canine transgenic cloning. One solution is to use oocytes from a different species or even a different genus, such as bovine oocytes, that can be matured easily in vitro. Accordingly, the aim of this study was: (1) to establish a canine fetal fibroblast line transfected with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene; and (2) to investigate in vitro embryonic development of canine cloned embryos derived from transgenic and non-transgenic ...
Biotechnology allows us to use living organisms or their processes for human needs or purposes. Currently, this topic includes such general examples as cloning, stem cells (adult, umbilical cord, and embryonic), DNA.
Nuclear transfer (NT) is a technique used to investigate the development and reprogramming potential of a single cell. DNA methyltransferase-3-like, which has been characterized as a repressive transcriptional regulator, is expressed in naturally fertilized egg and morula/blastocyst at pre-implantation stages. In this study, we demonstrate that the use of Dnmt3l-knockout (Dnmt3l-KO) donor cells in combination with Trichostatin A treatment improved the developmental efficiency and quality of the cloned embryos. Compared with the WT group, Dnmt3l-KO donor cell-derived cloned embryos exhibited increased cell numbers as well as restricted OCT4 expression in the inner cell mass (ICM) and silencing of transposable elements at the blastocyst stage. In addition, our results indicate that zygotic Dnmt3l is dispensable for cloned embryo development at pre-implantation stages. In Dnmt3l-KO mouse embryonic fibroblasts, we observed reduced nuclear localization of HDAC1, increased levels of the active histone ...
An international team, headed by researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, has identified a key enzyme in the reprogramming process that promotes malignant stem cell cloning and the growth of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a cancer of the blood and marrow that experts say is increasing in prevalence. ... Read the…
An international team, headed by researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, has identified a key enzyme in the reprogramming process that promotes malignant stem cell cloning and the growth of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a cancer of the blood and marrow that experts say is increasing in prevalence.
A potential use of stem cells genetically matched to a patient would be to create cell lines that have genes linked to a patients particular disease. By doing so, an in vitro model could be created, would be useful for studying that particular disease, potentially discovering its pathophysiology, and discovering therapies.[5] For example, if a person with Parkinsons disease donated his or her somatic cells, the stem cells resulting from SCNT would have genes that contribute to Parkinsons disease. The disease specific stem cell lines could then be studied in order to better understand the condition.[6]. Another application of SCNT stem cell research is using the patient specific stem cell lines to generate tissues or even organs for transplant into the specific patient.[7] The resulting cells would be genetically identical to the somatic cell donor, thus avoiding any complications from immune system rejection.[6][8]. Only a handful of the labs in the world are currently using SCNT techniques ...
Single cell cloning and recombinant monoclonal antibodies generation from RA synovial B cells reveal frequent targeting of citrullinated histones of NETs ...
Thats because meat from clones and their offspring isnt labeled. In 2008, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration decided that food from cloned animals doesnt need to be. In the years since, the Biotechnology Industry Organization-a trade group that represents ViaGen and other biotech firms-and the meat industry successfully defeated several bills in Congress that would have required labels for cloned food. The FDA argues that it would be too difficult to label such products anyway. Theres no difference between [cloned products] and food produced by conventional methods. Theres really nothing for us to label, said Dr. Stephen Sundlof, then director of the FDAs Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, during a 2008 press conference.. The FDA and the biotech industry claim that food from clones is safe, but some scientists say there isnt enough evidence to know for certain. To date, no large-scale studies have been done on the health effects of eating meat from cloned animals. The most ...
Stem-cell research lab in the Czech Republic (file photo) February 1997 -- Scotlands Roslin Institute announces it has cloned a sheep from cells taken from an adult ewe. The sheep, Dolly, was the ...
Ian Wilmut is a embryologist and genetic engineer who was the leader of the first research group to successfully clone an animal. He is also credited for birthing the first animal from a frozen embryo. Currently, he serves as the Chair for the Scottish Center for Regenerative Medicine at the University of Edinburgh. The creation of the first cloned animal had created a controversy in the world of engineering and science. Ethical questions have been raised with regard to cloning technology and have shaped the ways in which the global community views genetic engineering[1]. Ian Wilmut was born on July 7th, 1944 in Hampton Lucey, England, and raised in the town of Coventry. [2]. While attending the Scarborough High School for boys, he met with Gordan Whalley, head of the biology department. Despite considering himself an average student at best, Ian enjoyed the scientific research given to him by Whalley and the department, and slowly but surly took a steady interest in research.His true passion ...
The IOMS convened a seminar in 1983 on Reproduction in Islam, in which two papers were presented dealing with the possibility of human cloning as a Tesult of successful cloning in plants, frogs and small marine animals. The Semi1 nar made the following recommendation:. To exercise prudence in giving a Shariah- based opinion on human cloning (as achieved in animals) and to call for further medical and Islamic investigation of these issues. It would be possible to apply genetic engineering of micro-organisms using the recombinant DNA technology to produce medicinal substances in abundant supply .. Since 1993, when an identical twin was produced by splitting a fertilised egg, and later when cloning of Dolly the sheep was announced in February 1997, cloning has returned into the forefront of medical debate with much intensity and urgency. Then followed an announcement on the successful cloning of two monkeys at the University of Oregon in the United States of America. Since the techniques ...
An affiliate of, this is 2 minutes of daily radio news to help form good pro-life thought and good pro-life action, by Jim ...
Dollys remains on display at the Royal Museum in Scotland. 1997: The world learns of the existence of Dolly the sheep, the worlds first successfully cloned mammal. Dolly (named for Dolly Parton, the buxom country-western singer, because it was a mammary cell used in the cloning process) was cloned at the Roslin Institute in Scotland. […]
2010 Cell Methods: [[Group 1 Project - Fluorescent-PCR,Group 1 - Fluorescent-PCR]] , [[Group 2 Project - RNA Interference,Group 2 - RNA Interference]] , [[Group 3 Project- Immunohistochemistry,Group 3 - Immunohistochemistry]] , [[Group 4 Project - Cell Culture,Group 4 - Cell Culture]] , [[Group 5 Project - Electron Microsopy,Group 5 - Electron Microsopy]] , [[Group 6 Project - Confocal Microscopy,Group 6 - Confocal Microscopy]] , [[Group 7 Project - Monoclonal Antibodies,Group 7 - Monoclonal Antibodies]] , [[Group 8 Project - Microarray,Group 8 - Microarray]] , [[Group 9 Project - Fluorescent Proteins,Group 9 - Fluorescent Proteins]] , [[Group 10 Project - Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer,Group 10 - Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer ...
2010 Cell Methods: [[Group 1 Project - Fluorescent-PCR,Group 1 - Fluorescent-PCR]] , [[Group 2 Project - RNA Interference,Group 2 - RNA Interference]] , [[Group 3 Project- Immunohistochemistry,Group 3 - Immunohistochemistry]] , [[Group 4 Project - Cell Culture,Group 4 - Cell Culture]] , [[Group 5 Project - Electron Microsopy,Group 5 - Electron Microsopy]] , [[Group 6 Project - Confocal Microscopy,Group 6 - Confocal Microscopy]] , [[Group 7 Project - Monoclonal Antibodies,Group 7 - Monoclonal Antibodies]] , [[Group 8 Project - Microarray,Group 8 - Microarray]] , [[Group 9 Project - Fluorescent Proteins,Group 9 - Fluorescent Proteins]] , [[Group 10 Project - Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer,Group 10 - Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer ...
Biology of Reproduction contains original scientific research on a broad range of topics in the field of reproductive biology, as well as minireviews.
Dolly was influential in Hoboken and in local Democratic Party circles. She used her knowledge of Italian dialects and fluent English to translate for immigrants during court proceedings, particularly those pertaining to requests for citizenship. This earned her the respect of local politicians, who made her a Democratic ward leader. She was the first immigrant woman to hold that position in her local third ward, where she reliably delivered as many as six hundred votes for Democratic candidates. In 1919, she chained herself to city hall in support of the Womens suffrage movement. She also worked as a midwife, earning $50 for each delivery, a fair amount of money at the time. These activities kept Dolly away from home during much of her sons childhood. According to Kaplan, Dolly also ran an illegal abortions service that earned the nickname Hatpin Dolly. Her reputation as an abortionist led one area church to ban her son from singing there ...
Escucha canciones y álbumes de Dolly, incluyendo Family (feat. Dora and Dolly), Roberta Flack (feat. Dolly), One, Two, Three (feat. Molly, Dolly & Tornillin) y mucho más. Gratis con la suscripción de Apple Music.
In our final issue this semester we open up our pages to the debate over stem cell cloning and DNA testing. On February 28, the U. S. House of Representatives passed a ban on all human cloning and blocked funding for cloned stem cell research. Awaiting passage in the Senate, the bill will put a stop to all stem cell research, as well as, any future human cloning. Supporters of the bill argue that it is immoral to destroy a cloned embryo for research because it has potential as a human being even before implantation in the womb. Congress must act now, said Rep. Sue Myrick, R-NC. We can no longer wait for another biotech company to claim they have cloned children. Anything other than a total ban would license the most ghoulish and dangerous enterprise in human history, she added. We cannot afford to treat the issue of human embryo cloning lightly, said Rep. Bart Stupak, D-Mich., co-author with Rep. Dave Weldon, R-Fla. of a complete ban bill. The human race is not open to experimentation ...
|Who knew there was a term for an animal/human hybrid? Actually, cybrid is short for cytoplasmic hybrid. Wesley Smith has already reported on the story that scientists in the UK - where such things are regulated by the government, unlike in the USA - have requested permission to produce a somatic cell nuclear transfer embryo…
I am a strong supporter of this technology (therapeutic cloning), in particular somatic cell nuclear transfer... Scientific endeavour has been an enduring area of interest to me. I have been particularly concerned with finding an appropriate balance between allowing the cutting-edge research and technology that we have to prosper and needing to protect our community through effective regulation of scientific activity...You need to understand how science progresses. It doesnt progress with a single step that means that you suddenly have cures. It moves incrementally towards a goal, and you gradually put in place bits of the jigsaw and solve various technical problems that are required... Those people who think that there is no moral problem with embryo research should be allowed to carry out that research and should not be prevented from doing so by the power of the law. Those people who think the research is wrong should be allowed to say so and to protest against what they believe to be wrong. ...
The present study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of producing pig transgenic blastocysts expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) and to examine the effects of shape and preparation methods of donor cells on in vitro developmental ability of pig nuclear transferred embryos (NTEs). In experiment 1, the effect of GFP transfection on development of pig NTEs was evaluated. The cleavage and blastocyst rates showed no significant difference between NTEs derived from transfected and non-transfected donors. In experiment 2, the effect of different nuclear donor preparation methods on in vitro development of NTEs was examined. The cleavage rate showed no statistically significant differences among three preparation methods. The blastocyst rates of donor cells treated once at −4 °C and those of freshly digested cells were similar to each other (26.3% vs 17.9%). The lowest blastocyst rates (5.88%) were observed when cells cryopreserved at −196 °C were used as donors. In ...
Developmental Ability of Bovine Embryos Nuclear Transferred with Frozen-thawed or Cooled Donor Cells - Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer;Frozen-thawed;Cooled;Apoptosis;Bovine;
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Study suggests additional hurdles to therapeutic cloning may lie ahead San Diego, Calif. -- Scientists from the Burnham Institute for Medical Research (BIMR) and Illumina Inc., in collaboration with stem cell researchers around the world, have found that the DNA of human embryonic stem cells is chemically modified in a characteristic, predictable pattern. This pattern distinguishes human embryonic stem cells from normal adult cells and cell lines, including cancer cells. The study, which appears online today in Genome Research, should help researchers understand how epigenetic factors contribute to self-renewal and developmental pluripotence, unique characteristics of human embryonic stem cells that may one day allow them to be used to replace diseased or damaged cells with healthy ones in a process called therapeutic cloning. Embryonic stem cells are derived from embryos that are undergoing a period of intense cellular activity, including the chemical addition of methyl groups to specific DNA ...
The developmental efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer has slowly improved over the past five years. Dr. Wilmut achieved a developmental efficiency (recipient oocytes to offspring obtained) of 0.4% in 1996 (Wilmut et al 1997). Dr. Wakayama managed to improve this to 2.8% in subsequent murine research, by using microinjection rather than electrofusion (and other factors) (Wakayama et al 1998). However, the efficiency of development from adult mammalian somatic cells has remained at around 2% since that time (Polejaeva et al 2000). It is anticipated that for every one hundred nuclear transplant embryos, only one or two embryos will result in healthy developmentally normal offspring (Colman 2000). It should be emphasized that this does not mean that 98% of the live-born offspring will be developmentally abnormal, the vast majority of nuclear transplant zygotes do not even get implanted into the uterus. From the scientific literature over the past few years, an averaged developmental ...
What I hope to learn from this topic is what is therapeutic cloning and how it is used today. In addition, I would also like to learn, in general, more about therapeutic cloning. I would like to know what this type of cloning has done from when it was discovered till now and if they are making more discoveries on this topic. Anything to do with stem cells, I am for it. I came to this decision from many different things. This came from personal experiences, because I knew people personal who had treatments done by some type of stem cell treatment. Those treatments helped. Also my teachers daughter was diagnosed with cancer and thanks to stem cells, it had helped her make a recovery. This position also reflects what I have heard from my family. My family is for stem cell treatments of any kind. What me and my family believe is that if it helps you with a disease then it is a good thing. Yeah it may have some negative sides but any treatment or anything in general with have people looking on the ...
Interesting post Erick. I think Adleman read the bill. I guess the whole controversy depends on the interpretation of the definition of human cloning. Both bills prohibit it and both bills provide for the same criminal punishment for engaging in cloning.. However, Adlemans bill defines cloning as the asexual genetic replication of a human being by transferring a preimplantation embryo that has been created by somatic cell nuclear transfer, parthenogenesis, or by other asexual means into a uterus or uterine-like environment with the purpose of creating a human fetus or a human child. Shafers bill defines cloning as human asexual reproduction accomplished by introducing nuclear material from one or more human somatic cells into a fertilized or unfertilized oocyte whose nuclear material has been removed or inactivated so as to produce a living organism at any stage of development that is genetically virtually identical to an existing or previously existing human organism.. Now, Im not a ...
This article is about the medical therapy. For the cell type, see Stem cell.. Stem-cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition.. Bone marrow transplant is the most widely used stem-cell therapy, but some therapies derived from umbilical cord blood are also in use. Research is underway to develop various sources for stem cells, and to apply stem-cell treatments for neurodegenerative diseases and conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, and other conditions.. Stem-cell therapy has become controversial following developments such as the ability of scientists to isolate and culture embryonic stem cells, to create stem cells using somatic cell nuclear transfer and their use of techniques to create induced pluripotent stem cells. This controversy is often related to abortion politics and to human cloning. Additionally, efforts to market treatments based on transplant of stored umbilical cord blood have been controversial.. For over 30 years, bone marrow has been ...
Gene isolation and cloning[edit]. Main article: Molecular cloning. The next step is to isolate the candidate gene. The cell ... engineering is used to remove genetic material from the target organism the resulting organism is termed a knockout organism.[ ... "Isolating, Cloning, and Sequencing DNA (4th ed.). New York: Garland Science.. *^ Kaufman RI, Nixon BT (July 1996). "Use of PCR ... The DNA can be introduced directly into the host organism or into a cell that is then fused or hybridised with the host.[8] ...
Sprague et al. (2008). The Zebrafish Information Network: the zebrafish model organism database provides expanded support for ... "Fast release clones: a high throughput expression analysis". ZFIN Direct Data Submission (Unpublished).. CS1 maint: uses ... The zebrafish is a widely used model organism for genetic, genomic, and developmental studies, and ZFIN provides an integrated ... ZFIN links these data to corresponding information about other model organisms (e.g., mouse) and to human disease databases.[3] ...
... cloning of organisms, gene therapy, and patenting; for promoting global health research, especially on malaria; and for ...
The number of clones to get a sampling of all the genes is determined by the size of the organism's genome as well as the ... the genome of an organism can be sequenced to elucidate how genes affect an organism or to compare similar organisms at the ... Genome size varies among different organisms and the cloning vector must be selected accordingly. For a large genome, a vector ... Once a clone from a genomic library is sequenced, the sequence can be used to screen the library for other clones containing ...
... to isolate clones of bacteria cells - "cloning" can also refer to the various means of creating cloned ("clonal") organisms). ... Diploid organisms with two copies of the same allele of a given gene are called homozygous at that gene locus, while organisms ... Offspring that are genetically identical to their parents are called clones. Eukaryotic organisms often use sexual reproduction ... Colonies of E. coli produced by cellular cloning. A similar methodology is often used in molecular cloning. ...
Cloning[edit]. In recent years, the technique of cloning whole organisms has been developed in mammals, allowing almost ... it is called diploid and the organism is called a diploid organism. (The gametes of diploid organisms contain only single ... is any biological cell forming the body of an organism; that is, in a multicellular organism, any cell other than a gamete, ... Any biological cell forming the body of an organism. A somatic cell (from Ancient Greek σῶμα sôma, meaning "body"), or vegetal ...
They are clones. Asexual reproduction is the opposite of sexual reproducing. The second on has sex and the first one dose not. ... In this form of reproduction, a single organism or cell makes a copy of itself. The genes of the original and its copy will be ... where all the individuals are clones, and the clones may cover a large area. ... Some organisms like bacteria reproduce using binary fission. They split in two, so one bacterium becomes two bacteria. This ...
மனிதப் படியாக்கம் (Human cloning). *மரபுத் திருத்த உயிரிகள் (Genetically modified organisms). *மரபுத் திருத்த உணவுகள் ( ... 1981 - முதல் transgenic விலங்கு 'the golden carp', சீன விஞ்ஞானிகளால் படி எடுக்கப்படுகிறது (Cloned). ...
... are hosts to a wide variety of parasitic organisms. They act as intermediate hosts of endoparasitic helminths, with ... Douglas Prasher sequenced and cloned the gene for GFP.[105] Martin Chalfie figured out how to use GFP as a fluorescent marker ... Jellyfish are like other cnidarians generally carnivorous (or parasitic),[63] feeding on planktonic organisms, crustaceans, ... providing food for the benthic organisms there.[90] In temperate and subpolar regions, jelly-falls usually follow immediately ...
King CloneEdit. Main article: King Clone. The "King Clone" creosote ring is one of the oldest living organisms on Earth. It has ... "King Clone, The World's Oldest Living Thing". Botanical Record-Breakers. Waynesworld.. photo links. *. "Creosote bush in desert ... Vasek, F. C. (February 1980). "Creosote Bush: Long-Lived Clones in the Mojave Desert". American Journal of Botany. 67 (2): 246- ... King Clone was identified and its age estimated by Frank Vasek, a professor at the University of California, Riverside. ...
Fragmentation in multicellular or colonial organisms is a form of asexual reproduction or cloning where an organism is split ... Each of these fragments develop into mature, fully grown individuals that are clones of the original organism. In echinoderms, ... Binary fission in organisms can occur in four ways, irregular,longitudinal, transverse, oblique.i.e.left oblique & right ... Organisms in the domains of Archaea and Bacteria reproduce with binary fission. This form of asexual reproduction and cell ...
Online Model Organism DatabaseEdit. Xenbase[19] is the Model Organism Database (MOD) for both Xenopus laevis and Xenopus ... Injection of mRNA in Xenopus that led to the cloning of interferon.[23] Moreover, the use of morpholino-antisense ... "Xenopus model organism database". *^ Hardwick, Laura J. A.; Philpott, Anna (2015-12-15). "An oncologist׳s friend ... Model organism for biomedical researchEdit. Like many other anurans, they are often used in laboratory as research subjects.[6] ...
The clone now known as Pando was discovered in 1968 by researcher Burton V. Barnes, who continued to study it through the 1970s ... Tree experts also note that the organism's age cannot be determined with the level of precision found in tree rings; some claim ... DeWoody, J.; Rowe, C.A.; Hipkins, V.D.; Mock, K.E. (2008). ""Pando" Lives: Molecular Genetic Evidence of a Giant Aspen Clone in ... Other candidates for oldest or heaviest living organisms include the possibly larger fungal mats in Oregon, the ancient clonal ...
"Implications of Extreme Life Span in Clonal Organisms: Millenary Clones in Meadows of the Threatened Seagrass Posidonia ... "Portuguese scientists discover world's oldest living organism".. *^ Ibiza Spotlight (28 May 2006). "Ibiza's Monster Marine ...
Why do most sexual organisms use a binary mating system?[75] Why do some organisms have gamete dimorphism? ... It was found that clones that were plentiful at the beginning of the study became more susceptible to parasites over time. As ... DNA is also susceptible to mutations within the sequence that can affect an organism in a negative manner. Asexual organisms do ... Similarly, an organism may be able to cope with a few defects, but the presence of many mutations could overwhelm its backup ...
... a multiple cloning site (MCS), and a selective marker usually antibiotic resistance. Located upstream of the multiple cloning ... A variation of this technique allows the gene expression of an organism at a particular stage in development to be qualified ( ... Expression Cloning. Elsevier. p. 125. ISBN 9788131239872. . Retrieved 2019-07-08.. *^ "Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)". ... Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P. Isolating, Cloning, and Sequencing DNA. Retrieved 31 December 2016. ...
... aerobic organisms use oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor, while anaerobic organisms use other compounds such as nitrate, ... Mutation rates vary widely among different species of bacteria and even among different clones of a single species of bacteria. ... are cultured under conditions designed to grow all possible organisms.[103][159] Once a pathogenic organism has been isolated, ... These relationships can be essential for growth of a particular organism or group of organisms (syntrophy).[106] ...
When an early germ-line mutation has produced a person who harbors a large clone of mutant germ-line cells (germinal, or ... The development of an organism from single-celled to fully formed is a process with many, many steps. Even beginning with ... Mendelian traits are characteristics of an organism that are controlled by a single gene. Mendelian traits can be described as ... identical genomes, as in clones and identical twins, the process is unlikely to occur the same way twice. A process with this ...
Three months and seventeen days later, Andrews' team successfully cloned the RNA component of telomerase ("hTR").[1] For this ... their discovery in the organism Tetrahymena by Elizabeth Blackburn and Carol Greider, and on the possible connection between ... After the speech, Andrews approached Harley and told him that he could clone human telomerase for Geron in three months. Harley ... Harley mentioned that no one had yet been successful in cloning telomerase in human beings. ...
A clone may turn color earlier or later in the fall than its neighbouring aspen clones. Fall colors are usually bright tones of ... As all trees in a given clonal colony are considered part of the same organism, one clonal colony, named Pando, is considered ... Each colony is its own clone, and all trees in the clone have identical characteristics and share a single root structure. ... Aspens are dioecious, with separate male and female clones. The flowers are catkins 4-6 centimeters (1+1⁄2-2+1⁄4 in) long, ...
TEs in higher organisms, like Drosophila, have a very different dynamics because of sex, and Brian Charlesworth, Deborah ... One excellent example of this is PiggyBac, a transposable element that can efficiently move between cloning vectors and ... Since organisms are temporary occurrences, present in one generation and gone in the next, genes (replicators) are the only ... B chromosomes refer to chromosomes that are not required for the viability or fertility of the organism, but exist in addition ...
Each clone sequenced is screened to ensure that subsequently sequenced clones do not overlap any previously sequenced clone. No ... reported analysis for the average contig size or the probability of completely recovering a novel organism for a given rareness ... unsequenced gaps less than the length of a clone accumulate between sequenced clones. There can be considerable cost to close ... 1991). "Genomic mapping by anchoring random clones: a mathematical analysis". Genomics. 11 (4): 806-827. CiteSeerX ...
Asexual reproduction in organisms. Sexual reproduction and organs in male and female. The menstrual cycle, fertilisation, ... Research in human reproduction and cloning. Pollination, flowers and dispersal of fruits. The development of fruit and seeds. ... Harms and uses of different plants and animals, overall knowledge of role each organism plays in an ecosystem. Human growth ... Unicellular and multicellular organisms. Adaptation of life to the environment. The evolutionary theory. Scientific ...
Each parent organism is usually identical save for a fraction of their genes; each gamete is therefore genetically unique. At ... These offspring may be clones of the mother, or in some cases genetically differ from her but inherit only part of her DNA. ... The term conception commonly refers to fertilisation, which is the successful fusion of gametes to form a new organism. Its use ... Organisms that normally reproduce sexually can also reproduce via parthenogenesis, wherein an unfertilised female gamete ...
That DNA created is then in contact with a host organism. Cloning is also an example of genetic engineering. Since the ... They also play a major role in decay and decomposition with dead organisms. Methanogens are anaerobic organisms, which are ... Any living organism can contract a virus by giving parasites the opportunity to grow. Parasites feed on the nutrients of ... It is used as a model organism because it is easy to grow and has a haploid life cycle that makes genetic analysis simple since ...
... stipulates that foreign DNA needs to be present in an organism for it to qualify as a genetically modified organisms. Organisms ... These are known as licensed dealings and include cloning any genes that code for vertebrate toxins or using hosts that are ... As the technology improved and genetically organisms moved from model organisms to potential commercial products the USA ... For a genetically modified organism to be approved for release in the U.S., it must be assessed under the Plant Protection Act ...
"Is Livestock Cloning Another Form of Genetic Engineering?" (PDF). agbiotech. Diarsipkan dari versi asli (PDF) tanggal 11 May ... A 'GMO' is a genetically modified organism.", Retrieved 5 November 2012 *^ Root C (2007). Domestication. Greenwood Publishing ... Bratspies, Rebecca (2007). "Some Thoughts on the American Approach to Regulating Genetically Modified Organisms". Kansas ... The European Commission Directorate-General for Agriculture, "Genetic engineering: The manipulation of an organism's genetic ...
Now a good choice of clones can be made to efficiently sequence the clones to determine the DNA sequence of the organism under ... There are alternative ways to determine how DNA in a group of clones overlaps without completely sequencing the clones. Once ... The clones used in the physical map contigs can then be sequenced on a local scale to help new genetic marker design and ... The resulting pattern of DNA migration (i.e. its genetic fingerprint) is used to identify what stretch of DNA is in the clone. ...
OECD, Safety Assessment of Transgenic Organisms, Volume 4: OECD Consensus Documents, 2010, pp.171-174 ... "On the mechanism of the development of multiple-drug-resistant clones of Shigella". Jpn. J. Microbiol. 4: 219-27. PMID 13681921 ... "Interaction among Virus, Cell, and Organism". Nobel Lecture for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. ...
Cloning studies have been carried out on DNA in the genes associated with the affected homeotic functions in the mutants ... orientalis (Agapanthaceae), which is phylogenetically distant from the model organisms. In this study the genes were called ... This theoretical model has been experimentally proven through the cloning and characterization of homologs of the Antirrhinum ... it is the analysis of the phenotypes of flowers with structural anomalies that leads to the cloning of the gene of interest. ...
For organisms whose genomes are known, one might now try to exclude genes in the identified region whose function is known with ... "Map-Based Cloning of the Gene Associated With the Soybean Maturity Locus E3". Genetics. 182 (4): 1251-1262. doi:10.1534/ ... Usually, multifactorial traits outside of illness result in what we see as continuous characteristics in organisms, especially ... that correlates with variation of a quantitative trait in the phenotype of a population of organisms.[1] QTLs are mapped by ...
multicellular organism development. • intramembranous ossification. • regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • ... "Cloning and characterization of MN1, a gene from chromosome 22q11, which is disrupted by a balanced translocation in a ... "A genome annotation-driven approach to cloning the human ORFeome". Genome Biol. 5 (10): R84. doi:10.1186/gb-2004-5-10-r84. PMC ...
Tomatoes have been used as a model in map-based cloning, where transgenic plants must be created to prove that a gene has been ... Tomatoes have been used as a model organism to study the fruit ripening of climacteric fruit. To understand the mechanisms ... Wing, R.; Zhang, H. B.; Tanksley, S. (1994). "Map-based cloning in crop plants. Tomato as a model system: I. Genetic and ... Tomatoes are used as a model organism in scientific research and they are frequently genetically modified to further ...
multicellular organism development. • central nervous system development. • metanephric comma-shaped body morphogenesis. • ... "Chromosomal localization of seven PAX genes and cloning of a novel family member, PAX-9". Nature Genetics. 3 (4): 292-8. doi: ...
Pianka, Eric R.; Vitt, Laurie J. (2003). Lizards: Windows to the Evolution of Diversity (Organisms and Environments, 5). 5 (1 ... In some species of squamates, a population of females is able to produce a unisexual diploid clone of the mother. This form of ... "Numbers of threatened species by major groups of organisms (1996-2012)" (PDF). IUCN Red List, 2010. IUCN. Archived from the ...
Shinohara A, Ogawa H, Matsuda Y, Ushio N, Ikeo K, Ogawa T (Jul 1993). "Cloning of human, mouse and fission yeast recombination ... Among archaea the RadB and RadC recombinase paralogs are found in many organisms belonging to Euryarchaeota while a broader ...
Landsberg JH (2002). "The effects of harmful algal blooms on aquatic organisms". Reviews in Fisheries Science. 10 (2): 113-390 ... Carmichael WW, Gorham PR (1978). "Anatoxins from clones of Anabaena flos-aquae isolated from lakes of western Canada". Mitt. ... They are produced by a large variety of organisms, including cyanobacteria, and are part of the group of natural products, also ... As with other cyanotoxins, microcystins were named after the first organism discovered to produce them, Microcystis aeruginosa ...
Biology defines a species as a group of related organisms. The familiar exclusive breeding criterion (organisms that can breed ... molecular biology by allowing the polymerase chain reaction to be used in research as a simple and rapid technique for cloning ... The search for organisms in extreme environments yields useful enzymes for industry". EMBO Rep. 2 (11): 968-71. doi:10.1093/ ... Plants and other organisms consume the latter.[181]. In the sulfur cycle, archaea that grow by oxidizing sulfur compounds ...
A new gene located on chromosome 2 was named timeless (tim) and was successfully cloned and sequenced. They found strong ... This affects the regularity in period of the organism. This discovery solidified doubletime as a necessary part of the ... which led to his future work in cloning the period gene.[6] ...
multicellular organism development. • cell surface receptor signaling pathway. • vasculature development. • regulation of ... Saitoh T, Hirai M, Katoh M (Jun 2001). "Molecular cloning and characterization of human Frizzled-5 gene on chromosome 2q33.3- ... "Purification and molecular cloning of a secreted, Frizzled-related antagonist of Wnt action". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94 ...
Cell growth pertains to the increase in the number of cells present in an organism as it grows and develops; as the organism ... Division - By which cells reproduce either by mitosis (to produce clones of the parent cell) or Meiosis (to produce haploid ... Robert Hooke was the first person to term the building block of all living organisms as "cells" after looking at cork.[2] The ... Cells are the foundation of all organisms, they are the fundamental unit of life. The growth and development of the cell are ...
Model organisms have been used in the study of SQLE function. A conditional knockout mouse line called Sqletm1a(EUCOMM)Wtsi was ... Hartley JL, Temple GF, Brasch MA (Nov 2000). "DNA cloning using in vitro site-specific recombination". Genome Research. 10 (11 ... Laden BP, Tang Y, Porter TD (Feb 2000). "Cloning, heterologous expression, and enzymological characterization of human squalene ...
This clone was the sole survivor of several hundred seedlings grown at a nursery in New Jersey. The U.S. National Arboretum has ... Giant sequoias are among the oldest living organisms on Earth. Giant sequoia bark is fibrous, furrowed, and may be 90 cm (3 ft ...
The resulting clones can be identified either negatively or positively. In negatively marked clones the fly is ... These are organisms which contain two or more genetically distinct types of tissue.[23] The term "somatic mosaicism" was used ... Although most forms of trisomy are due to problems in meiosis and affect all cells of the organism, there are cases where the ... That is, whether or not the gene acts solely within the cell of that genotype, or if it affects the entire organism of ...
multicellular organism development. • cytoskeletal anchoring at plasma membrane. • cell differentiation. • signal transduction ... "Cloning from the thyroid of a protein related to actin binding protein that is recognized by Graves disease immunoglobulins" ...
... clone bank, clone-holding orchard, or seed orchard where their genes can be recombined in pedigreed offspring.[12] ... When an individual organism increases in size via cell multiplication and remains intact, the process is called "vegetative ... Vegetative reproduction (also known as vegetative propagation, vegetative multiplication or vegetative cloning) is any form of ... Vegetative propagation is usually considered a cloning method.[6] However, there are several cases where vegetatively ...
multicellular organism development. • response to organic substance. • cellular response to insulin stimulus. • regulation of ... "Homology probing: identification of cDNA clones encoding members of the protein-serine kinase family". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. ... multicellular organism growth. • regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway. • regulation of lipid biosynthetic process. ...
The human TNF gene (TNFA) was cloned in 1985.[22] It maps to chromosome 6p21.3, spans about 3 kilobases and contains 4 exons. ... multicellular organism development. • negative regulation of bicellular tight junction assembly. • positive regulation of ... The cDNAs encoding LT and TNF were cloned in 1984[17] and were revealed to be similar. The binding of TNF to its receptor and ...
Generic Model Organism Database. *GENESIS (software). *List of genetic engineering software. *Genevestigator ... Clone manager. *CloudBioLinux. *Clustal. *Cn3D. *Comparison of DNA melting prediction software. *COMPLEAT (Bioinformatics tool) ...
Cloning of a Lysobacter enzymogenes gene that encodes an arginyl endopeptidase (endoproteinase Arg-C). Biochim Biophys Acta ... I. Discovery and taxonomy of the producing organisms and fermentation. J Antibiot (Tokyo) 37:1528-35. Folman, L. B., J. Postma ...
... some drugs are specific to a certain genus or species of organism, and will not work on other organisms. Because of this ... A single microbe on an agar plate can then grow into colonies (clones where cells are identical to each other) containing ... Additionally, strains of an organism may be resistant to a certain drug or class of drug, even when it is typically effective ... Instruments such as compound light microscopes can be used to assess critical aspects of the organism. This can be performed ...
subsequently cloned and characterized the CASS4 gene, originally assigning the name HEPL (HEF1-EFS-p130Cas-like) for similarity ... following in silico screening of databases describing expressed sequence tags from an evolutionarily diverse group of organisms ...
Since sequencing of the human genome which allowed rapid cloning and synthesis of large quantities of purified proteins, it has ... natural products or extracts were screened in intact cells or whole organisms to identify substances that have a desirable ...
Organisms also use stem cells to replace damaged cells.. Stem cells are found in most, if not all, plants and animals. They ... Adult stem cells and cloning. *National Institutes of Health. References[change , change source]. *↑ King R.C. Stansfield W.D ... When an organism grows, stem cells specialize, and take specific functions. For instance, mature tissues like skin, muscle, ... In adult organisms, stem cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing specialized cells, but also maintain the ...
Living organisms produce retinal (RAL) by irreversible oxidative cleavage of carotenoids.[6] For example, ... Molecular Cloning, Cellular Expression, and Activity in 9-cis-Retinoic Acid Biosynthesis in Intact Cells". Journal of ... These carotenoids must be obtained from plants or other photosynthetic organisms. No other carotenoids can be converted by ...
This view encompasses all of the possible developing factors on an organism and how they not only influence the organism and ... and technical limitations affecting parthenogenesis and cloning. ... Model organisms (such as C57BL/6 mice). *Methods *Nucleic acid ... DNA adenine methylation is important in bacteria virulence in organisms such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Vibrio, Yersinia ... In this organisms, DNA methylation is associated with relics of a genome defense system called RIP (repeat-induced point ...
King Clone. *List of largest giant sequoias. *List of longest-living organisms ... Is also the heaviest-known organism, weighing 6,000 tonnes. Jurupa Oak[57]. 13,000[58]. Palmer oak. Quercus palmeri. Jurupa ... The last table lists clonal colonies in which no individual tree trunks may be remarkably old but in which the organism as a ... Although single trees in this stand may be around 3 to 4 thousand years old, the stand itself as a single organism has existed ...
가 나 BCG1 = basal clone group 1, BCG2 = basal clone group 2 ... Copeland, H. F. (1956). The Classification of Lower Organisms. ... "Correction: A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms". 》PLOS ONE》 10 (6): e0130114. doi:10.1371/journal.pone. ...
... students clone a plant by taking cuttings. A closer look at the cuttings a few weeks later could reveal which characteristics ... Class practical In this procedure, students clone a plant by taking cuttings. A closer look at the cuttings a few weeks later ... Cloning a living organism. Class practical. In this procedure, students clone a plant by taking cuttings. A closer look at the ... Nuffield Foundation » Teachers » Practical Biology » > Genetics » Introducing gene technologies » Cloning a living organism ...
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Clone CL Brener is the reference organism used in the Trypanosoma cruzi Genome Project. Some biological parameters of CL Brener ... This clone derives from the CL strain which presents all important characteristics of T. cruzi: (a) it was isolated from ... Both products were cloned into the HincII site of M13mp19 and sequenced. Sequence alignment indicate 98% similarity of both CL ... BIOLOGICAL AND PARASITOLOGICAL PARA-METERS OF CLONE CL BRENER Cultivation conditions and differentiation into metacyclic forms ...
Detection and Investigation of Genetic Relatedness among Aster Yellows and Other Mycoplasmalike Organisms by Using Cloned DNA ... Additional Keywords: eastern aster yellows, molecular cloning of mycoplasmalike organism DNA, mollicutes, nonradioactive ... With this method, fragments of DNA of the aster yellows (AY) MLO were cloned in pSP6 plasmid vectors and amplified in ... A method was developed for enriching the concentration of mycoplasmalike organism (MLO) DNA in diseased plant extracts. ...
We made a review of findings to date, which reveal that the maximum clone age and size estimates reported in the literature are ... This analysis revealed the presence, with a prevalence of 3.5 to 8.9%, of very large clones spreading over one to several (up ... Using estimates from field studies and models of the clonal growth of P. oceanica, we estimated these large clones to be ... A case study presented here shows the occurrence of clones of slow-growing marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica at spatial ...
Cloning and characterization of the catalase gene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: use of the gonococcus as a host organism for ... Cloning and characterization of the catalase gene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: use of the gonococcus as a host organism for ... Cloning and characterization of the catalase gene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: use of the gonococcus as a host organism for ... Cloning and characterization of the catalase gene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: use of the gonococcus as a host organism for ...
... help/organism-name target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Organismi. Homo sapiens (Human)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from ... cellular organisms › Eukaryota › Opisthokonta › Metazoa › Eumetazoa › Bilateria › Deuterostomia › Chordata › Craniata › ... Homo sapiens clone CDABP0046 mRNA sequenceImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using ... p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source ...
... help/organism-name target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Organismi. Homo sapiens (Human)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from ... cellular organisms › Eukaryota › Opisthokonta › Metazoa › Eumetazoa › Bilateria › Deuterostomia › Chordata › Craniata › ... cDNA FLJ14215 fis, clone NT2RP3003665, highly similar to Beta-ureidopropionaseImported. ,p>Information which has been imported ... p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source ...
... dependent relationship with other organisms in the colony, often with each member having a very specific specialization... ... Colonial organisms are actually groups of individual organisms with a close, ... What Is Therapeutic Cloning?. * Q: What Is Comparative Embryology?. * Q: What Domain Do Humans Belong To?. ... Colonial organisms are actually groups of individual organisms with a close, dependent relationship with other organisms in the ...
The complete sequence of the largest cDNA clone was obtained. The restriction site used in the cDNA cloning was fused directly ... Organism Culture and DNA Extraction.. Cultures of axenic T. vaginalis flagellates, strain C-1:NIH (ATCC 30001), were grown in ... This fragment was labeled with [α-32P]dATP and used as a hybridization probe to isolate cDNA clones from a λZAP II T. vaginalis ... Cloning of the T. vaginalis cpn60 Gene.. Degenerate primers, HSP5.4 (5′-CCAAAARTTACWAAAGATGGAGTTACWGTT-3′) and TvHSP3.1 (5′- ...
How Does DNA Determine the Traits of an Organism?. * Q: How Can Decay Caused by Microorganisms Be Both Helpful and Harmful?. ... What Are the Disadvantages of Cloning?. * Q: What Is Onion Root Tip Mitosis?. ...
Whole-organism clone tracing using single-cell sequencing * a single-cell level. Alexander van Oudenaarden and colleagues ... Rights & permissionsfor article Whole-organism clone tracing using single-cell sequencing . Opens in a new window. ...
Buy PLASMID PNF400 SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE CLONE reference standards from Microorganisms. Available to purchase online at LGC ...
... anti-CD45.2-APC clone 104 (eBioscience 17-0454-81), anti-CD8a-FITC clone Ly-2 (BD Pharmingen 553030), anti-CD3-PerCP clone 145- ... The antibodies used in this study were anti-H-2Kb-APC clone AF6-88.5 (Biolegend 116517), anti-SIINFEKL/H2kb-APC clone 25-D1.16 ... A single cell clone of Tap2 knockout MCA205 was selected and Tap2 knockout was validated by RT-PCR and next generation ... PresentER minigene cloning and transduction of RMA/S. Request a detailed protocol The individual PresentER minigenes specified ...
Cloning and Stem Cell Research Cloning is a hot topic in the news. This program will begin to help participants understand the ... Genetically Modified Organisms Humans have been genetically modifying organisms for years, but what does that really mean? This ... By starting with the basics of life and learning more about some of the microscopic organisms that impact our city and well- ... science behind stem cell and cloning research. From there, participants will learn how scientists are using these principles to ...
Cloning Is The Cloning Of Cloning. 1818 Words , 8 Pages organism. Cloning means an organism is generated genetically identical ... There are three types of cloning: gene cloning, reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning. The disadvantages of cloning is ... The Controversy Of Cloning And Cloning. 1156 Words , 5 Pages organisms are able to use for cloning? Some people may wonder ... The Power Of Cloning : Cloning. 868 Words , 4 Pages The Power of cloning Cloning can occur naturally, but this mainly happens ...
... the first clone of an adult mammal, produced by British developmental biologist Ian Wilmut and colleagues of the Roslin ... genetically modified organism. …embryo) was a sheep named Dolly, born in 1996. Since then a number of other animals, including ... cloning: Early cloning experiments. … generated a cloned sheep, named Dolly, by means of nuclear transfer involving an ... and thus they are clones of one another, rather than clones of another individual. Moreover, clones had been generated ...
... molecular cloning products, including competent cells & cloning vectors ... A variety of vectors optimized for gene cloning and expression in a range of host organisms are available, alongside competent ... StrataClone Blunt PCR Cloning Kit (1). Agilent Technologies. The StrataClone PCR Cloning Kit allows high-efficiency, 5-minute ... StrataClone PCR Cloning Kits (2). Agilent Technologies. The StrataClone PCR Cloning Kit allows high-efficiency, 5-minute ...
ORGANISM: Hepatitis C virus - - ,400, SEQUENCE: 5 - - Met Ser Thr Asn Pro Lys Pro Gln Arg Lys Th - #r Lys Arg Asn Thr Asn 1 5 ... L7 and L10 clones and species C the L4 clone. Although each species A clone was unique all A clones differed from all B clones ... One of the 3 UTR clones was selected for engineering of full-length cDNA clones of H77. This clone had the consensus variable ... this clone was tested for infectivity. The second clone, pH50, had one nt deletion in the ORF at position 6365; this clone was ...
Clone -A cell or organism derived through asexual reproduction, and which contain the identical genetic information of the ... The third stage was fragmenting these genomic clones into smaller overlapping clones (shotgun cloning), which were a more ... Clone. -A cell or organism derived through asexual reproduction, and which contain the identical genetic information of the ... Cloning. Technically known as "somatic cell nuclear transfer," cloning techniques were developed in 1996 by Ian Wilmut at the ...
Clone 4) is a subclone of the GA-10 (ATCC CRL-2392) cell line derived by culturing the parental line on a feeder layer. GA-10 ... GA-10 (Clone 4) (ATCC® CRL-2393™) Organism: Homo sapiens, human / Cell Type: B lymphocyte / Disease: Burkitts lymphoma ... GA-10 (Clone 4) is a subclone of the GA-10 (ATCC CRL-2392) cell line derived by culturing the parental line on a feeder layer. ... This clone of cells also appears to express high levels of CD77 (approximately 90%); CD77 is also known as Burkitts lymphoma ...
The line was cloned from cells obtained from Dr. Kendall Smith and are mycoplasma free. This is a clone of the Jurkat-FHCRC ... Jurkat, Clone E6-1 (ATCC® TIB-152™) Organism: Homo sapiens, human / Cell Type: T lymphocyte / Tissue: peripheral blood / ... Clone E6-1 cells produce large amounts of IL-2 after stimulation with phorbol esters and either lectins or monoclonal ... This is a clone of the Jurkat-FHCRC cell line, a derivative of the Jurkat cell line. ...
NCTC clone 929 [L cell, L-929, derivative of Strain L] (ATCC® CCL-1™) ATCC® Number: CCL-1™ Organism: Mus musculus, mouse ... BALB/3T3 clone A31 (ATCC® CCL-163™) ATCC® Number: CCL-163™ Organism: Mus musculus, mouse ...
Gómez, for instance, has specialized in cloning wildcats -- and has been quite successful. Cloned African wildcats Ditteaux, ... Cells of this type could considerably simplify the cloning process because they can be used to create any type of body cell and ... Seven minutes later, it was dead.

Many cloning experiments end this way. Geneticists have so far only been able to ... The endangered wild ox calf, native to Southeast Asia, had been cloned by the US company Advanced Cell Technology. But the gaur ...
Expression systems are in widespread use for cloning specific genes, for synthesising the encoded proteins for structural and ... 5.:Expression of cloned genes in yeast. 6.:Intraction trap cloning with yeast. 7.:The baculovirus expression system. ... You are here: Home Page , Science & Mathematics , Biological Sciences , Genetics & Genomics , DNA Cloning 2: A Practical ... Expression systems are in widespread use for cloning specific genes, for synthesising the encoded proteins for structural and ...
... organism cloning; organism design and evaluation; apparatus design and evaluation; invention design and evaluation; clinical ... In biological organisms and systems, age and sex type are two somewhat unique and powerful attributes that influence the ... The methods, computer systems and software are also applicable for tissues and non-human organisms, as well as for identifying ... In the present disclosure, the term individual can refer to a singular group, person, organism, organ, tissue, cell, virus, ...
... organism cloning; organism design and evaluation; apparatus design and evaluation; invention design and evaluation; clinical ... In biological organisms and systems, age and sex type are two somewhat unique and powerful attributes that influence the ... Allele frequency differences method for phenotype cloning. US6730023 *. 15 Oct 1999. 4 May 2004. Hemopet. Animal genetic and ... The methods, computer systems and software are also applicable for tissues and non-human organisms, as well as for identifying ...
As a noun, a clone is an identical genetic copy of either a piece of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), a cell, or a whole organism. ... Identical twins are clones, as are two daughter cells produced by mitosis . ... Clone The word clone has several different meanings in biology. ... clone 1. A group of cells, an organism, or a population of organisms arising from a single ancestral cell. All members of a ...
English: Cloning a gene using a plasmid.. *Chromosomal DNA of organism A.*PCR.*Multiple copies of a single gene from organism A ... Multiplication or expression of the gene, originally from organism A, occurring in organism B.. Deutsch: Klonen eines Gens mit ... Plasmid with gene from organism A.*Insertion of the plasmid in organism B. ... Pcr_clone.png‎ (639 × 167 pixel, file size: 3 KB, MIME type: image/png) ...
  • [6] [7] In 2016, a set of 355 genes from the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) of all organisms was identified. (
  • While viruses sustain no independent metabolism and thus are usually not classified as organisms, they do have their own genes , and they do evolve by mechanisms similar to the evolutionary mechanisms of organisms. (
  • Eva Gaetz Sec 09 Kanchan Hulasare The Cloning Debate According to Mosby's Medical Dictionary, the term "cloning" is defined as "a procedure for producing multiple copies of genetically identical organisms or cells or of individual genes. (
  • Molecular cloning is a set of techniques that utilizes vectors to transfer recombinant DNA into host cells and is an essential tool for investigating the expression of genes and proteins in bacterial or mammalian cells. (
  • Expression systems are in widespread use for cloning specific genes, for synthesising the encoded proteins for structural and functional analysis, and for large-scale preparation of current use with background information and advice on the merits of each, step-by-step practical protocols, troubleshooting, and details of the latest applications. (
  • However, that is patently false because the animals cloned by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) are not true clones but all bear a mixture of mitochondrial genes from the donor somatic cell and the egg cytoplasm, a condition referred to as heteroplasmy (see [5] (' Cloned' Food Animals Not True Clones , SiS 48). (
  • We investigated the parallel production in a medium throughput strategy of genes coding for proteins from various marine organisms, using protocols that involved recombinatorial cloning, protein expression screening and batch purification. (
  • Genes were PCR amplified and cloned in parallel into expression vectors pFO4 and pGEX-4T-1, in order to express proteins N-terminally fused to a six-histidine-tag and to a GST-tag, respectively. (
  • Our set up of a medium throughput strategy applied to genes from marine organisms had a mean success rate of 44% soluble protein expression from marine bacteria, archaea as well as eukaryotic organisms. (
  • The result of the activity of a gene or genes which influence the biochemistry and physiology of an organism and may change its outward appearance. (
  • Joining genes from different organisms is known as recombinant DNA technology, and the resulting organism is said to be 'genetically modified,' or 'transgenic. (
  • and, (2) to help students see how genes may be manipulated for genetic research, namely, gene cloning/genetic engineering. (
  • It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms . (
  • By knocking out genes responsible for certain conditions it is possible to create animal model organisms of human diseases. (
  • This is much faster, can be used to insert any genes from any organism (even ones from different domains ) and prevents other undesirable genes from also being added. (
  • BIODIVERSITY" Biodiversity, as defined by E.O. Wilson, "is meant to be all inclusive- it's the genetic based variation of living organisms at all levels, from the variety of genes in populations of single species, through species, on up to the array of natural ecosystems. (
  • Soon after, the discovery and purification of REases that recognized and cut at specific sites (Type II REases) allowed scientists to perform precise manipulations of DNA in vitro , such as the cloning of exogenous genes and creation of efficient cloning vectors. (
  • Gene cloning, which creates copies of genes or segments of DNA. (
  • The existing TRIPs agreement also forces all countries to accept a medley of new biotech patents covering genes, cell lines, organisms and living processes that turn life into commodities. (
  • The other major controversy is that the existing TRIPs agreement forces all countries to accept a medley of new biotech patents covering genes, cell lines, organisms and living processes that turn life into commodities. (
  • 2.3.1 Cloning of genes involved in cellulose hydrolysis. (
  • Cloning is commonly used to amplify DNA fragments containing whole genes, but it can also be used to amplify any DNA sequence such as promoters, non-coding sequences and randomly fragmented DNA. (
  • The Cloning is the making of an organism genetically identical to another by means of genetic engineering. (
  • If the embryonic development occurs the new organism will have identical genetic patrimony to the organism owner of the cell whose nucleus was used in the transplantation. (
  • Among mammals, naturally occurring genetic clones, or individuals genetically identical to one another, had long been recognized in the form of monozygotic (identical) twins . (
  • A variety of vectors optimized for gene cloning and expression in a range of host organisms are available, alongside competent cells for genetic replication. (
  • As a noun, a clone is an identical genetic copy of either a piece of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), a cell, or a whole organism. (
  • As a verb, "to clone" means to produce identical genetic copies of either pieces of DNA, cells, or whole organisms. (
  • The FDA claims "Clones are really just genetic copies of the animals from which they are produced" [4] and that claim is parroted by bureaucrats in EU. (
  • A genetic replica of an organism created without sexual reproduction. (
  • An organism produced through genetic engineering. (
  • All the genetic material in all the chromosomes of a particular organism. (
  • The genetic duplication of an existing organism especially by transferring the nucleus of a somatic cell of the organism into an enucleated oocyte. (
  • Therapeutic cloningwhich seeks, for example, to use the genetic material from patients own cells to generate pancreatic islets to treat diabetes or nerve cells to repair damaged spinal cordsis distinct from reproductive cloning, which aims to implant a cloned embryo into a womans uterus leading to the birth of a cloned baby. (
  • Organisms created using genetic engineering. (
  • Genetically Modified Organisms can only be harmful to humans Genetic Modification is when the genetic make-up of a living organism is altered (1). (
  • 3. A DNA sequence, such as a gene, that is transferred from one organism to another and replicated by genetic engineering techniques. (
  • The clone is then transplanted into the nucleus of a cell from which genetic material has been removed. (
  • However, this is not the case with the Amazon molly - being clones, these fish exhibit identical genetic relatedness. (
  • Because of their genetic composition, clones would have the same feelings, the same abilities and the same complexity of mind as any human being. (
  • An organism that is generated through genetic engineering is considered to be genetically modified (GM) and the resulting entity is a genetically modified organism (GMO). (
  • Process of inserting new genetic information into existing cells in order to modify a specific organism for the purpose of changing its characteristics. (
  • Genetic engineering is a process that alters the genetic structure of an organism by either removing or introducing DNA . (
  • Unlike traditional animal and plant breeding , which involves doing multiple crosses and then selecting for the organism with the desired phenotype , genetic engineering takes the gene directly from one organism and delivers it to the other. (
  • The term, cloning is a process of producing genetic identical living organism asexually using genetic material such as DNA. (
  • In order to understand cloning and how a cloned animal differs from one with two genetic parents, you need to have a basic understanding of genetics. (
  • The donor embryo isn't developed into an adult, so the only living organism with identical genetic material is another clone of the embryo generated at the same time (if one was created). (
  • We show that 17 of the new strains, including the outbreak strains, belong to cluster A. We use draft whole-genome sequencing to demonstrate that this cluster is remarkable among M. canettii strains and confirm its epidemic status, which suggests an accelerating emergence of a clone, subsequently called clone A. Within clone A, we identify a single horizontal genetic transfer event, presumably resulting from recombination with closely related mycobacteria. (
  • Introduction Cloning is the processes that are used in order to generate exact genetic makeup of a cell, tissue, or organism. (
  • The term clone refers to the copied material with the same genetic makeup of the original. (
  • An organism is referred to as true breeding for each trait to which this applies, and the term "true-breeding" is also used to describe individual genetic traits. (
  • Adult amphibians, though, have been successfully cloned for many years from embryo nuclei. (
  • Dolly was born on 5 July 1996 and had three mothers (one provided the egg, another the DNA and a third carried the cloned embryo to term). (
  • The small margin of victory could be owing to deceptive ads placed by the measure's supporters, which claimed that the amendment bans " human cloning " The only difference between the two types of cloning is that in human cloning , the embryo is implanted in the uterus, and in therapeutic cloning, it is not. (
  • WE LAUNCHED OUR ATTEMPT to create a cloned human embryo in early 2001. (
  • Cloning is done by either artificial embryo twinning or somatic cell nuclear transfer. (
  • According to the website A "Scientists Great First Cloned Human Embryo" the operation that generated Dolly the sheep in 1996 has now been demonstrated well-to-do in humans. (
  • Perhaps this clone might develop into a human as a team of biologists from the U.S and Thailand say since such a process on monkey embryo clones failed. (
  • Embryo: the developing organism from the time of fertilization until significant differentiation has occurred, when the organism becomes known as a fetus. (
  • Embryo: The developing individual between the union of the germ cells and the completion of the organs which characterize its body when it becomes a separate organism. (
  • Reproductive cloning is the 'creation' of an identical copy of an organism, which could be an animal, a plant, or possibly even a human being. (
  • Cloning is defined as to be an exact replica or identical copy of an organism. (
  • these groups contain organisms like protozoa, bacteria, chordates and annelids. (
  • Eukaryotic organisms are characterized by the presence of a membrane-bound cell nucleus and contain additional membrane-bound compartments called organelles (such as mitochondria in animals and plants and plastids in plants and algae , all generally considered to be derived from endosymbiotic bacteria). (
  • For larger pieces, or for protein production, DNA is almost always cloned in bacteria. (
  • Organisms like bacteria can be used to clean up environmental toxins such as oil. (
  • There are several simple, inexpensive laboratory exercises for DNA isolation from bacteria, onions, and other organisms. (
  • The method I have found to be most reproducible is DNA isolation from bacteria 16 , although there are a number of published isolation exercises using onions 9,10,12,16 and other organisms and tissues. (
  • Most clones are single-cell bacteria or protozoa that reproduce by making exact copies of themselves. (
  • In the case of unicellular organisms such as bacteria and yeast, this process is remarkably simple and essentially only requires the inoculation of the appropriate medium. (
  • first successful cloning experiment of a sheep, Dolly, scientists have looked into human cloning and the benefits it would offer humanity. (
  • Dolly, the sheep, was the first mammal to have been successfully cloned from an adult cell. (
  • Researchers have conducted several cloning experiments over the years, replicating tissues, organs, and even full organisms such as Dolly the Sheep in 1997. (
  • Dolly , female Finn Dorset sheep that lived from 1996 to 2003, the first clone of an adult mammal , produced by British developmental biologist Ian Wilmut and colleagues of the Roslin Institute , near Edinburgh , Scotland . (
  • Unlike Dolly, however, such clones are derived from a single zygote, or fertilized egg , and thus they are clones of one another, rather than clones of another individual. (
  • Dolly was cloned from a mammary gland cell taken from an adult Finn Dorset ewe. (
  • Dolly the sheep was successfully cloned in 1996 by fusing the nucleus from a mammary-gland cell of a Finn Dorset ewe into an enucleated egg cell taken from a Scottish Blackface ewe. (
  • This technique came into the public eye in 1996 when (after hundreds of failed attempts) British scientists cloned "Dolly" the sheep. (
  • The first cloned animal Dolly the sheep was created in 1996 using expensive and time-consuming cell surgery with a micromanipulator. (
  • AFTER DOLLY: THE USES AND MISUSES OF HUMAN CLONING continues the discussion, surveying the current state of the field of cloning, discussing the science behind Dolly's creation and its refinement since, and posing a strong statement on the moral necessity of cloning to cure disease. (
  • Unlike artificially cloned animals such as the cloned sheep "Dolly", natural clones have already proven their ability to survive in the wild, and are therefore may be more appropriate for explaining some biological processes. (
  • Since cloning Dolly the sheep in 1997, scientists have found ways to duplicate sheep, goats, rats and pigs and are on the verge of cloning human s. (
  • It took 277 eggs implanted in sheep to successfully conceive Dolly, the first cloned animal. (
  • The next popular cloning event was when Dolly the sheep became the first mammal to be cloned in 1997. (
  • Human Cloning for Organ Harvesting: The Right to Self-Preservation and Responses to Opposition After Dolly the sheep was cloned in 1997, the public outcry included questions on the possibility and (im)morality of human cloning. (
  • Used to test for the presence of a particular genetically engineered organism. (
  • The structural gene for the catalase of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was cloned into a Kat- strain of that organism by using a recombinant vector derived from one of the beta-lactamase-specifying plasmids found in that organism. (
  • 3. A cassette vector for cloning viral genomes, comprising, inserted therein, the nucleic acid sequence according to claim 1, said vector reading in the correct phase for the expression of said inserted molecule and having an active promoter molecule upstream thereof. (
  • The Gateway recombination cloning system is designed for highly efficient transfer of your DNA into any Gateway expression vector from a single entry clone. (
  • Description of the cloning/expression vector. (
  • A single molecule of cDNA cloned into a vector. (
  • A collection of cDNA molecules extracted from a particular organism, tissue or developmental stage and cloned into a DNA vector population. (
  • ORF sequences can be delivered in our standard vector, pcDNA3.1 + /C-(K)DYK or the vector of your choice as an expression/transfection-ready ORF clone. (
  • You may select a custom vector to replace pcDNA3.1+/C-(K)DYK after clone is added to cart. (
  • One clone which exhibited a fivefold increase in endothelial cell adherence, compared with S. cerevisiae transformed with vector alone, was identified. (
  • To test the impact of mcr-3 expression on bacterial fitness, we cloned mcr-3 into an inducible expression vector using a strategy as previously described to measure the cost of mcr-1 [ 8 ] (details of strains and plasmids are listed in Supplementary Table 1 ). (
  • Modern cloning vectors include selectable antibiotic resistance markers, which allow only cells in which the vector has been transfected, to grow. (
  • Humans have been genetically modifying organisms for years, but what does that really mean? (
  • In a few more years, the knowledge on how to clone humans could be present. (
  • With statistics that strong, it proves that the extent to the public's opposition to the cloning of humans. (
  • Cloning of humans would give parents who are infertile the possibility to have a child that would be biologically theirs and if they wish theirs partners. (
  • Thru cloning humans, doctors would be able to have a perfect organ transplant or bone marrow donor. (
  • The concept of mammalian clones, even humans, was not new at the time of Dolly's birth. (
  • When we think of cloning humans, images of clones taking over the world emerge in our minds. (
  • Cloning humans still has unethical implications that suggest that the negative effects of cloning outweigh its potential benefit s to the world. (
  • People throughout the earth are going to always try to clone humans, but it is the responsibility of the United States to keep an eye to monitor the progress of this technology. (
  • Cloned humans are true, living people. (
  • Scientific testing on humans has not been practiced and should not be practiced on human clone s. (
  • Transgenic clones can create medical products for humans. (
  • Even though it is tempting to say yes, think about the potential dangerous outcomes and the steps it took to be able to make this choice before supporting the cloning of humans. (
  • There are many issues with regard to cloning humans. (
  • Although cloning has been accomplished with many animals, is it ethical to perform with humans? (
  • Another important advantage of cloning humans is for infertile couples. (
  • However, considering the idea of cloning is undeniably an immense idea to grasp one's head around, humans cannot definitely say a simple yes or no when asked if they would like to clone a friend or family member.There are lots of consequential decisions to make due to all the benefits and setbacks that go alongside cloning. (
  • Although cloning animals and humans can have many advantages, the risks and ethical dilemmas are greater than the benefits. (
  • Cloning and characterization of the catalase gene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: use of the gonococcus as a host organism for recombinant DNA. (
  • Identification and characteristics of the host organism used for molecular cloning. (
  • A construct is usually created and used to insert this DNA into the host organism. (
  • With this method, fragments of DNA of the aster yellows (AY) MLO were cloned in pSP6 plasmid vectors and amplified in Escherichia coli strain JM83. (
  • Gateway technology allows highly efficient transfer of the gene of interest into any of a number of expression vectors from a single entry clone. (
  • The extremely wide variety of Gateway cloning-compatible expression vectors available makes the Gateway system of recombination cloning ideal for protein expression studies. (
  • The development of gene cloning vectors and selection methodologies enabled the cloning of REases. (
  • However, a number of other features are needed, and a variety of specialised cloning vectors (small piece of DNA into which a foreign DNA fragment can be inserted) exist that allow protein production, affinity tagging, single stranded RNA or DNA production and a host of other molecular biology tools. (
  • Additionally, the cloning vectors may contain colour selection markers, which provide blue/white screening (alpha-factor complementation) on X-gal medium. (
  • Cloning and characterization of the breakpoint regions of a chromosome 11;18 translocation in a pati. (
  • The announcement in February 1997 of Dolly's birth marked a milestone in science, dispelling decades of presumption that adult mammals could not be cloned and igniting a debate concerning the many possible uses and misuses of mammalian cloning technology. (
  • In Activity Two, the student will clone the DNA molecule to make a vaccine. (
  • A group of genetically identical cells, all containing the same recombinant DNA molecule are called clones. (
  • Multiple copies of a single gene from organism A. (
  • Print copies of DNA fragments on different colors of paper to indicate DNAs came from different organisms. (
  • Cloning organisms does not work completely like the copy machine making copies, but more like breeding animals where two desired breeds are being bred to produce a new offspring where it grows into something that is somewhat similar to the expected outcome. (
  • 2. Reproductive cloning, which creates copies of organisms. (
  • Cloning in biotechnology refers to the process of creating clones of organisms or copies of cells or DNA fragments (molecular cloning). (
  • The cloned sheep will be genetically identical to this donor. (
  • clone a sheep. (
  • The scientists were able to clone a sheep. (
  • What does it mean to clone an animal such as a sheep, a pig or a human being? (
  • Some of studies show that scientists successfully cloned animals such as cows, Pigs, and sheep. (
  • The Human Cloning Prohibition Act of 2011 would make somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) illegal and would impose a felony charge on scientists who conduct such research. (
  • Therapeutic cloning of mouse somatic cells achieved in 2000, and of human somatic cells in 2013. (
  • it was cloned from an adult sheep's somatic cell. (
  • Somatic cloning may enable the maintenance/expansion of the population of camels with the highest potential for milk production or the best racing performances. (
  • The world's first surrogate mother of a cloned animal from another species had udders and was named Bessie. (
  • The cell constructs only survived for a few hours, but Iritani remains optimistic that an elephant surrogate mother will soon bring to term the first mammoth clone. (
  • Escherichia coli is a microscopic single-celled organism, and a prokaryote as well. (
  • By starting with the basics of life and learning more about some of the microscopic organisms that impact our city and well-being, we will become more knowledgeable citizens. (
  • The microscopic organisms wasted no time cloning themselves. (
  • Tiny microscopic organisms came back to life after they thawed out. (
  • After getting thawed out in the lab, tiny microscopic organisms from that soil, called bdelloid rotifers, wriggled back to life-following what could be described as a 24,000-years-long nap, according to new research published in the journal Current Biology . (
  • WASHINGTON (May 5, 2009)Leading congressional advocates of using human embryos in research recently admitted that they are currently drafting legislation that would authorize the federal government to fund human cloning research. (
  • Insignificant as they appeared, the specks were precious because they were, to our knowledge, the first human embryos produced using the technique of nuclear transplantation, otherwise known as cloning. (
  • After this, Korean researchers have claimed that they have cloned human embryos which turned out to be false. (
  • In conclusion, the present study shows for the first time that the development of dromedary NT embryos derived from either adult fibroblasts or granulosa cells can occur in vitro and the transfer of these cloned embryos to recipients can result in pregnancies. (
  • Moreover, clones had been generated previously in the laboratory, but only from embryonic cells that were either undifferentiated or only partially differentiated . (
  • Comprehensive assessment of milk composition in transgenic cloned cattle. (
  • Polly was the first transgenic cloned mammal. (
  • Here, you can explore a range of molecular tools, high-quality genomic and cDNA libraries, premade clones, transformation and transfection reagents and mutagenesis or gene expression detection assays and expression arrays. (
  • Find the best gene expression and molecular cloning products in our peer-reviewed product directory: compare products, check customer reviews and receive pricing direct from manufacturers. (
  • Multiplication or expression of the gene, originally from organism A, occurring in organism B. (
  • There are many options available for protein expression from cloned DNA. (
  • The variety of expression choices available makes the Gateway system of recombination cloning ideal for protein expression studies. (
  • The objective of this program was to get around the bottlenecks of soluble, active protein expression and crystallization for post-genomic validation of a number of proteins that come from various marine organisms. (
  • section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. (
  • section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. (
  • In nature, many organisms produce clones through asexual reproduction. (
  • citation needed] Apomixis and parthenogenesis, types of asexual reproduction, also result in true breeding, although the organisms are usually not homozygous. (
  • In animals, the production of clones from fully differentiated (adult) cells (e.g., skin or muscle cells) had been carried out successfully only in lower species , such as frogs . (
  • The initial task attributed to our group was the definition of the biological characteristics of CL Brener clone as well as of molecular markers to be used to genetically characterize this organism. (
  • The pressing question is how to analyze the genomic data with respect to original biological processes in diverse marine organisms (i.e. their development or stress response), their importance in adaptation to the particular habitat and how to identify new enzymes and/or metabolites of biotechnological interest. (
  • It states in part that the district "understands that the teaching of some scientific subjects such as biological evolution, the chemical origins of life, global warming and human cloning , can cause controversy and that some teachers may be unsure of the district's expectations concerning how they should present information on such subjects. (
  • With the advent of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), RT-PCR, and PCR-based mutagenesis methodologies, the traditional cloning workflow transformed biological research in the decades that followed. (
  • Scientists organize living organisms into groups because it is easier to study organisms that have certain shared features. (
  • How Do Scientists Classify Organisms? (
  • Just a few years ago, cloning was something of a fictional nature that most scientists had thought about, but never seriously considered it as an experiment. (
  • For decades, scientists had tried and failed to clone mammals from existing adults. (
  • Scientists Hope Cloning Will Save Endanger. (
  • Other Japanese scientists are even trying to clone the woolly mammoth. (
  • Two scientists, Panayiotis Zavos and Severino Antinori, promise to clone the first human by next year. (
  • Most scientists throughout the world are abiding by a moratorium on cloning. (
  • Scientists do not know when and how clones become mutated. (
  • For the first time, scientists have made an unhatched clone of a person, using DNA from that person's skin cells. (
  • The following chmp2a gene cDNA ORF clone sequences were retrieved from the NCBI Reference Sequence Database (RefSeq). (
  • 1. A cell, group of cells, or organism that is produced asexually from a single ancestor. (
  • A living organism (originally a plant) produced asexually from a single ancestor, to which it is genetically identical. (
  • During the winter of 1995-96, Wilmut was involved in three pivotal cloning experiments conducted at Roslin. (
  • Many cloning experiments end this way. (
  • Cloning experiments have a 5 percent success rate, making the risk s involved in cloning an animal extremely high and the possibility of success very narrow . (
  • Drs. Zavos and Antinori are presumptuous in promising to clone human beings by next year, especially when the failures of many experiments are evident . (
  • Clones would not be able to stop themselves from being experiments. (
  • The foundation of cloning is the nucleus transplantation technology. (
  • Since the nucleus of virtually every animal cell contains the entire genome of the animal, it might seem easy enough to clone an animal by placing the nucleus in an egg cell from which the nucleus has been removed. (
  • They then inject the nucleus of the donor cell (or sometimes a whole cell) into the enucleated egg and incubate it under special conditions that prompt it to divide and grow [see Therapeutic Cloning: How It's Done ]. (
  • 2. An organism developed asexually from another and genetically identical to it, such as an animal produced from an egg cell into which the nucleus of an adult individual has been transferred. (
  • This study is "one of very few studies that have demonstrated multi-thousand year survival of a eukaryote, an organism whose cells have a nucleus, wrote Peter Convey, a terrestrial ecologist at the British Antarctic Survey, in an email to Popular Science. (
  • A clone is created by first taking an egg from a donor, then the nucleus is taken out, which holds all of the DNA. (
  • There are ethical issues associated with more advanced cloning technologies - especially those involving animal material including cloning material from adult cells. (
  • Amphibians have long been cloned from adult cells, but they invariably die in the tadpole stage. (
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (
  • One clone ID might be correlated to multiple accession numbers, which share the same CDS sequence. (
  • We take advantage of the clone A sequence data, which is, within M. canettii , closest to M. tuberculosis , to better describe the emergence of M. tuberculosis . (
  • To amplify any DNA sequence in a living organism, that sequence must be linked to an origin of replication, which is a sequence of DNA capable of directing the propagation of itself and any linked sequence. (
  • There are three types of cloning: gene cloning, reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning. (
  • Explain what reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning mean. (
  • The largest hybridizing cDNA clone was completely sequenced using a primer walking strategy. (
  • If the gene for the major antigen of one virus is spliced or cloned into a second nonvirulent virus and that antigen is expressed (the protein is made) then this recombinant virus will immunize a host against both. (
  • Cloning can be used to make identical organisms to study and to clone cells to grow back organs. (
  • Human clones could used in a variety of ways, for example, curing infertility, functioniing spare parts for the hurted organs, and assisting medical research. (
  • Cloning the organs that are needed for a person to survive when their own gives out can provide for many more people to live and not have to wait on a transplant list forever. (
  • Indeed, the upcoming challenge is to go beyond the bioinformatic data, since the bias introduced through the genomes of the so called model organisms leads to numerous proteins of unknown function in the still unexplored world of the oceanic organisms. (
  • This clone is being sequenced by the Chromosome 8 Sequencing Project. (
  • We believe that reproductive cloning has potential risks to both mother and fetus that make it unwarranted at this time, and we support a restriction on cloning for reproductive purposes until the safety and ethical issues surrounding it are resolved. (
  • Cloning babies seems to be the perfect solution, although there are some ethical issues. (
  • PCR amplification was performed using these primers and total genomic T. vaginalis DNA under standard conditions ( 12 ) producing a 1-kb fragment that was cloned and partially sequenced to confirm its homology with cpn60. (
  • To identify potential adhesins that mediate the attachment of this organism to endothelial cells, a genomic library from C. albicans was used to transform a nonadherent strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae . (
  • Besides disentangling familiarity and kinship, as was the case in the previous study, natural clones offer additional advantages: for example, the effects of mutations can be better understood when there is less initial variability in the genome. (
  • In the early 1980's, it was suggested that a recombinant Vaccinia virus joined with gene coding for an antigen from another disease organism would have many advantages as a live vaccine with the ability to replicate. (
  • GA-10 (Clone-4) cells exhibit sensitivity to Shiga Toxin (Stx) in toxicity studies. (
  • The line was cloned from cells obtained from Dr. Kendall Smith and are mycoplasma free. (
  • Clone E6-1 cells produce large amounts of IL-2 after stimulation with phorbol esters and either lectins or monoclonal antibodies against the T3 antigen (both types of stimulants are needed to induce IL-2 production. (
  • Cells of this type could considerably simplify the cloning process because they can be used to create any type of body cell and can be easily multiplied. (
  • The next step was to recruit women willing to contribute eggs to be used in the cloning procedure and also collect cells from individuals to be cloned (the donors). (
  • 1. A group of cells or organisms that are descended from and genetically identical to a single progenitor, such as a bacterial colony whose members arose from a single original cell. (
  • The cells of an individual plant or animal are clones because they all descend from a single fertilized cell. (
  • Clones of cells and some plants and animals can also be produced in a laboratory. (
  • 1. To produce or grow a cell, group of cells, or organism from a single original cell. (
  • Clones are more likely to die earlier than their models because their cells have already divided multiple times. (
  • Based on tools, the market segmented into oligonucleotides and synthetic DNA, enzymes, cloning technology kits, synthetic cells, chassis organisms and xeno-nucleic acid. (
  • In the future such a clone could be a source of stem cells, for super-personalized therapies made from people's own DNA. (
  • The population of transformed yeasts was enriched for highly adherent clones by repeated passages over endothelial cells. (
  • Other integrin-like molecules considered to be involved in the adherence of this organism to host cells and components of the basement membrane include the fibronectin, laminin, and entactin receptors ( 10 , 16 , 17 ). (
  • The development of a human being begins with fertilization, a process by which two highly specialized cells, the spermatozoon from the male and the oocyte from the female, unite to give rise to a new organism, the zygote. (
  • Cloning a cell means to derive a population of cells from a single cell. (
  • However, in the case of cell cultures from multi-cellular organisms, cell cloning is an arduous task as these cells will not readily grow in standard media. (
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  • Molecular cloning refers to the process of making multiple molecules. (
  • What Is Therapeutic Cloning? (
  • You need to understand the use of reproductive and therapeutic cloning in your exam. (
  • We believe that together these achievements, the details of which we reported November 25 in the online journal e-biomed: The Journal of Regenerative Medicine, represent the dawn of a new age in medicine by demonstrating that the goal of therapeutic cloning is within reach. (
  • Disturbingly, the proponents of reproductive cloning [see Reproductive Cloning: They Want to Make a Baby ] are trying to co-opt the term "therapeutic cloning" by claiming that employing cloning techniques to create a child for a couple who cannot conceive through any other means treats the disorder of infertility. (
  • Human reproductive/therapeutic cloning should be banned everywhere because it disrespects human dignity, there are other alternatives, and most importantly, the low probability of success can lead to endangered potential human life. (
  • The regulatory regimes of USA and EU based their false claim that the cloned animals are true clones on the baseless assumption that the mitochondrial genomes do not count when in fact the mitochondria play crucial roles in in a number of diseases of the nervous system, in cell suicide and in aging. (
  • Human cloning(modifying babies) is a process of producing new identical babies by altering their genomes. (
  • want to use cloning to save endangered species, but they are having only limited success. (
  • He was the first ever to clone an endangered species, and now he's the standard-bearer for stem cell research. (
  • NUMREF # Organism Species. (
  • The most common argument in support of viruses as living organisms is their ability to undergo evolution and replicate through self-assembly. (
  • Forgiving the troll, I'll say that a) we assume we can clone DNA, so that by cloning DNA we can replicate exactly the same system as many times as we want, like in a production line. (
  • An organism may be defined as an assembly of molecules functioning as a more or less stable whole that exhibits the properties of life . (
  • Over the past twenty years extensive studies of the ecology, physiology, taxonomy and molecular biology of these micro-organisms have been undertaken. (
  • The individual members can be multicellular organisms or single-celled organisms. (
  • A clone may be produced by fission, in the case of single-celled organisms, or by budding, as in the hydra. (
  • A useful tissue culture technique used to clone distinct lineages of cell lines involves the use of cloning rings (cylinders). (