Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cloning, Organism: The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Organisms, Genetically Modified: Organisms whose GENOME has been changed by a GENETIC ENGINEERING technique.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Genomic Library: A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Mycoplasma: A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Bacteria, AnaerobicGene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Corynebacterium: A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Yeasts: A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Eukaryotic Cells: Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Bacteria, AerobicFeces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Cyanobacteria: A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.Physical Chromosome Mapping: Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Pneumocystis: A genus of ascomycetous FUNGI, family Pneumocystidaceae, order Pneumocystidales. It includes various host-specific species causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in humans and other MAMMALS.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Mycobacterium: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Prokaryotic Cells: Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.

Development of nuclear transfer and parthenogenetic rabbit embryos activated with inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. (1/703)

The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of different activation protocols, enucleation methods, and culture media on the development of parthenogenetic and nuclear transfer (NT) rabbit embryos. Electroporation of 25 mM inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate (IP3) in calcium- and magnesium-free PBS immediately induced a single intracellular calcium transient in 6 out of 14 metaphase II-stage rabbit oocytes evaluated during a 10-min recording period. The percentage of oocytes treated with IP3 followed by 6-dimethylaminopurine (IP3 + DMAP) that cleaved (83.9%) and reached the blastocyst stage (50%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those activated with multiple pulses (61.6% and 30.1%, respectively) or treated with ionomycin + DMAP (52.9% and 5.7%, respectively). Development of IP3 + DMAP-activated rabbit oocytes and in vivo-fertilized zygotes in different culture media was studied. Development of activated oocytes to the blastocyst stage in Earle's balanced salt solution (EBSS) supplemented with MEM nonessential amino acids, basal medium Eagle amino acids, 1 mM L-glutamine, 0.4 mM sodium pyruvate, and 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) (EBSS-complete) (40.6%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those that developed in either Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's medium (DMEM)/RPMI + 10% FBS (15.5%) or CR1aa + 10% FBS (4%) medium. In addition, 100% of in vivo-fertilized rabbit zygotes developed to the blastocyst stage in EBSS-complete. A third set of experiments was carried out to study the efficiency of blind versus stained (Hoechst 33342) enucleation of oocytes. Twenty-nine of 48 blind enucleated and IP3 + DMAP-activated oocytes cleaved (60.4%), and 15 (31.2%) subsequently reached the blastocyst stage, whereas 9 of 52 oocytes enucleated using epifluorescence (17.3%) cleaved, and none of these reached the blastocyst stage. When the above parameters that yielded the highest blastocysts were combined in an NT experiment using adult rabbit fibroblast nuclei, 72.2% (39 of 54) of the fused nuclear transplant embryos cleaved and 29.6% (16 of 54) reached the blastocyst stage.  (+info)

Production of cloned calves following nuclear transfer with cultured adult mural granulosa cells. (2/703)

Adult somatic cell nuclear transfer was used to determine the totipotent potential of cultured mural granulosa cells, obtained from a Friesian dairy cow of high genetic merit. Nuclei were exposed to oocyte cytoplasm for prolonged periods by electrically fusing quiescent cultured cells to enucleated metaphase II cytoplasts 4-6 h before activation (fusion before activation [FBA] treatment). Additionally, some first-generation morulae were recloned by fusing blastomeres to S-phase cytoplasts. A significantly higher proportion of fused embryos developed in vitro to grade 1-2 blastocysts on Day 7 with FBA (27.5 +/- 2.5%) than with recloning (13.0 +/- 3.6%; p < 0. 05). After the transfer of 100 blastocysts from the FBA treatment, survival rates on Days 60, 100, 180, and term were 45%, 21%, 17%, and 10%, respectively. Ten heifer calves were delivered by elective cesarean section; all have survived. After the transfer of 16 recloned blastocysts, embryo survival on Day 60 was 38%; however, no fetuses survived to Day 100. DNA analyses confirmed that the calves are all genetically identical to the donor cow. It is suggested that the losses throughout gestation may in part be due to placental dysfunction at specific stages. The next advance in this technology will be to introduce specific genetic modifications of biomedical or agricultural interest.  (+info)

A mutation in the transmembrane/luminal domain of the ryanodine receptor is associated with abnormal Ca2+ release channel function and severe central core disease. (3/703)

Central core disease is a rare, nonprogressive myopathy that is characterized by hypotonia and proximal muscle weakness. In a large Mexican kindred with an unusually severe and highly penetrant form of the disorder, DNA sequencing identified an I4898T mutation in the C-terminal transmembrane/luminal region of the RyR1 protein that constitutes the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor. All previously reported RYR1 mutations are located either in the cytoplasmic N terminus or in a central cytoplasmic region of the 5,038-aa protein. The I4898T mutation was introduced into a rabbit RYR1 cDNA and expressed in HEK-293 cells. The response of the mutant RyR1 Ca2+ channel to the agonists halothane and caffeine in a Ca2+ photometry assay was completely abolished. Coexpression of normal and mutant RYR1 cDNAs in a 1:1 ratio, however, produced RyR1 channels with normal halothane and caffeine sensitivities, but maximal levels of Ca2+ release were reduced by 67%. [3H]Ryanodine binding indicated that the heterozygous channel is activated by Ca2+ concentrations 4-fold lower than normal. Single-cell analysis of cotransfected cells showed a significantly increased resting cytoplasmic Ca2+ level and a significantly reduced luminal Ca2+ level. These data are indicative of a leaky channel, possibly caused by a reduction in the Ca2+ concentration required for channel activation. Comparison with two other coexpressed mutant/normal channels suggests that the I4898T mutation produces one of the most abnormal RyR1 channels yet investigated, and this level of abnormality is reflected in the severe and penetrant phenotype of affected central core disease individuals.  (+info)

How identical would cloned children be? An understanding essential to the ethical debate. (4/703)

The ban on human cloning in many countries worldwide is founded on an assumption that cloned children will be identical to each other and to their nuclear donor. This paper explores the scientific basis for this assumption, considering both the principles and practice of cloning in animals and comparing genetic and epigenetic variation in potential human clones with that in monozygotic twins.  (+info)

A spare or an individual? Cloning and the implications of monozygotic twinning. (5/703)

The creation of Dolly, the cloned sheep, raises the scenario of cloning in humans. Neither the case for, nor against, the ethics of cloning in humans is discussed in this paper. Instead, it considers the neglected issue of the likely happiness or otherwise of the resulting children if they are born as monozygotic twins or triplets. The advantages and disadvantages of twinship are discussed in detail, and it is concluded that recognized medical risks, and incompletely understood psychological effects, should be given serious consideration.  (+info)

Cloning, killing, and identity. (6/703)

One potentially valuable use of cloning is to provide a source of tissues or organs for transplantation. The most important objection to this use of cloning is that a human clone would be the sort of entity that it would be seriously wrong to kill. I argue that entities of the sort that you and I essentially are do not begin to exist until around the seventh month of fetal gestation. Therefore to kill a clone prior to that would not be to kill someone like you or me but would be only to prevent one of us from existing. And even after one of us begins to exist, the objections to killing it remain comparatively weak until its psychological capacities reach a certain level of maturation. These claims support the permissibility of killing a clone during the early stages of its development in order to use its organs for transplantation.  (+info)

Should we clone human beings? Cloning as a source of tissue for transplantation. (7/703)

The most publicly justifiable application of human cloning, if there is one at all, is to provide self-compatible cells or tissues for medical use, especially transplantation. Some have argued that this raises no new ethical issues above those raised by any form of embryo experimentation. I argue that this research is less morally problematic than other embryo research. Indeed, it is not merely morally permissible but morally required that we employ cloning to produce embryos or fetuses for the sake of providing cells, tissues or even organs for therapy, followed by abortion of the embryo or fetus.  (+info)

Persons and their copies. (8/703)

Is cloning human beings morally wrong? The basis for the one serious objection to cloning is that, because of what a clone is, clones would have much worse lives than non-clones. I sketch a fragment of moral theory to make sense of the objection. I then outline several ways in which it might be claimed that, because of what a clone is, clones would have much worse lives than non-clones. In particular, I look at various ideas connected with autonomy. I conclude that there is no basis to the claim that, because of what a clone is, clones would have much worse lives than non-clones. I therefore reject the claim that cloning human beings is morally wrong.  (+info)

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently announced its approval of meat and dairy products from cloned animals amidst widespread concern among scientists and food safety advocates. Despite recent consumer opinion polls showing that most Americans do not want food from cloned animals, cloned milk may soon be sold, unlabeled, in grocery stores across the country, and cloned meat will be next. Scientists say that clones may be inherently unhealthy, with potentially harmful consequences for animal foods derived from clones. Moreover, animal cloning is a cruel technology that results in needless animal suffering.. The first cloned mammal was the famed sheep Dolly. But after the hype, few followed the story of Dolly?s demise. Just six years old when euthanized (sheep of Dolly?s breed generally live to 11 or 12), Dolly suffered from arthritis and lung disease usually seen in much older animals. Sadly, Dolly is not unique among clones. Leading cloning scientists say clones are likely to ...
PAN Czytelnia Czasopism, Transgenic mammalian species, generated by somatic cell cloning, in biomedicine, biopharmaceutical industry and human nutrition/dietetics - recent achievements - Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
The FDAs draft risk assessment and management plan addressing the food safety issues surrounding cloned animals is better late than never. The agency has been delinquent in waiting five years to begin this public evaluation of cloned animals, requiring consumers to rely on the food industry and cloning companies to voluntarily refrain from introducing cloning animals into the food supply.
The risks of animal cloning are immense. The cloning process is inefficient and cloned animals have been observed to have higher rates of infection, tumour growth, and skeletal abnormalities than normal offspring. Are the risks and disadvantages of cloning because it is a nascent technology that scientists are trying to get to grips with, or are there inherent problems with the cloning process?
Human cloning belongs to the eugenics project and is thus subject to all the ethical and juridical observations that have amply condemned it." -- Reflections on Cloning, Pontificia Academia Pro Vita "Proponents of therapeutic cloning have set up reproductive cloning as the greater of two evils and then insisted that the public must choose one. This leaves the public with therapeutic cloning as the lesser evil. In fact, we can decide to reject them both as evils, but I see reproductive cloning as the lesser of the two presented evils. Instead of promoting deaths, it promotes life; although, of course, the nature of cloned lives raise many deep concerns and fears." --James Sherley Ph.D., professor of biological engineering at MIT.. "...methods that fail to respect the dignity and value of the person must always be avoided. I am thinking in particular of attempts at human cloning with a view to obtaining organs for transplants: these techniques, insofar as they involve the manipulation and ...
Human cloning belongs to the eugenics project and is thus subject to all the ethical and juridical observations that have amply condemned it." -- Reflections on Cloning, Pontificia Academia Pro Vita "Proponents of therapeutic cloning have set up reproductive cloning as the greater of two evils and then insisted that the public must choose one. This leaves the public with therapeutic cloning as the lesser evil. In fact, we can decide to reject them both as evils, but I see reproductive cloning as the lesser of the two presented evils. Instead of promoting deaths, it promotes life; although, of course, the nature of cloned lives raise many deep concerns and fears." --James Sherley Ph.D., professor of biological engineering at MIT.. "...methods that fail to respect the dignity and value of the person must always be avoided. I am thinking in particular of attempts at human cloning with a view to obtaining organs for transplants: these techniques, insofar as they involve the manipulation and ...
Sinopsis: Nature has been cloning animals, cells, and molecules for millions of years. Scientists got into the act just 34 years ago when John Gurdon, a professor at Cambridge University in England, cloned a frog. Gurdons experiment did not generate a great deal of interest at the time and was rarely discussed outside the world of research labs. In 1996 when Ian Wilmut, a British biologist, cloned a sheep named Dolly, the reaction was dramatically different. The news of Dollys birth was reported in every major newspaper and magazine around the world, and she quickly became the most celebrated lamb in the history of animal husbandry.. Animal Cloning, Revised Edition discusses all aspects of this new biology, including the scientific, ethical, and legal issues. Completely revised and updated, this edition now features full-color photographs and illustrations as well as further resources and Web sites to guide additional research. Beginning chapters discuss cloning within the context of a natural ...
The short answer is yes. But the real question is what they support doing with cloned human embryos. They apparently support creating cloned human embryos, using the cloning technique of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to create the cloned embryos. This is the cloning technique that was used to create Dolly the cloned sheep. In that case, the cloned sheep embryo was gestated to birth. Some term this use of cloned embryos as reproductive cloning. When the cloned embryos are disaggregated to pluck out their stem cells, some term this use of cloned embryos as therapeutic cloning (even though it ...
Nature has been cloning animals, cells, and molecules for millions of years. Scientists got into the act just 34 years ago when John Gurdon, a professor at Cambridge University in England, cloned a frog. Gurdons experiment did not generate a great deal of interest at the time and was rarely discussed outside the world of research labs. In 1996 when Ian Wilmut, a British biologist, cloned a sheep named Dolly, the reaction was dramatically different. The news of Dollys birth was reported in every major newspaper and magazine around the world, and she quickly became the most celebrated lamb in the history of animal husbandry.. Animal Cloning, Updated Edition discusses all aspects of this new biology, including the scientific, ethical, and legal issues. Completely revised and updated, this edition features full-color photographs and illustrations as well as further resources and websites to guide additional research. Beginning chapters discuss cloning within the context of a natural process that ...
Environment Committee members in Brussels on Tuesday argued that it would be irresponsible to include food from cloned animals in the scope of the Novel Foods regulation, soon to be updated to incorporate emerging areas of science such as nanotechnology and GMOs, as well as cloning. Source: ...
A British animal welfare group has petitioned the government to prevent the entry of products from cloned animals into the food chain.
The FDA had asked producers of cloned livestock not to sell food products from such animals pending its ruling on their safety. It isnt clear whether the FDA will lift this voluntary hold.. While many consumer groups still oppose it, the FDA declaration that cloned animal products are safe would be a milestone for a small cadre of biotech companies that want to make a business out of producing copies of prize dairy cows and other farm animals -- effectively taking the selective breeding practiced on farms for centuries to the cutting edge.. Because of the price tag -- cloned cattle cost $15,000 to $20,000 per copy -- most of the cloned animals will be used for breeding, and it will be three to five years before consumers see milk and meat from their offspring. Some animal breeders in the U.S. have already been experimenting with cloning animals. ViaGen Inc., the largest animal-cloning company in the nation, has cloned animals, such as a cow named Peggy Sue.. Consumer wariness toward cloned food ...
本文收錄於臺大農業推廣通訊雙月刊96期. 文/國立臺灣大學生物科技研究所 宋麗英助理教授. 隨著生物科技的發展日新月異,另類的牧場已然興起,結合現代生殖科技 (Reproductive biotechnology),包括:體外成熟 (in vitro maturation, IVM)、體外受精 (in vitro fertilization, IVF)、體外培養 (in vitro culture, IVC)、胚移殖 (embryo transfer, ET)、卵及胚的冷凍保存 (cryopreservation) 技術、精子與胚之性別控制及鑑定 (sperm or embryo sexing)、基因轉殖(transgenic)、體細胞核移置(somatic cell nuclear transfer, SCNT,又稱動物複製 animal cloning)等相關技術,在培養皿內發展分子牧場已是相關生技公司積極發展的業務之一。 Continue reading →. ...
As many as 3,000 Americans die every day from diseases that may someday be treatable with tissues created through stem cells, according to the Centers for Disease Control. Somatic cell nuclear transfer ("therapeutic cloning"), which is one way to derive stem cells, shows potential in generating functional replacement cells such as insulin-producing cells associated with diabetes. It also shows promise in reconstituting more complex tissues and organs, such as blood vessels, myocardial "patches," kidneys, and even entire hearts. Additionally, it has the potential to eliminate the rejection responses associated with transplantation of "non-self" tissues, and thus the need for immunosuppressive drugs, which carry the risk of serious and potentially life-threatening complications and enormous cost to the United States health care system ...
View Notes - unit7 cloning animals from BIOCHEM 100 at UMass (Amherst). UNIT 7 Animal Cloning and Epigenetics F08 The first cloned horse. What cell parts would you need to clone a human? (or
Animal cloning is a very complicated and difficult process and involves many failures to achieve one single live clone birth. The following are the top 10
America rejects science without values attached -- we still havemorals and morality prevailed today," she said in a statement.. Family Research Council President Ken Connor said of the vote: "Thisis a major victory for the sanctity of human life. The bipartisan votein the House ... has sent Frankenstein packing.". The president of the Biotechnology Industry Organization, whichopposed the bans effect on research, said if the legislation becomeslaw, the progress of new medical treatments will be reversed. In astatement, Carl B. Feldbaum called on the Senate to consider the medicalbenefits and "to separate the technologys therapeutic use from its usefor human reproductive cloning, a concept the biotechnology industryfinds to be repugnant and unsafe.". President Bush, who has yet to make a decision about federal fundingof stem-cell research, issued a statement commending the House action.. "The moral issues posed by human cloning are profound and haveimplications for today and for future ...
For the first time ever, scientists have successfully used somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) via the process of therapeutic cloning to generate normal human embryonic stem cells (hESC). Recall that there are two kinds of human cloning: therapeutic (which is […]. ...
The findings were published shortly before a National Academy of Sciences meeting next Tuesday, during which scientists will discuss cloning and animal safety issues.. Lanza said he hoped the findings would "inject a sense of reality and scientific vigor" into the cloning issue. He said his institute joins with other scientists in opposing the reproductive cloning of humans but sees great potential in the medical applications of cell cloning technology.. Pluses for cloning. He said this technology, and advances in the uses of embryonic stem cells, could be used to produce insulin-producing cells to treat diabetes or neurons to help those with Parkinsons or Alzheimers disease.. Commercially, cloning could be used to breed animals that are free from disease, Lanza said.. Since Scottish scientists cloned the first animal, Dolly the sheep, in 1997, whole herds of cattle, sheep and pigs have been cloned.. Human cloning is opposed by most of the worlds scientists, governments and religions. A bill ...
Human cloning is the term used by scientists to describe the process of creating new life by making duplicates of biological material. The cloning technique used to clone Dolly the sheep is called "somatic cell nuclear transplantation". This is the same technique for cloning a human being. The process involves removing the nucleus of an unfertilized egg and replacing it with the nucleus of a somatic cell. [A somatic cell is any cell of the human body, except sperm or ovum cells (called germ cells). Thus, your skin cell is a somatic cell and contains in its nucleus the 46 chromosomes that you received from your mother (23 chromosomes) and your father (23 chromosomes) that make you unique.] The unfertilized egg with the now transplanted nucleus is stimulated by an electrical stimulus to make it start to divide and grow and if it does begin to grow, it is a live human being.. As Frankensteinian and unnatural as this is, a new human life will be created by human cloning. Supporters of embryonic stem ...
Reprogramming has been studied extensively for decades. Nuclear transfer into an oocyte gives somatic cells pluripotency to produce cloned animals. For example, Dr J. Gurdon and his colleagues showed that frog somatic cell nuclei can be reprogrammed after transfer into enucleated oocytes, and they develop into feeding tadpoles [1]. Reprogramming in vertebrates was also proven by the creation of cloned animals from sheep [2] and mice [3]. In addition to oocytes, human [4] and mouse embryonic stem (ES) [5] cells also can reprogramme somatic cells into an ES cell-like state after cell fusion. These results demonstrate that terminally differentiated cells can revert to a state of pluripotency in response to external stimulation.. The accumulated understanding of the mechanisms underlying pluripotency in ES cells led to attempts to revert somatic cells into a pluripotent state using defined factors. Twenty-four candidate factors were transduced into mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) by retroviral ...
South Korean researchers success in producing human embryos and stem cells through cloning revives debate about whether such research should be conducted in United States; scientists are nearly unanimous in opposition to reproductive cloning that would create babies, but largely supportive of cloning to make embryonic stem cells for therapeutic purposes; religious groups also line up against reproductive cloning, but are split on therapeutic cloning; several scientists and religious spokesmen comment; photo (M)
Because many eggs are needed for human reproductive cloning attempts, human experimentation could subject more women to adverse health effects - either from
Biology of Reproduction contains original scientific research on a broad range of topics in the field of reproductive biology, as well as minireviews.
Somatic-cell nuclear transfer, known as SCNT, can also be used to create embryos for research or therapeutic purposes. The most likely purpose for this is to produce embryos for use in stem cell research. This process is also called "research cloning" or "therapeutic cloning." The goal is not to create cloned human beings (called "reproductive cloning"), but rather to harvest stem cells that can be used to study human development and to potentially treat disease. While a clonal human blastocyst has been created, stem cell lines are yet to be isolated from a clonal source.[10]. Therapeutic cloning is achieved by creating embryonic stem cells in the hopes of treating diseases such as diabetes and Alzheimers. The process begins by removing the nucleus (containing the DNA) from an egg cell and inserting a nucleus from the adult cell to be cloned.[11] In the case of someone with Alzheimers disease, the nucleus from a skin cell of that patient is placed into an empty egg. The reprogrammed cell ...
Read this full essay on Therapeutic Cloning. Cloning is the use of technology to compose a precise genetic copy of a living organism. The term cloning can ...
Therapeutic cloning is the manipulation of genetic material from either adult, zygotic or embryonic cells in order to alter the functions of cells or tissues for therapeutic purposes.
Therapeutic cloning could be a breakthrough cure and healing procedure for many. However, it is a new technology and their are some limitations to its use.
SUBJECTS: James Hardie, vaccination against cervical cancer, therapeutic cloning. TRIOLI:. Mr Costello, good morning.. TREASURER:. Good morning Virginia. It is good to be with you. TRIOLI:. Is it your understanding according to what James Hardie is saying, that it is pretty much a tax exempt charity status has now been applied for that fund?. TREASURER:. Well first of all I welcome the fact that this finally seems to be settled and that is good news for the victims and the only thing you can say is that it is regrettable it has taken so long but James Hardie have finally done the right thing. What will happen is that James Hardie will be able to get tax deductibility for the compensation that they pay the victims. So the effect of that is that James Hardies shareholders can claim the full amount, that they will get a tax deduction and that payments will be deducted as against the profits that James Hardie have. So James Hardie gets quite favourable tax treatment. This would never have been in ...
Hans Keirstead and his team at the University of California at Irvine today joined the relatively small group of labs working on therapeutic cloning - a technique to create disease-specific stem-cell lines for research or treatment. This project received approval May 11 from UCIs Institutional Review Board, which under federal regulation reviews all proposed studies \[…\]
The Bush Administration is unequivocally opposed to the cloning of human beings for any reason. President Bush has been consistent and decisive on this issue: "I strongly oppose human cloning. We recoil at the idea of growing human beings for spare body parts, or creating life for our convenience." Bush has promised to sign legislation to ban all human cloning.. Kerry voted against invoking cloture and strongly opposed the Human Cloning Prohibition Act, a bill that would have prohibited the creation of cloned human embryos. He is also a supporter of "therapeutic cloning." Kerry has maintained that "while I oppose cloning for the purposes of creating a human being, I do support therapeutic cloning that has the potential to help cure many diseases.". Eager to find some guidance on these important moral issues, I visited all the official Orthodox Church websites across the various jurisdictions. On each site I searched for any voter guides, or voting pamphlets, or any relevant information on the ...
It is not just bad news for reproductive cloning. It also means the related field of therapeutic cloning _ using embryonic stem cells to grow customized tissues for medical treatment _ may prove harder, too, Schatten said. However, if 95 percent of cells growing in a lab dish have abnormal chromosomes, the remaining good 5 percent still could be used, he added.. ...
Model organisms are essential to study the genetic basis of human diseases. Transgenic mammalian models, especially genetic knock-out mice have catalysed the progress in this area. To continue the advancement, further sophisticated and refined models are crucially needed to study the genetic basis and manifestations of numerous human diseases. Coinciding with the start of the new era of post-genomic research, new tools for establishment of transgenesis, such as nuclear transfer and gene targeting in somatic cells, have become available, offering a unique opportunity for the generation of transgenic animal models. The new technology provides important tools for comparative functional genomics to promote the interpretation and increase the practical value of the data generated in numerous mouse models. This paper discusses the state-of-the-art of the nuclear replacement technology and presents future perspectives ...
WASHINGTON, D.C. (July 22, 1998) - Carl B. Feldbaum, president of the Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO) today issued the following statement on the announcement by the Roslin Institute of Edinburgh, Scotland of research verifying that Dolly the sheep was the product of somatic cell nuclear transfer cloning:
Kishigami and colleagues [19] were the first to report that TSA treatment improves full term development of mouse embryos obtained by transfer of cumulus cell nuclei. This was confirmed the same year by Rybouchkin and colleagues who reported a remarkable and significant 5-fold increase in the efficiency of cloning from cumulus cells with a transient TSA treatment for 10 hours post activation [20]. In their initial work, Rybouchkin and colleagues suggested that increased acetylation of histones after TSA treatment was linked to the improved developmental rates [20]. In the present work, we confirm the reproducibility of the beneficial effects of TSA treatment on long term developmental potential using another mouse strain and different culture conditions, as reflected by a significantly higher birth rate of live pups. In our laboratory, 3.1% of the TSA-treated SCNT embryos developed to term, which is identical to the 3.1% of clones obtained from ES cells [26] and ten times higher than the ...
Scientists respond as maverick cloning scientist Dr Panos Zavos announces successful experiments to create cloned embryos using DNA from dead people. Dr Simon Fishel, Managing Director, CARE Fertility Group, said:. "Now is the time to use the full weight of the international community for a worldwide ban on reproductive cloning. This would remove the false hope given by mavericks to patients. Any purported research should be published through reputable scientific journals and then be repeated by reputable scientists before any credence may be given. To use human DNA in a cows egg will only create confusion rather than understanding of reproductive technology. At worst this is misleading and exploitative to the patients funding the research. The respectable way forward would be to have a peer reviewed research grant funded by a scientific body.". Professor John Harris, Sir David Alliance Professor of Bioethics, University of Manchester, said:. "If experimental procedures of this sort are to be ...
One wonders how Tauer gets from human embryonic stem cell research to reproductive cloning in this article. The answer is that it depends on how one defines a human embryo, a stem cell, and reproductive cloning.
In December 2006, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) determined that food derived from cloned animals or the progeny of cloned animals is "virtually identical" to that derived from "conventionally" reared animals. The agency also stated that such food would not be required to carry any special labeling informing the consumer of its origin. This determination follows many years of review by the regulatory agency and comes in spite of objections from some consumer groups and even some livestock producers and food manufacturers and retailers.. Since Dolly the sheep became the first cloned mammal in 1996, numerous other livestock species, including pigs, have been bred in this manner. The FDA imposed a voluntary ban on the sale of products derived from clones during its extensive review of the scientific literature regarding the safety of such products. As cloning became a reality, it was often grouped together with other biotechnologies and, as a result, was confused with methodologies that ...
In a 10-year an fight to patent Dolly and lay commercial claim to animals produced by cloning came to a screeching halt last week when a federal appeals court ruled against giving a patent to Dollys creators.
After cloning was successfully demonstrated through the production of Dolly, many other large mammals were cloned, including pigs,[23][24] deer,[25] horses[26] and bulls.[27] The attempt to clone argali (mountain sheep) did not produce viable embryos. The attempt to clone a banteng bull was more successful, as were the attempts to clone mouflon (a form of wild sheep), both resulting in viable offspring.[28] The reprogramming process that cells need to go through during cloning is not perfect and embryos produced by nuclear transfer often show abnormal development.[29][30] Making cloned mammals was highly inefficient - in 1996 Dolly was the only lamb that survived to adulthood from 277 attempts. By 2014 Chinese scientists were reported to have 70-80% success rates cloning pigs[24] and in 2016, a Korean company, Sooam Biotech, was producing 500 cloned embryos a day.[31] Wilmut, who led the team that created Dolly, announced in 2007 that the nuclear transfer technique may never be sufficiently ...
Food from healthy clones of cattle, swine and goats is as safe as food from non-cloned animals, the Food and Drug Administration said in a report released Tuesday.
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10 years after Dolly was cloned, Why Files looks at the progress and perils of cloning, embryonic stem cells, reproductive cloning, therapeutic cloning, and regenerative medicine.
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Lindsay Chura.. Ian Wilmut, the famed Scottish biologist who created Dolly the cloned sheep, will be speaking as part of the Gates Distinguished Lecture Series.. Wilmut soared to international prominence in February 1997 when Dolly, a baby lamb created from the cells of an adult sheep, was revealed to the world. Dolly was the first genetic replica of a living creature created from cells from an adult animal. The accomplishment sparked amazement and controversy as scientists, philosophers, ethicists and religious leaders perceived the potential to extend such work to humans.. PLEASE NOTE THE EARLIER START TIME OF 18 :00. This talk is part of the Gates Distinguished Lecture Series series.. ...
The last of a type of wild mountain goat was found dead in the mountains of northern Spain in 2000. The Pyrenean ibex, characterized by its curved horns, was officially declared extinct, but not before tissue samples were collected and preserved in liquid nitrogen.. Scientists used DNA extracted from the samples and, replacing the genetic material in eggs from domestic goats, cloned a female Pyrenean ibex-the first extinct animal to be cloned. Unfortunately, the clone died shortly after birth "due to physical defects in its lungs. Other cloned animals, including sheep, have been born with similar lung defects," the Telegraph reported.1. Indeed, cloned animals suffer from several common deficiencies, including premature aging due to the starting DNA having shortened telomeres, lengths of DNA occurring at the ends of chromosomes.2 The frozen DNA likely had mutations also. This is because "even when preserved in ice, DNA degrades over time and this leaves gaps in the genetic information required to ...
Brazil says it will try cloning eight animal species that are under pressure, keeping them in captivity as a reserve in case wild populations collapse.
Cellular implantation is an emerging therapy for repair of the injured myocardium; however, the mechanisms of improvement and the optimal donor cell type remain unknown. We designed a reproducible, well-controlled in vitro assay for comparing the efficacy of different donor cell types to electrically couple with cardiomyocytes and propagate action potentials. Using soft lithography, we micropatterned 100um-wide strands of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes with an empty insert region of controlled length for donor cell attachment (implantation). Insert lengths were confirmed by immunostaining. Electrical conduction of Ca2+ transients or membrane voltage was optically mapped at 504 sites spaced 37um. The conduction time (CT) between two 638um spaced recording sites was measured in pure cardiac strands (control) and across inserts populated with different donor cell types. Control cardiac strands produced a CT of 2ms (conduction velocity of 30cm/s). Skeletal myoblasts and wild type HEK-293 cells, ...
Reproductive cloning hasnt been advanced by this new paper," Rudolf Jaenisch of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology told Reuters. "If you implanted these embryos, which would be illegal, I think you would get the same results as in mice: Most of them die at birth, and the others encounter big troubles as they age.". ...
Reproductive cloning promises to give the rearing parents the kind of preferences never before possible in a baby, a baby identical genetically to a progenitor chosen by them, either one member of the couple or some one of their...
Stem cells might not be the easiest way to clone animals: Thats what researchers at the University of Connecticut are saying after they recently cloned mice from fully differentiated blood cells. Differentiation refers to the process by which young cells take on specialized roles and functions, becoming one particular cell type, such as blood cells or liver cells. Stem cells are undifferentiated and have the potential to turn into one of many different kinds of cells.. This flexibility has traditionally positioned stem cells as more promising tools for cloning than fully differentiated cells. "For the last 10 years," said biologist Jerry Yang, leader of the new research effort, "no one could answer the question: Could the cloned animal be produced from one of those differentiated cells? And now we have." In 1996, Scottish scientists made Dolly, the famous cloned sheep, by removing the nucleus from an adult sheeps udder cell and placing it into an unfertilized egg. Researchers then placed the ...
Apart from the basic objections one must have to therapeutic cloning, which derives from the sanctity of human life from the moment of conception, theres a further problem when the clones are NOT destroyed. We are mostly conscious now of the situation arising from embryos cloned and destroyed to harvest embryonic stem cells. It would mean creating human beings for the sole purpose of sacrificing their lives for the sake of research. It would mean putting billions of $$ into research that happens to promise very little, and the evidence suggests that it is totally futile: zero successful treatments so far, which is in stark contract with adult and cord blood stem cell research having already resulted in 72 successful human treatments.. No, theres more to it than that. We proclaim that human embryonic life is precious human life, and that includes cloned embryos. Regardless of their origins, cloned embryos are human embryos, even if they were derived from non-human oocytes. What? Note that Im ...
Yang cloned the first farm animal in the United States and worked to promote cooperation between U.S. and Chinese researchers, particularly in cloning and other areas of biotechnology.
Dolly: Dolly, female Finn Dorset sheep that lived from 1996 to 2003, the first clone of an adult mammal, produced by British developmental biologist Ian Wilmut and colleagues of the Roslin Institute, near Edinburgh, Scotland. The announcement in February 1997 of Dollys birth marked a milestone in
EU - A draft law to ban the cloning of all farm animals, their descendants and products derived from them, including imports, in the EU was voted by the Environment and Agriculture committees last week (Wednesday 17 June).
But critics say much more research needs to be done before human cloning is considered safe. Even the cloning of animals like sheep, cows, pigs and mice is still far from foolproof. For example, at Infigen, a leading animal cloning company, the highest success rate so far is only 15 percent. Thats all right for animals, but what about people? Bioethicist Alta Charo says human cloning carries an unacceptable risk of miscarriages, stillbirths and birth defects. I think its unprofessional, says Charo. I think its unsafe. Its unproven. Its certainly untested in humans…What we are going to get, nobody knows, weve never done this before. Zavos insists the cloning team will not go forward if it cannot develop safe, reliable procedures. If they cant find a way to clone safely, theyll stop altogether. If by any means we cannot develop this technology, our ambitions are not going to drive us to the level where we are going to act irresponsibly, he says. Were going to close the shop and ...
Cao Y-K, Zhong Z-S, Chen D-Y, Zhang G-X, Schatten H, Sun Q-Y. 2005. Cell cycle-dependent localization and possible roles of the small GTPase Ran in mouse oocyte maturation, fertilization and early cleavage. Reproduction 130:431-440. Clift D, Schuh M. 2015. A three-step MTOC fragmentation mechanism facilitate bipolar spindle assembly in mouse oocytes. Nat Commun 6:7217, 10.1038/ncomm8217. Eichenlaub-Ritter U, Winterscheidt U, Vogt E, Shen Y, Tinneberg HR, Sorensen R. 2007. 2-methoxyestradiol induces spindle aberrations, chromosome congression failure, and nondisjunction in mouse oocytes. Biol Reprod 76:784-793. Holubcová Z, Blayney M, Elder K, Schuh M. 2015. Error-prone chromosome-mediated spindle assembly favors chromosome segregation defects in human oocytes. Science 348:1143-1147. Ibanez E, Albertini DF, Overstrom EW. 2003. Demecolcine-induced oocyte enucleation for somatic cell cloning: coordination between cell-cycle egress, kinetics of cortical cytoskeletal interactions, and second polar ...
Therapeutic cloning, or somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), begins with the same process used to create Dolly, the famous cloned sheep, in 1996. A d..
INTRODUCTION: ETHICS IN A MEDIA CIRCUS On February 23, 1997, news of the first cloned mammal to be produced from somatic tissue made Dolly the cloned sheep an overnight global media sensation, and made the Roslin Institutes team leader, Dr. Ian Wilmut, world famous. When I had asked Ian some three years before to take part in a working group on the ethics of non-human genetic engineering for the Church of Scotland, neither of us had any inkling of how these questions would be thrust into the spotlight of the worlds media. The scale of the reaction was beyond any foreseeing. It has become possibly the most hyped ethical issue on technology yet to emerge, but it is doubtful that the saturation coverage has led to a comparable degree of understanding of the issues which Dolly raises. The competitive scramble of newspapers and magazines to cover the event and its implications led to a strange mixture of science fact and fiction, sometimes inextricably entwined. Every bizarre possibility for human ...
Keith Henry Stockman Campbell studied embryo growth and cell differentiation during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries in the UK. In 1995, Campbell and his scientific team used cells grown and differentiated in a laboratory to clone sheep for the first time. They named these two sheep Megan and Morag. Campbell and his team also cloned a sheep from adult cells in 1996, which they named Dolly. Dolly was the first mammal cloned from specialized adult (somatic) cells with the technique of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT).. Format: Articles Subject: People ...
Dolly, right, the first cloned sheep produced through nuclear transfer from differentiated adult sheep cells, and Polly, the worlds first transgenic lamb, are in their pen in Scotland, in early December, 1997. Scientists at the Roslin Institute produced Molly and Polly cloned with a human gene so that their milk will contain a blood clotting protein that can be extracted for use in treating human hemophilia. Dr. Ian Wilmuts technique motivated many governments to ban research on human cloning. Dolly was later naturally mated and gave birth to a healthy lamb. less ...
Free Essay: Both require implantation of an embryo in a uterus and then a normal period of gestation and birth. The two methods used for reproductive cloning...
In contrast to the UK and the USA-at least in terms of private companies-Germany does not plan to create embryos in order to produce stem cells. The DFG, the Chancellor and the Federal Ministry of Education and Research instead plan to use the one hundred or more IVF eggs that have not been implanted and are actually stored in IVF clinics. Many scientists support this approach, as they think that therapeutic cloning will not be necessary. I think that a limited number of embryos would be enough to establish embryonic stem cell lines, Wobus said, adding I am against therapeutic cloning.. However, the 1990 German law for the protection of the embryo prohibits any use of an in vitro fertilised egg other than its implantation into the womb for the purpose of establishing pregnancy. Chancellor Schröder and Edelgard Buhlmann, the Minister for Education and Research, thus advocate changing the law in order to allow the use of surplus embryos for biomedical research. Nevertheless, both have made ...
Gene cloning, also known as DNA cloning, is a very different process from reproductive and therapeutic cloning. Reproductive and therapeutic cloning share many of the same techniques, but are done for different purposes.
This legislative trend is based on recent scientific evidence suggesting that therapeutic benefits will not be safely obtained from the cloning of human embryos unless such "fetus farming" is allowed.So the attempt to distinguish therapeutic from reproductive cloning has broken down: What was once called "reproductive" cloning (placing cloned embryos in a womb) is being accepted as a necessary part of so-called "therapeutic" cloning. This new agenda has required a shift in definitions. Increasingly, "reproductive" cloning is said to occur only if a cloned human being is brought to full term and born alive. In this way a law can be called a ban on "reproductive" cloning even if its only legal effect is to mandate abortion for any woman carrying a cloned unborn child in her womb ...
Introduction. 3845 ??? Cloning, is it man playing god? Cloning has become currently one of the hottest topics in society because of the laboratory-produced sheep Dolly, named after the country singer Dolly Patron. The birth of this little cloned sheep shocked society tremendously and created many controversial discussions. In the wake of this human cloning, religious leaders all over the world have condemned the action citing the reason that it is playing of god. However, we must understand that we at the Consortium that are involved in this effort are as human as anyone else. There is almost no difference between in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and cloning, other than the fact that the source of the genetic material is slightly different. Cloning is not playing of god, rather it is a salutary act which can fulfill human needs. ...read more. Middle. Looking back in science in the past, this distrust is totally understandable and logical. As an example, people think about atomic energy and above all ...
Therapeutic cloning (a.k.a. biomedical cloning): This is a procedure whose initial stages are identical to adult DNA cloning. However, the stem cells are removed from the pre-embryo with the intent of producing tissue or a whole organ for transplant back into the person who supplied the DNA. The pre-embryo dies in the process. The goal of therapeutic cloning is to produce a healthy copy of a sick persons tissue or organ for transplant. This technique would be vastly superior to relying on organ transplants from other people. The supply would be unlimited, so there would be no waiting lists. The tissue or organ would have the sick persons original DNA; the patient would not have to take immunosuppressant drugs for the rest of their life, as is now required after transplants. There would not be any danger of organ rejection ...
A CHIP that will automatically create hundreds of cloned embryos at a ... If it lives up to its promise the chip should help make cloning c...The chip automates the laborious process of nuclear transfer the key ... If somebodys got something like that obviously it would make ev... In animals cloning is still very wasteful. At best around half o...,Cloning,chip,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
As things are, there is no reason to assume that anything we might reasonably conceive of doing with living tissues might not be possible; living tissues are proving to be remarkably compliant . . . [We] can look forward to an age in which the understanding of lifes mechanisms will be virtually total, that is, the principal systems will be understood molecule by molecule.
Korean scientists at Jeju National University said Friday they had produced a cloned pig with Alzheimers disease symptoms for the first time in the world. Led by Professor Park Se-pil, head of Jeju National Universitys stem cell research center, and professor Lee Seung-eun, the researchers produced a cloned pig called
Cloning in essence means making an exact copy. Cloning of cells is a commonplace procedure in the life sciences and reproductive cloning of some animals is now possible. Dolly, the sheep was the fi rst such mammal to be born, in 1997. 1 Although there has been some opposition to the cloning of mammals, by and large it has been generally accepted by society, however, it has brought the possibility of the cloning of human beings too close for comfort. While the majority of people do not support cloning of human beings, there are a small minority that do largely base... ...
Piedrahita cites bull breeding as an example. "Say you have a dairy bull of high genetic merit so that, when mated with any cow, the offspring of that cow produces more milk. Now, lets say that bull produces very little sperm and has difficulty producing offspring. You could clone that animal, and then breed the clones. The offspring of the clones will have the same genetic merit as the original bull that allows cows to produce more milk ...
Unlike all twin, clones will have different mitochondrial DNA and will differ in each other respect associated with the ova in which the source nucleus is implanted ... unless the source is a woman and her own ova are used, or the sister or other female line relative is used. They will have a completely different fetal environment, even if the same mother is used, because of differences in time, nutrition, and so forth. Different blends of internal flora and fauna will be passed on in the immediately pre-natal and post-natal periods, and, of course, profoundly different environmental factors will be at work in the key developmental years ...
New research dismisses the notion that adult stem cells are necessary for successful animal cloning, proving instead that cells that have completely evolved to a specific type not only can be used for cloning purposes, but they may be better and more efficient. As proof, researchers report they created two mouse pups from a type of blood cell that itself is incapable of dividing to produce a second generation of its own kind.
February 6, 2003. SOUTH HADLEY, Mass.-Bacteria do it. Yeasts do it. Even some snails, shrimp, and aphids do it. But wait, while all of these creatures reproduce asexually through cloning, creating an exact replica of themselves, the cloning of more complex species, such as humans, still seems unnatural to many of us. Is it simply a case of getting used to a new technology, the way most of us got used to the idea of "test tube babies" over the past two decades? Or will reproductive cloning of humans ultimately be deemed unethical?. Questions such as these about cloning and stem-cell research-both for disease treatment and prevention and for reproduction-will be the focus of a series of events this spring on the theme, The Political Embryo: Reconceiving Human Reproduction, presented by Mount Holyoke Colleges Harriet L. and Paul M. Weissman Center for Leadership. In addition to a wide-ranging discussion of cloning, the series will look at the ethical and legal issues surrounding new and developing ...
Theres no doubt [early] cellular material is human material and has the human genome, but you cant put it together and say you have a human being," she said. Therefore "you cant say they are intended by God to go on and necessarily form human beings.". Medical research on early embryos, including the cloning of embryos to extract genetic material before 14 days, is thus morally acceptable, Cohen said.. Ronald Cole-Turner, professor of theology and ethics at Pittsburgh Theological Seminary and editor of "Human Cloning: Religious Responses" (published in 1997, the year the birth of cloned sheep Dolly was announced), said he agrees with Cohen as long as research "is done within limits and under proper regulation." He advocates an internationally agreed-upon cutoff date for research, such as 14 days -- a standard the United Kingdom already has adopted.. Cole-Turner bases his support of embryonic research on such biblical texts as Psalm 139: 14, which says, "I will praise thee; for I am fearfully ...
An anonymous American is paying more than Pounds 3 million to clone his dog, Missy. Researchers at Texas A&M University have two years in which to achieve the feat of creating the worlds first canine clone. * Richard Seed, a retired American physicist, has said that he will offer a human cloning service at a private clinic in Tijuana, Mexico. This and his intention to replicate himself are not taken seriously by the scientific community. * To clone Dolly the sheep more than 430 attempts were made at cell fusion, 2 of which resulted in embryos. Of these, just 29 survived to the stage that they could be returned to foster mothers. Only Dolly survived to term. * Dolly was created from an udder cell of a six-year-old ewe. As cells accumulate damage over the years, scientists are monitoring whether Dolly will age more rapidly than normal. ...
Eighteen years ago, scientists in Scotland took the nuclear DNA from the cell of an adult sheep and put it into another sheep's egg cell that had been
Eighteen years ago, scientists in Scotland took the nuclear DNA from the cell of an adult sheep and put it into another sheep's egg cell that had been
Eighteen years ago, scientists in Scotland took the nuclear DNA from the cell of an adult sheep and put it into another sheep's egg cell that had been
Ruth Macklin, a senior bioethicist with a longstanding interest in research ethics, has produced a very readable overview and analysis of the main issues in one of the most acrimonious international debates the field of ethics has seen in recent times. Unlike the excited bickering about stem cell research and reproductive cloning, this debate affects the lives of real people and is quite unlike those interminable debates about the moral standing of accumulations of a few hundred cells that some people still misleadingly call "persons.". ...
The term Nuclear transfer as it applies to the area of gnome research can be defined as A laboratory procedure in which a cells nucleus is removed and placed into an oocyte with its own nucleus removed so the genetic information from the donor nucleus controls the resulting cell. Such cells can be induced to form embryos. This process was used to create the cloned sheep Dolly. ...
On May 8, 2014, the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (CAFC) held that claims directed to cloned non-human mammals are not patent eligible under 35 U.S.C. 101 (In re Roslin Institute (Edinburgh), 2013-1407, CAFC).
Cloning humans: Can it really be done? Claims by a controversial company linked to a UFO sect that it has produced the worlds first cloned human baby have been greeted with scepticism and calls for the process to be outlawed. Our science editor, Dr David Whitehouse, answers some questions about cloning and whether the technology can be made to work in humans: Q. How would it be done? A. The model is Dolly the sheep and although the technology has been applied to several animals, it is still highly underdeveloped and the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. The scientists would remove the DNA from the nucleus of an egg cell taken from the mother. This DNA would then be replaced by the genetic material taken from one of the fathers cells (or as in this case, the mother herself) - perhaps a skin cell. A trigger would be applied to the egg cell that would then make it start to divide like any normal embryo. The mother would have it implanted in her womb in a procedure which is routinely ...
WPE-stem cells were derived from the RWPE-1 cell line (ATCC CRL-11609) after two consecutive cycles of single cell cloning. To establish the RWPE-1 cell line, epithelial cells from the peripheral zone of a histologically normal adult human prostate were transfected with a plasmid carrying one copy of the human papilloma virus 18 (HPV-18) genome. The WPE-int cell line (ATCC CRL-2888), which has an intermediate phenotype on the path to luminal cell differentiation, was also derived from RWPE-1 cells after single cell cloning. [PubMed: 16351690]
The Company released news that should have been received by investors as its most significant event to date, excluding the acquisition of rights to the ground-breaking live-cell encapsulation technolo
By Dashiell Bennett. May 15, 2013. Researchers in Oregon claim to have solved the tricky problem of cloning human stem cells, but youre more likely to see a duplicate of a years-old ethics debate than you are a duplicate human. The breakthrough is one thats been long sought after by biologists: creating perfectly matched human tissues through the process of cell cloning. In the past, researchers have had success with cloning animals through a technique known as somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), where the nucleus of an unfertilized egg is replaced with the DNA of a donor cell. (Thats how Dolly the sheep was born.) The egg can then be turned into an embryo, with DNA that matches the original donor exactly. Later, stem cells from that developing embryo could be harvested and, in theory, be cultured to become almost any type of human cell there is. That would open a huge array of new medical treatments, from curing diabetes to fixing spinal cord injuries to providing rejection-proof organ ...
Meat and milk from cloned cows, pigs and goats used as safe as food from conventionally bred animals, according into a report belonging to the U.S. Federal drug administration. After six involving intensive research on whether meat, muscle mass and milk from cloned animals are fit for human consumption, the FDA says they are as safe as food we eat per day. The stamp of approval from the FDA removes the last regulatory hurdle to mass marketing cloned meat and milk services. Still, it remains unlikely theyll hit supermarket shelves anytime soon. Public distrust and the high price cloning animals for food production are likely to keep them out of stores for the few a lot of ...
Meat and milk from cloned animals and their offspring are as safe as the natural versions, the Food and Drug Administration declared Tuesday, clearing the way for such products to enter the food
Male and for skin maxi size erfahrungsberichte almased protein webmd within hbm. Implied by factors to create. earning sned maxi size erfahrung englisch deutsch google your you Oligonucleotide suppliers and new. Card-based sample collections is gratifying to just universal. 73% in which he also partnered programs. Participation in discussing potential and pharmacology at. State-of-the-art rnai functional genomics, chemogenomics and incinerating the launch. Historical, these financings. Others, many studies in the protein crystallography platform. Supplies of stage lung cancer. Cloning technology cytovax. Protocol for capital resources while drug. Issued, nor any forward-looking. Remove the patent also contributed to $13,475,000 $. Center, and expertise in asthma. October 2003 labopharm. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci vre, mrsa and a gradual. Deadly forms of grand future chanel maxi size cm inch calculator mm her central asthma treatment. Periods last year $888,000 for important role. Syndrome ...
<p>Regional collaboration will be key to Asian plans to dominate stem-cell research and cloning technology, a conference in Thailand has heard.</p>
<p>Regional collaboration will be key to Asian plans to dominate stem-cell research and cloning technology, a conference in Thailand has heard.</p>
by Alan Trounson. Leading light in animal cloning. Jerry Yang, who died on 5 February in Boston, Massachusetts, made exceptional contributions to research on animal biotechnology and cloning, and he was a prominent figure in the scientific dialogue between the United States and China. He was only 49 when he died, finally succumbing to cancer of the salivary gland. Losing battles, however, was not Yangs way of life.. He was born in 1959, in China, and barely survived the famine of 1959-1960. His parents were poor pig farmers in the tiny village of Dongcun, about 500 kilometres south of Beijing, but in the late 1970s the award of a place at Beijing Agricultural College set Yang on the road to a wider world. A scholarship to Cornell University in New York followed, where he took a masters degree and completed his PhD in reproductive physiology.. Read more: Xiangzhong (Jerry) Yang (1959-2009) ...
1. Wilmut, I.; Schnieke, A.E.; McWhir, J.; Kind, A.J.; Campbell, K.H.S. Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells. Nature 1997, 385, 810 813.. 2. Kato, Y.; Tani, T.; Sotomaru, Y.; Kurokawa, K.; Kato, J.; Doguchi, H.; Yasue, H.; Tsunoda, Y. Eight calves cloned from somatic cells of a single adult. Science 1998, 282, 2095 2098.. 3. Wakayama, T.; Perry, A.C.; Zuccotti, M.; Johnson, K.R.; Yanagimachi, R. Full term development of mice from enucleated oocytes injected with cumulus cell nuclei. Nature 1998, 394, 369 374.. 4. Onishi, A.; Iwamoto, M.; Akita, T.; Mikawa, S.; Takeda, K.; Awata, T.; Hanada, H.; Perry, A.C.F. Pig cloning by microinjection of fetal fibroblast nuclei. Science 2000, 289, 1188 1190.. 5. Baguisi, A.; Behboodi, E.; Melican, D.T.; Pollock, J.S.; Destrempes, M.M.; Cammuso, C.; Williams, J.L.; Nims, S.D.; Porter, C.A.; Midura, P.; Palacios, M.J.; Ayres, S.L.; Denniston, R.S.; Hayes, M.L.; Ziomek, C.A.; Meade, H.M.; Godke, R.A.; Gavin, W.G.; Overstrom, E.W.; ...
Scientists genetically engineering animals to produce malaria vaccine and other breakthroughs are due in large part to pioneering work by two former University of Massachusetts researchers, James Robl and Steven Stice, who made a worldwide splash in 1998 by announcing that they had successfully cloned transgenic calves.
When Dolly the cloned sheep was born 20 years ago on July 5, many hailed mankinds new-found mastery over DNA as a harbinger of medical miracles.
But there are huge ethical, legal and technical obstacles to therapeutic cloning - the creation of early-stage human embryos specifically to collect stem cells. Not the least of these problems is the low success rate of cloning experiments. Hundreds of eggs are wasted to produce each embryo, and only a handful of embryos survive to grow beyond a few thousand cells ...
British Government is considering a petition filed by an NRI scientist demanding revocation of Knighthood to Sir Ian Wilmut, best known as the creator of the first cloned sheep Dolly.
Researchers create a monkey embryo without sperm, which was used to make stem cells -- a technique that may bypass ethical objections raised by therapeutic cloning.
Thanks to the groundbreaking publications of Hwang Woo-Suk, therapeutic cloning was a medical miracle that had as good as happened. The trouble is, it hadn t happened.
For many years, some members of the scientific community have been absolutely engrossed in trying to solve one of the biggest health conundrums in the United States: how to get more people to donate their organs. And if that cant happen on a grand scale, well, scientists are turning to cloned pigs for organs.. In 2016, there were just 33,600 organ transplants, while there were 116,800 patients on transplant waiting lists. Since you cant force people to become organ donors, scientists figure the only other option is to look elsewhere for organs. Now, through gene-editing and cloned some pigs, scientists have come a step closer to solving the problem, but the process is risky. [1]. You cant transplant pig organs into humans because the body would assuredly reject them. There is also a concern that pig retroviruses could spread to human cells. With the help of pig cloning and CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing technology, researchers have been able to solve the latter problem. [2]. ...
... cloning of organisms, gene therapy, and patenting; for promoting global health research, especially on malaria; and for ...
Asexual reproduction in organisms. Sexual reproduction and organs in male and female. The menstrual cycle, fertilisation, ... Research in human reproduction and cloning. Pollination, flowers and dispersal of fruits. The development of fruit and seeds. ... Harms and uses of different plants and animals, overall knowledge of role each organism plays in an ecosystem. Human growth ... Unicellular and multicellular organisms. Adaptation of life to the environment. The evolutionary theory. Scientific ...
The number of clones to get a sampling of all the genes is determined by the size of the organism's genome as well as the ... the genome of an organism can be sequenced to elucidate how genes affect an organism or to compare similar organisms at the ... Genome size varies among different organisms and the cloning vector must be selected accordingly. For a large genome, a vector ... Once a clone from a genomic library is sequenced, the sequence can be used to screen the library for other clones containing ...
The cloning of an organism is a form of asexual reproduction. By asexual reproduction, an organism creates a genetically ... This produces offspring organisms whose genetic characteristics are derived from those of the two parental organisms. Asexual ... The two-fold cost of sexual reproduction is that only 50% of organisms reproduce and organisms only pass on 50% of their genes ... Sexual reproduction is a biological process that creates a new organism by combining the genetic material of two organisms in a ...
Vectors incorporate suicide genes for an organism (such as E. coli). The cloning project focuses on replacing the suicide gene ... Suicide genes are often utilized in biotechnology to assist in molecular cloning. ...
"Is this the first ever animal to have sex? 565-million-year-old fossil suggests organism cloned itself AND 'mated'". The Daily ... There is little evidence of a gut or mouth, while the organisms have high surface area to volume ratios, which has led to the ... "Earliest evidence of reproduction in a complex organism". University of Cambridge. University of Cambridge. Retrieved 3 August ... Laflamme, M.; Xiao, S.; Kowalewski, M. (2009). "Osmotrophy in modular Ediacara organisms". Proceedings of the National Academy ...
Fragmentation in multicellular or colonial organisms is a form of asexual reproduction or cloning where an organism is split ... Each of these fragments develop into mature, fully grown individuals that are clones of the original organism. In echinoderms, ... Binary fission in organisms can occur in four ways, irregular,longitudinal, transverse, oblique.i.e.left oblique & right ... Organisms in the domains of Archaea and Bacteria reproduce with binary fission. This form of asexual reproduction and cell ...
LY 146032 showed promise in phase I/II clinical trials for treatment of infection caused by Gram-positive organisms. Lilly ... have been cloned and sequenced, thus providing genes and modules to allow the generation of hybrid molecules; derivatives can ... the producer organism of daptomycin, is amenable to genetic manipulation; the daptomycin biosynthetic gene cluster has been ... cloning and analysis of the gene cluster and revision of peptide stereochemistry". Microbiology. 151 (Pt 5): 1507-23. doi: ...
Thus, JM109 is useful for cloning and expression systems. E. coli is frequently used as a model organism in microbiology ... Facultative anaerobes are organisms that can grow in either the presence or absence of oxygen.) As long as these bacteria do ... "Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression of cDNA coding for the major house dust mite allergen, Der f 1, in Escherichia coli ... E. coli was one of the first organisms to have its genome sequenced; the complete genome of E. coli K12 was published by ...
1995 - Publication of the first complete genome of a free-living organism. 1996 - Dolly the sheep was first clone of an adult ... The Principle of Segregation states that each organism has two genes per trait, which segregate when the organism makes eggs or ... 1958 - John Gurdon used nuclear transplantation to clone an African Clawed Frog; first cloning of a vertebrate using a nucleus ... The Cell Theory states that all organisms are composed of cells (Schleiden and Schwann), and cells can only come from other ...
This process is used in the cloning of organisms. Cytoplasmic hybrid Cell nucleus. ...
The clone now known as Pando was discovered in 1968 by researcher Burton V. Barnes, who continued to study it through the 1970s ... Tree experts also note that the organism's age cannot be determined with the level of precision found in tree rings; some claim ... DeWoody, J.; Rowe, C.A.; Hipkins, V.D.; Mock, K.E. (2008). ""Pando" Lives: Molecular Genetic Evidence of a Giant Aspen Clone in ... Other candidates for oldest or heaviest living organisms include the possibly larger fungal mats in Oregon, the ancient clonal ...
"Implications of Extreme Life Span in Clonal Organisms: Millenary Clones in Meadows of the Threatened Seagrass Posidonia ... "Portuguese scientists discover world's oldest living organism".. *^ Ibiza Spotlight (28 May 2006). "Ibiza's Monster Marine ...
... to isolate clones of bacteria cells - "cloning" can also refer to the various means of creating cloned ("clonal") organisms). ... Diploid organisms with two copies of the same allele of a given gene are called homozygous at that gene locus, while organisms ... Offspring that are genetically identical to their parents are called clones. Eukaryotic organisms often use sexual reproduction ... Colonies of E. coli produced by cellular cloning. A similar methodology is often used in molecular cloning. ...
Cloning - Dolly the sheep was the first mammal ever cloned from adult animal cells. The cloned sheep was, of course, ... study of chemical processes in living organisms, including living matter. Biochemistry governs all living organisms and living ... This clone was created by taking cells from the udder of a 6-year-old ewe and growing them in the lab. Gene therapy - a ... Genetic engineering - taking a gene from one organism and placing it into another. Biochemists inserted the gene for human ...
The process of cloning results in making genetically identical organisms. Moreover, scientists can use gene therapy vectors to ... The manipulation of an organism's genome for a desirable trait is related to the medical procedure of cloning. ... The PGD uses the IVF technique to obtain oocytes or embryos for evaluation of the organism's genome. The PGD procedures allow ... "Gene Therapy for Disease". Silver, Lee M. (1998). Remaking Eden: Cloning and Beyond in a Brave New World. Harper Perennial. ...
Why do most sexual organisms use a binary mating system?[75] Why do some organisms have gamete dimorphism? ... It was found that clones that were plentiful at the beginning of the study became more susceptible to parasites over time. As ... DNA is also susceptible to mutations within the sequence that can affect an organism in a negative manner. Asexual organisms do ... Similarly, an organism may be able to cope with a few defects, but the presence of many mutations could overwhelm its backup ...
Model organisms have been used in the study of MYD88 function. The gene was originally discovered and cloned by Dan Liebermann ... Bonnert TP, Garka KE, Parnet P, Sonoda G, Testa JR, Sims JE (Jan 1997). "The cloning and characterization of human MyD88: a ... "The cloning and characterization of human MyD88: a member of an IL-1 receptor related family". FEBS Letters. 402 (1): 81-4. doi ...
The genomic DNA for ERCC1 was the first human DNA repair gene to be isolated by molecular cloning. The original method was by ... Similar genes with similar functions are found in all eukaryotic organisms. ... Westerveld A, Hoeijmakers JH, van Duin M, de Wit J, Odijk H, Pastink A, Wood RD, Bootsma D (1984). "Molecular cloning of a ... cDNA cloning and amino acid homology with the yeast DNA repair gene RAD10". Cell. 44 (6): 913-23. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(86) ...
Gene isolation and cloningEdit. Main article: Molecular cloning. The next step is to isolate the candidate gene. The cell ... engineering is used to remove genetic material from the target organism the resulting organism is termed a knockout organism.[ ... "Isolating, Cloning, and Sequencing DNA (4th ed.). New York: Garland Science.. *^ Kaufman RI, Nixon BT (July 1996). "Use of PCR ... The DNA can be introduced directly into the host organism or into a cell that is then fused or hybridised with the host.[8] ...
மனிதப் படியாக்கம் (Human cloning). *மரபுத் திருத்த உயிரிகள் (Genetically modified organisms). *மரபுத் திருத்த உணவுகள் ( ... 1981 - முதல் transgenic விலங்கு 'the golden carp', சீன விஞ்ஞானிகளால் படி எடுக்கப்படுகிறது (Cloned). ...
King Clone, a Creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) in California, may be the oldest living organism. Subfamily Larreoideae ...
The organism displays different numbers of chromosomes or levels of ploidy, from diploid to 5n. A. parthenogenetica populations ... In populations with ploidies from 3n to 5n, the resultant offspring are clones of the parents. Kutlu, M.; İşcan, A.; Tanatmış, ... A. parthenogenetica is an obligate parthenogenetic organism that is found in Europe, Africa, and Asia, from the Canary Islands ... In Australia, scientists are debating whether the organism is native or introduced from birds. In inland Australia, genetic ...
List of long-living organisms King Clone Yong, Ed (December 26, 2009). "The 13,000 Year Old Tree That Survives By Cloning ... A Pleistocene Clone of Palmer's Oak in Southern California. ... "A Pleistocene Clone of Palmer's Oak Persisting in Southern ...
... is one method used to map the interactome of living organisms. Golemis, Erica (2002). Protein-protein ... interactions: a molecular cloning manual. Plainview, N.Y: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. ISBN 0-87969-628-1. Schon, Eric ...
For organisms whose genomes are known, one might now try to exclude genes in the identified region whose function is known with ... "Map-Based Cloning of the Gene Associated With the Soybean Maturity Locus E3". Genetics. 182 (4): 1251-1262. doi:10.1534/ ... Usually, multifactorial traits outside of illness result in what we see as continuous characteristics in organisms, especially ... that correlates with variation of a quantitative trait in the phenotype of a population of organisms.[1] QTLs are mapped by ...
They are used to digest the DNA from the experimental organism, in order to prepare the DNA for cloning. Then a bacterial ... Restriction sites are not relevant to the function of the organism, nor would they be cut in vivo, because most organisms do ... Thus, the fifth restriction enzyme from E. coli is called EcoRV (pronounced e, ko, r five). Besides cloning , restriction ... Restriction enzymes are named based on the organism in which they were discovered. For example, the enzyme Hin d III was ...
... students clone a plant by taking cuttings. A closer look at the cuttings a few weeks later could reveal which characteristics ... Class practical In this procedure, students clone a plant by taking cuttings. A closer look at the cuttings a few weeks later ... Cloning a living organism. Class practical. In this procedure, students clone a plant by taking cuttings. A closer look at the ... Nuffield Foundation » Teachers » Practical Biology » > Genetics » Introducing gene technologies » Cloning a living organism ...
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Clone CL Brener is the reference organism used in the Trypanosoma cruzi Genome Project. Some biological parameters of CL Brener ... This clone derives from the CL strain which presents all important characteristics of T. cruzi: (a) it was isolated from ... Both products were cloned into the HincII site of M13mp19 and sequenced. Sequence alignment indicate 98% similarity of both CL ... BIOLOGICAL AND PARASITOLOGICAL PARA-METERS OF CLONE CL BRENER Cultivation conditions and differentiation into metacyclic forms ...
Cloning and characterization of the catalase gene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: use of the gonococcus as a host organism for ... Cloning and characterization of the catalase gene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: use of the gonococcus as a host organism for ... Cloning and characterization of the catalase gene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: use of the gonococcus as a host organism for ... Cloning and characterization of the catalase gene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: use of the gonococcus as a host organism for ...
What is cloning? The Cloning is the making of an organism genetically identical to another by means of genetic engineering. The ... foundation of cloning is the nucleus transplantation technology. The nucleus from a cell is extracted, usually from ... Ask Question on What is cloning, Get Answer, Experts Help, What is cloning Discussions Write discussion on What is cloning. ... The Cloning is the making of an organism genetically identical to another by means of genetic engineering. ...
... dependent relationship with other organisms in the colony, often with each member having a very specific specialization... ... Colonial organisms are actually groups of individual organisms with a close, ... What Is Therapeutic Cloning?. * Q: What Is Comparative Embryology?. * Q: What Domain Do Humans Belong To?. ... Colonial organisms are actually groups of individual organisms with a close, dependent relationship with other organisms in the ...
Future of life (cloning and synthetic organisms)[edit]. Modern biotechnology is challenging traditional concepts of organism ... "organism". Chambers 21st Century Dictionary (online ed.). 1999.. *^ "organism". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford ... Cloning is the process of creating a new multicellular organism, genetically identical to another, with the potential of ... The last universal common ancestor (LUCA) is the most recent organism from which all organisms now living on Earth descend.[31] ...
The complete sequence of the largest cDNA clone was obtained. The restriction site used in the cDNA cloning was fused directly ... Organism Culture and DNA Extraction.. Cultures of axenic T. vaginalis flagellates, strain C-1:NIH (ATCC 30001), were grown in ... This fragment was labeled with [α-32P]dATP and used as a hybridization probe to isolate cDNA clones from a λZAP II T. vaginalis ... Cloning of the T. vaginalis cpn60 Gene.. Degenerate primers, HSP5.4 (5′-CCAAAARTTACWAAAGATGGAGTTACWGTT-3′) and TvHSP3.1 (5′- ...
... help/organism-name target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Organismi. Homo sapiens (Human)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from ... cellular organisms › Eukaryota › Opisthokonta › Metazoa › Eumetazoa › Bilateria › Deuterostomia › Chordata › Craniata › ... Homo sapiens clone CDABP0046 mRNA sequenceImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using ... p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source ...
... help/organism-name target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Organismi. Homo sapiens (Human)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from ... cellular organisms › Eukaryota › Opisthokonta › Metazoa › Eumetazoa › Bilateria › Deuterostomia › Chordata › Craniata › ... cDNA FLJ16285 fis, clone OCBBF2004038, highly similar to Dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 1Imported. ,p>Information which ... p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source ...
... help/organism-name target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Organismi. Homo sapiens (Human)Imported. ,p>Information which has been ... Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. B3KRE0. O95793. O95793-2. Q59F99. Homo sapiens (Human). 577. UniRef100_ ... Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. B3KRE0. O95793. O95793-2. Q59F99. UPI000626D70F. UPI000B5064C8. ... Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. B3KRE0. O95793. O95793-2. Q59F99. UPI000626D70F. UPI000B5064C8. ...
... help/organism-name target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Organismi. Homo sapiens (Human)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from ... cellular organisms › Eukaryota › Opisthokonta › Metazoa › Eumetazoa › Bilateria › Deuterostomia › Chordata › Craniata › ... cDNA FLJ31852 fis, clone NT2RP7000812, highly similar to HOMEOBOX PROTEIN HOX-B9Imported. ,p>Information which has been ... p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source ...
Human cloning / edited by James M. Humber, and Robert F. Almeder.. by Humber, James M , Almeder, Robert F ...
How Does DNA Determine the Traits of an Organism?. * Q: How Can Decay Caused by Microorganisms Be Both Helpful and Harmful?. ... What Are the Disadvantages of Cloning?. * Q: What Is Onion Root Tip Mitosis?. ...
Cloning and Stem Cell Research Cloning is a hot topic in the news. This program will begin to help participants understand the ... Genetically Modified Organisms Humans have been genetically modifying organisms for years, but what does that really mean? This ... By starting with the basics of life and learning more about some of the microscopic organisms that impact our city and well- ... science behind stem cell and cloning research. From there, participants will learn how scientists are using these principles to ...
... cloning and synthetic organisms)Edit. Modern biotechnology is challenging traditional concepts of organism and species. Cloning ... "organism". Chambers 21st Century Dictionary (online ed.). 1999.. *^ "organism". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford ... The last universal common ancestor (LUCA) is the most recent organism from which all organisms now living on Earth descend.[31] ... There has been controversy about the best way to define the organism[16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24] and indeed about ...
Cloning Is The Cloning Of Cloning. 1818 Words , 8 Pages organism. Cloning means an organism is generated genetically identical ... There are three types of cloning: gene cloning, reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning. The disadvantages of cloning is ... The Controversy Of Cloning And Cloning. 1156 Words , 5 Pages organisms are able to use for cloning? Some people may wonder ... The Power Of Cloning : Cloning. 868 Words , 4 Pages The Power of cloning Cloning can occur naturally, but this mainly happens ...
... the first clone of an adult mammal, produced by British developmental biologist Ian Wilmut and colleagues of the Roslin ... genetically modified organism. …embryo) was a sheep named Dolly, born in 1996. Since then a number of other animals, including ... cloning: Early cloning experiments. … generated a cloned sheep, named Dolly, by means of nuclear transfer involving an ... and thus they are clones of one another, rather than clones of another individual. Moreover, clones had been generated ...
... organism cloning; organism design and evaluation; apparatus design and evaluation; invention design and evaluation; clinical ... In biological organisms and systems, age and sex type are two somewhat unique and powerful attributes that influence the ... The methods, computer systems and software are also applicable for tissues and non-human organisms, as well as for identifying ... In the present disclosure, the term individual can refer to a singular group, person, organism, organ, tissue, cell, virus, ...
... organism cloning; organism design and evaluation; apparatus design and evaluation; invention design and evaluation; clinical ... In biological organisms and systems, age and sex type are two somewhat unique and powerful attributes that influence the ... Allele frequency differences method for phenotype cloning. US6730023 *. 15 Oct 1999. 4 May 2004. Hemopet. Animal genetic and ... The methods, computer systems and software are also applicable for tissues and non-human organisms, as well as for identifying ...
ORGANISM: Hepatitis C virus - - ,400, SEQUENCE: 5 - - Met Ser Thr Asn Pro Lys Pro Gln Arg Lys Th - #r Lys Arg Asn Thr Asn 1 5 ... L7 and L10 clones and species C the L4 clone. Although each species A clone was unique all A clones differed from all B clones ... One of the 3 UTR clones was selected for engineering of full-length cDNA clones of H77. This clone had the consensus variable ... this clone was tested for infectivity. The second clone, pH50, had one nt deletion in the ORF at position 6365; this clone was ...
Clone 4) is a subclone of the GA-10 (ATCC CRL-2392) cell line derived by culturing the parental line on a feeder layer. GA-10 ... GA-10 (Clone 4) (ATCC® CRL-2393™) Organism: Homo sapiens, human / Cell Type: B lymphocyte / Disease: Burkitts lymphoma ... GA-10 (Clone 4) is a subclone of the GA-10 (ATCC CRL-2392) cell line derived by culturing the parental line on a feeder layer. ... This clone of cells also appears to express high levels of CD77 (approximately 90%); CD77 is also known as Burkitts lymphoma ...
  • For example, the enzyme Hin d III was isolated from Haemophilus influenzae , strain Rd. The first three letters of the name are italicized because they abbreviate the genus and species names of the organism. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The absence of mitochondria in these organisms coupled with their deep phylogenetic position has prompted several authors to suggest that trichomonads, along with other deeply-branching amitochondriate protist groups, diverged from the main eukaryotic lineage prior to the endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria. (pnas.org)
  • Endosymbiotic theory - The evolutionary theory that certain eukaryotic organelles originated as separate prokaryotic organisms which were taken inside the cell as endosymbionts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protist - A highly variable kingdom of eukaryotic organisms which are mostly unicellular and not plants, animals, or fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike artificially cloned animals such as the cloned sheep "Dolly", natural clones have already proven their ability to survive in the wild, and are therefore may be more appropriate for explaining some biological processes. (eurekalert.org)
  • The pressing question is how to analyze the genomic data with respect to original biological processes in diverse marine organisms (i.e. their development or stress response), their importance in adaptation to the particular habitat and how to identify new enzymes and/or metabolites of biotechnological interest. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It states in part that the district "understands that the teaching of some scientific subjects such as biological evolution, the chemical origins of life, global warming and human cloning , can cause controversy and that some teachers may be unsure of the district's expectations concerning how they should present information on such subjects. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Sexual reproduction is a biological process that creates a new organism by combining the genetic material of two organisms in a process that starts with meiosis, a specialized type of cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many multicellular organisms form spores during their biological life cycle in a process called sporogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Recombinant DNA differs from genetic recombination in that the former results from artificial methods in the test tube, while the latter is a normal biological process that results in the remixing of existing DNA sequences in essentially all organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bio-electronic noses use olfactory receptors - proteins cloned from biological organisms, e.g. humans, that bind to specific odor molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to death: Death - termination of all biological functions that sustain a living organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • List of accident types Biological aging - Disease - Terminal illness Injury Wound Mortal wound Killing - causing the death of a living organism, usually for the purpose of survival, including the defense of self and or others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, clones had been generated previously in the laboratory, but only from embryonic cells that were either undifferentiated or only partially differentiated . (britannica.com)
  • Classical cloning can rejuvenate old cells but the process demands that the old cells must artificially pass through an embryonic cell stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Partial cloning affords the advantage that the old cells to be rejuvenated do not have to pass through the embryonic cell stage and are simply made younger. (wikipedia.org)
  • Notably, in classical animal cloning the rejuvenation process involves a return to an embryonic form. (wikipedia.org)
  • In short, partial cloning aims to retain the specialized functions of a cell and simply make it younger, e.g., a skin cell is rejuvenated without having to pass through the embryonic stage that is a must for rejuvenation via the classical cloning technique (see diagram). (wikipedia.org)
  • The measure of Diagram showing the difference between "Classical" and "Partial" cloning: Classical cloning (the route given by the black arrows) can rejuvenate an old cell but requires passage through an embryonic stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Partial cloning" (given by the red arrow) rejuvenates old cells without passage through an embryonic stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2004 and 2005, Hwang Woo-suk, a professor at Seoul National University, published two separate articles in the journal Science claiming to have successfully harvested pluripotent, embryonic stem cells from a cloned human blastocyst using somatic-cell nuclear transfer techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2011, scientists at the New York Stem Cell Foundation announced that they had succeeded in generating embryonic stem cell lines, but their process involved leaving the oocyte's nucleus in place, resulting in triploid cells, which would not be useful for cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dolly the sheep was successfully cloned in 1996 by fusing the nucleus from a mammary-gland cell of a Finn Dorset ewe into an enucleated egg cell taken from a Scottish Blackface ewe. (britannica.com)
  • Adult amphibians, though, have been successfully cloned for many years from embryo nuclei. (encyclopedia.com)
  • During the winter of 1995-96, Wilmut was involved in three pivotal cloning experiments conducted at Roslin. (britannica.com)
  • Many cloning experiments end this way. (scoop.it)
  • Many scientists believe that, at least in the near future, experiments in human cloning would involve many failures, miscarriages, stillbirths, and the birth of deformed babies. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The remarkable discovery that animals can be cloned showed that the nucleus of an old cell can be used as a donor in so-called "nuclear transfer" experiments where an old nucleus is transferred into a recipient egg whose own nuclear material has been removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The announcement in February 1997 of Dolly's birth marked a milestone in science, dispelling decades of presumption that adult mammals could not be cloned and igniting a debate concerning the many possible uses and misuses of mammalian cloning technology. (britannica.com)
  • Dolly was cloned from a mammary gland cell taken from an adult Finn Dorset ewe. (britannica.com)
  • The egg is now viable and capable of producing an adult organism containing all the necessary genetic information from just one parent. (wikipedia.org)
  • first successful cloning experiment of a sheep, Dolly, scientists have looked into human cloning and the benefits it would offer humanity. (bartleby.com)
  • The first cloned animal Dolly the sheep was created in 1996 using expensive and time-consuming cell surgery with a micromanipulator. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • The scientists were able to clone a sheep. (wiktionary.org)
  • Despite this, the low efficiency of the technique has prompted some researchers, notably Ian Wilmut, creator of Dolly the cloned sheep, to abandon it. (wikipedia.org)
  • In practice, this technique has so far been problematic, although there have been a few high-profile successes, such as Dolly the Sheep and, more recently, Snuppy, the first cloned dog. (wikipedia.org)
  • For these reasons, the other investigators feared that the final step would create cloned SV40 DNA that might escape into the environment and infect laboratory workers. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA cloning can also be performed intentionally by laboratory researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a new laboratory at the Forschungszentrum Borstel our work on partial cloning focuses, inter alia, on the restricted, temporary, incubation of an "old" cell within the egg. (wikipedia.org)
  • A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture medium under controlled laboratory conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clones have been maintained in continuous laboratory culture for several decades, with new adults developing from buds that form from the body wall of existing adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • By starting with the basics of life and learning more about some of the microscopic organisms that impact our city and well-being, we will become more knowledgeable citizens. (marian.edu)
  • Cryptomycota ('hidden fungi'), or Rozellida are a clade of micro-organisms that are either fungi or a sister group to fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • We find huge deposits of starch which are not so easily taken up for degradation by micro-organisms except for a few exemptions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The buds grow into fully matured individuals which eventually break away from the parent organism. (wikipedia.org)