Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cloning, Organism: The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Genomic Library: A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Nuclear Transfer Techniques: Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Bacteriophage lambda: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Physical Chromosome Mapping: Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Chromosome Walking: A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Deoxyribonuclease EcoRI: One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/AATTC at the slash. EcoRI is from E coliRY13. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Deoxyribonuclease HindIII: One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence A/AGCTT at the slash. HindIII is from Haemophilus influenzae R(d). Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast: Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Pichia: Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES isolated from exuded tree sap.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Deoxyribonucleases, Type II Site-Specific: Enzyme systems containing a single subunit and requiring only magnesium for endonucleolytic activity. The corresponding modification methylases are separate enzymes. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave either within, or at a short specific distance from, the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC 3.1.21.4.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.

Novel regulation of the homeotic gene Scr associated with a crustacean leg-to-maxilliped appendage transformation. (1/69323)

Homeotic genes are known to be involved in patterning morphological structures along the antero-posterior axis of insects and vertebrates. Because of their important roles in development, changes in the function and expression patterns of homeotic genes may have played a major role in the evolution of different body plans. For example, it has been proposed that during the evolution of several crustacean lineages, changes in the expression patterns of the homeotic genes Ultrabithorax and abdominal-A have played a role in transformation of the anterior thoracic appendages into mouthparts termed maxillipeds. This homeotic-like transformation is recapitulated at the late stages of the direct embryonic development of the crustacean Porcellio scaber (Oniscidea, Isopoda). Interestingly, this morphological change is associated with apparent novelties both in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the Porcellio scaber ortholog of the Drosophila homeotic gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr). Specifically, we find that Scr mRNA is present in the second maxillary segment and the first pair of thoracic legs (T1) in early embryos, whereas protein accumulates only in the second maxillae. In later stages, however, high levels of SCR appear in the T1 legs, which correlates temporally with the transformation of these appendages into maxillipeds. Our observations provide further insight into the process of the homeotic leg-to-maxilliped transformation in the evolution of crustaceans and suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for this process in this group of arthropods.  (+info)

Mrj encodes a DnaJ-related co-chaperone that is essential for murine placental development. (2/69323)

We have identified a novel gene in a gene trap screen that encodes a protein related to the DnaJ co-chaperone in E. coli. The gene, named Mrj (mammalian relative of DnaJ) was expressed throughout development in both the embryo and placenta. Within the placenta, expression was particularly high in trophoblast giant cells but moderate levels were also observed in trophoblast cells of the chorion at embryonic day 8.5, and later in the labyrinth which arises from the attachment of the chorion to the allantois (a process called chorioallantoic fusion). Insertion of the ROSAbetageo gene trap vector into the Mrj gene created a null allele. Homozygous Mrj mutants died at mid-gestation due to a failure of chorioallantoic fusion at embryonic day 8.5, which precluded formation of the mature placenta. At embryonic day 8.5, the chorion in mutants was morphologically normal and expressed the cell adhesion molecule beta4 integrin that is known to be required for chorioallantoic fusion. However, expression of the chorionic trophoblast-specific transcription factor genes Err2 and Gcm1 was significantly reduced. The mutants showed no abnormal phenotypes in other trophoblast cell types or in the embryo proper. This study indicates a previously unsuspected role for chaperone proteins in placental development and represents the first genetic analysis of DnaJ-related protein function in higher eukaryotes. Based on a survey of EST databases representing different mouse tissues and embryonic stages, there are 40 or more DnaJ-related genes in mammals. In addition to Mrj, at least two of these genes are also expressed in the developing mouse placenta. The specificity of the developmental defect in Mrj mutants suggests that each of these genes may have unique tissue and cellular activities.  (+info)

Requirement of a novel gene, Xin, in cardiac morphogenesis. (3/69323)

A novel gene, Xin, from chick (cXin) and mouse (mXin) embryonic hearts, may be required for cardiac morphogenesis and looping. Both cloned cDNAs have a single open reading frame, encoding proteins with 2,562 and 1,677 amino acids for cXin and mXin, respectively. The derived amino acid sequences share 46% similarity. The overall domain structures of the predicted cXin and mXin proteins, including proline-rich regions, 16 amino acid repeats, DNA-binding domains, SH3-binding motifs and nuclear localization signals, are highly conserved. Northern blot analyses detect a single message of 8.9 and 5.8 kilo base (kb) from both cardiac and skeletal muscle of chick and mouse, respectively. In situ hybridization reveals that the cXin gene is specifically expressed in cardiac progenitor cells of chick embryos as early as stage 8, prior to heart tube formation. cXin continues to be expressed in the myocardium of developing hearts. By stage 15, cXin expression is also detected in the myotomes of developing somites. Immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that the mXin protein is colocalized with N-cadherin and connexin-43 in the intercalated discs of adult mouse hearts. Incubation of stage 6 chick embryos with cXin antisense oligonucleotides results in abnormal cardiac morphogenesis and an alteration of cardiac looping. The myocardium of the affected hearts becomes thickened and tends to form multiple invaginations into the heart cavity. This abnormal cellular process may account in part for the abnormal looping. cXin expression can be induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in explants of anterior medial mesoendoderm from stage 6 chick embryos, a tissue that is normally non-cardiogenic. This induction occurs following the BMP-mediated induction of two cardiac-restricted transcription factors, Nkx2.5 and MEF2C. Furthermore, either MEF2C or Nkx2.5 can transactivate a luciferase reporter driven by the mXin promoter in mouse fibroblasts. These results suggest that Xin may participate in a BMP-Nkx2.5-MEF2C pathway to control cardiac morphogenesis and looping.  (+info)

Mechanisms of GDF-5 action during skeletal development. (4/69323)

Mutations in GDF-5, a member of the TGF-beta superfamily, result in the autosomal recessive syndromes brachypod (bp) in mice and Hunter-Thompson and Grebe-type chondrodysplasias in humans. These syndromes are all characterised by the shortening of the appendicular skeleton and loss or abnormal development of some joints. To investigate how GDF-5 controls skeletogenesis, we overexpressed GDF-5 during chick limb development using the retrovirus, RCASBP. This resulted in up to a 37.5% increase in length of the skeletal elements, which was predominantly due to an increase in the number of chondrocytes. By injecting virus at different stages of development, we show that GDF-5 can increase both the size of the early cartilage condensation and the later developing skeletal element. Using in vitro micromass cultures as a model system to study the early steps of chondrogenesis, we show that GDF-5 increases chondrogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. We did not detect changes in proliferation. However, cell suspension cultures showed that GDF-5 might act at these stages by increasing cell adhesion, a critical determinant of early chondrogenesis. In contrast, pulse labelling experiments of GDF-5-infected limbs showed that at later stages of skeletal development GDF-5 can increase proliferation of chondrocytes. Thus, here we show two mechanisms of how GDF-5 may control different stages of skeletogenesis. Finally, our data show that levels of GDF-5 expression/activity are important in controlling the size of skeletal elements and provides a possible explanation for the variation in the severity of skeletal defects resulting from mutations in GDF-5.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and epitope analysis of the peanut allergen Ara h 3. (5/69323)

Peanut allergy is a significant IgE-mediated health problem because of the increased prevalence, potential severity, and chronicity of the reaction. Following our characterization of the two peanut allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, we have isolated a cDNA clone encoding a third peanut allergen, Ara h 3. The deduced amino acid sequence of Ara h 3 shows homology to 11S seed-storage proteins. The recombinant form of this protein was expressed in a bacterial system and was recognized by serum IgE from approximately 45% of our peanut-allergic patient population. Serum IgE from these patients and overlapping, synthetic peptides were used to map the linear, IgE-binding epitopes of Ara h 3. Four epitopes, between 10 and 15 amino acids in length, were found within the primary sequence, with no obvious sequence motif shared by the peptides. One epitope is recognized by all Ara h 3-allergic patients. Mutational analysis of the epitopes revealed that single amino acid changes within these peptides could lead to a reduction or loss of IgE binding. By determining which amino acids are critical for IgE binding, it might be possible to alter the Ara h 3 cDNA to encode a protein with a reduced IgE-binding capacity. These results will enable the design of improved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for food-hypersensitivity reactions.  (+info)

TIF1gamma, a novel member of the transcriptional intermediary factor 1 family. (6/69323)

We report the cloning and characterization of a novel member of the Transcriptional Intermediary Factor 1 (TIF1) gene family, human TIF1gamma. Similar to TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, the structure of TIF1beta is characterized by multiple domains: RING finger, B boxes, Coiled coil, PHD/TTC, and bromodomain. Although structurally related to TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, TIF1gamma presents several functional differences. In contrast to TIF1alpha, but like TIF1beta, TIF1 does not interact with nuclear receptors in yeast two-hybrid or GST pull-down assays and does not interfere with retinoic acid response in transfected mammalian cells. Whereas TIF1alpha and TIF1beta were previously found to interact with the KRAB silencing domain of KOX1 and with the HP1alpha, MODI (HP1beta) and MOD2 (HP1gamma) heterochromatinic proteins, suggesting that they may participate in a complex involved in heterochromatin-induced gene repression, TIF1gamma does not interact with either the KRAB domain of KOX1 or the HP1 proteins. Nevertheless, TIF1gamma, like TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, exhibits a strong silencing activity when tethered to a promoter. Since deletion of a novel motif unique to the three TIF1 proteins, called TIF1 signature sequence (TSS), abrogates transcriptional repression by TIF1gamma, this motif likely participates in TIF1 dependent repression.  (+info)

Anopheles gambiae Ag-STAT, a new insect member of the STAT family, is activated in response to bacterial infection. (7/69323)

A new insect member of the STAT family of transcription factors (Ag-STAT) has been cloned from the human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. The domain involved in DNA interaction and the SH2 domain are well conserved. Ag-STAT is most similar to Drosophila D-STAT and to vertebrate STATs 5 and 6, constituting a proposed ancient class A of the STAT family. The mRNA is expressed at all developmental stages, and the protein is present in hemocytes, pericardial cells, midgut, skeletal muscle and fat body cells. There is no evidence of transcriptional activation following bacterial challenge. However, bacterial challenge results in nuclear translocation of Ag-STAT protein in fat body cells and induction of DNA-binding activity that recognizes a STAT target site. In vitro treatment with pervanadate (vanadate and H2O2) translocates Ag-STAT to the nucleus in midgut epithelial cells. This is the first evidence of direct participation of the STAT pathway in immune responses in insects.  (+info)

In vivo expression of the nucleolar group I intron-encoded I-dirI homing endonuclease involves the removal of a spliceosomal intron. (8/69323)

The Didymium iridis DiSSU1 intron is located in the nuclear SSU rDNA and has an unusual twin-ribozyme organization. One of the ribozymes (DiGIR2) catalyses intron excision and exon ligation. The other ribozyme (DiGIR1), which along with the endonuclease-encoding I-DirI open reading frame (ORF) is inserted in DiGIR2, carries out hydrolysis at internal processing sites (IPS1 and IPS2) located at its 3' end. Examination of the in vivo expression of DiSSU1 shows that after excision, DiSSU1 is matured further into the I-DirI mRNA by internal DiGIR1-catalysed cleavage upstream of the ORF 5' end, as well as truncation and polyadenylation downstream of the ORF 3' end. A spliceosomal intron, the first to be reported within a group I intron and the rDNA, is removed before the I-DirI mRNA associates with the polysomes. Taken together, our results imply that DiSSU1 uses a unique combination of intron-supplied ribozyme activity and adaptation to the general RNA polymerase II pathway of mRNA expression to allow a protein to be produced from the RNA polymerase I-transcribed rDNA.  (+info)

*DNA methylation

Molecular cloning[edit]. Most strains used by molecular biologists are derivatives of E. coli K-12, and possess both Dam and ... Gardiner-Garden M, Frommer M (July 1987). "CpG islands in vertebrate genomes". Journal of Molecular Biology. 196 (2): 261-82. ... Molecular break light assay for DNA adenine methyltransferase activity - an assay that relies on the specificity of the ... Ying and Li-Byarlay (2015). "Physiological and Molecular Mechanisms of Nutrition in Honey Bees". Advances in Insect Physiology ...

*Phenol-chloroform extraction

Sambrook, Joseph; Russell, David W. (2001). "Commonly Used Techniques in Molecular Cloning". Molecular Cloning. 3. ... Phenol-chloroform extraction is a liquid-liquid extraction technique in molecular biology used to purify nucleic acids and ...

*DNA extraction

Molecular Cloning. (4th ed. ed.). Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Pr. ISBN 1936113422. How to extract ... "Ancient DNA: extraction, characterization, molecular cloning, and enzymatic amplification." Proceedings of the National Academy ... The Hirt extraction process gets rid of the high molecular weight nuclear DNA, leaving only low molecular weight mitochondrial ... Currently it is a routine procedure in molecular biology or forensic analyses. For the chemical method, there are many ...

*DPP3

Molecular cloning and expression". Biochem. J. 329 ( Pt 2) (Pt 2): 275-82. PMC 1219041 . PMID 9425109.. ... Molecular function. • zinc ion binding. • peptidase activity. • aminopeptidase activity. • protein binding. • hydrolase ...

*GDF11

"Molecular and Cellular Biology. 25 (14): 5846-58. doi:10.1128/MCB.25.14.5846-5858.2005. PMC 1168807. PMID 15988002.. ... Cloning and Stem Cells. 11 (3): 427-35. doi:10.1089/clo.2009.0024. PMID 19751112.. ... Molecular function. • cytokine activity. • transforming growth factor beta receptor binding. • growth factor activity. • ... "EMBO Molecular Medicine. 9 (4): 531-544. doi:10.15252/emmm.201607231. PMC 5376753. PMID 28270449.. ...

*HIST1H2BA

Molecular cloning and characterization". J Biol Chem. 277 (45): 43474-80. doi:10.1074/jbc.M206065200. PMID 12213818. "Entrez ...

*SLC25A5

Molecular cloning and sequence". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 265 (27): 16060-3. PMID 2168878. Vandewalle J, Bauters M ... It is a mode of cell death defined by characteristic morphological, biochemical and molecular changes. It was first described ... Molecular aspects of medicine. 34 (2-3): 485-93. doi:10.1016/j.mam.2012.05.006. PMID 23506884. Check date values in: ,date= ( ... Somatic Cell and Molecular Genetics. 16 (2): 143-9. doi:10.1007/BF01233044. PMID 2157297. Schlattner U, Dolder M, Wallimann T, ...

*M13 bacteriophage

20.109(S07): Start-up Genome Engineering [1] Phage Display: A Laboratory Manual Messing, J (1993). "M13 cloning vehicles. Their ... Journal of Molecular Biology. 228 (3): 720-4. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(92)90858-h. PMID 1469710. Huang, Yu; Chung-Yi Chiang; Soo ... Methods in Molecular Biology. 23. pp. 9-22. doi:10.1385/0-89603-248-5:9. ISBN 0-89603-248-5. PMID 8220775. Archived from the ...

*GYPE

Molecular cloning and expression". Eur. J. Biochem. 191 (3): 619-625. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1990.tb19166.x. PMID 2390989. ... by isolation of genomic clones and complementary DNA clones utilizing polymerase chain reaction". J. Biol. Chem. 265 (2): 1102- ... 1992). "Molecular analysis of human glycophorin MiIX gene shows a silent segment transfer and untemplated mutation resulting ...

*ORFeome

Ohara, O. (2009). "ORFeome Cloning". Reverse Chemical Genetics. Methods in Molecular Biology. 577. pp. 3-9. doi:10.1007/978-1- ... In, molecular genetics, an ORFeome refers to the complete set of open reading frames (ORFs) in a genome. The term may also be ... Complete ORF sets have been cloned for a number of organisms including Brucella melitensis Chlamydia pneumoniae Escherichia ... a resource for comparative molecular microbiology". BMC Genomics. 11: 470. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-11-470. PMC 3091666 . PMID ...

*CHSY1

Kitagawa H, Izumikawa T, Uyama T, Sugahara K (2003). "Molecular cloning of a chondroitin polymerizing factor that cooperates ... 2003). "Chondroitin sulfate synthase-3. Molecular cloning and characterization". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (41): 39711-25. doi:10.1074 ... "Molecular cloning and expression of a human chondroitin synthase". J Biol Chem. 276 (42): 38721-6. doi:10.1074/jbc.M106871200. ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 6 (1): 63-70. doi: ...

*DPP3

Molecular cloning and expression". Biochem. J. 329 ( Pt 2) (Pt 2): 275-82. PMC 1219041 . PMID 9425109. Simaga S, Babić D, Osmak ...

*Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency

Molecular cloning and chromosomal localization". Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 414: 253-260. doi:10.1007/978-1 ... Saronwala, A.; Tournay, A.; Gargus, J. J. "Genetic inborn error of metabolism provides a unique window into molecular ... "Two exon-skipping mutations as the molecular basis of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (4-hydroxybutyric ...

*Genomic library

A plasmid is a double stranded circular DNA molecule commonly used for molecular cloning. Plasmids are generally 2 to 4 ... Once a clone from a genomic library is sequenced, the sequence can be used to screen the library for other clones containing ... ISBN 0-8053-9592-X. Russell, David W.; Sambrook, Joseph (2001). Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y ... This is particularly determined by the number of clones needed to have in a library. The number of clones to get a sampling of ...

*Blue-white screen

Molecular cloning is one of the most commonly used procedures in molecular biology. A gene of interest may be inserted into a ... "Chapter 1". Molecular Cloning - A Laboratory Manual. 1 (3rd ed.). p. 1.27. ISBN 978-0-87969-577-4.. ... "White and green screening with circular polymerase extension cloning for easy and reliable cloning". Protein Science. 22 (6): ... The plasmid carries within the lacZα sequence an internal multiple cloning site (MCS). This MCS within the lacZα sequence can ...

*Citric acid

Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY. ...

*Dolly (sheep)

"Future and applications of cloning". Methods Mol. Biol. Methods in Molecular Biology. 348: 319-32. doi:10.1007/978-1-59745-154 ... The attempt to clone a banteng bull was more successful, as were the attempts to clone mouflon (a form of wild sheep), both ... The cell used as the donor for the cloning of Dolly was taken from a mammary gland, and the production of a healthy clone ... Even though Dolly was not the first animal cloned, she received media attention because she was the first cloned from an adult ...

*Restriction enzyme

"European Molecular Biology Laboratory - Hamburg. Retrieved 2008-06-07.. *^ Russell DW, Sambrook J (2001). Molecular cloning: a ... and they are a vital tool in molecular cloning.[8][9][10] ... Enzymes of Molecular Biology. Methods of Molecular Biology. 16 ... "Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 64 (2): 412-34. doi:10.1128/MMBR.64.2.412-434.2000. PMC 98998. PMID 10839821.. ... this characteristic is widely used to perform in-vitro cloning techniques such as Golden Gate cloning. These enzymes may ...

*In silico PCR

DNA Cloning and Assembly Methods. Methods in Molecular Biology. 1116. pp. 271-302. doi:10.1007/978-1-62703-764-8_18. ISBN 978-1 ... Methods in Molecular Biology. 760. pp. 91-107. doi:10.1007/978-1-61779-176-5_6. ISBN 978-1-61779-175-8. PMID 21779992. "FastPCR ... web server provided by NCBI In silico simulation of molecular biology experiments csPCR: A computational tool for the ...

*Restriction enzyme

European Molecular Biology Laboratory - Hamburg. Retrieved 2008-06-07. Russell DW, Sambrook J (2001). Molecular cloning: a ... These enzymes are routinely used for DNA modification in laboratories, and they are a vital tool in molecular cloning. The term ... Clark DP (2005). Molecular biology. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-175551-7. Goodsell DS (2002). "The molecular ... this characteristic is widely used to perform in-vitro cloning techniques such as Golden Gate cloning. These enzymes may ...

*Amidophosphoribosyltransferase

Iwahana H, Oka J, Mizusawa N, Kudo E, Ii S, Yoshimoto K, Holmes EW, Itakura M (Jan 1993). "Molecular cloning of human ... Molecular and Cellular Biology portal This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which ... Zalkin H, Dixon JE (1992). "De novo purine nucleotide biosynthesis". Progress in Nucleic Acid Research and Molecular Biology. ...

*Mannosylglycoprotein endo-beta-mannosidase

Purification, molecular cloning, and characterization". J. Biol. Chem. 279: 38555-38562. doi:10.1074/jbc.m406886200. PMID ... Mannosylglycoprotein endo-beta-mannosidase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and ...

*Chromogenic in situ hybridization

2012) "Labeling of DNA Probes by Nick Translation". Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Park, K; Kim, J; Lim, S; Han, S; ... Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.). Methods in Molecular Biology. 659. pp. 3-20. doi:10.1007/978-1-60761-789-1_1. ... Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.). Methods in Molecular Biology. 659. pp. 51-70. doi:10.1007/978-1-60761-789-1_4. ... Next, the clones are sequenced and their position on the genome is verified. Probe labelling can be carried out by using either ...

*Recombinant DNA

The choice of vector for molecular cloning depends on the choice of host organism, the size of the DNA to be cloned, and ... One is that molecular cloning involves replication of the DNA within a living cell, while PCR replicates DNA in the test tube, ... Molecular cloning is the laboratory process used to create recombinant DNA. It is one of two most widely used methods, along ... These steps are described in some detail in a related article (molecular cloning). Following transplantation into the host ...

*Plasma cell

Neuberger, M. S.; Honjo, T.; Alt, Frederick W. (2004). Molecular biology of B cells. Amsterdam: Elsevier. pp. 189-191. ISBN 0- ... the activation and growth of B cell clones able to secrete antibodies of higher affinity for the antigen. ...
Molecular cloning is a set of experimental methods in molecular biology that are used to assemble recombinant DNA molecules and to direct their replication within host organisms. The use of the word cloning refers to the fact that the method involves the replication of one molecule to produce a population of cells with identical DNA molecules. Molecular cloning generally uses DNA sequences from two different organisms: the species that is the source of the DNA to be cloned, and the species that will serve as the living host for replication of the recombinant DNA. Molecular cloning methods are central to many contemporary areas of modern biology and medicine. In a conventional molecular cloning experiment, the DNA to be cloned is obtained from an organism of interest, then treated with enzymes in the test tube to generate smaller DNA fragments. Subsequently, these fragments are then combined with vector DNA to generate recombinant DNA molecules. The recombinant DNA is then introduced into a host ...
The genome information is offering opportunities to manipulate genes, polygenic characters and multiple traits in plants. Although a number of approaches have been developed to manipulate traits in plants, technical hurdles make the process difficult. Gene cloning vectors that facilitate the fusion, overexpression or down regulation of genes in plant cells are being used with various degree of success. In this study, we modified gateway MultiSite cloning vectors and developed a hybrid cloning strategy which combines advantages of both traditional cloning and gateway recombination cloning. We developed Gateway entry (pGATE) vectors containing attL sites flanking multiple cloning sites and plant expression vector (pKM12GW) with specific recombination sites carrying different plant and bacterial selection markers. We constructed a plant expression vector carrying a reporter gene (GUS), two Bt cry genes in a predetermined pattern by a single round of LR recombination reaction after restriction ...
For positive-selection cloning of PCR products through blunt-end ligation. Allows direct cloning of PCR products without purification.. GenHunters PCR-TRAP® Cloning System is the most efficient method for cloning PCR products by blunt-end ligation. This system uses a third generation cloning vector that features positive selection for cloning PCR products (see figures next page). Only recombinant plasmids confer antibiotic resistance, making PCR-TRAP® extremely efficient. There is no need for any post-PCR manipulation before cloning, since a significant fraction of PCR products do not contain the 3 overhanging A (Clark, 1988, Nucleic Acids Res. 16:9677 ...
View Notes - PCR from BME 3406 at University of Florida. Cloning genes Cloning results in the purification of a single fragment of DNA from exceedingly complex DNA molecules. Need DNA corresponding
PCR Cloning Protocols, moment version, updates and expands Bruce Whites best-selling PCR Cloning Protocols (1997) with the latest methods for DNA cloning and mutagenesis. right here the researcher will locate with no trouble reproducible equipment for all of the significant points of PCR use, together with PCR optimization, desktop courses for PCR primer layout and research, and novel adaptations for cloning genes of distinct features or starting place, with emphasis on lengthy distance PCR and GC-rich template amplification. additionally integrated are either traditional and novel enzyme-free and restrict site-free methods to clone PCR items right into a diversity of vectors, in addition to state of the art protocols to facilitate DNA mutagenesis and recombination, and to clone the difficult uncharacterized DNA flanking a recognized DNA fragment. ...
The pUC18 plasmid and pUC19 plasmid enable successful cloning of larger DNA fragments than the M13 mp18 RF Phage Vector. Because these cloning vectors contain a multiple cloning site at the lacZ region, recombinant plamids can be verified via blue/white colony screening using agar plates containing IPTG and X-Gal. Expression of target DNA is enabled by the presence of a lac promoter in the cloning vectors.. ...
pEASY®-Blunt Zero Cloning Kit,Cloning Vectors,Cloning and Mutagenesis System,Products,Beijing TransGen Biotech Co.Ltd,OverviewContents& storageCitations & referencesRelated ImagesDownloadOverviewDescriptionpEASY ®-Blunt Zero Cloning Vector c
Puzzling Cloning Problem With a Specific Vector - posted in Molecular Cloning: Hello, over the last couple of months I have been attempting to generate artificial aggrobacterial vectors containing DNA inserts that correspond to the tripartite genome of the Cowpea Chlorotic Mosaic Virus. These vectors will be used to generate mutant virions in-Plantae. I am using a vector provided to our lab by a collborator. I must use this vector for all cloning experiments. Its a large vector ( abou...
... ,The CopyControl PCR Cloning Kits are designed to speed up the PCR cloning process and to ensure that all PCR products, regardless of sequence or type of polymerase used, are efficiently cloned. All PCR products including those that are difficult to clone by other PCR cloning methods or that m,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
Cloning a foreign gene into E-coli - posted in Molecular Cloning: Dear Friends, I am facing the problem with cloning. I have insert with 2.6Kb to be cloned into 13Kb E-coli vector . Vector has cloned strong promoter which is derived from the source same as the insert coming from. According to the strategy the desired will be cloned in front of promoter using PCR product digested either with same enzyme at both the ends(NcoI) or two enzymes(NcoI and SmaI). After digestion,ligation and tra...
For every Herceptin, for every Enbrel, Humira and Rituxan, and for every successful biotherapeutic product in the market today, there is a long history of its product development. We all hope that our target protein product will make a difference in both the therapeutic market and the lives it will eventually affect as it reaches its ultimate goal of becoming a human therapeutic. The reality is, in order for it to be a feasible therapeutic, the protein must first be manufactured. And one of the very first steps in determining the manufacturing capability of the product is the crucial step of choosing the production cell line that will produce this protein.. There are many challenges in single cell CHO cloning procedures to obtain valuable stable CHO production cell lines. We often rely on efficient cloning strategies and cloning media to execute such a crucial task in the developmental process of a recombinant protein product. An important aspect of cloning strategies is the cloning media ...
1. A degenerate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) homology screening procedure was applied to rat brain cDNA in order to identify novel genes belonging to the amiloride-sensitive Na+ channel and degenerin (NaC/DEG) family of ion channels. A single gene was identified that encodes a protein related to …
The biosynthesis of steroid hormones is an integral component of insect growth, development and reproduction. Although there is an abundance of biochemical data implicating both microsomal and mitochondrial cytochrome P450s in steroid metabolism, molecular genetic information on mitochondrial P450s is almost entirely limited to vertebrate sequences. In the current study, a degenerate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer was targeted to the highly conserved region of P450 genes that encodes the heme-binding decapeptide. Using a 5 rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approach, seven novel cytochrome P450 genes were isolated from Drosophila acanthoptera, including one sequence (CYP12B1) with high regional homology to vertebrate mitochondrial P450s. Sequence analysis of the conceptual translation of the full length gene, obtained by 5RACE, revealed an amphipathic NH2-terminus rich in basic and hydrophilic amino acids, a characteristic feature of mitochondrial P450s that distinguishes them ...
During the last few decades, techniques for manipulating eukaryotic as well as prokaryotic DNA have witnessed a remarkable development. There are three main phases of the development of these techniques, which include recombinant DNA technology and gene cloning; polymerase chain reaction and DNA chips and microarrays. Using recombinant DNA technology, we can isolate and clone single copy of a gene or a DNA segment into an indefinite number of copies, all identical. This became possible, because bacteria, phages and plasmids reproduce in their usual style, even after insertion of foreign DNA, so that the inserted DNA also replicates faithfully with the parent DNA. This technique is called gene cloning. It involves the production of a large number of identical DNA molecules from a single ancestral DNA molecule. The essential characteristic of gene cloning is that the desired gene or DNA fragments must be selectively amplified resulting in a large increase in copy number of selected DNA sequences. ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , GenTarget \ pEco-T7-nHis PCR cloning kit: PCR cloning kit with a built-in vector (T7 promoter based) in provided cloning cells for E Coli expression of N-term His-tagged protein. \ IC-1001 for more molecular products just contact us
Molecular cloning and deduced amino acid sequences of the alpha- and beta- subunits of mammalian NAD(+)-isocitrate dehydrogenase.: A 153 bp fragment of the cDNA
The procedure of PCR cloning includes DNA preparation, digestion, ligation and transformation. This video shows the first part- insert PCR. Compared to other Taq-generated PCR inserts, Pfu DNA polymerase-generated PCR fragments will have fewer errors and is more commonly used for molecular cloning. - PCR Cloning (I) - Inserted Fragment Preparation - AbVideo™ - Support - Abnova
P-57. Generating and Sequencing Full-length cDNAs of Novel Human Genes Within the German cDNA Consortium. Ruth E. Wellenreuther, Stefan Wiemann, Daniela Heiss, Nina Claudino, Annemarie Poustka, Department of Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Heidelberg, GERMANY. We generate human cDNA libraries that are enriched in full length clones i.e. from the translation start to the poly A tail. These libraries are used for a) systematic sequencing within the cDNA consortium of the Genome Project aiming at the identification and analysis of as many new genes as possible and b) for screening to isolate full length clones of partial genes. Libraries are created by directional cloning of cDNAs into plasmid vectors. Full-length enrichment is achieved via Clontechs SMART technology. This method is PCR-based, and in our modified strategy, we amplify and clone selective size windows of the cDNA fraction above 3 kb.Clones from the libraries generated within this project are ...
The complete nucleotide and amino acid sequence of GP-2 was determined initially by molecular cloning technique from peptide sequence for rat, dog and humans (12, 13, 18, 43). The cDNA encodes a protein of 530 aa in humans with 67% identity to rat and 72% to dog GP-2. The primary sequence encodes 10 (human) or 8 (dog) Asn-linked glycosylation sites. This is consistent with data for in vitro translation by reticulocyte lysate that yields a protein of 55 kDa and treatment with N-glycanase which reduces the molecular mass of canine GP-2 from 75 kDa to 52 kDa (12, 18). Rat GP-2 has been shown to possess 5 or 6 N-linked high mannose carbohydrate chains (16). The primary protein sequence is also post-translationally glycosylated on its carboxyl terminal to a GPI moiety in the membrane during passage through the Golgi to reach the ZG (11, 13, 17). This GPI moiety contains a phosphoethanolamine linker attached to the protein, a 4-5 sugar core and a phosphatidylinositol whose hydrocarbon chains insert ...
Andre SzyszkowskiPsy 13004/28/05 Cloning: Choice is Ethical Thousands of people a year are placed on the organ donors list. Thousands of people a year are diagnosed with diseases that are dubbed fatal unless a transplant or transfusion is given. This has created a large demand for some alternative method to the present donor practice. Research in the taboos cience of cloning seems to provide a viable method in which to aid the problem aforementioned and many others as well. But is it ethical? Cloning technology is expected to aid the result in several medical breakthroughs. It is thought that there may one day be a cure for cancer. This is because the cloning process helps us understand the process of cell differentiation. Theories exist that if a cure for cancer can be found, then further testing may lead to a cure for heart attacks and cloning organs for organ transplantation. Scientists believe that they may be able to treat heart attack victims by cloning their healthy heart cells and ...
44.38935 -68.20742 BAR HARBOR, Maine - New scientific evidence has heightened concerns about the safety of cloning human beings, an international authority warned yesterday.. "We now believe that the potential to make a normal human baby with cloning is almost zero," said Dr. Rudolf Jaenisch, professor of biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, at a genetics conference at Maines Jackson Laboratory.. "Cloning a normal human is an illusion. There are major problems, and the problems are very serious.". Dr. Jaenisch, who helped pioneer gene transfer and cloning, said the public continues to be enthralled by stories of maverick doctors who supposedly plan to clone human beings.. Italian doctors in Rome, for instance, claim that they will clone a baby by next spring, with $500,000 provided by a couple whose infant died after heart surgery. An American firm called Clonaid has made repeated claims about a imminent human cloning.. "Cloning a normal baby is utter nonsense," said Dr. ...
Introduction. Does cloning benefit or endanger society? Marley Gibbons-Balfour Case Study: Biology Contents Introduction 1 Background Science 2 Arguments against 4 Arguments for 7 Summary 10 Conclusion 11 Bibliography 12 Introduction Cloning has quickly become one of the most contentious issues in modern society, along with other issues like abortion, homosexuality and euthanasia. Due to the conflicted teachings and ideologies of many people in the world, there is no general consensus about cloning. Some people feel that it could benefit humans (through cures, through solving infertility and through knowledge), while others feel it could endanger humans and is a bad thing (due to ethical issues and due to being unaware of what could happen if it didnt work). Because of this, I have decided to investigate whether cloning actually does benefit or endanger society. I will go about this by collecting 6 sources (3 against cloning and 3 for cloning) and evaluating the evidence they present with the ...
The cloning of a novel murine gene that encodes a protein with lymphopoietic activity is described. The activity was initially identified in a coculture system of an adherent thymic stromal cell line with a medullary phenotype, Z210R.1, and day 15 fetal liver (6). Interestingly, the nonadherent lymphoid-like cells that grew in these cocultures phenotypically resembled B cells. A clonal lymphoid line (NAG8/7) was derived from long term cocultures, and this line expresses B220, 6C3 (BP-1), and is surface μ+, but κ chain negative. Importantly, NAG8/7 cells proliferated in response to conditioned medium from the Z210R.1 cell line and thus became the basis of a bioassay that allowed for the preliminary characterization of the growth factor and the eventual cloning of the cDNA encoding this activity.. The cDNA encoding the NAG8/7 growth activity was cloned from a library made from the Z210R.1 cell line. Based on the nucleotide sequence, the mature TSLP protein consists of 121 amino acids with 3 ...
Gateway compatible bacterial expression vector with T7 promoter, N- and C-terminal His tags and thrombin cleavage site; contains ccdB death cassette that is removed after recombinational cloning; kanamycin resistance in bacteria; recombinational cloning ...
The comprehensive study of protein structure and function, or proteomics, depends on the obtainability of full‐length cDNAs in species‐specific expression vectors and subsequent functional analysis of the expressed protein
ntroducing the Invitrogen Anza Restriction Enzyme Cloning System, a complete, one-buffer system of restriction enzymes and DNA-modifying enzymes-for beautifully simple cloning.
Scientists from the New York Stem Cell Foundation Laboratory reported on Wednesday the first success in using the cloning technique that gave rise to Dolly the sheep to generate stem cells using adult human cells.
Introduction. Science and cloning. Why are researchers and scientists so interested in cloning? The main view on cloning is that it is morally wrong and it is interfering with the very thing that has made life possible, although the reasons behind wanting to clone such large animals as sheep is not just to make a copy. Scientists claim that cloning an animal would be directly connected to there work aimed at producing medicines in the milk of animals. Researchers have actually managed to transfer human genes that produce useful proteins into large animals like sheep and cows, so that they also produce these useful proteins. Scientists claim that if an animal has these human genes then they can treat conditions like hemophilia and cystic fibrosis as well as other lung conditions. ...read more. Middle. Dolly the sheep. Dolly the sheep may be the worlds most famous clone but surprisingly she was not the first. Cloning is basically a process which leads to an end product of a genetically identical ...
... , also known as Maniatis, has served as the foundation of technical expertise in labs worldwide for 30 years. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential.
Gateway compatible bacterial expression destination vector with N-terminal 8xHis tag and Mistic (from B. subtilis) tag; contains ccdB death cassette that is removed after recombinational cloning; ampicillin resistance in bacteria; recombinational cloning ...
ID YPGX265GAL preliminary; circular DNA; SYN; 12300 BP. XX AC ATCC67233; XX DT 03-FEB-1994 (Rel. 8, Created) DT 01-JUL-1995 (Rel. 12, Last updated, Version 1) XX DE Saccharomyces/E.coli plasmid vector YpGX265GAL4 - incomplete. XX KW cloning vector. XX OS Cloning vector OC Artificial sequences; Cloning vehicles. XX RN [1] RC YpGX265GAL4 from GAL1/10 prom & MFalpha1 & GAL4 gene & LEU2d gene RA ; RT ; RL Unpublished (1991). RL U.S. Patent No. 5,013,652 dated May 7, 1991. XX CC High copy number YE-type shuttle expression vector. [1] CC The promoter consists of nt -610 to -157 of the GAL 1-10 upstream CC activation site,fused to the transcription initiation site CC (nt -158 to -1) of the alpha mating factor gene MFalpha1. [1] CC The 3.65 kb HindIII fragment encodes the positive regulator protein CC GAL4, necessary for transcription from the GAL1-10 promoter. [1] CC The PHO5 signal sequence (51 nt) was modified to use preferred CC Saccharomyces codons. [1] CC The plasmid is maintained at approximately ...
ID LAMZD35 preliminary; circular DNA; SYN; 43700 BP. XX AC M22642; M19164; M19165; M19166; M19167; M19168; ATCC37565; XX DT 01-JUL-1993 (Rel. 7, Created) DT 01-JUL-1995 (Rel. 12, Last updated, Version 1) XX DE Vertebrate/E.coli phage vector lambda ZD35 - incomplete. XX KW cloning vector. XX OS Cloning vector OC Artificial sequences; Cloning vehicles. XX RN [1] RC pZD1, pZD2 from pZIPneoSV(x)1 & oligo RC lambda ZD31 from pZD1 & Charon 30 RC lambda ZD32 from pZD2 & Charon 30 RC [lambda ZD35 from Charon 30] RC rpZD1 from lambda ZD31 RC rpZD2 from lambda ZD32 RC rpZDD1 from rpZD1 RC rpZDD2 from rpZD2 RC rpZd5 from rpZD1 RC lambda ZD5 from rpZd5 & lambda ZD31 RC p3P0 from pZIPneoSV(x)1 & MMLV RA Murphy A.J., Efstratiadis A.; RT "Cloning vectors for expression of cDNA libraries in mammalian cells"; RL Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84:8277-8281(1987). XX CC Restriction digests of the clone give the following sizes (kb): CC EcoRI--19, 25. (ATCC staff) CC Cloned cDNA expressed from LTR promoter; neo ...
Cloning products and expression vectors assemble, replicate, and amplify recombinant DNA. Components are available together as part of molecular cloning kits or separately as plasmid vectors, competent cells, cDNA, ORF clones, and genomic libraries.
Watch this interview to learn more about new products in qPCR and cloning from Takara and Clontech. Mauro Ciglic explains how Clontech and Takara scientists have further developed the In-Fusion™ HD PCR cloning system designed to be a high performing versatile tool for scientists. Biotechnica 2011
DNA cloning is the process of creating multiple copies of isolated DNA fragments. There are various processes for DNA cloning, but...
Build: Wed Jun 21 18:33:50 EDT 2017 (commit: 4a3b2dc). National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda MD 20892-4874 • 301-435-0888. ...
Almost seven years after the birth of Dolly the sheep, cloning has shown mixed progress. Scientists have achieved it in more than a dozen mammal species, but an efficient cloning process still eludes them.
Professor Zavos and his supporters of cloning feel that with the careful continuation of research, the technological benefits of cloning clearly outweigh the possible social consequences. In their minds, final products of cloning, like farm animals and laboratory mice will not be the most important achievement. The applications of cloning they envision are not nightmarish and inhumane, but will improve the overall quality of science and life. Cloning will help to produce discoveries that will affect the study of genetics, cell development, human growth, and obstetrics. Human cloning is not the issue; it is merely a threat to the continuation of cloning research. From the reproductive point of view, in in-vitro fertilization (IVF), a doctor often implants many fertilized ova (embryos) into a womans uterus and counts on one resulting in pregnancy. However, some women can only supply one egg. Through cloning, one can increase the number of the embryos at transfer and that could increase ...
Molecular Cloning, also known as Maniatis, has served as the foundation of technical expertise in labs worldwide for 30 years. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential.
Therapeutic CloningTherapeutic cloning is the use of cloning to treat human diseases and disorders. It is still being researched. The goal is to produce healthy new cells by cloning a patients own cells. The new cells would be transplanted into the patients body, where they could replace damaged cells. Because the new cells would contain the patients own DNA, they would not be rejected by the immune system.Scientists think that cloned cells might be…
Bel-Art Products 37847-0003 - Sterile 1/4 Cloning DiscGamma radiation is used to sterilize these cloning discs. FeaturesAvoid wasting time and energy when cloning large numbers of cellsRNase and DNase free Ste
Pros and Cons of Cloning The process of cloning has remained one of the most controversial topics as debates continue about the pros and cons of Cloning.
A Massachusetts firm has announced the first successful cloning of human embryos. The company believes that cloning human cells will accelerate the development of new treatments for Parkinsons
rat GATE-16 / GABARAPL2 gene cDNA, cloning vector & expression plasmid, mutiple tags. Optimized for high expression in mammalian cells. Save up to 60%.
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... ,pLivSelect is a direct antibiotic-based selection system for recombinant identification. Recombinant selection depends solely on colony survival, eliminating the need for costly color screening. This quick and inexpensive process provides close to 100% ac,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
HiPer Plasmid DNA Cloning Teaching Kit Product Code: HTBM022 Number of experiments that can be performed: 5 Duration of Experiment: 4 days Day 1- Preparation of media and revival of E. coli Host Day2-
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , SBI \ Lentiviral Technology pCDF1-MCS1 cDNA Cloning and Expression Vector \ CD100A-1 for more molecular products just contact us
The production of proteins is one of the main applications of genetic engineering in biotechnology. Even though standard cloning procedures are now routine and a large variety of host-vector systems...
Please note: Your browser does not support the features used on Addgenes website. You may not be able to create an account or request plasmids through this website until you upgrade your browser. Learn more ...
The BC1000 set of genes, an informatically grouped set of genes associated with breast cancer, from the Harvard Institute of Proteomics (HIP) at HMS. All clones are sequence verified and in the pDNR-Dual recombinational cloning vector. This set includes only ORFs with the natural stop codon absent (C-terminal tag is added, a.k.a. FUSION format; see pDNR-Dual vector map for details ...
Robl has also done work that transforms cows into producers of human antibodies. By using cloning techniques, and replacing a cows antibody genes with a humans, researchers can inject the cow with a vaccine, which forces the cows to produce antibodies to fight off the weakened virus. Scientists then take a vial of the cows blood, which can be used for a patient with an immune deficiency disorder to increase his ability to fight off infection ...
Download free Gene cloning and dna analysis ta brown ebook, A gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA which codes for a molecule that has a function. The DNA is first copied into RNA.
In article ,329D948E.776D at udcf.gla.ac.uk,, gbga14 at udcf.gla.ac.uk wrote: , Does anyone have a method for adding a single T to the 3OH of blunt cut , plasmid for use in A/T Tac generated PCR fragment cloning. I am working , on the assumption that dideoxy T and terminal transferase are used, , however a protocol known to work would be very useful Taq likes to stick As on the 3 ends of DNA strands, but if only dTTP is available, Taq will add a T overhang. After your digestion, set up a PCR reaction with Taq and ONLY dTTP and incubate a couple of hours at your preferred extension time ...
A clone has an identical genetic blueprint to its source organism. Few members of the animal kingdom reproduce naturally by cloning. Plants, however, often reproduce by cloning, establishing new units from cuttings, limbs bent to the ground and rooting, or suckers and shoots springing from the root system. Root ...
Scientists have successfully cloned several animals. But this success has sparked fierce debates about the use and morality of cloning. Find out about cloning and discover some possible uses of this technology.
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
Slide set: Cloning. Who hasnt heard of Dolly the Sheep? So, what is cloning? Why is it important? What potential medical solutions does it offer, and what ethical questions does it raise? Joseph G. Marx, PhD, provides answers these and other questions. Companion slide set for the video, Cloning.
Information on different types of cloning and the implications and ethics of cloning, are covered in this topic which is suitable for students aged 14-19 (Key stages 4 and 5)
We explain Cloning with video tutorials and quizzes, using our Many Ways(TM) approach from multiple teachers.|p|This lesson will examine the issue of cloning, its uses and the controversy that surrounds it.|/p|
Gurdon began cloning experiments using nonembryonic cells-specifically, cells from the intestinal lining of tadpoles. Gurdon believed that the tadpoles were old enough so that cells taken from them would be differentiated. Gurdon exposed a frog egg to ultraviolet light, which destroyed its nucleus. He then removed the nucleus from the tadpole intestinal cell and implanted it in the enucleated egg. The egg grew into a tadpole that was genetically identical to the DNA-donating tadpole. But the tadpoles cloned in Gurdons early experiments never survived to adulthood and scientists now believe that many of the cells used in these experiments may not have been differentiated cells after all. In later work, however, Gurdon successfully produced sexually mature adult frogs from eggs into which genetically marked nuclei had been transplanted from differentiated tadpole cells ...
FABP7, 0.1 mg. FABP7 was initially isolated from a human fetal brain cDNA library and whose mRNA was expressed in adult brain and muscle tissues at low levels.
View Notes - Note3 from BIO SCI 104 at UC Davis. Lecture 3 S. Harmer Molecular Methods (Databases, hybridization, cloning, libraries, PCR) MCB 161 01/12/2010 Reading: Watson text: pp. 113 - 117;
STEPC :: DESCRIPTION STEPC (Statistical Explanation for Positional Cloning) supposes that many polymorphic sites have been identified and genotyped in a region showing strong linkage with a trait. A key question of i
Cloning of Eg7 cDNA. (A) The open box represents the coding region (1,360 amino acids). Eg7.1-Eg7.4 correspond to partial cDNAs obtained by screening a Xe
ATCC offers plasmid clones of many viral genomes from both animal and plant viruses. Applications for this DNA include use as positive controls, hybridization probes, or templates for amplification.
ATCC offers plasmid clones of many viral genomes from both animal and plant viruses. Applications for this DNA include use as positive controls, hybridization probes, or templates for amplification.
Read user reviews, compare products & request pricing from manufacturers of protein expression products including expression vectors & competent cells
GH Competent Cells. $230.00 For transformation of PCR-TRAP and pAPtag-5 vectors The GH Competent cells can be used with both our PCR-TRAP PCR product cloning system & with our pAPtag-5 AP fusion cloning vector (AP-TAG Kit B). The pAPtag-5... More Info ...
Bio Elpida expertise in Eukaryotes Cell Culture : isolation, cloning and large-scale culture for the production of proteins of interest
Article: Cloning, Anything but Natural - Consumers should think carefully before assuming that cloned meat and milk are safe. Safety testing was inadequate at best. Who will benefit consumers, farmers? No, only the corporations that own the technology.
Cloning is a process that creates new life by copying the cell data of a living host. The cell data is gathered from the host and then implanted into an embryo, which undergoes a normal development cycle. Once born, the individual is a physical copy of the living host that had the cell data collected…
ATexas-based company is focusing on cloning performance horses for customers who want to continue their horses genetic makeup. No thoroughbred racers yet, though.
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
Comment on Reproductive Ethics today welcomed the news that France has joined Italy in banning all forms of cloning. A spokesperson said: This ...
Cloning on a grand scale could spell the end of species as they become progressively nastier, warn researchers at the University of Sussex.
CACCTAAATT GTAAGCGTTA ATATTTTGTT AAAATTCGCG TTAAATTTTT GTTAAATCAG CTCATTTTTT AACCAATAGG CCGAAATCGG CAAAATCCCT TATAAATCAA AAGAATAGAC CGAGATAGGG TTGAGTGTTG TTCCAGTTTG GAACAAGAGT CCACTATTAA AGAACGTGGA CTCCAACGTC AAAGGGCGAA AAACCGTCTA TCAGGGCGAT GGCCCACTAC GTGAACCATC ACCCTAATCA AGTTTTTTGG GGTCGAGGTG CCGTAAAGCA CTAAATCGGA ACCCTAAAGG GAGCCCCCGA TTTAGAGCTT GACGGGGAAA GCCGGCGAAC GTGGCGAGAA AGGAAGGGAA GAAAGCGAAA GGAGCGGGCG CTAGGGCGCT GGCAAGTGTA GCGGTCACGC TGCGCGTAAC CACCACACCC GCCGCGCTTA ATGCGCCGCT ACAGGGCGCG TCCCATTCGC CATTCAGGCT GCGCAACTGT TGGGAAGGGC GATCGGTGCG GGCCTCTTCG CTATTACGCC AGCTGGCGAA AGGGGGATGT GCTGCAAGGC GATTAAGTTG GGTAACGCCA GGGTTTTCCC AGTCACGACG TTGTAAAACG ACGGCCAGTG AATTGTAATA CGACTCACTA TAGGGCGAAT TGGAGCTCCA CCGCGGTGGC GGCCGCTCTA GAACTAGTGG ATCCCCCGGG CTGCAGGAAT TCGGCACGAG AAAACCTTCA CTACTCTTGA CCCTGCGTCC CTAGCTTGGC TGACAGAGGA GCCAGGGCCA ACAGAGGTCA CACGCACATC CCAAAGCCCT CGCTCTCCAG ATTCCAGTCA GAGTTCTATG GCCCAGGAGG AAGAGGAGGA AGAGCAAGGA AGAACTAGGA AACGGAAACA GAGTGGTCAG TGCCCAGCCC ...
Simplify your cloning and protein expression work with Lucigens complete cloning and expression systems. Expressioneering Technology is an entirely new way to radically simplify cloning and expressing recombinant proteins.
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is it possible to optimize a transfected cell-line (by G418-selection) by subcloning, i. e. to get a better receptor expession. I think if i got a monoclonal mammalial cell-line which is overexpressing a receptor gene, it could improve the expression of this gene, to make a subcloning by dilution. I think the cells are dividing over the time and are so not longer be monoclonal ...
Cloning of DNA sequences DNA Sequence for cloning may be obtained by two ways: using mRNA and Separation of DNA sequence from the genome of the cell, where the cells are broken up and ...
A colony stimulating factor. CSF-1, is a lymphokine useful in overcoming the immunosuppression induced by chemotherapy or resulting from other causes. CSF-1 is obtained in usable amounts by recombinant methods, including cloning and expression of the murine and human DNA sequences encoding this protein.
Cloning can be a very sensitive subject. It seems that its a battle between science and ethics. Does the ladder outweigh the former or vice versa? Maybe a few definitions will shed some light on the subject. Cloning is to create a genetic duplicate of...
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human EIF3D gene cDNA, cloning vector & expression plasmid, mutiple tags. Optimized for high expression in mammalian cells. Save up to 60%.
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I think this depends on what youre cloning. My inserts tend to be ,150 bp, which means getting 3 ug of product requires significantly larger PCR volumes. Smaller inserts are also more difficult to purify without loss downstream, hence the large volume that I generally use. -- ...
I think this depends on what youre cloning. My inserts tend to be ,150 bp, which means getting 3 ug of product requires significantly larger PCR volumes. Smaller inserts are also more difficult to purify without loss downstream, hence the large volume that I generally use. -- ...
Many owners will go to great lengths to keep a performance horse in top shape. Discuss these horses health and management requirements with managing editor Alexandra Beckstett.
Are you still cloning? Our standard genes are the perfect alternative. They are available in all sizes - from a few bp to more than 10 kbp.
... for the Cloning and Transgenesis display the details related to the Special Issues that are going to get published in future.
A multiple cloning site (MCS), also called a polylinker, is a short segment of DNA which contains many (up to ~20) restriction sites - a standard feature of engineered plasmids. Restriction sites within an MCS are typically unique, occurring only once within a given plasmid. MCSs are commonly used during procedures involving molecular cloning or subcloning. Extremely useful in biotechnology, bioengineering, and molecular genetics, MCSs let a molecular biologist insert a piece of DNA or several pieces of DNA into the region of the MCS. This can be used to create transgenic organisms, also known as genetically modified organisms (GMOs). One bacterial plasmid used in genetic engineering as a plasmid cloning vector is pUC18. Its polylinker region is composed of several restriction enzyme recognition sites, that have been engineered into a single cluster (the polylinker). It has restriction sites for various restriction enzymes, including EcoRI, BamHI and PstI. Another vector used in genetic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Construction of a set of Saccharomyces cerevisiae vectors designed for recombinational cloning. T2 - Author correction. AU - Van Mullem, Vincent. AU - Wery, Maxime. AU - De Bolle, Xavier. AU - Vandenhaute, Jean. PY - 2004/1/30. Y1 - 2004/1/30. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=1242273822&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1002/yea.1064. DO - 10.1002/yea.1064. M3 - Comment/debate. AN - SCOPUS:1242273822. VL - 21. JO - Yeast. JF - Yeast. SN - 0749-503X. IS - 2. ER - ...
Both the colony formation rate (number of colonies) and the ratio of correct clones (cloning efficiency) in transformation are important determinants for efficient cloning of PCR fragments. Cell lysates from E. coli RecA− strains such as DH10B contain endogenous in vitro homologous recombination activity, and can be used to clone PCR fragments into vectors with homology regions. However, cloning with lysates from this strain is not efficient, particularly in the case of inserts with short homology lengths (approximately 15-20 bp), because of a lower colony formation rate [14]. An E. coli PPY strain that expresses an optimized λ prophage Red/ET recombination system circumvents this problem by increasing the colony formation rate during PCR fragment cloning [14]. To extend the utility of this method, I prepared SLiCE extracts from several E. coli laboratory strains with some modifications, and estimated the efficiency with which redox-related genes from Arabidopsis could then be cloned into ...
A method is provided for isolating and identifying a recombinant clone having a DNA segment therein coding for at least one desired heterologous polypeptide, at least a short amino acid sequence of which is known, by effecting cDNA synthesis on a mixture of mRNAs containing the mRNA coding for the desired polypeptide, isolating the resultant cDNA mixture, inserting the resultant cDNA into recombinant cloning vehicles, transforming hosts with the vehicles, separating the transformants and isolating and identifying a recombinant clone containing a DNA segment which is homologous over at least a portion thereof to at least one oligonucleotide probe specific for the DNA segment; wherein the probe is an extension of the nucleotide sequence of an oligonucleotide primer having a nucleotide sequence complementary to a region of the target mRNA coding for a portion of the known amino acid sequence, and is complementary to a longer region of the target mRNA coding for a longer portion of the known amino acid
A method is provided for isolating and identifying a recombinant clone having a DNA segment therein coding for at least one desired heterologous polypeptide, at least a short amino acid sequence of which is known, by effecting cDNA synthesis on a mixture of mRNAs containing the mRNA coding for the desired polypeptide, isolating the resultant cDNA mixture, inserting the resultant cDNA into recombinant cloning vehicles, transforming hosts with the vehicles, separating the transformants and isolating and identifying a recombinant clone containing a DNA segment which is homologous over at least a portion thereof to at least one oligonucleotide probe specific for the DNA segment; wherein the probe is an extension of the nucleotide sequence of an oligonucleotide primer having a nucleotide sequence complementary to a region of the target mRNA coding for a portion of the known amino acid sequence, and is complementary to a longer region of the target mRNA coding for a longer portion of the known amino acid
Using the pYES vector from Invitrogen we first deleted five forbidden restriction sites in the vector back bone via side directed mutagenesis. Furthermore the original multiple cloning site was replaced for a multiple cloning site compatible to the RFC 10/25 cloning standards. To allow easy extraction and purification of proteins for in vitro applications the new multiple cloning site allows to express proteins with a Strep-tag II. Exclusion of the galactose inducible promoter provided a powerful basis vector for the integration of user-defined promoters. This way the pTUM100 vector gives a valuable contribution to our and to further protein expression and promoter characterization experiments in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Moreover we used the pTUM100 to integrate the three constitutive promoters Tef1, Tef2 and ADH which come all with different promoter intensities. ...
By Diego , source: Jan 31st, 2011 Well, unfortunately the weekend is over and the work week has begun. Today begins the five worst days of the week- the work days. At least you have us here at Daily Infographic to provide you with fun and interesting infographics. Todays infographic topic is cloning!. As long as I can remember there has been talk of cloning Personally I think cloning would be a pretty cool thing. I think it would be pretty cool to watch yourself, and even to interact with yourself. Hollywood has, of course, made many movies involving cloning. However, their cloning is as simple as entering a machine and there instantly being a copy of you. Science tells us that this is not in any way plausible and that cloning requires much more effort. If only everything were as simple as Hollywood makes it out to be.. As many people know, we really havent done that much in regards to cloning. In fact, we have only cloned a few animals and there hasnt even been a large of variety of animals ...
Research and Markets (http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/22c38b/condensed_protocol) has announced the addition of the "Condensed Protocols from Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual" report to their offering. The Condensed Protocols From Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual is a single-volume adaptation of the three-volume third edition of Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. This condensed book contains only the step-by-step portions of the protocols, accompanied by selected appendices from the worlds best-selling manual of molecular biology techniques. Each protocol is cross-referenced to the appropriate pages in the original manual. This affordable companion volume, designed for bench use, offers individual investigators the opportunity to have their own personal collection of short protocols from the essential Molecular Cloning. Chapter List 1. Using Plasmid Vectors in Molecular Cloning 2. Bacteriophage and Its Vectors 3. Working with Bacteriophage M13 Vectors 4. Working with ...
E advantages and disadvantages of cloning. Has helped over eleven million people protect themselves from scams? Scambusters is committed to helping you avoid getting. Me people think that cloning is great. Oning technology has received great attention in recent. Has helped over eleven million people protect themselves from scams. E to my naturally. Scambusters is committed to helping you avoid getting. Sed on human ethic cloning takes away the ethical issues that are crucial to human. Uman Cloning Human cloning is the process of transplanting nuclear DNA from an adult. R argumentative essays. Essay Presentation on Human Cloning. human stem cell research and experimentation: all sides to the debateEssay on cloning and genetic engineering. essay on ishant sharma height Human cloning Summary. Since November 1994, Scambusters? Ture of Human Cloning in America! En against cloning may. a short essay on food security in india, a2 english lit lang coursework, advantages of human cloning essay a short ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular Cloning and Primary Structure of Rat Testes Metalloendopeptidase EC 3.4.24.15. AU - Pierotti, Adrian. AU - Glucksman, Marc J.. AU - Roberts, James L.. AU - Dong, Ke Wen. AU - Pierotti, Adrian. AU - Orlowski, Marian. PY - 1990/11/1. Y1 - 1990/11/1. N2 - The complete amino acid sequence of rat testes metalloendopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.15) was deduced from the nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone isolated by screening a rat testes library with a polyclonal antibody raised against a homogeneous preparation of the rat testes enzyme. The correctness of the sequence was verified by N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of the isolated enzyme and by partial amino acid sequence analysis of three tryptic peptides located near the N-terminus, the middle, and C-terminus of the native protein. The enzyme is composed of 645 amino acids with a molecular weight of 72 985. This value is close to that of the purified rat testes and brain enzyme as determined by polyacrylamide gel ...
A cDNA encoding a novel multispecific organic anion transporter, OAT4, was isolated from a human kidney cDNA library. The OAT4 cDNA consisted of 2210 base pairs that encoded a 550-amino acid residue protein with 12 putative membrane-spanning domains. The amino acid sequence of OAT4 showed 38 to 44% identity to those of other members of the OAT family. Northern blot analysis revealed that OAT4 mRNA is abundantly expressed in the placenta as well as in the kidney. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, OAT4 mediated the high affinity transport of estrone sulfate (K(m) = 1.01 microM) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (K(m) = 0.63 microM) in a sodium-independent manner. OAT4 also mediated the transport of ochratoxin A. OAT4-mediated transport of estrone sulfate was inhibited by several sulfate conjugates, such as p-nitrophenyl sulfate, alpha-naphthyl sulfate, beta-estradiol sulfate, and 4-methylumbelliferyl sulfate. By contrast, glucuronide conjugates showed little or no inhibitory effect on the ...
Membrane cofactor protein (MCP), a regulatory molecular of the complement system with cofactor activity for the factor I-mediated inactivation of C3b and C4b, is widely distributed, being present on leukocytes, platelets, endothelial cells, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts. MCP was purified from a human T cell line (HSB2) and the NH2-terminal 24-amino acid sequence obtained by Edman degradation. An oligonucleotide probe based on this sequence was used to identify a clone from a human monocytic (U937) cDNA library. Nucleotide sequencing showed a 43-bp 5-untranslated region, an open reading frame of 1,152 bp, and a 335-bp 3-untranslated region followed by a 16-bp poly(A) track. The deduced full-length MCP protein consists of a 34-amino acid signal peptide and a 350-amino acid mature protein. The protein has, beginning at the NH2 terminus, four approximately 60-amino acid repeat units that match the consensus sequence found in a multigene family of complement regulatory proteins (C3b-receptor or ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular cloning of the mountain cedar (Juniperus ashei) pollen major allergen, Jun a 1. AU - Midoro-Horiuti, Terumi. AU - Goldblum, R. M.. AU - Kurosky, A.. AU - Wood, Thomas. AU - Schein, C. H.. AU - Brooks, E. G.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - Background: Cedar pollens cause allergic disease in diverse geographic areas. We have recently purified and characterized the major mountain cedar (Juniperus ashei) pollen allergen, Jun a 1. Objective: A full-length complementary DNA for Jun a 1 was cloned and sequenced, and the recombinant protein was expressed. Methods: Messenger RNA from mountain cedar pollen was purified and Jun a 1 sequences were established with use of reverse transcriptase-PCR and primers based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence of Jun a 1 and the homologous protein Cry j 1. Portions of the nucleotide sequence were confirmed by comparison with N-terminal amino acid sequencing of the intact tryptic fragments of the purified native protein. Recombinant Jun a 1 was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cloning and sequence analysis of a cDNA for 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase. Evidence for its evolutionary relationship to other pyridine nucleotide-dependent dehydrogenases. AU - Rougraff, P. M.. AU - Zhang, B.. AU - Kuntz, M. J.. AU - Harris, Robert. AU - Crabb, David. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - A 1.7-kilobase pair cDNA clone encoding 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase has been isolated by screening a rat liver λgt11 library with a 17-base oligonucleotide probe which corresponds to a portion of the N-terminal amino acid sequence of rabbit liver 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase. The cDNA contains an open reading frame of 1038 base pairs which includes an amino acid sequence that matches the N-terminal 35 amino acid sequence of rabbit 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase at 33 residues. The cDNA predicts a 300-amino acid mature protein with an amino acid composition and molecular weight very similar to that of rabbit liver 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase. Northern blot ...
387554453 - EP 1118621 A4 2003-06-25 - NOVEL G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTOR PROTEIN AND DNA THEREOF - [origin: WO0020456A1] A human-origin G protein-coupled receptor protein or its peptide fragment or its salt, a nucleic acid encoding this receptor protein and its derivative, etc. The human hippocampus-origin G protein-coupled receptor protein or the nucleic acid encoding the same and its derivative are usable in determining a ligand (an agonist) to the G protein-coupled receptor protein, as preventives and/or remedies for diseases in association with dysfunction of the G protein-coupled receptor protein, as gene diagnostics, in a method for screening a compound capable of varying the expression dose of the G protein-coupled receptor protein or its peptide fragment, etc.[origin: WO0020456A1] A human-origin G protein-coupled receptor protein or its peptide fragment or its salt, a nucleic acid encoding this receptor protein and its derivative, etc. The human hippocampus-origin G protein-coupled receptor

Molecular Cloning of Hormone Genes | SpringerLinkMolecular Cloning of Hormone Genes | SpringerLink

DNA Peptide biology biosynthesis cloning gene gene expression immune system metabolism physiology protein protein structure ... During the past ten years, refinements in the techniques of recombinant DNA technology have resulted in the cloning of genes ... 1.Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology and Howard Hughes Medical InstituteMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA ... proaches that have been used to identify and select the cloned genes encoding these polypeptides. The contents of the two in- ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-1-4612-4824-8

Bio Presentation | Molecular Cloning | GeneBio Presentation | Molecular Cloning | Gene

Molecular Cloning (Process by which gene products are made) PCR product cloning vector ligation transformation expression E. ... the piece of DNA next to the gene must be turned on • By cloning the promoter beta-lactoglobulin and attaching it to the human ... The objective of Genetic engineering in this case is to clone the insulin gene from the human genome. ... After sufficient replication.The gene when extracted from the human genome is ligated unto the cloning vector. bacteriophage ...
more infohttps://www.scribd.com/presentation/83913841/Bio-Presentation

Molecular Cloning - BioForumMolecular Cloning - BioForum

Any techniques related to molecular cloning including restriction digestion, ligation, transformation, plasmid... ... Molecular Cloning. Any techniques related to molecular cloning including restriction digestion, ligation, transformation, ... Designing Crispr guides and cloning into appropriate vectors Started by Natalia KM, 13 Sep 2019 molecular cloning, Crispr/Cas9 ... Cloning of an unknown gene Started by bio_kid, 13 Apr 2015 cloning, genome library and 1 more... * 4 replies ...
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Molecular Cloning - BioForumMolecular Cloning - BioForum

Javascript Disabled Detected You currently have javascript disabled. Several functions may not work. Please re-enable javascript to access full functionality.. ...
more infohttp://www.protocol-online.org/forums/videos/category-2-molecular-cloning/

Molecular Cloning | Technology TrendsMolecular Cloning | Technology Trends

Other articles related to molecular cloning, molecular, cloning:. Clone (genetics) - Overview. ... Molecular cloning takes ... Read more about Molecular Cloning: History of Molecular Cloning, Overview, Steps in Molecular Cloning, Applications of ... Molecular Cloning. Molecular cloning is a set of experimental methods in molecular biology that are used to assemble ... Molecular Cloning. ... Molecular cloning refers to the process of making multiple molecules ... Cloning is commonly used to ...
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Molecular cloning and characterization of... & related info | MendeleyMolecular cloning and characterization of... & related info | Mendeley

Molecular Biology Reports. Methylglyoxal is a kind of poisonous metabolite that can react with RNA, DNA and protein, which ... Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel glyoxalase I gene TaGly I in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). *Lin F ... The corresponding full length gene, named TaGly I, was cloned, sequenced and characterized. Its genomic sequence consists of ...
more infohttps://www.mendeley.com/research-papers/molecular-cloning-characterization-novel-glyoxalase-i-gene-tagly-i-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-1/

Molecular Cloning HandbookMolecular Cloning Handbook

Get more protocols at molecular cloning central ». Want to discover the easiest way to clone?. The easiest way to clone is to ... Struggling to clone your gene of interest or wasting precious time troubleshooting molecular cloning procedures? Our Molecular ... What are the advantages of GenEZ™ cDNA ORF Clones?. *Convenient: cDNA ORF clones available in the vector of your choice (choose ... Start by searching for your ORF sequence in our ORF clone database below, or if you know the accession number of your clone, ...
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Restriction Endonucleases: Molecular Cloning and Beyond | NEBRestriction Endonucleases: Molecular Cloning and Beyond | NEB

The development of gene cloning vectors and selection methodologies enabled the cloning of REases. Cloning not only allowed the ... Restriction Endonucleases: Molecular Cloning and Beyond. Return to Restriction Endonucleases The sequence-specific DNA cleavage ... Home Products Restriction Endonuclease Products Restriction Endonucleases Restriction Endonucleases: Molecular Cloning and ... Restriction enzymes have been one of the major forces that enabled the cloning of genes and transformed molecular biology. ...
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Restriction Endonucleases: Molecular Cloning and Beyond | NEBRestriction Endonucleases: Molecular Cloning and Beyond | NEB

Molecular Cloning and Beyond Restriction Endonucleases: Molecular Cloning and Beyond. The sequence-specific DNA cleavage ... The development of gene cloning vectors and selection methodologies enabled the cloning of REases. Cloning not only allowed the ... Restriction enzymes have been one of the major forces that enabled the cloning of genes and transformed molecular biology. ... Innovative applications of these enzymes will take REases role beyond molecular cloning by continuing to accelerate the ...
more infohttps://www.neb.com/tools-and-resources/feature-articles/restriction-endonucleases-molecular-cloning-and-beyond

WikiGenes - Cloning, MolecularWikiGenes - Cloning, Molecular

Molecular cloning and characterization of an insulin-regulatable glucose transporter [29].. *Molecular cloning of cDNAs ... Disease relevance of Cloning, Molecular. *Amplification and Molecular Cloning of HTLV-I Sequences from DNA of Multiple ... High impact information on Cloning, Molecular. *Molecular cloning of NCR revealed novel members of the Ig superfamily ... Biological context of Cloning, Molecular. *From peptide sequence, molecular cloning revealed a cDNA encoding a novel protein, ...
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Molecular Cloning: Basics and Applications | ProtocolMolecular Cloning: Basics and Applications | Protocol

Molecular cloning is a set of methods, which are used to insert recombinant DNA into a vector - a carrier of DNA molecules that ... Critical aspects of molecular cloning are discussed, such as the need for molecular cloning strategy and how to keep track of ... Youve just watched JoVEs video on molecular cloning. You should now understand how molecular cloning works and how the ... Molecular Cloning. JoVE, Cambridge, MA, (2018).. Molecular cloning is a set of techniques used to insert recombinant DNA from a ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/science-education/5074/molecular-cloning

Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Novel Canine Sulfotransferase | SpringerLinkMolecular Cloning and Characterization of a Novel Canine Sulfotransferase | SpringerLink

Kurogi K., Sakakibara Y., Yasuda S., Liu MC., Suiko M. (2010) Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Novel Canine ... Tsoi, C., Falany, C.N., Morgenstern, R., and Swedmark, S. (2001) Molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of a ... Tsoi, C., Morgenstern, R., and Swedmark, S. (2002) Canine sulfotransferase SULT1A1: Molecular cloning, expression, and ... Molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of novel human SULT1C sulfotransferases that catalyze the sulfonation of N- ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-90-481-3892-0_36

Molecular Cloning 2nd Edition | Rent 9780879693732 | 0879693738Molecular Cloning 2nd Edition | Rent 9780879693732 | 0879693738

Molecular Cloning. by Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E. F., Maniatis, T. by Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E. F., Maniatis, T. Recommend this! ... Sambrook, J. is the author of Molecular Cloning, published 1989 under ISBN 9780879693732 and ISBN 0879693738. ...
more infohttps://www.valorebooks.com/textbooks/molecular-cloning-2nd-edition/9780879693732

Chondrichthyes Chitinase: Molecular Cloning, Distribution, and Phylogenetic AnalysisChondrichthyes Chitinase: Molecular Cloning, Distribution, and Phylogenetic Analysis

Zheng, T., Rabach, M., Chen, N.Y., Rabach, L., Hu, X., Elias, J.A. and Zhu, Z. (2005) Molecular Cloning and Functional ... Suzuki, T., Kakizaki, H., Ikeda, M. and Matsumiya, M. (2014) Molecular Cloning of a Novel Chitinase Gene from Blue Shark ( ... Kurokawa, T., Tuji, S. and Suzuki, T. (2004) Molecular Cloning of Multiple Chitinase Genes in Japanese Flounder, Paralichthys ... Molecular Cloning, Distribution, and Phylogenetic Analysis. Open Journal of Marine Science, 8, 136-151. doi: 10.4236/ojms. ...
more infohttps://www.scirp.org/Journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=82188

Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual - Joseph Sambrook, Tom Maniatis - Google BooksMolecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual - Joseph Sambrook, Tom Maniatis - Google Books

Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, Book 1. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, Joseph Sambrook, ISBN 0879693096, ... Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. Vol. 3, Volume 2. Joseph Sambrook,David W. Russell. No preview available - 2001. ... Cloning.html?id=qbATAQAAIAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareMolecular Cloning. ... Molecular Cloning: 1. Joseph Sambrook,Edward F. Fritsch,Thomas Maniatis. No preview available - 2012. ...
more infohttps://books.google.com/books?id=qbATAQAAIAAJ&q=nitrocellulose+filter&dq=related:ISBN0124367038&source=gbs_word_cloud_r&cad=5

Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual - Joseph Sambrook, Tom Maniatis - Google BooksMolecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual - Joseph Sambrook, Tom Maniatis - Google Books

Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, Book 1. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, Joseph Sambrook, ISBN 0879693096, ... Cloning.html?id=qbATAQAAIAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareMolecular Cloning. ... Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, Book 1. Joseph Sambrook,Tom Maniatis. Snippet view - 1989. ... Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, Book 1. Joseph Sambrook,Tom Maniatis. Snippet view - 1989. ...
more infohttps://books.google.com/books?id=qbATAQAAIAAJ&q=probes&dq=related:UOM39015012609080&source=gbs_word_cloud_r&hl=en

Molecular cloning of the human histamine H2 receptor.  - PubMed - NCBIMolecular cloning of the human histamine H2 receptor. - PubMed - NCBI

Molecular cloning of the human histamine H2 receptor.. Gantz I1, Munzert G, Tashiro T, Schäffer M, Wang L, DelValle J, Yamada T ... These data confirm that we have successfully cloned a novel gene encoding the human H2 histamine receptor. ... primers based upon the nucleotide sequence of the canine H2 histamine receptor gene which we recently isolated to clone its ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1714721?dopt=Abstract

Cloning | An Introduction to Molecular Cloning Methods | PromegaCloning | An Introduction to Molecular Cloning Methods | Promega

This chapter of the Protocols and Applications Guide provides a background on basic cloning with a focus on cloning PCR ... Background of basic cloning with a focus on cloning PCR fragments Introduction The cloning of genes, gene fragments and other ... T-Cloning Vectors T vectors are a specific type of cloning vector that get their name from the T overhangs added to a ... Promega Products for Cloning Thermostable DNA Polymerases The use of amplification enzymes is the first step in cloning by PCR ...
more infohttps://www.promega.com/resources/guides/nucleic-acid-analysis/subcloning/?utm_source=promegaconnections_10_23_2013&

Cloning | An Introduction to Molecular Cloning Methods | PromegaCloning | An Introduction to Molecular Cloning Methods | Promega

This chapter of the Protocols and Applications Guide provides a background on basic cloning with a focus on cloning PCR ... Background of basic cloning with a focus on cloning PCR fragments Introduction The cloning of genes, gene fragments and other ... T-Cloning Vectors T vectors are a specific type of cloning vector that get their name from the T overhangs added to a ... Promega Products for Cloning Thermostable DNA Polymerases The use of amplification enzymes is the first step in cloning by PCR ...
more infohttps://www.promega.com/resources/guides/nucleic-acid-analysis/subcloning/

molecular cloning failure - Biology-Onlinemolecular cloning failure - Biology-Online

molecular cloning failure. Discussion of all aspects of biological molecules, biochemical processes and laboratory procedures ... I am a master student and I am doing my master thesis in the cloning of keratinase sequence in competent cell.I tried several ... I have to stop my thesis at this point but I am unable to think What could went wrong for the failure of the cloning, I am ... different methods and procedure for the cloning and I got the colonies but when I did the mini prep I had the good ...
more infohttps://www.biology-online.org/biology-forum/viewtopic.php?t=26682

Cloning, molecular characterization, and expression analysis of Copine 8 | RTICloning, molecular characterization, and expression analysis of Copine 8 | RTI

In this paper, we report the cloning and molecular characterization of a new member of the Copine family, Copine 8. This gene ... Cloning and molecular analysis revealed that this gene is expressed in low-levels in most tissues examined. Two different ... In this paper, we report the cloning and molecular characterization of a new member of the Copine family, Copine 8. This gene ... Maitra, R., Grigoryev, DN., Bera, TK., Pastan, IH., & Lee, B. (2003). Cloning, molecular characterization, and expression ...
more infohttps://www.rti.org/publication/cloning-molecular-characterization-and-expression-analysis-copine-8

Molecular cloning, sequence, expression, and processing of the interleukin 16 precursor | PNASMolecular cloning, sequence, expression, and processing of the interleukin 16 precursor | PNAS

Molecular cloning, sequence, expression, and processing of the interleukin 16 precursor. Michael Baier, Norbert Bannert, ... Molecular cloning, sequence, expression, and processing of the interleukin 16 precursor. Michael Baier, Norbert Bannert, ... Molecular cloning, sequence, expression, and processing of the interleukin 16 precursor Message Subject (Your Name) has sent ... Molecular cloning, sequence, expression, and processing of the interleukin 16 precursor. Michael Baier, Norbert Bannert, ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/94/10/5273?ijkey=c92f64cd614541f680e1d5f647d05ac31b66e1fc&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Step By Step Laboratory Manual for Condensed Protocols From Molecular Cloning - RedorbitStep By Step Laboratory Manual for Condensed Protocols From Molecular Cloning - Redorbit

The Condensed Protocols From Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual is a single-volume adaptation of the three-volume third ... Step By Step Laboratory Manual for Condensed Protocols From Molecular Cloning. by Sam Savage ... "Condensed Protocols from Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual" report to their offering. ... edition of Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. This condensed book contains only the step-by-step portions of the protocols ...
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Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual (Fourth Edition)Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual (Fourth Edition)

These examine important topics in molecular biology, genetics, development, virology, neurobiology, immunology and cancer ... Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual (Fourth Edition). Subject Area(s): Molecular Biology; Genetics; Laboratory Techniques. ... the fourth edition of Molecular Cloning is the new gold standard the one indispensable molecular biology laboratory manual and ... one merging the previous prototype with a modern molecular monograph...the next generation of Molecular Cloning not only ...
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  • This condensed book contains only the step-by-step portions of the protocols, accompanied by selected appendices from the world's best-selling manual of molecular biology techniques. (redorbit.com)
  • A multiple cloning site (MCS), also called a polylinker, is a short segment of DNA which contains many (up to ~20) restriction sites - a standard feature of engineered plasmids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The objective of Genetic engineering in this case is to clone the insulin gene from the human genome. (scribd.com)
  • After more than half a century of research and development, the applications of REases have evolved from the cloning of exogenous DNA and genome mapping to more sophisticated applications, such as the identification and mapping of epigenetic modifications and the high-throughput assembly of combinatorial libraries. (neb.com)
  • cloning , genome library and 1 more. (protocol-online.org)
  • A doctor who separately is pursuing human cloning has reported in an Internet journal preliminary data on an early-stage cloned human embryo, but with no chromosome information. (wired.com)
  • This affordable companion volume, designed for bench use, offers individual investigators the opportunity to have their own personal collection of short protocols from the essential Molecular Cloning. (redorbit.com)
  • Our members work to advance knowledge in the basic mechanisms of inheritance, from the molecular to the population level. (genetics.org)
  • WASHINGTON - Cloning humans, or any other primates, may be impossible with today's techniques because of a fundamental molecular obstacle, say scientists trying to understand why attempts to clone monkeys have failed. (wired.com)
  • As this segment of the world population is more susceptible to chronic diseases, research into these ailments will become more significant, driving the growth of the molecular biology enzymes, kits & reagents market. (cnbc.com)
  • Cloning experts worry that attempting human cloning is dangerous , not just because of all the barnyard clones with birth defects, but because attempts to clone monkeys - far closer genetically to people - using the Dolly technique so far have failed. (wired.com)
  • Falany, C. and Roth, J.A. (1993) In: Jeffery, E.H. (Ed.), Human Drug Metabolism: From Molecular Biology to Man (pp. 101-115). (springer.com)
  • Known world-wide as the standard introductory text to this important and exciting area, the seventh edition of Gene Cloning and DNA Analysis addresses new and growing areas of research whilst retaining the philosophy of the previous editions. (wiley.com)
  • Professor Brown has written a number of undergraduate textbooks including Gene Cloning and DNA Analysis: An Introduction (6th edition, Wiley-Blackwell, 2010) and Genomes (3rd edition, Garland Science, 2006). (wiley.com)
  • To clone, scientists harvest an unfertilized egg from a female donor, removing the genetic material and replacing it with new DNA from an adult cell of the animal to be cloned. (wired.com)
  • For the purposes of this report the global molecular biology enzymes, kits and reagents market is segmented by application, end users, products, and geographies. (cnbc.com)
  • Dozens of animal clones - including cows, pigs, mice, goats and a cat - have been born since Dolly the sheep became the first new being created from an adult cell in 1997. (wired.com)
  • In a conventional molecular cloning experiment, the DNA to be cloned is obtained from an organism of interest, then treated with enzymes in the test tube to generate smaller DNA fragments. (primidi.com)
  • Cloning not only allowed the production of large quantities of highly purified enzymes, but also made the engineering of REases possible. (neb.com)