An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.
Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.
A plant alkaloid with alpha-2-adrenergic blocking activity. Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.
Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
Drugs that inhibit the actions of the sympathetic nervous system by any mechanism. The most common of these are the ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS and drugs that deplete norepinephrine or reduce the release of transmitters from adrenergic postganglionic terminals (see ADRENERGIC AGENTS). Drugs that act in the central nervous system to reduce sympathetic activity (e.g., centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, see ADRENERGIC ALPHA-AGONISTS) are included here.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.
Receptors of CLONIDINE and other IMIDAZOLINES. Activity of the ligands was earlier attributed to ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. Endogenous ligands include AGMATINE, imidazoleacetic acid ribotide, and harman.
One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.
A centrally acting antihypertensive agent with specificity towards ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
A benzodioxane-linked imidazole that has alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist activity.
Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.
Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.
A direct acting sympathomimetic used as a vasoconstrictor to relieve nasal congestion. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1251)
A selective adrenergic alpha-1 antagonist used in the treatment of HEART FAILURE; HYPERTENSION; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; RAYNAUD DISEASE; PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY; and URINARY RETENTION.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.
The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.
Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.
Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
1,4-Diethylene dioxides. Industrial solvents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), dioxane itself may "reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen." (Merck Index, 11th ed)
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
An alpha-2 selective adrenergic agonist used as an antihypertensive agent.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the effects of muscle relaxants such as gallamine and tubocurarine. Neostigmine, unlike PHYSOSTIGMINE, does not cross the blood-brain barrier.
Pain during the period after surgery.
A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.
An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist that causes prolonged peripheral VASOCONSTRICTION.
An alpha-2 adrenergic agonist that has both central and peripheral nervous system effects. Its primary clinical use is as an antihypertensive agent.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
A widely used local anesthetic agent.
A tricyclic dibenzazepine compound that potentiates neurotransmission. Desipramine selectively blocks reuptake of norepinephrine from the neural synapse, and also appears to impair serotonin transport. This compound also possesses minor anticholinergic activity, through its affinity to muscarinic receptors.
The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.

Effects of long-term administration of clonidine on plasma renin activity. (1/1378)

Plasma renin activity (PRA) was studied before and during long-term treatment with moderate oral doses (0.2 or 0.3 mg/d) of clonidine. Nine outpatients with essential hypertension received clonidine for 12 weeks; a significant decrease in blood pressure was evident in all patients. Except for a nonsignificant increase after 12 weeks of treatment, PRA values were not notably changed by clonidine therapy. No correlation was found between individual blood pressure changes and PRA variation during the study. The absence of a net effect on PRA in this study does not exclude more complex interactions of clonidine with the renin-angiotensin system. Nonetheless, clonidine cannot generally be classified as a "renin-inhibiting" drug.  (+info)

Modulation of basal intracellular calcium by inverse agonists and phorbol myristate acetate in rat-1 fibroblasts stably expressing alpha1d-adrenoceptors. (2/1378)

In rat-1 fibroblasts stably expressing alpha1d-adrenoceptors BMY 7378, phentolamine, chloroethylclonidine and 5-methyl urapidil decreased basal [Ca2+]i. WB 4101 induced a very small effect on this parameter but when added before the other antagonists it blocked their effect. All these agents inhibited the action of norepinephrine. Phorbol myristate acetate also blocked the effect of norepinephrine and decreased basal [Ca2+]i. Staurosporine inhibited these effects of the phorbol ester. Our results suggest that: (1) alpha1d-adrenoceptors exhibit spontaneous ligand-independent activity, (2) BMY 7378, phentolamine, chloroethylclonidine and 5-methyl urapidil act as inverse agonists and (3) protein kinase C activation blocks spontaneous and agonist-stimulated alpha1d-adrenoceptor activity.  (+info)

Spinal antinociceptive synergism between morphine and clonidine persists in mice made acutely or chronically tolerant to morphine. (3/1378)

Morphine (Mor) tolerance has been attributed to a reduction of opioid-adrenergic antinociceptive synergy at the spinal level. The present experiments tested the interaction of intrathecally (i.t.) administered Mor-clonidine (Clon) combinations in mice made acutely or chronically tolerant to Mor. ICR mice were pretreated with Mor either acutely (40 nmol i.t., 8 h; 100 mg/kg s.c., 4 h) or chronically (3 mg/kg s.c. every 6 h days 1 and 2; 5 mg/kg s.c. every 6 h days 3 and 4). Antinociception was detected via the hot water (52.5 degrees C) tail-flick test. After the tail-flick latencies returned to baseline levels, dose-response curves were generated to Mor, Clon, and Mor-Clon combinations in tolerant and control mice. Development of tolerance was confirmed by significant rightward shifts of the Mor dose-response curves in tolerant mice compared with controls. Isobolographic analysis was conducted; the experimental combined ED50 values were compared statistically against their respective theoretical additive ED50 values. In all Mor-pretreated groups, the combination of Mor and Clon resulted in significant leftward shifts in the dose-response curves compared with those of each agonist administered separately. In all tolerant and control groups, the combination of Mor and Clon produced an ED50 value significantly less than the corresponding theoretical additive ED50 value. Mor and Clon synergized in Mor-tolerant as well as in control mice. Spinally administered adrenergic/opioid synergistic combinations may be effective therapeutic strategies to manage pain in patients apparently tolerant to the analgesic effects of Mor.  (+info)

Altered alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes mediated cardiac function after treatment of propranolol to rats. (4/1378)

AIM: To study inotropic and chronotropic effects mediated by alpha 1A- and alpha 1B-adrenoceptors after 5-d propranolol (Pro) treatment. METHODS: The positive inotropic and chronotropic effects mediated by alpha 1A and alpha 1B subtypes were determined on isolated left ventricular papillary muscles and right atrium in Pro- and NaCl-treated rats. RESULTS: The basic contractility of papillary muscles induced by phenylephrine (Phe) was 90 +/- 18 mg in Pro-treated rats and 53 +/- 17 mg in control group (P < 0.05). The increment on force of contraction was 20 +/- 12 mg in Pro-pretreated rats and 5 +/- 5 mg in NaCl-treated rats (P < 0.05). After preincubated with chloroethylclonidine, the increment on force of contraction was reduced in Pro-treated rats, but was not much changed in control group. Phe in presence of 5-methylurapidil induced positive inotropic effect with 13 +/- 5 mg in Pro-treated group, but not in NaCl-treated rats. Under the normal and the inhibited cardiac state, the maximal increment in beat rate mediated by alpha 1B showed no difference between the Pro-treated and NaCl-treated rats. CONCLUSION: After chronic treatment of Pro, alpha 1-adrenoceptor-mediated positive inotropic effect in rat heart was improved, which was mainly induced by stimulation of alpha 1B when beta-adrenoceptors were blocked.  (+info)

Adrenoceptor agonists inhibit calcium-dependent potentials in rat stellate ganglion neurons. (5/1378)

AIM: To study the effects of adrenoceptor agonists on the stellate ganglion neurons. METHODS: Intracellular recordings were made from neurons of the isolated rat stellate ganglia. RESULTS: Noradrenaline and clonidine (10-30 mumol.L-1) reversibly depressed 3 types of calcium-dependent potentials, namely, the action potential shoulder; the spike after-hyperpolarization; the Ca2+ spike evoked in Krebs' solution containing TTX and TEA and fast excitatory postsynaptic potential (f-EPSP). CONCLUSION: The adrenoceptor agonists inhibitied the 3 calcium-dependent potentials; f-EPSP was inhibited by reducing Ca2+ influx at presynaptic site in population of neurons.  (+info)

Effects of clonidine on myocardial beta-adrenergic receptor-adenyl cyclase-cAMP system after scalds in rats. (6/1378)

AIM: To study the role of clonidine (Clo) on the myocardial beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR)-adenyl cyclase (AC)-cAMP system after the scalds in rats. METHODS: A 30% skin-full-thickness scald was produced by immersing rats in 95 degrees C water for 9 s. Clo 0.1-3.0 mg.kg-1 was injected i.p. to rats at 30 min before scalds, yohimbine (Yoh) 0.05 mg.kg-1 or prazosin (Pra) 0.03 mg.kg-1 to rats at 30 min before i.p. Clo. beta-AR density and affinity, AC activity, phosphoric diester hydrolases (PDH) activity, and cAMP content were determined with radioreceptor assay, indirect method, enzymeradiochemical assay, and radioimmunoassay, respectively. RESULTS: Clo inhibited the decrease of the myocardial beta-AR density, the attenuation of AC activity, and the reduction of cAMP content at 12 h after the scalds. Yoh partially reversed the effects of Clo on the three parameters. But Pra did not. CONCLUSION: Clo reversed the changes of the myocardial beta-AR-AC-cAMP system resulted from the scalds in rats.  (+info)

Characterization of alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes mediating vasoconstriction in human umbilical vein. (7/1378)

1. The present study attempted to characterize pharmacologically the subtypes of alpha-adrenoceptors mediating contractions in human umbilical vein (HUV). 2. HUV rings were mounted in isolated organ baths and cumulative concentration-response curves were constructed for the alpha-adrenoceptor agonists phenylephrine and adrenaline. Adrenaline was more potent than phenylephrine (pD2=7.29 and 6.04 respectively). 3. Isoproterenol exhibited no agonism on KCl pre-contracted HUV rings. Propranolol (1 microM) and rauwolscine (0.1 microM) did not affect the concentration-response curves to adrenaline. These results demonstrate the lack of involvement of functional beta-or alpha2-adrenoceptors in adrenaline-induced vasoconstriction. 4. The non subtype selective alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin was evaluated on phenylephrine and adrenaline concentration-response curves. The effects of the competitive alpha1A and alpha1D-adrenoceptor antagonists, 5-methyl urapidil and BMY 7378 and the irreversible alpha1B selective compound chloroethylclonidine (CEC) were also evaluated on adrenaline concentration-response curves. 5. The potencies of prazosin against responses mediated by adrenaline (pA2= 10.87) and phenylephrine (pA2= 10.70) indicate the involvement of prazosin-sensitive functional alpha1-adrenoceptor subtype in vasoconstriction of the HUV. 6. The potencies of 5-methyl urapidil (pA2 = 6.70) and BMY 7378 (pA2= 7.34) were not consistent with the activation of an alpha1A- or alpha1D-adrenoceptor population. 7. Exposure to a relatively low CEC concentration (3 microM) abolished the maximum response to adrenaline suggesting that this response was mediated by an alpha1B-adrenoceptor subtype. 8. We conclude that HUV express a prazosin-sensitive functional alpha1-adrenoceptor resembling the alpha1B-subtype according with the low pA2 values for both 5-methyl urapidil and BMY 7378 and the high sensitivity to CEC.  (+info)

Cardiac baroreflex during the postoperative period in patients with hypertension: effect of clonidine. (8/1378)

BACKGROUND: Patients with essential hypertension show altered baroreflex control of heart rate, and during the perioperative period they demonstrate increased circulatory instability. Clonidine has been shown to reduce perioperative circulatory instability. This study documents changes in measures of heart rate control after surgery in patients with essential hypertension and determines the effects of clonidine on postoperative heart rate control in these patients. METHODS: Using a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled design, 20 patients with essential hypertension (systolic pressure >160 mm Hg or diastolic pressure >95 mm Hg for > or =1 yr) were assigned to receive clonidine (or placebo), 6 microg/kg orally 120 min before anesthesia and 3 microg/kg intravenously over 60 min before the end of surgery. The spontaneous baroreflex ("sequence") technique and analysis of heart rate variability were used to quantify control of heart rate at baseline, before induction of anesthesia, and 1 and 3 h postoperatively. RESULTS: Baroreflex slope and heart rate variability were reduced postoperatively in patients given placebo but not those given clonidine. Clonidine resulted in greater postoperative baroreflex slope and power at all frequency ranges compared with placebo (4.9+/-2.9 vs. 2.2+/-2.1 ms/mm Hg for baroreflex slope, 354+/-685 vs. 30+/-37 ms2/Hz for high frequency variability). Clonidine also resulted in lower concentrations of catecholamine, decreased mean heart rate and blood pressure, and decreased perioperative tachycardia and hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with hypertension exhibit reduced heart rate control during the recovery period after elective surgery. Clonidine prevents this reduction in heart rate control. This may represent a basis for the improved circulatory stability seen with perioperative administration of clonidine.  (+info)

Clonidine is an medication that belongs to a class of drugs called centrally acting alpha-agonist hypotensives. It works by stimulating certain receptors in the brain and lowering the heart rate, which results in decreased blood pressure. Clonidine is commonly used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure), but it can also be used for other purposes such as managing withdrawal symptoms from opioids or alcohol, treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and preventing migraines. It can be taken orally in the form of tablets or transdermally through a patch applied to the skin. As with any medication, clonidine should be used under the guidance and supervision of a healthcare provider.

Adrenergic alpha-agonists are a type of medication that binds to and activates adrenergic alpha receptors, which are found in the nervous system and other tissues throughout the body. These receptors are activated naturally by chemicals called catecholamines, such as norepinephrine and epinephrine (also known as adrenaline), that are released in response to stress or excitement.

When adrenergic alpha-agonists bind to these receptors, they mimic the effects of catecholamines and cause various physiological responses, such as vasoconstriction (constriction of blood vessels), increased heart rate and force of heart contractions, and relaxation of smooth muscle in the airways.

Adrenergic alpha-agonists are used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including hypertension (high blood pressure), glaucoma, nasal congestion, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Examples of adrenergic alpha-agonists include phenylephrine, clonidine, and guanfacine.

It's important to note that adrenergic alpha-agonists can have both beneficial and harmful effects, depending on the specific medication, dosage, and individual patient factors. Therefore, they should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Adrenergic alpha-2 receptor agonists are a class of medications that bind to and activate adrenergic alpha-2 receptors, which are found in the nervous system and other tissues. These receptors play a role in regulating various bodily functions, including blood pressure, heart rate, and release of certain hormones.

When adrenergic alpha-2 receptor agonists bind to these receptors, they can cause a variety of effects, such as:

* Vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels), which can increase blood pressure
* Decreased heart rate and force of heart contractions
* Suppression of the release of norepinephrine (a hormone and neurotransmitter involved in the "fight or flight" response) from nerve endings
* Analgesia (pain relief)

Adrenergic alpha-2 receptor agonists are used in a variety of medical conditions, including:

* High blood pressure
* Glaucoma (to reduce pressure in the eye)
* Anesthesia (to help prevent excessive bleeding and to provide sedation)
* Opioid withdrawal symptoms (to help manage symptoms such as anxiety, agitation, and muscle aches)

Examples of adrenergic alpha-2 receptor agonists include clonidine, brimonidine, and dexmedetomidine.

Yohimbine is defined as an alkaloid derived from the bark of the Pausinystalia yohimbe tree, primarily found in Central Africa. It functions as a selective antagonist of α2-adrenergers, which results in increased noradrenaline levels and subsequent vasodilation, improved sexual dysfunction, and potentially increased energy and alertness.

It is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and as an aphrodisiac, but its efficacy and safety are still subjects of ongoing research and debate. It's important to note that yohimbine can have significant side effects, including anxiety, increased heart rate, and high blood pressure, and should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Preanesthetic medication, also known as premedication, refers to the administration of medications before anesthesia to help prepare the patient for the upcoming procedure. These medications can serve various purposes, such as:

1. Anxiolysis: Reducing anxiety and promoting relaxation in patients before surgery.
2. Amnesia: Causing temporary memory loss to help patients forget the events leading up to the surgery.
3. Analgesia: Providing pain relief to minimize discomfort during and after the procedure.
4. Antisialagogue: Decreasing saliva production to reduce the risk of aspiration during intubation.
5. Bronchodilation: Relaxing bronchial smooth muscles, which can help improve respiratory function in patients with obstructive lung diseases.
6. Antiemetic: Preventing or reducing the likelihood of postoperative nausea and vomiting.
7. Sedation: Inducing a state of calmness and drowsiness to facilitate a smooth induction of anesthesia.

Common preanesthetic medications include benzodiazepines (e.g., midazolam), opioids (e.g., fentanyl), anticholinergics (e.g., glycopyrrolate), and H1-antihistamines (e.g., diphenhydramine). The choice of preanesthetic medication depends on the patient's medical history, comorbidities, and the type of anesthesia to be administered.

Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds catecholamines, such as norepinephrine and epinephrine. These receptors are widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous system, as well as in various organs and tissues throughout the body.

Activation of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors leads to a variety of physiological responses, including inhibition of neurotransmitter release, vasoconstriction, and reduced heart rate. These receptors play important roles in regulating blood pressure, pain perception, and various cognitive and emotional processes.

There are several subtypes of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors, including alpha-2A, alpha-2B, and alpha-2C, which may have distinct physiological functions and be targeted by different drugs. For example, certain medications used to treat hypertension or opioid withdrawal target alpha-2 adrenergic receptors to produce their therapeutic effects.

Sympatholytics are a class of drugs that block the action of the sympathetic nervous system, which is the part of the autonomic nervous system responsible for preparing the body for the "fight or flight" response. Sympatholytics achieve this effect by binding to and blocking alpha-adrenergic receptors or beta-adrenergic receptors located in various organs throughout the body, including the heart, blood vessels, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and urinary system.

Examples of sympatholytic drugs include:

* Alpha blockers (e.g., prazosin, doxazosin)
* Beta blockers (e.g., propranolol, metoprolol)
* Centrally acting sympatholytics (e.g., clonidine, methyldopa)

Sympatholytics are used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including hypertension, angina, heart failure, arrhythmias, and certain neurological disorders. They may also be used to manage symptoms associated with anxiety or withdrawal from alcohol or other substances.

Adrenergic alpha-antagonists, also known as alpha-blockers, are a class of medications that block the effects of adrenaline and noradrenaline at alpha-adrenergic receptors. These receptors are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the smooth muscle of blood vessels, the heart, the genitourinary system, and the eyes.

When alpha-blockers bind to these receptors, they prevent the activation of the sympathetic nervous system, which is responsible for the "fight or flight" response. This results in a relaxation of the smooth muscle, leading to vasodilation (widening of blood vessels), decreased blood pressure, and increased blood flow.

Alpha-blockers are used to treat various medical conditions, such as hypertension (high blood pressure), benign prostatic hyperplasia (enlarged prostate), pheochromocytoma (a rare tumor of the adrenal gland), and certain types of glaucoma.

Examples of alpha-blockers include doxazosin, prazosin, terazosin, and tamsulosin. Side effects of alpha-blockers may include dizziness, lightheadedness, headache, weakness, and orthostatic hypotension (a sudden drop in blood pressure upon standing).

Imidazoline receptors are a type of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that are widely distributed throughout the central and peripheral nervous system. They were initially identified through their ability to bind imidazoline compounds, but it is now known that they also bind a variety of other structurally diverse ligands.

There are three subtypes of imidazoline receptors: I1, I2, and I3. The I1 receptor is found in the brain and has been shown to play a role in regulating blood pressure, nociception (pain perception), and neuroprotection. The I2 receptor is also found in the brain and has been implicated in the regulation of dopamine release and the sleep-wake cycle. The I3 receptor is primarily located in the peripheral nervous system and has been shown to play a role in regulating insulin secretion and glucose metabolism.

Imidazoline receptors have attracted interest as potential therapeutic targets for a variety of conditions, including hypertension, pain, neurodegenerative disorders, and metabolic diseases. However, further research is needed to fully understand their functions and therapeutic potential.

Adrenergic receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that bind and respond to catecholamines, such as epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Alpha adrenergic receptors (α-ARs) are a subtype of adrenergic receptors that are classified into two main categories: α1-ARs and α2-ARs.

The activation of α1-ARs leads to the activation of phospholipase C, which results in an increase in intracellular calcium levels and the activation of various signaling pathways that mediate diverse physiological responses such as vasoconstriction, smooth muscle contraction, and cell proliferation.

On the other hand, α2-ARs are primarily located on presynaptic nerve terminals where they function to inhibit the release of neurotransmitters, including norepinephrine. The activation of α2-ARs also leads to the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and a decrease in intracellular cAMP levels, which can mediate various physiological responses such as sedation, analgesia, and hypotension.

Overall, α-ARs play important roles in regulating various physiological functions, including cardiovascular function, mood, and cognition, and are also involved in the pathophysiology of several diseases, such as hypertension, heart failure, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Guanfacine is an oral, selective alpha-2A adrenergic receptor agonist, which is primarily used in the treatment of high blood pressure (hypertension). It can also be used off-label to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) due to its ability to increase central nervous system norepinephrine levels and improve neurotransmitter activity in the prefrontal cortex, leading to improved attention, impulse control, and working memory.

Guanfacine is available under various brand names, such as Tenex (immediate-release) and Intuniv (extended-release). The extended-release formulation is typically preferred for treating ADHD due to its once-daily dosing.

Common side effects of guanfacine include drowsiness, dry mouth, headache, fatigue, and dizziness. Rare but serious side effects may include low blood pressure, a slow heart rate, or fainting. It is essential to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking guanfacine and report any concerning symptoms promptly.

Spinal injections, also known as epidural injections or intrathecal injections, are medical procedures involving the injection of medications directly into the spinal canal. The medication is usually delivered into the space surrounding the spinal cord (the epidural space) or into the cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds and protects the spinal cord (the subarachnoid space).

The medications used in spinal injections can include local anesthetics, steroids, opioids, or a combination of these. The purpose of spinal injections is to provide diagnostic information, therapeutic relief, or both. They are commonly used to treat various conditions affecting the spine, such as radicular pain (pain that radiates down the arms or legs), disc herniation, spinal stenosis, and degenerative disc disease.

Spinal injections can be administered using different techniques, including fluoroscopy-guided injections, computed tomography (CT) scan-guided injections, or with the help of a nerve stimulator. These techniques ensure accurate placement of the medication and minimize the risk of complications.

It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for specific information regarding spinal injections and their potential benefits and risks.

Analgesics are a class of drugs that are used to relieve pain. They work by blocking the transmission of pain signals in the nervous system, allowing individuals to manage their pain levels more effectively. There are many different types of analgesics available, including both prescription and over-the-counter options. Some common examples include acetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Advil or Motrin), and opioids such as morphine or oxycodone.

The choice of analgesic will depend on several factors, including the type and severity of pain being experienced, any underlying medical conditions, potential drug interactions, and individual patient preferences. It is important to use these medications as directed by a healthcare provider, as misuse or overuse can lead to serious side effects and potential addiction.

In addition to their pain-relieving properties, some analgesics may also have additional benefits such as reducing inflammation (like in the case of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs) or causing sedation (as with certain opioids). However, it is essential to weigh these potential benefits against the risks and side effects associated with each medication.

When used appropriately, analgesics can significantly improve a person's quality of life by helping them manage their pain effectively and allowing them to engage in daily activities more comfortably.

Idazoxan is not a medication that is commonly used in clinical practice, so it may not have a widely accepted "medical definition." However, I can provide some information about what idazoxan is and how it's been studied.

Idazoxan is an investigational drug that belongs to a class of medications called alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonists. These drugs work by blocking the action of certain chemicals in the brain called neurotransmitters, which can affect mood, behavior, and various physiological functions.

Idazoxan has been studied for its potential use in treating a variety of conditions, including depression, anxiety, and substance abuse disorders. It has also been investigated as a tool for studying certain aspects of brain function and neurotransmitter systems. However, it has not been approved by regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for any specific medical use.

It's worth noting that while idazoxan may have potential therapeutic uses, it is not without risks and side effects. Like many medications, it can interact with other drugs and may cause adverse reactions in some people. As such, it should only be used under the close supervision of a qualified healthcare provider.

Adrenergic alpha-2 receptor antagonists are a class of medications that block the action of norepinephrine, a neurotransmitter and hormone, at adrenergic alpha-2 receptors. These receptors are found in the central and peripheral nervous system and play a role in regulating various physiological functions such as blood pressure, heart rate, and insulin secretion.

By blocking the action of norepinephrine at these receptors, adrenergic alpha-2 receptor antagonists can increase sympathetic nervous system activity, leading to vasodilation, increased heart rate, and increased insulin secretion. These effects make them useful in the treatment of conditions such as hypotension (low blood pressure), opioid-induced sedation and respiratory depression, and diagnostic procedures that require vasodilation.

Examples of adrenergic alpha-2 receptor antagonists include yohimbine, idazoxan, and atipamezole. It's important to note that these medications can have significant side effects, including hypertension, tachycardia, and agitation, and should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

An adjuvant in anesthesia refers to a substance or drug that is added to an anesthetic medication to enhance its effects, make it last longer, or improve the overall quality of anesthesia. Adjuvants do not produce analgesia or anesthesia on their own but work synergistically with other anesthetics to achieve better clinical outcomes.

There are several types of adjuvants used in anesthesia, including:

1. Opioids: These are commonly used adjuvants that enhance the analgesic effect of anesthetic drugs. Examples include fentanyl, sufentanil, and remifentanil.
2. Alpha-2 agonists: Drugs like clonidine and dexmedetomidine are used as adjuvants to provide sedation, analgesia, and anxiolysis. They also help reduce the requirement for other anesthetic drugs, thus minimizing side effects.
3. Ketamine: This NMDA receptor antagonist is used as an adjuvant to provide analgesia and amnesia. It can be used in subanesthetic doses to improve the quality of analgesia during general anesthesia or as a sole anesthetic for procedural sedation.
4. Local anesthetics: When used as an adjuvant, local anesthetics can prolong the duration of postoperative analgesia and reduce the requirement for opioids. Examples include bupivacaine, ropivacaine, and lidocaine.
5. Neostigmine: This cholinesterase inhibitor is used as an adjuvant to reverse the neuromuscular blockade produced by non-depolarizing muscle relaxants at the end of surgery.
6. Dexamethasone: A corticosteroid used as an adjuvant to reduce postoperative nausea and vomiting, inflammation, and pain.
7. Magnesium sulfate: This non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist is used as an adjuvant to provide analgesia, reduce opioid consumption, and provide neuroprotection in certain surgical settings.

The choice of adjuvants depends on the type of surgery, patient factors, and the desired clinical effects.

Oxymetazoline is a direct-acting mainly α1-adrenergic receptor agonist, which is primarily used as a nasal decongestant and an ophthalmic vasoconstrictor. It constricts blood vessels, reducing swelling and fluid accumulation in the lining of the nose, thereby providing relief from nasal congestion due to allergies or colds. Oxymetazoline is available over-the-counter in various forms, such as nasal sprays, drops, and creams. It's important to follow the recommended usage guidelines, as prolonged use of oxymetazoline can lead to a rebound effect, causing further congestion.

**Prazosin** is an antihypertensive drug, which belongs to the class of medications called alpha-blockers. It works by relaxing the muscles in the blood vessels, which helps to lower blood pressure and improve blood flow. Prazosin is primarily used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension), but it may also be used for the management of symptoms related to enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia).

In a medical definition context:

Prazosin: A selective α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, used in the treatment of hypertension and benign prostatic hyperplasia. It acts by blocking the action of norepinephrine on the smooth muscle of blood vessels, resulting in vasodilation and decreased peripheral vascular resistance. This leads to a reduction in blood pressure and an improvement in urinary symptoms associated with an enlarged prostate.

Norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, is a neurotransmitter and a hormone that is primarily produced in the adrenal glands and is released into the bloodstream in response to stress or physical activity. It plays a crucial role in the "fight-or-flight" response by preparing the body for action through increasing heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and glucose availability.

As a neurotransmitter, norepinephrine is involved in regulating various functions of the nervous system, including attention, perception, motivation, and arousal. It also plays a role in modulating pain perception and responding to stressful or emotional situations.

In medical settings, norepinephrine is used as a vasopressor medication to treat hypotension (low blood pressure) that can occur during septic shock, anesthesia, or other critical illnesses. It works by constricting blood vessels and increasing heart rate, which helps to improve blood pressure and perfusion of vital organs.

Blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is given as two figures:

1. Systolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart pushes blood out into the arteries.
2. Diastolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart rests between beats, allowing it to fill with blood.

Normal blood pressure for adults is typically around 120/80 mmHg, although this can vary slightly depending on age, sex, and other factors. High blood pressure (hypertension) is generally considered to be a reading of 130/80 mmHg or higher, while low blood pressure (hypotension) is usually defined as a reading below 90/60 mmHg. It's important to note that blood pressure can fluctuate throughout the day and may be affected by factors such as stress, physical activity, and medication use.

Phentolamine is a non-selective alpha-blocker drug, which means it blocks both alpha-1 and alpha-2 receptors. It works by relaxing the muscle around blood vessels, which increases blood flow and lowers blood pressure. Phentolamine is used medically for various purposes, including the treatment of high blood pressure, the diagnosis and treatment of pheochromocytoma (a tumor that releases hormones causing high blood pressure), and as an antidote to prevent severe hypertension caused by certain medications or substances. It may also be used in diagnostic tests to determine if a patient's blood pressure is reactive to drugs, and it can be used during some surgical procedures to help lower the risk of hypertensive crises.

Phentolamine is available in two forms: an injectable solution and oral tablets. The injectable form is typically administered by healthcare professionals in a clinical setting, while the oral tablets are less commonly used due to their short duration of action and potential for causing severe drops in blood pressure. As with any medication, phentolamine should be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider, and patients should follow their doctor's instructions carefully to minimize the risk of side effects and ensure the drug's effectiveness.

Epidural analgesia is a type of regional anesthesia used to manage pain, most commonly during childbirth and after surgery. The term "epidural" refers to the location of the injection, which is in the epidural space of the spinal column.

In this procedure, a small amount of local anesthetic or narcotic medication is injected into the epidural space using a thin catheter. This medication blocks nerve impulses from the lower body, reducing or eliminating pain sensations without causing complete loss of feeling or muscle movement.

Epidural analgesia can be used for both short-term and long-term pain management. It is often preferred in situations where patients require prolonged pain relief, such as during labor and delivery or after major surgery. The medication can be administered continuously or intermittently, depending on the patient's needs and the type of procedure being performed.

While epidural analgesia is generally safe and effective, it can have side effects, including low blood pressure, headache, and difficulty urinating. In rare cases, it may also cause nerve damage or infection. Patients should discuss the risks and benefits of this procedure with their healthcare provider before deciding whether to undergo epidural analgesia.

Adrenergic receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that bind and respond to catecholamines, which include the neurotransmitters norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline). These receptors play a crucial role in the body's "fight or flight" response and are involved in regulating various physiological functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, and metabolism.

There are nine different subtypes of adrenergic receptors, which are classified into two main groups based on their pharmacological properties: alpha (α) and beta (β) receptors. Alpha receptors are further divided into two subgroups, α1 and α2, while beta receptors are divided into three subgroups, β1, β2, and β3. Each subtype has a unique distribution in the body and mediates distinct physiological responses.

Activation of adrenergic receptors occurs when catecholamines bind to their specific binding sites on the receptor protein. This binding triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to changes in cell function. Different subtypes of adrenergic receptors activate different G proteins and downstream signaling pathways, resulting in diverse physiological responses.

In summary, adrenergic receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that bind catecholamines and mediate various physiological functions. Understanding the function and regulation of these receptors is essential for developing therapeutic strategies to treat a range of medical conditions, including hypertension, heart failure, asthma, and anxiety disorders.

Premedication is the administration of medication before a medical procedure or surgery to prevent or manage pain, reduce anxiety, minimize side effects of anesthesia, or treat existing medical conditions. The goal of premedication is to improve the safety and outcomes of the medical procedure by preparing the patient's body in advance. Common examples of premedication include administering antibiotics before surgery to prevent infection, giving sedatives to help patients relax before a procedure, or providing medication to control acid reflux during surgery.

Heart rate is the number of heartbeats per unit of time, often expressed as beats per minute (bpm). It can vary significantly depending on factors such as age, physical fitness, emotions, and overall health status. A resting heart rate between 60-100 bpm is generally considered normal for adults, but athletes and individuals with high levels of physical fitness may have a resting heart rate below 60 bpm due to their enhanced cardiovascular efficiency. Monitoring heart rate can provide valuable insights into an individual's health status, exercise intensity, and response to various treatments or interventions.

Dioxanes are a group of chemical compounds that contain two oxygen atoms and four carbon atoms, linked together in a cyclic structure. The most common dioxane is called 1,4-dioxane, which is often used as a solvent or as a stabilizer in various industrial and consumer products, such as cosmetics, cleaning agents, and paint strippers.

In the medical field, 1,4-dioxane has been classified as a likely human carcinogen by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and as a possible human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Exposure to high levels of 1,4-dioxane has been linked to an increased risk of cancer in laboratory animals, and there is some evidence to suggest that it may also pose a cancer risk to humans.

It's worth noting that the use of 1,4-dioxane in cosmetics and other personal care products has been controversial, as some studies have found detectable levels of this chemical in these products. However, the levels of exposure from these sources are generally low, and it is unclear whether they pose a significant cancer risk to humans. Nonetheless, some organizations and experts have called for stricter regulations on the use of 1,4-dioxane in consumer products to minimize potential health risks.

Morphine is a potent opioid analgesic (pain reliever) derived from the opium poppy. It works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, blocking the transmission of pain signals and reducing the perception of pain. Morphine is used to treat moderate to severe pain, including pain associated with cancer, myocardial infarction, and other conditions. It can also be used as a sedative and cough suppressant.

Morphine has a high potential for abuse and dependence, and its use should be closely monitored by healthcare professionals. Common side effects of morphine include drowsiness, respiratory depression, constipation, nausea, and vomiting. Overdose can result in respiratory failure, coma, and death.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

Guanabenz is not a medical condition, it's a medication. Here's the definition:

Guanabenz (brand name Wytensin) is a centrally acting antihypertensive agent, primarily used for the treatment of hypertension. It belongs to the class of drugs known as "central alpha-2 adrenergic agonists." Guanabenz works by mimicking the effects of natural neurotransmitters in your body to reduce nerve impulses that cause blood vessels to constrict, thereby promoting vasodilation and lowering blood pressure.

Please consult a healthcare professional or refer to medical resources for more detailed information about specific medications and their uses, side effects, and interactions.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Local anesthetics are a type of medication that is used to block the sensation of pain in a specific area of the body. They work by temporarily numbing the nerves in that area, preventing them from transmitting pain signals to the brain. Local anesthetics can be administered through various routes, including topical application (such as creams or gels), injection (such as into the skin or tissues), or regional nerve blocks (such as epidural or spinal anesthesia).

Some common examples of local anesthetics include lidocaine, prilocaine, bupivacaine, and ropivacaine. These medications can be used for a variety of medical procedures, ranging from minor surgeries (such as dental work or skin biopsies) to more major surgeries (such as joint replacements or hernia repairs).

Local anesthetics are generally considered safe when used appropriately, but they can have side effects and potential complications. These may include allergic reactions, toxicity (if too much is administered), and nerve damage (if the medication is injected into a nerve). It's important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using local anesthetics, and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Hypnotics and sedatives are classes of medications that have depressant effects on the central nervous system, leading to sedation (calming or inducing sleep), reduction in anxiety, and in some cases, decreased awareness or memory. These agents work by affecting the neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) in the brain, which results in inhibitory effects on neuronal activity.

Hypnotics are primarily used for the treatment of insomnia and other sleep disorders, while sedatives are often prescribed to manage anxiety or to produce a calming effect before medical procedures. Some medications can function as both hypnotics and sedatives, depending on the dosage and specific formulation. Common examples of these medications include benzodiazepines (such as diazepam and lorazepam), non-benzodiazepine hypnotics (such as zolpidem and eszopiclone), barbiturates, and certain antihistamines.

It is essential to use these medications under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can have potential side effects, such as drowsiness, dizziness, confusion, and impaired coordination. Additionally, long-term use or high doses may lead to tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal symptoms upon discontinuation.

Naloxone is a medication used to reverse the effects of opioids, both illicit and prescription. It works by blocking the action of opioids on the brain and restoring breathing in cases where opioids have caused depressed respirations. Common brand names for naloxone include Narcan and Evzio.

Naloxone is an opioid antagonist, meaning that it binds to opioid receptors in the body without activating them, effectively blocking the effects of opioids already present at these sites. It has no effect in people who have not taken opioids and does not reverse the effects of other sedatives or substances.

Naloxone can be administered via intranasal, intramuscular, intravenous, or subcutaneous routes. The onset of action varies depending on the route of administration but generally ranges from 1 to 5 minutes when given intravenously and up to 10-15 minutes with other methods.

The duration of naloxone's effects is usually shorter than that of most opioids, so multiple doses or a continuous infusion may be necessary in severe cases to maintain reversal of opioid toxicity. Naloxone has been used successfully in emergency situations to treat opioid overdoses and has saved many lives.

It is important to note that naloxone does not reverse the effects of other substances or address the underlying causes of addiction, so it should be used as part of a comprehensive treatment plan for individuals struggling with opioid use disorders.

Hemodynamics is the study of how blood flows through the cardiovascular system, including the heart and the vascular network. It examines various factors that affect blood flow, such as blood volume, viscosity, vessel length and diameter, and pressure differences between different parts of the circulatory system. Hemodynamics also considers the impact of various physiological and pathological conditions on these variables, and how they in turn influence the function of vital organs and systems in the body. It is a critical area of study in fields such as cardiology, anesthesiology, and critical care medicine.

Neostigmine is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called cholinesterase inhibitors. It works by blocking the breakdown of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter in the body, leading to an increase in its levels at the neuromuscular junction. This helps to improve muscle strength and tone by enhancing the transmission of nerve impulses to muscles.

Neostigmine is primarily used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis, a neurological disorder characterized by muscle weakness and fatigue. It can also be used to reverse the effects of non-depolarizing muscle relaxants administered during surgery. Additionally, neostigmine may be used to diagnose and manage certain conditions that cause decreased gut motility or urinary retention.

It is important to note that neostigmine should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional due to its potential side effects, which can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, increased salivation, sweating, and muscle cramps. In some cases, it may also cause respiratory distress or cardiac arrhythmias.

Postoperative pain is defined as the pain or discomfort experienced by patients following a surgical procedure. It can vary in intensity and duration depending on the type of surgery performed, individual pain tolerance, and other factors. The pain may be caused by tissue trauma, inflammation, or nerve damage resulting from the surgical intervention. Proper assessment and management of postoperative pain is essential to promote recovery, prevent complications, and improve patient satisfaction.

Dexmedetomidine is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called alpha-2 adrenergic agonists. It is used for sedation and analgesia (pain relief) in critically ill patients, as well as for procedural sedation in adults and children. Dexmedetomidine works by mimicking the effects of natural chemicals in the body that help to regulate sleep, wakefulness, and pain perception.

The medical definition of dexmedetomidine is: "A selective alpha-2 adrenergic agonist used for sedation and analgesia in critically ill patients, as well as for procedural sedation in adults and children. Dexmedetomidine has sedative, anxiolytic, analgesic, and sympatholytic properties, and its effects are mediated by activation of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in the central nervous system."

It is important to note that dexmedetomidine should only be administered under the close supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can have significant effects on heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory function.

Medetomidine is a potent alpha-2 adrenergic agonist used primarily in veterinary medicine as an sedative, analgesic (pain reliever), and sympatholytic (reduces the sympathetic nervous system's activity). It is used for chemical restraint, procedural sedation, and analgesia during surgery or other medical procedures in various animals.

In humans, medetomidine is not approved by the FDA for use but may be used off-label in certain situations, such as sedation during diagnostic procedures. It can cause a decrease in heart rate and blood pressure, so it must be administered carefully and with close monitoring of the patient's vital signs.

Medetomidine is available under various brand names, including Domitor (for veterinary use) and Sedator (for human use in some countries). It can also be found as a combination product with ketamine, such as Dexdomitor/Domitor + Ketamine or Ketamine + Medetomidine.

Methoxamine is a synthetic, selective α1-adrenergic receptor agonist used in scientific research and for therapeutic purposes. It has the ability to stimulate the α1 adrenergic receptors, leading to vasoconstriction (constriction of blood vessels), increased blood pressure, and reduced blood flow to the skin and extremities.

In a medical context, methoxamine is primarily used as an experimental drug or in research settings due to its specific pharmacological properties. It may be employed to investigate the role of α1-adrenergic receptors in various physiological processes or to temporarily counteract the hypotensive (low blood pressure) effects of certain medications, such as vasodilators or anesthetics.

It is important to note that methoxamine is not commonly used in routine clinical practice due to its strong vasoconstrictive properties and potential adverse effects on organ function if misused or improperly dosed.

Methyldopa is a centrally acting antihypertensive drug, which means it works in the brain to lower blood pressure. It is a synthetic derivative of the amino acid L-DOPA and acts as a false neurotransmitter, mimicking the action of norepinephrine in the brain. This results in decreased sympathetic outflow from the central nervous system, leading to vasodilation and reduced blood pressure. Methyldopa is used primarily for the treatment of hypertension (high blood pressure) and is available in oral formulations.

A drug interaction is the effect of combining two or more drugs, or a drug and another substance (such as food or alcohol), which can alter the effectiveness or side effects of one or both of the substances. These interactions can be categorized as follows:

1. Pharmacodynamic interactions: These occur when two or more drugs act on the same target organ or receptor, leading to an additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effect. For example, taking a sedative and an antihistamine together can result in increased drowsiness due to their combined depressant effects on the central nervous system.
2. Pharmacokinetic interactions: These occur when one drug affects the absorption, distribution, metabolism, or excretion of another drug. For example, taking certain antibiotics with grapefruit juice can increase the concentration of the antibiotic in the bloodstream, leading to potential toxicity.
3. Food-drug interactions: Some drugs may interact with specific foods, affecting their absorption, metabolism, or excretion. An example is the interaction between warfarin (a blood thinner) and green leafy vegetables, which can increase the risk of bleeding due to enhanced vitamin K absorption from the vegetables.
4. Drug-herb interactions: Some herbal supplements may interact with medications, leading to altered drug levels or increased side effects. For instance, St. John's Wort can decrease the effectiveness of certain antidepressants and oral contraceptives by inducing their metabolism.
5. Drug-alcohol interactions: Alcohol can interact with various medications, causing additive sedative effects, impaired judgment, or increased risk of liver damage. For example, combining alcohol with benzodiazepines or opioids can lead to dangerous levels of sedation and respiratory depression.

It is essential for healthcare providers and patients to be aware of potential drug interactions to minimize adverse effects and optimize treatment outcomes.

The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is a part of the autonomic nervous system that operates largely below the level of consciousness, and it functions to produce appropriate physiological responses to perceived danger. It's often associated with the "fight or flight" response. The SNS uses nerve impulses to stimulate target organs, causing them to speed up (e.g., increased heart rate), prepare for action, or otherwise respond to stressful situations.

The sympathetic nervous system is activated due to stressful emotional or physical situations and it prepares the body for immediate actions. It dilates the pupils, increases heart rate and blood pressure, accelerates breathing, and slows down digestion. The primary neurotransmitter involved in this system is norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline).

Epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, is a hormone and a neurotransmitter that is produced in the body. It is released by the adrenal glands in response to stress or excitement, and it prepares the body for the "fight or flight" response. Epinephrine works by binding to specific receptors in the body, which causes a variety of physiological effects, including increased heart rate and blood pressure, improved muscle strength and alertness, and narrowing of the blood vessels in the skin and intestines. It is also used as a medication to treat various medical conditions, such as anaphylaxis (a severe allergic reaction), cardiac arrest, and low blood pressure.

Bupivacaine is a long-acting local anesthetic drug, which is used to cause numbness or loss of feeling in a specific area of the body during certain medical procedures such as surgery, dental work, or childbirth. It works by blocking the nerves that transmit pain signals to the brain.

Bupivacaine is available as a solution for injection and is usually administered directly into the tissue surrounding the nerve to be blocked (nerve block) or into the spinal fluid (epidural). The onset of action of bupivacaine is relatively slow, but its duration of action is long, making it suitable for procedures that require prolonged pain relief.

Like all local anesthetics, bupivacaine carries a risk of side effects such as allergic reactions, nerve damage, and systemic toxicity if accidentally injected into a blood vessel or given in excessive doses. It should be used with caution in patients with certain medical conditions, including heart disease, liver disease, and neurological disorders.

Desipramine is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) that is primarily used to treat depression. It works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine and serotonin, in the brain. These neurotransmitters are important for maintaining mood, emotion, and behavior.

Desipramine is also sometimes used off-label to treat other conditions, such as anxiety disorders, chronic pain, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is available in oral form and is typically taken one to three times a day.

Like all medications, desipramine can cause side effects, which can include dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, dizziness, and drowsiness. More serious side effects are rare but can include heart rhythm problems, seizures, and increased suicidal thoughts or behavior in some people, particularly children and adolescents.

It is important to take desipramine exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider and to report any bothersome or unusual symptoms promptly. Regular follow-up appointments with a healthcare provider are also recommended to monitor the effectiveness and safety of the medication.

Epidural injection is a medical procedure where a medication is injected into the epidural space of the spine. The epidural space is the area between the outer covering of the spinal cord (dura mater) and the vertebral column. This procedure is typically used to provide analgesia (pain relief) or anesthesia for surgical procedures, labor and delivery, or chronic pain management.

The injection usually contains a local anesthetic and/or a steroid medication, which can help reduce inflammation and swelling in the affected area. The medication is delivered through a thin needle that is inserted into the epidural space using the guidance of fluoroscopy or computed tomography (CT) scans.

Epidural injections are commonly used to treat various types of pain, including lower back pain, leg pain (sciatica), and neck pain. They can also be used to diagnose the source of pain by injecting a local anesthetic to numb the area and determine if it is the cause of the pain.

While epidural injections are generally safe, they do carry some risks, such as infection, bleeding, nerve damage, or allergic reactions to the medication. It's important to discuss these risks with your healthcare provider before undergoing the procedure.

In Australia, clonidine is an accepted but not approved use for ADHD by the TGA. Clonidine, along with methylphenidate, has ... Clonidine can also be used for migraine headaches and hot flashes associated with menopause. Clonidine has also been used to ... Clonidine can be used in the treatment of Tourette syndrome (specifically for tics). Clonidine has also had some success in ... Clonidine has also been suggested as a treatment for rare instances of dexmedetomidine withdrawal. Clonidine has some role in ...
Clonidine. Lofepramine may reduce the antihypertensive effects of clonidine. Diazoxide. Enhanced hypotensive (blood pressure- ...
"Clonidine". Pubmed Health. October 2008. Archived from the original on 28 June 2010. Vassilev LT, Vu BT, Graves B, Carvajal D, ... The imidazoline-containing drug clonidine is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat high blood pressure. ... 2-Imidazolines Clonidine Biimidazoline ligands and a complex. Second generation Grubbs' catalyst Spongotine B Cis-imidazolines ...
Clonidine was the first non-opioid medication to reverse acute opioid withdrawal symptoms. He co-authored the dopamine ... "Clonidine , Encyclopedia.com". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2020-06-23. Gold, MS; Washton, AM; Dackis, CA (1987). "The ... Gold was a lead researcher in the discovery of clonidine's efficacy in opiate withdrawal and a rationale for opiate withdrawal ... Gold, M. S.; Redmond Jr, D. E.; Kleber, H. D. (1978). "Clonidine blocks acute opiate-withdrawal symptoms". The Lancet. 2 (8090 ...
While the adverse side-effects with clonidine are inconvenient, the most dangerous aspect of clonidine is withdrawal rebound ... Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors, Clonidine Withdrawal Including but not limited to cocaine use Misuse of over-the-counter ... In the 1970s, the drug clonidine hydrocloride swept the market as a novel agent for hypertension; however, the reported side- ... After fasting overnight, patient's will present to their testing site for a baseline metanephrines blood draw and clonidine ...
The combined use of clonidine and naltrexone was found to be a rapid, safe, and effective treatment for abrupt withdrawal from ... Kleber, H D (July 1986). "The combined use of clonidine and naltrexone as a rapid, safe, and effective treatment of abrupt ... Ling W, Amass L, Shoptaw S (Jun 2006) "A multi-center randomized trial of buprenorphine-naloxone versus clonidine for opioid ... In 1977, he published a paper detailing the first procedures using Naloxone and clonidine. Shortly afterward, physicians began ...
"Methylphenidate and Clonidine Help Children With ADHD and Tics". "Clonidine Oral Uses". Web MD. "EPAR summary for the public: ... clonidine also helps alleviate symptoms of opioid withdrawal. The hypotensive effect of clonidine was initially attributed ... Clonidine has also been successfully used in indications that exceed what would be expected from a simple blood-pressure ... Clonidine is now thought to decrease blood pressure via this central mechanism. Other nonselective agonists include ...
ketamine, clonidine, gabapentin). In addition, pharmacotherapy that targets the underlying cause of the pain can help alleviate ...
Clonidine Cosnier, D.; Duchene-Marullaz, P.; Grimal, J.; Rispat, G.; Streichenberger, G. (1975). "Pharmacological properties of ...
... can also be used as an antidote in overdose of clonidine, a medication that lowers blood pressure. Clonidine overdoses ... Seger DL (2002). "Clonidine toxicity revisited". Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology. 40 (2): 145-155. doi:10.1081/CLT- ... Ahmad SA, Scolnik D, Snehal V, Glatstein M (2015). "Use of naloxone for clonidine intoxication in the pediatric age group: case ... The mechanism for naloxone's proposed benefit in clonidine overdose is unclear, but it has been suggested that endogenous ...
Lal, H.; Fielding, S. (1981). Psychopharmacology of Clonidine. Liss. ISBN 9780845100714. Retrieved 2015-03-24. Randall and ...
Clonidine may reduce withdrawal symptoms and "approximately doubles abstinence rates when compared to a placebo," but its side ... Retrieved 2016-07-06.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link) Gourlay SG, Stead LF, Benowitz NL (2004). "Clonidine for ...
van Zwieten PA, Thoolen MJ, Timmermans PB (1984). "The hypotensive activity and side effects of methyldopa, clonidine, and ... Lowenstein J (January 1980). "Drugs five years later: clonidine". Annals of Internal Medicine. 92 (1): 74-77. doi:10.7326/0003- ... Medications commonly associated with rebound hypertension include centrally-acting antihypertensive agents, such as clonidine ...
Devenyi P.; Mitwalli A.; Graham W. (November 1982). "Clonidine therapy for narcotic withdrawal". Can Med Assoc J. 127 (10): ... The α2 adrenergic receptor agonist clonidine is used to counteract this withdrawal effect by decreasing adrenergic ...
Clonidine An α2A adrenergic receptor agonist has also been approved in the US. Clonidine was initially developed as a treatment ... "clonidine (Rx) - Catapres, Catapres-TTS". Medscape Drugs & Diseases. Rossi, S, ed. (2013). Australian Medicines Handbook (2013 ... Methylphenidate, guanfacine, clonidine, and desipramine were associated with improvement of tic symptoms. Controversy remains, ... Atomoxetine, viloxazine, guanfacine, and clonidine are the only non-controlled, non-stimulant FDA approved drugs for the ...
Clonidine (brand name Catapres) works on tics for about half of people with TS. Maximal benefit may not be achieved for 4-6 ... 1982). "Clonidine in the treatment of Tourette syndrome: a review of data". Advances in Neurology. 35: 391-401. PMID 6756089. ... April 1991). "Clonidine treatment of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome". Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 48 (4): 324-8. doi:10.1001/ ... A small number of patients may worsen on clonidine. Guanfacine (brand name Tenex) is another antihypertensive that is used in ...
Aspirin also does not prevent infarctions, while promoting serious surgical bleeding.: Clonidine does not prevent infarctions, ... "Perioperative aspirin and clonidine and risk of acute kidney injury: a randomized clinical trial". JAMA. 312 (21): 2254-64. doi ... "Clonidine in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery". N Engl J Med. 370 (16): 1504-13. doi:10.1056/nejmoa1401106. PMID 24679061 ...
Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf; Merchant, A. F.; Keyser, M. L.; Smith, V. K. (1981). "Effects of Clonidine on Anxiety Disorders". Archives ... The alpha-2 agonists clonidine and guanfacine have demonstrated both anxiolytic and anxiogenic effects. Buspirone (Buspar) is a ...
A 2015 (updated in 2022) Cochrane review of topical clonidine for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy included two studies of ... The review found that topical clonidine may provide some benefit versus placebo. However, the authors state that the included ... "Topical clonidine for neuropathic pain in adults". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2022 (5): CD010967. doi:10.1002 ... 8 and 12 weeks in length; both of which compared topical clonidine to placebo and both of which were funded by the same drug ...
Clonidine is thought to have potential to reduce pain in newborn babies but it has yet to be tested in clinical trials. Before ... Romantsik, O; Calevo, MG; Norman, E; Bruschettini, M (9 April 2020). "Clonidine for pain in non-ventilated infants". The ...
Guanoxabenz Guanfacine Walker BR, Hare LE, Deitch MW (1982). "Comparative antihypertensive effects of guanabenz and clonidine ... "Studies on the mechanism of the central antihypertensive effect of guanabenz and clonidine". Journal of Hypertension Supplement ...
α2 selective: α-methyldopa, clonidine, brimonidine, dexmedetomidine. β1 selective: dobutamine. β2 selective: salbutamol/ ...
... with fewer withdrawal symptoms than clonidine even after one day. However, clonidine is often preferred as it is substantially ... Methadone Naltrexone Clonidine "Press Announcements - FDA approves the first non-opioid treatment for management of opioid ... Gerra G, Zaimovic A, Giusti F, Di Gennaro C, Zambelli U, Gardini S, Delsignore R (July 2001). "Lofexidine versus clonidine in ... Additionally, clonidine has been shown to significantly lower blood pressure. Therefore, although similar to lofexidine, ...
Adjuvants may include epinephrine, clonidine, and dexmedetomidine. Vasoconstriction caused by local anesthetic may be further ...
Derivatives include the drugs clonidine and diclofenac. It is produced by hydrogenation of 2,6-dichloronitrobenzene. In the ...
One drawback of clonidine is that it can take up to 45 minutes to take full effect. In children, clonidine has been found to be ... As a result, clonidine is becoming increasingly popular with anesthesiologists. Dexmedetomidine and atypical antipsychotic ... Bergendahl, H.; Lönnqvist, PA.; Eksborg, S. (Feb 2006). "Clonidine in paediatric anaesthesia: review of the literature and ... Clonidine is becoming increasingly popular as a premedication for children. ...
Clonidine has shown promise among patients with anxiety, panic and PTSD in clinical trials and was used to treat severely and ... September 1996). "Clonidine for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Preschool Children". Journal of the American Academy of Child ... However, there are exceptions: clonidine is an adrenergic agonist at the α2 receptor; since this receptor is located ... Guanfacine produces less sedation than clonidine and thus may be better tolerated. Guanfacine reduced the trauma-related ...
Hossmann V, Maling TJ, Hamilton CA, Reid JL, Dollery CT (August 1980). "Sedative and cardiovascular effects of clonidine and ...
Case reports exist to support carbamazepine and levetiracetam; other drugs tried include pimozide, clonidine, and ...
Rebound hypertension, above pre-treatment level, was observed after clonidine, and guanfacine discontinuation. Continuous usage ... "Rebound hypertension after discontinuation of transdermal clonidine therapy". The American Journal of Medicine. 82 (1): 17-19. ...
In Australia, clonidine is an accepted but not approved use for ADHD by the TGA. Clonidine, along with methylphenidate, has ... Clonidine can also be used for migraine headaches and hot flashes associated with menopause. Clonidine has also been used to ... Clonidine can be used in the treatment of Tourette syndrome (specifically for tics). Clonidine has also had some success in ... Clonidine has also been suggested as a treatment for rare instances of dexmedetomidine withdrawal. Clonidine has some role in ...
Clonidine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before taking clonidine,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to clonidine, any of its ingredients, clonidine ... Clonidine may help to control your condition but will not cure it. Continue to take clonidine even if you feel well. Do not ... Clonidine tablets (Catapres) are used alone or in combination with other medications to treat high blood pressure. Clonidine ...
Generic Clonidine Tablets. Close-up photo of 0.1 mg generic clonidine tablets bearing the imprint "R/127", made by PurePac ... Color photo of a .3 mg clonidine tablet from Mylan Pharmaceutical. Bears the imprint "Mylan/199". ...
Clonidine is a central alpha-agonist that is used as an antihypertensive agent. Other reported clinical uses include treatment ... encoded search term (Clonidine Toxicity) and Clonidine Toxicity What to Read Next on Medscape ... Clonidine Toxicity. Updated: Aug 21, 2023 * Author: David Riley, MD, MSc, RDMS, RDCS, RVT, RMSK; Chief Editor: Michael A Miller ... Clonidine can also be compounded as a liquid formula. [4] An ophthalmic solution is occasionally used in the treatment of ...
Clonidine hydrochloride tablets should not be used in patients with known hypersensitivity to clonidine (see PRECAUTIONS). ... As clonidine hydrochloride is excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when clonidine hydrochloride tablets are ... Clonidine hydrochloride tablets, USP are indicated in the treatment of hypertension. Clonidine hydrochloride tablets, USP may ... The absolute bioavailability of clonidine on oral administration is 70% to 80%. Peak plasma clonidine levels are attained in ...
Clonidine Suppression Test for a Pheochromocytoma Diagnosis Clonidine Suppression Test for a Pheochromocytoma Diagnosis. A new ... Reality of clonidine poisoning in children and adolescents - Duong C, Lovett C, Downes MIA, Isbister GK.. AIM: We aimed to ... "Road rash" and dizziness: a case of hemodynamically significant topical clonidine toxicity - Downs JW, Cumpston KL.. We report ... Medicine Supply Notifications - Clonidine and H2-antagonists (cimetidine, famotidine and nizatidine). The Department of Health ...
Clonidine was given as 0.2 mg/day two to four hours before surgery and continued for 72 hours after surgery. Aspirin was given ... The aspirin and clonidine parts of the trial were separately published March 31, 2014 in the New England Journal of Medicine, ... Devereaux presented the aspirin results, and the clonidine outcomes were presented by coauthor Dr Daniel I Sessler (Cleveland ... And with clonidine, there were significant increases in clinically important hypotension and bradycardia and in nonfatal ...
Re: Anyone used clonidine?. Posted by linkadge on November 11, 2022, at 10:03:18 ... In reply to Re: Anyone used clonidine? linkadge, posted by SLS on November 11, 2022, at 9:51:23 ...
... clonidine, propranolol - Answer: Those two medications should not be taken together. As listed at... ... Rebound HBP from stopping clonidine, how long does this last, any advice getting off clonidine?. Updated 8 April 2019 5 answers ... Is propranolol and clonidine okay for a 88 year old man?. Question posted by BILLbewarned2 on 10 July 2021 ... https://www.drugs.com/drug-interactions/clonidine-with-propranolol-704-0-1956-0.html ...
A clinical review of clonidine (1984-1995) Anesthesiology. 1996 Sep;85(3):655-74. doi: 10.1097/00000542-199609000-00026. ...
Clonidine hydrochloride (HCl) (Catapres, Duraclon, C9H9Cl2N3.HCl, MW 266.55) occurs as a white to off-white, crystalline powder ... Clonidine HCl is soluble 1 g in about 13 mL water and 25 mL alcohol. It is classified as a centrally acting alpha 2 adrenergic ... Baclofen 2%, Clonidine HCl 0.2%, Gabapentin 10%, and Ketamine HCl 5% in Lipoderm. ...
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Clonidine) - Drug Info, Side Effects, Research, Clinical Trials ... Effect of oral clonidine on acute intraocular pressure rise ... Clinical Trials Related to Clonidine Extended-Release (Clonidine) Effect of Intrathecal Clonidine in Hypertensive Subjects With ... Published Studies Related to Clonidine Extended-Release (Clonidine) Clonidine Maintenance Prolongs Opioid Abstinence and ... FDA is allowing for us to use clonidine for this Phase I-II study. In this kind of study clonidine will be started at low dose ...
Clonidine in Acute Aversive Inner Tension and Self-Injurious Behavior in Female Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder. ... Method: The acute effect of 75 and 150 mg of clonidine administered orally in acute states of strong aversive inner tension and ... After administration of clonidine in both doses, aversive inner tension, dissociative symptoms, urge to commit self-injurious ... Results: Aversive inner tension and urge to commit self-injurious behavior before administration of clonidine were strong. ...
CLONIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE USP, Oral Antihypertensive, Tablets of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mg. Home/CLONIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE USP, Oral ... Clonidine hydrochloride USP tablets should not be used in patients with known hypersensitivity to clonidine (see PRECAUTIONS. ... As little as 0.1 mg of clonidine has produced signs of toxicity in children.. There is no specific antidote for clonidine ... Clonidine hydrochloride tablets USP are supplied as follows:. Clonidine hydrochloride tablets USP 0.1 mg, yellow, round, ...
I dont take clonidine for bp I use to sleep I take losartan for bp is it safe to take doxasozin?. 1 doctor answer • 1 doctor ... I am prescribed clonidine 0.1mg as needed for panic attacks/anxiety. Do I have to taper before stopping or is it safe to stop ... Clonidine helps with some of the physical symptoms of opiate withdrawal, so it is sometimes prescribed to addicts trying to get ... My doctor has prescribed 50mg Toprol XL in the morning and 0.1mg Clonidine at night. Is this combo safe?. 1 doctor answer • 1 ...
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We report upon a 46-year-old woman, who developed immune complex disease after treatment with clonidine for one year. The ... The patient´s symptoms abated and the abnormal results of blood tests reverted to normal following cessation of clonidine ...
Through the administration of an effective amount of clonidine at or near a target site, one can relieve dystonia and/or post- ... Through the administration of an effective amount of clonidine at or near a target site, one can relieve dystonia and/or post- ... Methods for treating conditions such as dystonia and post-stroke spasticity with clonidine Patent Number: 9387197 ...
Effect of clonidine on renal sodium handling in spontaneously hypertensive rats Title. Effect of clonidine on renal sodium ... Home » Effect of clonidine on renal sodium handling in spontaneously hypertensive rats ...
In 12 tests only the response to insulin was positive and 10 tests were positive only for clonidine. Clonidine caused symptoms ... It is concluded that clonidine and insulin have similar reliability as test of growth hormone secretion, but that clonidine may ... The plasma growth hormone response to intravenous insulin was compared with that of oral clonidine in a multicentre trial in 64 ... Comparison of the intravenous insulin and oral clonidine tolerance tests for growth hormone secretion. The Health Services ...
Lankadeva, Y. R., Booth, L. C., Kosaka, J., Evans, R. G., Quintin, L., Bellomo, R., & May, C. N. (2015). Clonidine restores ... Clonidine restores pressor responsiveness to phenylephrine and angiotensin II in ovine sepsis. In: Critical Care Medicine. 2015 ... Clonidine restores pressor responsiveness to phenylephrine and angiotensin II in ovine sepsis. Critical Care Medicine. 2015;43( ... Clonidine restores pressor responsiveness to phenylephrine and angiotensin II in ovine sepsis. / Lankadeva, Yugeesh R; Booth, ...
Study authors administered clonidine 1 μg/kg/h or placebo on day 4 after intubation. We found no differences between the two ... Study authors administered clonidine 1 μg/kg/h or placebo on day 4 after intubation. We found no differences between the two ... Study authors administered clonidine 1 μg/kg/h or placebo on day 4 after intubation. We found no differences between the two ... Study authors administered clonidine 1 μg/kg/h or placebo on day 4 after intubation. We found no differences between the two ...
The pharmacokinetics of clonidine is dose-proportional in the range of 100 to 600 µg. The absolute bioavailability of clonidine ... As clonidine hydrochloride tablets, USP are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when clonidine hydrochloride is ... Clonidine Tablets. *Patients should be cautioned against interruption of clonidine tablets therapy without their physicians ... Clonidine Patch. Patients should be cautioned against interruption of Clonidine Transdermal System therapy without their ...
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Clonidine Tablets contain a medicine called clonidine. This belongs to a group of medicines called vasodilators. Vasodilators ... Clonidine Tablets contain a medicine called clonidine. This belongs to a group of medicines called vasodilators. Vasodilators ... Always take Clonidine Tablets exactly as your doctor has told you. You should check with your doctor or pharmacist if you are ... Also some other medicines can affect the way Clonidine Tablets works. In particular, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are ...
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  • Clonidine tablets (Catapres) are used alone or in combination with other medications to treat high blood pressure. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Clonidine extended-release tablets may treat ADHD by affecting the part of the brain that controls attention and impulsivity. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Clonidine hydrochloride, USP is a centrally acting alpha-agonist hypotensive agent available as tablets for oral administration in three dosage strengths: 0.1 mg, 0.2 mg and 0.3 mg. (nih.gov)
  • Clonidine hydrochloride tablets act relatively rapidly. (nih.gov)
  • Close-up photo of 0.1 mg generic clonidine tablets bearing the imprint "R/127", made by PurePac Pharmaceuticals. (erowid.org)
  • Clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets are a centrally acting alpha 2 -adrenergic agonist available as a 0.1 mg extended-release tablet for oral administration. (druglib.com)
  • Clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets are indicated for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as monotherapy and as adjunctive therapy to stimulant medications. (druglib.com)
  • In the adjunctive study, clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets were administered to patients who had been on a stable regimen of either methylphenidate or amphetamine (or their derivatives) and who had not achieved an optimal response. (druglib.com)
  • The effectiveness of clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets for longer-term use (more than 5 weeks) has not been systematically evaluated in controlled trials. (druglib.com)
  • Clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets are indicated as an integral part of a total treatment program for ADHD that may include other measures (psychological, educational, and social) for patients with this syndrome. (druglib.com)
  • Clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets are not intended for use in patients who exhibit symptoms secondary to environmental factors and/or other primary psychiatric disorders, including psychosis. (druglib.com)
  • When remedial measures alone are insufficient, the decision to prescribe clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets will depend upon the physician's assessment of the chronicity and severity of the patient's symptoms and on the level of functional impairment. (druglib.com)
  • Clonidine hydrochloride tablets contain the following inactive ingredients: lactose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, pregelatinized starch, and sodium starch glycolate. (prescriptiondrugs.com)
  • Clonidine hydrochloride USP tablets are indicated in the treatment of hypertension. (prescriptiondrugs.com)
  • Clonidine hydrochloride USP tablets may be employed alone or concomitantly with other antihypertensive agents. (prescriptiondrugs.com)
  • Clonidine hydrochloride USP tablets should not be used in patients with known hypersensitivity to clonidine (see PRECAUTIONS ). (prescriptiondrugs.com)
  • The following less frequent adverse experiences have also been reported in patients receiving clonidine hydrochloride tablets, but in many cases patients were receiving concomitant medication and a causal relationship has not been established. (prescriptiondrugs.com)
  • Hypertension treatment with clonidine can be administered orally (tablets) or by transdermal patches. (wikidoc.org)
  • Clonidine hydrochloride tablets must be adjusted according to the patient's individual blood pressure response. (wikidoc.org)
  • Clonidine Tablets are used to prevent migraine attacks and similar types of headache. (telehealthpharmacy.ie)
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  • Like all medicines, Clonidine Tablets can cause side effects, although not everybody gets them. (telehealthpharmacy.ie)
  • You may feel drowsy while taking Clonidine Tablets. (telehealthpharmacy.ie)
  • Clonidine hydrochloride is a centrally acting alpha-agonist hypotensive agent available as tablets for treating certain behavioral disorders in dogs such as phobias, aggression, and separation anxiety. (hardypaw.com)
  • clonidine immediate-release tablets catapres , approved for treating high blood pressure. (babas.se)
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  • Clonidine is also a mild sedative, and can be used as premedication before surgery or procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because clonidine has sedative properties and produces a mild sense of euphoria, chronic use increases the risk of tolerance and dependence. (help.org)
  • When clonidine activates these receptors, it can have a sedative effect on the body. (help.org)
  • Alpha-2 agonists, mainly clonidine and dexmedetomidine, are used as adjunctive (or alternative) sedative agents alongside opioids and benzodiazepines. (lu.se)
  • Clonidine causes increase of sedative effect of barbiturates, narcotic pain relievers and alcohol. (kuikdose.com)
  • Alcohol can increase the sedative effects of clonidine, which can lead to excessive drowsiness and other side effects. (buyoverthecounteruk.net)
  • Alcohol can increase the sedative effects of clonidine and may cause dizziness or drowsiness. (buyoverthecounteruk.net)
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  • Clonidine is a prescription medication that reduces blood pressure by relaxing the blood vessels and reducing the amount of blood the heart pumps each time it beats. (help.org)
  • Sedation scale values (COMFORT) and analgesia scores (Hartwig) during the first 72 hours of infusion of study medication were lower in the clonidine group than in the placebo group. (lu.se)
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  • Warnings & Precautions canadian pharmacy clonidine .S. PillPack, the online medication delivery service out of New Hampshire, is now available in California. (stevelange.ca)
  • Clonidine works on a pathway different to dopamine and along with guanfacine is now considered a first choice anti-tic medication for children with Tourette's syndrome with an acceptable side effect profile. (e-hospital.co.uk)
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  • CLONIDINE - ORAL (Catapres) side effects, medical uses, and Consumer information about the medication CLONIDINE - ORAL How would you like a stronger immune system Psoriasis See What It Looks Like and How to Treat It. (apfcaq.com)
  • Oral tablet (0.1mg) - CVS Pharmacy Clonidine Oral tablet 0.1mg Drug Medication Dosage information. (apfcaq.com)
  • Clonidine is a prescription medication that may be prescribed to dogs and cats with diarrhea in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. (californiapetpharmacy.com)
  • Clonidine is an alpha-adrenergic type medication that works by stimulating certain receptors in the brain. (californiapetpharmacy.com)
  • Also, do not take other clonidine-containing products while taking this medication. (webmd.com)
  • Clonidine is an alpha-agonist hypotensive agent to decrease blood pressure employed alone or in combination with other antihypertensive drugs. (kuikdose.com)
  • Clonidine may be effective for lowering blood pressure in people with resistant hypertension. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clonidine also has peripheral alpha1-agonist activity, which may produce transient vasoconstriction and hypertension early in overdose when peripheral drug levels may be transiently higher than levels in the CNS. (medscape.com)
  • Clonidine and methyldopa - any role for hypertension now? (bmj.com)
  • Clonidine is a central alpha-2 adrenergic agonist that is FDA approved for the treatment of hypertension . (wikidoc.org)
  • Clonidine hydrochloride is suitable for the treatment of hypertension. (ballyabio.com)
  • Clonidine is in a class of medications called centrally acting alpha-agonist hypotensive agents. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We therefore examined the effects of the alpha2-adrenergic agonist clonidine on mean arterial pressure, renal sympathetic nerve activity, and pressor responsiveness to phenylephrine and angiotensin II during hypotensive sepsis in conscious sheep. (monash.edu)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Administration of clonidine during hypotensive sepsis reduced renal sympathetic nerve activity, restored vascular sensitivity to both phenylephrine and angiotensin II, and resulted in better preservation of arterial pressure. (monash.edu)
  • Do not stop taking clonidine without talking to your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you suddenly stop taking clonidine, it can cause a rapid rise in your blood pressure and symptoms such as nervousness, headache, and uncontrollable shaking of a part of the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your doctor may start you on a low dose of clonidine and gradually increase your dose, not more than once every week. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The pharmacokinetics of clonidine is dose-proportional in the range of 100 to 600 mcg. (nih.gov)
  • The trial separately randomized 10 010 patients at 135 centers in 23 countries to receive low-dose clonidine (n=5009) vs placebo (n=5001) and low-dose aspirin (n=4998) vs placebo (n=5012). (medscape.com)
  • Effect of oral low dose clonidine premedication on postoperative pain in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy: a randomized placebo controlled clinical trial. (druglib.com)
  • For treatment of high blood pressure, the usual starting dose of clonidine is 0.1 mg twice daily, taken in the morning and at bedtime. (rxhealthmed.ca)
  • The recommended starting dose of clonidine hydrochloride for continuous epidural infusion is 30 mcg/hr. (wikidoc.org)
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  • The exact relationship of these pharmacologic actions to the antihypertensive effect of clonidine has not been fully elucidated. (nih.gov)
  • Clonidine is a central alpha-agonist that is used as an antihypertensive agent. (medscape.com)
  • When clonidine (Catapres) and methyldopa (Aldomet, Dopamet, Medomet) were first introduced, they had advantages over other antihypertensive drugs then available. (bmj.com)
  • Clonidine is an antihypertensive drug. (ballyabio.com)
  • Clonidine hydrochloride is a central antihypertensive drug, which can activate α2 receptors in the vascular motor center, causing peripheral sympathetic nerve inhibition, leading to vasodilation, reducing cardiac output, slowing heart rate, and lowering blood pressure. (ballyabio.com)
  • Clonidine is also used in the treatment of dysmenorrhea (severely painful cramps during menstrual period), hypertensive crisis (a condition in which your blood pressure is very high), Tourette's syndrome (a condition characterized by the need to perform repeated motions or to repeat sounds or words),menopausal hot flashes, and alcohol and opiate (narcotic) withdrawal. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Clonidine can also be used to relieve menopausal hot flashes when hormone replacement therapy is not needed or not desired. (rxhealthmed.ca)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to clonidine, any of its ingredients, clonidine patches, or any other medications. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Clonidine belongs to the group of medications called antihypertensives or vascular stabilizers . (rxhealthmed.ca)
  • Concomitant prescription of Clonidine with medications which lower heart rate (beta-blockers) should be done with cautiousness. (kuikdose.com)
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  • It is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions regarding the use of clonidine and any other medications. (buyoverthecounteruk.net)
  • At therapeutic doses (0.2-0.9 mg/d), clonidine is commonly associated with adverse effects such as dry mouth, sedation, dizziness, and constipation. (medscape.com)
  • While generally safe, at toxic doses clonidine can cause serious cardiopulmonary instability and central nervous system (CNS) depression in children and adults. (medscape.com)
  • Children may be easily affected by relatively small doses of clonidine. (medscape.com)
  • After administration of clonidine in both doses, aversive inner tension, dissociative symptoms, urge to commit self-injurious behavior, and suicidal ideations significantly decreased. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Are low doses of Xanax (alprazolam) and clonidine safe to take during short-acting opioid withdrawal? (healthtap.com)
  • Individuals who develop a tolerance for clonidine must take larger and larger doses just to experience the same effects, which can lead to addiction. (help.org)
  • It is important that you do not run out of clonidine or miss any doses. (webmd.com)
  • Neither food nor the race of the patient influences the pharmacokinetics of clonidine. (nih.gov)
  • The strongest effects were seen between 30 and 60 minutes after drug intake and correspond to the pharmacokinetics of clonidine with maximum plasma concentrations after 1 hour. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Hypersensitivity to Clonidine or any component of the formulation. (kuikdose.com)
  • Clonidine lowers blood pressure by stimulating α2 receptors in the brain, which results in relaxation of many arteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually Clonidine is taken twice daily, dosage depends on individual blood pressure response of a patient. (kuikdose.com)
  • clonidine HCl oral Drug information on Uses, Side Effects Learn about clonidine HCl oral - its uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, and safety information on RxList. (apfcaq.com)
  • Clonidine hydrochloride injection (epidural clonidine) is not recommended for obstetrical, postpartum, or perioperative pain management. (wikidoc.org)
  • The risk of hemodynamic instability, especially hypotension and bradycardia, from epidural clonidine may be unacceptable in these patients. (wikidoc.org)
  • Patients receiving epidural clonidine from a continuous infusion device should be closely monitored for the first few days to assess their response. (wikidoc.org)
  • Clonidine may be used to ease drug withdrawal symptoms associated with abruptly stopping the long-term use of opioids, alcohol, benzodiazepines and nicotine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In infants with neonatal withdrawal syndrome, clonidine may improve the neonatal intensive care unit Network Neurobehavioral Score. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clonidine has also been suggested as a treatment for rare instances of dexmedetomidine withdrawal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clonidine has also been used to treat refractory diarrhea associated with irritable bowel syndrome, fecal incontinence, diabetes, diarrhea associated with opioid withdrawal, intestinal failure, neuroendocrine tumors, and cholera. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clonidine helps with some of the physical symptoms of opiate withdrawal , so it is sometimes prescribed to addicts trying to get clean. (healthtap.com)
  • Furthermore, clonidine can produce undesirable withdrawal symptoms, making it difficult to stop using the substance. (help.org)
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  • Clonidine comes as a tablet and an extended-release (long-acting) tablet to take by mouth. (medlineplus.gov)
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  • Clonidine has not been systematically assessed for use in neonatal sedation during ventilation. (lu.se)
  • Authors' conclusions: At present, evidence is insufficient to show the efficacy and safety of clonidine for sedation and analgesia in term and preterm newborn infants receiving mechanical ventilation. (lu.se)
  • Some medical professionals also prescribe clonidine to help people withdraw safely from opioids or control the symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. (help.org)
  • And with clonidine, there were significant increases in clinically important hypotension and bradycardia and in nonfatal cardiac arrest. (medscape.com)
  • Clonidine Maintenance Prolongs Opioid Abstinence and Decouples Stress From Craving in Daily Life: A Randomized Controlled Trial With Ecological Momentary Assessment. (druglib.com)
  • 1987, Interaction between morphine, an opioid agonist, and clonidine, an alpha-adrenergic agonist, on the regulation of anterior pituitary hormone secretion in normal male subjects. (wustl.edu)
  • The molecules act on the same receptor as clonidine and dexmedetomidine - drugs commonly used in hospitals as sedatives - but are chemically unrelated to them and may not be addictive. (medworm.com)
  • Selection criteria: We searched for randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials, and cluster trials comparing clonidine versus placebo, no treatment, or dexmedetomidine administered to term and preterm newborns receiving mechanical ventilation via an endotracheal tube. (lu.se)
  • The acute effect of 75 and 150 mg of clonidine administered orally in acute states of strong aversive inner tension and urge to commit self-injurious behavior was examined in 14 female patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Orally given clonidine may be effective for treatment of acute states of aversive inner tension, dissociative symptoms, and urge to commit self-injurious behavior in female patients with borderline personality disorder. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Clonidine maybe used orally or as patches applied to your skin, it treats high blood pressure. (kuikdose.com)
  • Clonidine can also be used for migraine headaches and hot flashes associated with menopause. (wikipedia.org)
  • For hot flashes, clonidine works by helping reduce the response of the blood vessels to stimuli that cause them to narrow and widen. (rxhealthmed.ca)
  • Clonidine acts primarily as a presynaptic CNS alpha2-agonist, stimulating receptors in the nucleus tractus solitarii of the medulla oblongata. (medscape.com)
  • Through the administration of an effective amount of clonidine at or near a target site, one can relieve dystonia and/or post-stroke spasticity caused by diverse sources. (findownersearch.com)
  • Since only a minimal amount of clonidine is removed during routine hemodialysis , there is no need to give supplemental clonidine following dialysis. (wikidoc.org)
  • Clonidine may improve symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in some people but causes many adverse effects and the beneficial effect is modest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clonidine treatment prevented the further decline in mean arterial pressure, substantially reduced heart rate and renal sympathetic nerve activity and restored pressor responsiveness to both phenylephrine and angiotensin II toward preseptic levels. (monash.edu)
  • To reduce blood pressure, clonidine activates alpha-2 receptors in the nervous system, relaxing the blood vessels and making it easier for the heart to pump blood throughout the body. (help.org)
  • Pharmacology Clonidine stimulates brainstem α2-adrenal receptors. (ballyabio.com)
  • Clonidine Hydrochloride (Clonidine) is an anti-hypertensive drug that works by stimulating alpha-adrenoceptor 2 receptors and which has also been used to control tics in children with conditions such as Tourette's syndrome and to treat patients with ADHD. (e-hospital.co.uk)
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  • Acute studies with clonidine hydrochloride in humans have demonstrated a moderate reduction (15% to 20%) of cardiac output in the supine position with no change in the peripheral resistance: at a 45° tilt there is a smaller reduction in cardiac output and a decrease of peripheral resistance. (nih.gov)
  • A randomized feasibility trial of clonidine to reduce perioperative cardiac risk in patients on chronic beta-blockade: the EPIC study. (druglib.com)
  • Exercise caution when using clonidine in patients with existing cardiac disease. (hardypaw.com)
  • Slowing of the pulse rate has been observed in most patients given clonidine, but the drug does not alter normal hemodynamic response to exercise. (nih.gov)
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  • Clonidine may also reduce severity of neonatal abstinence syndrome in infants born to mothers that are using certain drugs, particularly opioids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extended Perineural Analgesia After Hip and Knee Replacement When Buprenorphine-Clonidine-Dexamethasone Is Added to Bupivacaine: Preliminary Report from a Randomized Clinical Trial. (bvsalud.org)
  • We tested the hypothesis that buprenorphine - clonidine - dexamethasone (BCD) extends perineural analgesia compared with plain bupivacaine (BPV) nerve blocks used for hip and knee replacement surgery . (bvsalud.org)
  • Conclusion: About 0.25% bupivacaine with 8 mg Dexamethasone had better analgesic duration and require minimal rescue analgesia in the first postoperative day than 0.25% bupivacaine with 50 mcg clonidine in cases undergoing femoral surgeries under FICB. (who.int)
  • Dexamethasone and clonidine as adjuvants to local anesthetics have good analgesic effect with limited adverse effect. (who.int)
  • Aim and Objectives: To assess the efficacy of bupivacaine with clonidine, bupivacaine with dexamethasone, and bupivacaine alone in fascia iliaca compartment block in cases with femoral fractures. (who.int)
  • Group 1 received 0.25% bupivacaine with 2 ml normal saline, Group 2 received 0.25% bupivacaine with 50mcg clonidine, and Group 3 received with 0.25% bupivacaine with 8mg dexamethasone. (who.int)
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  • In Australia, clonidine is an accepted but not approved use for ADHD by the TGA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clonidine, along with methylphenidate, has been studied for treatment of ADHD. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clonidine has been used to reduce sleep disturbances in ADHD, including to help offset stimulant-associated insomnia. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to a report published by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, approximately 0.2% of Americans aged 12 and older reported that they were current misusers of sedatives - including clonidine in 2016. (help.org)
  • Clonidine also has several off-label uses, and has been prescribed to treat psychiatric disorders including stress, sleep disorders, hyperarousal caused by post-traumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder, and other anxiety disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • I am prescribed clonidine 0.1mg as needed for panic attacks/anxiety. (healthtap.com)
  • Clonidine also reduces anxiety and has a mild euphoric effect, which can cause cravings and make it difficult for users to stop taking the substance. (help.org)
  • addiction can be difficult to overcome when the individual relies on clonidine to reduce anxiety. (help.org)
  • If you suspect that you took too much of Clonidine and your blood pressure first becomes too high (severe headache, blurred vision, buzzing in your ears, anxiety, confusion, chest pain) and then followed by low blood pressure (fainting, cold feeling, slow heart rate) seek for immediate medical attention. (kuikdose.com)
  • Note: Multiple pictures are displayed for those medicines available in buy viagra different strengths, marketed under what does clonidine look like - MedHelp I was recently put on Clonidine to help with anxiety and I am currently on Effexor. (apfcaq.com)
  • Clonidine treats high blood pressure by decreasing your heart rate and relaxing the blood vessels so that blood can flow more easily through the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Clonidine is also used and as an aid in smoking cessation therapy and to diagnose pheochromocytoma (a tumor that develops on a gland near the kidneys and may cause high blood pressure and fast heart rate). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Blood pressure and aversive inner tension and dissociative symptoms were positively correlated before and after administration of clonidine. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Stopping clonidine must be done slowly (over 2 weeks minimum) and in a controlled manner because of the effects on blood pressure. (e-hospital.co.uk)
  • If you do stop clonidine suddenly you may risk your child's blood pressure becoming dangerously high. (e-hospital.co.uk)
  • Alcohol can make you feel dizzy, sleepy, and lower your blood pressure even more than clonidine can on its own. (buyoverthecounteruk.net)
  • Clonidine stimulates alpha-adrenoreceptors in the brain stem. (nih.gov)
  • Clonidine acutely stimulates growth hormone release in both children and adults, but does not produce a chronic elevation of growth hormone with long-term use. (nih.gov)
  • Clonidine has some role in the treatment of spasticity, acting principally by inhibiting excessive sensory transmission below the level of injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clonidine can be used in the treatment of Tourette syndrome (specifically for tics). (wikipedia.org)
  • We report upon a 46-year-old woman, who developed immune complex disease after treatment with clonidine for one year. (medicaljournals.se)
  • Considering these findings, a clinical trial for the use of clonidine in the treatment of persistent vasopressor-refractory hypotension in patients with septic shock would be worthwhile. (monash.edu)
  • Once a treatment plan has been developed, the individual goes through an initial detoxification period, which is when clonidine is cleared from the body. (help.org)
  • Treatment of social phobia with clonidine. (bvsalud.org)
  • Clonidine has also had some success in clinical trials for helping to remove or ameliorate the symptoms of hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD). (wikipedia.org)
  • Educating patients about the importance of keeping clonidine and all drugs out of children's reach is critical. (medscape.com)
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  • Dr John A Jarcho (Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA), speaking at a briefing on POISE-2 for the media, pointed out that clonidine blocks the sympathetic nervous system and that beta-blockers do the same thing but by a difference mechanism. (medscape.com)