A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.

Classification of human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines. (1/9318)

Eleven human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines established in this laboratory were classified into three groups based on morphological features (light and electron microscopy), modal chromosome number, and ability to synthesize carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Group 1 cell lines contained both dedifferentiated and differentiating cells growing in tight clusters or islands of epithelium-like cells; their modal chromosome number was about 47, and they synthesized small to moderate amounts of CEA. Group 2 cell lines were more dedifferentiated, were hyperdiploid, and synthesized small amounts of CEA. Group 3 cell lines were morphologically similar to those of Group 1 by light microscopy. They differed ultrastructurally by containing microvesicular bodies; the modal chromosome number varied from hyperdiploid to hypertriploid or they had bimodal populations of hypodiploid and hypertriploid cells, and they synthesized relatively large amounts of CEA. No correlation could be found between Broder's grade or Duke's classification of the original tumor and modal chromosome number or ability to synthesize CEA. These findings support Nowell's hypothesis that the stem line is different for each solid tumor, which makes it difficult to relate chromosomal changes to the initiation of the neoplastic state.  (+info)

Cloning of a novel gene specifically expressed in clonal mouse chondroprogenitor-like EC cells, ATDC5. (2/9318)

We cloned a full-length cDNA encoding a novel mouse protein, A-C2, by differential display method using mouse embryonic fibroblast C3H10T1/2 cells and mouse chondroprogenitor-like EC cells, ATDC5. The deduced amino acid sequence of A-C2 consisted of 106 amino acids with no significant homology to the sequences previously reported. Northern blot analysis showed two major bands of 2.1 and 1.8 kb sizes. Expression of A-C2 mRNA was exclusive to ATDC5 cells at their undifferentiated stage. None of ATDC5 cells at their differentiated stage and adult mice tissues examined expressed A-C2 gene.  (+info)

Crystal structures of two H-2Db/glycopeptide complexes suggest a molecular basis for CTL cross-reactivity. (3/9318)

Two synthetic O-GlcNAc-bearing peptides that elicit H-2Db-restricted glycopeptide-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTL) have been shown to display nonreciprocal patterns of cross-reactivity. Here, we present the crystal structures of the H-2Db glycopeptide complexes to 2.85 A resolution or better. In both cases, the glycan is solvent exposed and available for direct recognition by the T cell receptor (TCR). We have modeled the complex formed between the MHC-glycopeptide complexes and their respective TCRs, showing that a single saccharide residue can be accommodated in the standard TCR-MHC geometry. The models also reveal a possible molecular basis for the observed cross-reactivity patterns of the CTL clones, which appear to be influenced by the length of the CDR3 loop and the nature of the immunizing ligand.  (+info)

Analysis of V(H)-D-J(H) gene transcripts in B cells infiltrating the salivary glands and lymph node tissues of patients with Sjogren's syndrome. (4/9318)

OBJECTIVE: In patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS), B lymphocytes have been found to infiltrate salivary glands, resulting in sialadenitis and keratoconjunctivitis. The disease is frequently associated with benign and neoplastic lymphoproliferation. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether clonal B cell expansion takes place in lymphocytic infiltrations of salivary glands under (auto- [?]) antigen stimulation, by analyzing in more detail the variable part (V(H)-D-J(H)) of the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes expressed in these B cells. METHODS: Biopsies of the labial salivary glands and lymph nodes were performed on 2 female patients with SS. The Ig gene rearrangements in these tissues were amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using specific primers. RESULTS: A total of 94 V(H)-D-J(H) transcripts were cloned and sequenced. Our data suggest a polyclonal origin of the B cell infiltrates. In 92 of the transcripts, V(H) genes were modified by somatic mutation. Further analysis showed counterselection for replacement mutations within the framework regions, suggesting that those B cells were stimulated and selected for functional expression of a surface Ig. In labial salivary glands from both patients, clonally related B cells became evident. Members of 1 particular clone were found in both the lip and lymph node material. CONCLUSION: These data provide evidence, on the nucleotide sequence level, that an antigen-triggered clonal B cell expansion takes place in the salivary glands of patients with SS who do not have histologic evidence of developing lymphoma. It may be speculated that those B cell clones expand during disease progression, resulting in lymphomagenesis.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of two mouse L cell lines resistant to the toxic lectin ricin. (5/9318)

Two variant mouse L cell lines (termed CL 3 and CL 6) have been selected for resistant to ricin, a galactose-binding lectin with potent cytotoxic activity. The resistant lines exhibit a 50 to 70% decrease in ricin binding and a 300- to 500-fold increase in resistance to the toxic effects of ricin. Crude membrane preparations of CL 3 cells have increased sialic acid content (200% of control), while the galactose, mannose, and hexosamine content is within normal limits. Both the glycoproteins and glycolipids of CL 3 cells have increased sialic acid, with the GM3:lactosylceramide ratios for parent L and CL 3 cells being 0.29 and 1.5, respectively. In contrast, the membranes of CL 6 cells have a decrease in sialic acid, galactose, and hexosamine content with mannose being normal. Both cell lines have specific alterations in glycosyltransferase activities which can account for the observed membrane sugar changes. CL 3 cells have increased CMP-sialic acid:glycoprotein sialyltransferase and GM3 synthetase activities, while CL 6 cells have decrease UDP-GlcNAc:glycoproteinN-acetylglucosaminyltransferase and DPU-galactose:glycoprotein galactosyltransferase activities. The increased sialic acid content of CL 3 cells serves to mask ricin binding sites, since neuraminidase treatment of this cell line restores ricin binding to essentially normal levels. However, the fact that neuraminidase-treated CL 3 cells are still 45-fold resistant to ricin indicates that either a special class of productive ricin binding sites is not being exposed or that the cell line has a second mechanism for ricin resistance.  (+info)

Enhanced tumor growth and invasiveness in vivo by a carboxyl-terminal fragment of alpha1-proteinase inhibitor generated by matrix metalloproteinases: a possible modulatory role in natural killer cytotoxicity. (6/9318)

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are believed to contribute to the complex process of cancer progression. They also exhibit an alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (alphaPI)-degrading activity generating a carboxyl-terminal fragment of approximately 5 kd (alphaPI-C). This study reports that overexpression of alphaPI-C in S2-020, a cloned subline derived from the human pancreas adenocarcinoma cell line SUIT-2, potentiates the growth capability of the cells in nude mice. After stable transfection of a vector containing a chimeric cDNA encoding a signal peptide sequence of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 followed by cDNA for alphaPI-C into S2-020 cells, three clones that stably secrete alphaPI-C were obtained. The ectopic expression of alphaPI-C did not alter in vitro cellular growth. However, subcutaneous injection of the alphaPI-C-secreting clones resulted in tumors that were 1.5 to 3-fold larger than those of control clones with an increased tendency to invasiveness and lymph node metastasis. These effects could be a result of modulation of natural killer (NK) cell-mediated control of tumor growth in nude mice, as the growth advantage of alphaPI-C-secreting clones was not observed in NK-depleted mice, and alphaPI-C-secreting clones showed decreased NK sensitivity in vitro. In addition, production of alphaPI and generation of the cleaved form of alphaPI by MMP were observed in various human tumor cell lines and in a highly metastatic subline of SUIT-2 in vitro. These results provide experimental evidence that the alphaPI-degrading activity of MMPs may play a role in tumor progression not only via the inactivation of alphaPI but also via the generation of alphaPI-C.  (+info)

Organ-selective homing defines engraftment kinetics of murine hematopoietic stem cells and is compromised by Ex vivo expansion. (7/9318)

Hematopoietic reconstitution of ablated recipients requires that intravenously (IV) transplanted stem and progenitor cells "home" to organs that support their proliferation and differentiation. To examine the possible relationship between homing properties and subsequent engraftment potential, murine bone marrow (BM) cells were labeled with fluorescent PKH26 dye and injected into lethally irradiated hosts. PKH26(+) cells homing to marrow or spleen were then isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and assayed for in vitro colony-forming cells (CFCs). Progenitors accumulated rapidly in the spleen, but declined to only 6% of input numbers after 24 hours. Although egress from this organ was accompanied by a simultaneous accumulation of CFCs in the BM (plateauing at 6% to 8% of input after 3 hours), spleen cells remained enriched in donor CFCs compared with marrow during this time. To determine whether this differential homing of clonogenic cells to the marrow and spleen influenced their contribution to short-term or long-term hematopoiesis in vivo, PKH26(+) cells were sorted from each organ 3 hours after transplantation and injected into lethally irradiated Ly-5 congenic mice. Cells that had homed initially to the spleen regenerated circulating leukocytes (20% of normal counts) approximately 2 weeks faster than cells that had homed to the marrow, or PKH26-labeled cells that had not been selected by a prior homing step. Both primary (17 weeks) and secondary (10 weeks) recipients of "spleen-homed" cells also contained approximately 50% higher numbers of CFCs per femur than recipients of "BM-homed" cells. To examine whether progenitor homing was altered upon ex vivo expansion, highly enriched Sca-1(+)c-kit+Lin- cells were cultured for 9 days in serum-free medium containing interleukin (IL)-6, IL-11, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, stem cell factor, flk-2/flt3 ligand, and thrombopoietin. Expanded cells were then stained with PKH26 and assayed as above. Strikingly, CFCs generated in vitro exhibited a 10-fold reduction in homing capacity compared with fresh progenitors. These studies demonstrate that clonogenic cells with differential homing properties contribute variably to early and late hematopoiesis in vivo. The dramatic decline in the homing capacity of progenitors generated in vitro underscores critical qualitative changes that may compromise their biologic function and potential clinical utility, despite their efficient numerical expansion.  (+info)

Phenotypic and functional characterization of CD8(+) T cell clones specific for a mouse cytomegalovirus epitope. (8/9318)

A series of CD8(+) T cell clones, specific for the IE1 epitope YPHFMPTNL, of the immediate-early protein 1 of the murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) were generated in order to determine their protective activity against this infection and correlate their phenotypic markers with antiviral activity. We found that the adoptive transfer of three of these anti-MCMV CD8(+) T cell clones into irradiated naive mice resulted in protection against challenge, while another CD8(+) T cell clone, of the same specificity, failed to confer protection. The clones that conferred protection against lethal challenge reduced greatly viral replication in the lung and other organs of the mice. Using one of the protective anti-MCMV CD8(+) T cell clones we found that in order to be fully protective the cells had to be transferred to recipient mice no later than 1 day after MCMV challenge. The adoptive transfer of these CD8(+) T cell clones also protected CD4(+) T-cell-depleted mice. Phenotypic characterization of the anti-MCMV clones revealed that the nonprotective clone expressed very low levels of CD8 molecules and produced only small amounts of TNF-alpha upon antigenic stimulation. Most importantly, our current study demonstrates that this MHC class I-restricted IE1 epitope of MCMV is efficiently presented to CD8(+) T cell clones in vivo and further strengthens the possibility of the potential use of CD8(+) T cell clones as immunotherapeutic tools against cytomegalovirus-induced disease.  (+info)

A clone is a group of cells that are genetically identical to each other because they are derived from a common ancestor cell through processes such as mitosis or asexual reproduction. Therefore, the term "clone cells" refers to a population of cells that are genetic copies of a single parent cell.

In the context of laboratory research, cells can be cloned by isolating a single cell and allowing it to divide in culture, creating a population of genetically identical cells. This is useful for studying the behavior and characteristics of individual cell types, as well as for generating large quantities of cells for use in experiments.

It's important to note that while clone cells are genetically identical, they may still exhibit differences in their phenotype (physical traits) due to epigenetic factors or environmental influences.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Complementary DNA (cDNA) is a type of DNA that is synthesized from a single-stranded RNA molecule through the process of reverse transcription. In this process, the enzyme reverse transcriptase uses an RNA molecule as a template to synthesize a complementary DNA strand. The resulting cDNA is therefore complementary to the original RNA molecule and is a copy of its coding sequence, but it does not contain non-coding regions such as introns that are present in genomic DNA.

Complementary DNA is often used in molecular biology research to study gene expression, protein function, and other genetic phenomena. For example, cDNA can be used to create cDNA libraries, which are collections of cloned cDNA fragments that represent the expressed genes in a particular cell type or tissue. These libraries can then be screened for specific genes or gene products of interest. Additionally, cDNA can be used to produce recombinant proteins in heterologous expression systems, allowing researchers to study the structure and function of proteins that may be difficult to express or purify from their native sources.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Nucleic acid hybridization is a process in molecular biology where two single-stranded nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) with complementary sequences pair together to form a double-stranded molecule through hydrogen bonding. The strands can be from the same type of nucleic acid or different types (i.e., DNA-RNA or DNA-cDNA). This process is commonly used in various laboratory techniques, such as Southern blotting, Northern blotting, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and microarray analysis, to detect, isolate, and analyze specific nucleic acid sequences. The hybridization temperature and conditions are critical to ensure the specificity of the interaction between the two strands.

Sequence homology in nucleic acids refers to the similarity or identity between the nucleotide sequences of two or more DNA or RNA molecules. It is often used as a measure of biological relationship between genes, organisms, or populations. High sequence homology suggests a recent common ancestry or functional constraint, while low sequence homology may indicate a more distant relationship or different functions.

Nucleic acid sequence homology can be determined by various methods such as pairwise alignment, multiple sequence alignment, and statistical analysis. The degree of homology is typically expressed as a percentage of identical or similar nucleotides in a given window of comparison.

It's important to note that the interpretation of sequence homology depends on the biological context and the evolutionary distance between the sequences compared. Therefore, functional and experimental validation is often necessary to confirm the significance of sequence homology.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

A gene is a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA that carries genetic information. Genes are the fundamental units of heredity and are responsible for the development and function of all living organisms. They code for proteins or RNA molecules, which carry out various functions within cells and are essential for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs.

Each gene has a specific location on a chromosome, and each person inherits two copies of every gene, one from each parent. Variations in the sequence of nucleotides in a gene can lead to differences in traits between individuals, including physical characteristics, susceptibility to disease, and responses to environmental factors.

Medical genetics is the study of genes and their role in health and disease. It involves understanding how genes contribute to the development and progression of various medical conditions, as well as identifying genetic risk factors and developing strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

Artificial bacterial chromosomes (ABCs) are synthetic replicons that are designed to function like natural bacterial chromosomes. They are created through the use of molecular biology techniques, such as recombination and cloning, to construct large DNA molecules that can stably replicate and segregate within a host bacterium.

ABCs are typically much larger than traditional plasmids, which are smaller circular DNA molecules that can also replicate in bacteria but have a limited capacity for carrying genetic information. ABCs can accommodate large DNA inserts, making them useful tools for cloning and studying large genes, gene clusters, or even entire genomes of other organisms.

There are several types of ABCs, including bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), P1-derived artificial chromosomes (PACs), and yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs). BACs are the most commonly used type of ABC and can accommodate inserts up to 300 kilobases (kb) in size. They have been widely used in genome sequencing projects, functional genomics studies, and protein production.

Overall, artificial bacterial chromosomes provide a powerful tool for manipulating and studying large DNA molecules in a controlled and stable manner within bacterial hosts.

Southern blotting is a type of membrane-based blotting technique that is used in molecular biology to detect and locate specific DNA sequences within a DNA sample. This technique is named after its inventor, Edward M. Southern.

In Southern blotting, the DNA sample is first digested with one or more restriction enzymes, which cut the DNA at specific recognition sites. The resulting DNA fragments are then separated based on their size by gel electrophoresis. After separation, the DNA fragments are denatured to convert them into single-stranded DNA and transferred onto a nitrocellulose or nylon membrane.

Once the DNA has been transferred to the membrane, it is hybridized with a labeled probe that is complementary to the sequence of interest. The probe can be labeled with radioactive isotopes, fluorescent dyes, or chemiluminescent compounds. After hybridization, the membrane is washed to remove any unbound probe and then exposed to X-ray film (in the case of radioactive probes) or scanned (in the case of non-radioactive probes) to detect the location of the labeled probe on the membrane.

The position of the labeled probe on the membrane corresponds to the location of the specific DNA sequence within the original DNA sample. Southern blotting is a powerful tool for identifying and characterizing specific DNA sequences, such as those associated with genetic diseases or gene regulation.

Chromosome mapping, also known as physical mapping, is the process of determining the location and order of specific genes or genetic markers on a chromosome. This is typically done by using various laboratory techniques to identify landmarks along the chromosome, such as restriction enzyme cutting sites or patterns of DNA sequence repeats. The resulting map provides important information about the organization and structure of the genome, and can be used for a variety of purposes, including identifying the location of genes associated with genetic diseases, studying evolutionary relationships between organisms, and developing genetic markers for use in breeding or forensic applications.

A genomic library is a collection of cloned DNA fragments that represent the entire genetic material of an organism. It serves as a valuable resource for studying the function, organization, and regulation of genes within a given genome. Genomic libraries can be created using different types of vectors, such as bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs), or plasmids, to accommodate various sizes of DNA inserts. These libraries facilitate the isolation and manipulation of specific genes or genomic regions for further analysis, including sequencing, gene expression studies, and functional genomics research.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Northern blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and analyze specific RNA molecules (such as mRNA) in a mixture of total RNA extracted from cells or tissues. This technique is called "Northern" blotting because it is analogous to the Southern blotting method, which is used for DNA detection.

The Northern blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Electrophoresis: The total RNA mixture is first separated based on size by running it through an agarose gel using electrical current. This separates the RNA molecules according to their length, with smaller RNA fragments migrating faster than larger ones.

2. Transfer: After electrophoresis, the RNA bands are denatured (made single-stranded) and transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or nylon membrane using a technique called capillary transfer or vacuum blotting. This step ensures that the order and relative positions of the RNA fragments are preserved on the membrane, similar to how they appear in the gel.

3. Cross-linking: The RNA is then chemically cross-linked to the membrane using UV light or heat treatment, which helps to immobilize the RNA onto the membrane and prevent it from washing off during subsequent steps.

4. Prehybridization: Before adding the labeled probe, the membrane is prehybridized in a solution containing blocking agents (such as salmon sperm DNA or yeast tRNA) to minimize non-specific binding of the probe to the membrane.

5. Hybridization: A labeled nucleic acid probe, specific to the RNA of interest, is added to the prehybridization solution and allowed to hybridize (form base pairs) with its complementary RNA sequence on the membrane. The probe can be either a DNA or an RNA molecule, and it is typically labeled with a radioactive isotope (such as ³²P) or a non-radioactive label (such as digoxigenin).

6. Washing: After hybridization, the membrane is washed to remove unbound probe and reduce background noise. The washing conditions (temperature, salt concentration, and detergent concentration) are optimized based on the stringency required for specific hybridization.

7. Detection: The presence of the labeled probe is then detected using an appropriate method, depending on the type of label used. For radioactive probes, this typically involves exposing the membrane to X-ray film or a phosphorimager screen and analyzing the resulting image. For non-radioactive probes, detection can be performed using colorimetric, chemiluminescent, or fluorescent methods.

8. Data analysis: The intensity of the signal is quantified and compared to controls (such as housekeeping genes) to determine the relative expression level of the RNA of interest. This information can be used for various purposes, such as identifying differentially expressed genes in response to a specific treatment or comparing gene expression levels across different samples or conditions.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

DNA restriction enzymes, also known as restriction endonucleases, are a type of enzyme that cut double-stranded DNA at specific recognition sites. These enzymes are produced by bacteria and archaea as a defense mechanism against foreign DNA, such as that found in bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria).

Restriction enzymes recognize specific sequences of nucleotides (the building blocks of DNA) and cleave the phosphodiester bonds between them. The recognition sites for these enzymes are usually palindromic, meaning that the sequence reads the same in both directions when facing the opposite strands of DNA.

Restriction enzymes are widely used in molecular biology research for various applications such as genetic engineering, genome mapping, and DNA fingerprinting. They allow scientists to cut DNA at specific sites, creating precise fragments that can be manipulated and analyzed. The use of restriction enzymes has been instrumental in the development of recombinant DNA technology and the Human Genome Project.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Cosmids are a type of cloning vector, which are self-replicating DNA molecules that can be used to introduce foreign DNA fragments into a host organism. Cosmids are plasmids that contain the cos site from bacteriophage λ, allowing them to be packaged into bacteriophage heads during an in vitro packaging reaction. This enables the transfer of large DNA fragments (up to 45 kb) into a host cell through transduction. Cosmids are widely used in molecular biology for the construction and analysis of genomic libraries, physical mapping, and DNA sequencing.

Recombinant DNA is a term used in molecular biology to describe DNA that has been created by combining genetic material from more than one source. This is typically done through the use of laboratory techniques such as molecular cloning, in which fragments of DNA are inserted into vectors (such as plasmids or viruses) and then introduced into a host organism where they can replicate and produce many copies of the recombinant DNA molecule.

Recombinant DNA technology has numerous applications in research, medicine, and industry, including the production of recombinant proteins for use as therapeutics, the creation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for agricultural or industrial purposes, and the development of new tools for genetic analysis and manipulation.

It's important to note that while recombinant DNA technology has many potential benefits, it also raises ethical and safety concerns, and its use is subject to regulation and oversight in many countries.

In genetics, sequence alignment is the process of arranging two or more DNA, RNA, or protein sequences to identify regions of similarity or homology between them. This is often done using computational methods to compare the nucleotide or amino acid sequences and identify matching patterns, which can provide insight into evolutionary relationships, functional domains, or potential genetic disorders. The alignment process typically involves adjusting gaps and mismatches in the sequences to maximize the similarity between them, resulting in an aligned sequence that can be visually represented and analyzed.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

DNA primers are short single-stranded DNA molecules that serve as a starting point for DNA synthesis. They are typically used in laboratory techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The primer binds to a complementary sequence on the DNA template through base pairing, providing a free 3'-hydroxyl group for the DNA polymerase enzyme to add nucleotides and synthesize a new strand of DNA. This allows for specific and targeted amplification or analysis of a particular region of interest within a larger DNA molecule.

Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is a type of electrophoresis technique used in molecular biology to separate DNA molecules based on their size and conformation. In this method, the electric field is applied in varying directions, which allows for the separation of large DNA fragments that are difficult to separate using traditional gel electrophoresis methods.

The DNA sample is prepared by embedding it in a semi-solid matrix, such as agarose or polyacrylamide, and then subjected to an electric field that periodically changes direction. This causes the DNA molecules to reorient themselves in response to the changing electric field, which results in the separation of the DNA fragments based on their size and shape.

PFGE is a powerful tool for molecular biology research and has many applications, including the identification and characterization of bacterial pathogens, the analysis of genomic DNA, and the study of gene organization and regulation. It is also used in forensic science to analyze DNA evidence in criminal investigations.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

T-lymphocytes, also known as T-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the adaptive immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. There are several different types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells (Tregs).

CD4+ helper T-cells assist in activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes and macrophages. They also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response. CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells directly kill infected cells by releasing toxic substances. Regulatory T-cells help maintain immune tolerance and prevent autoimmune diseases by suppressing the activity of other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes are important in the immune response to viral infections, cancer, and other diseases. Dysfunction or depletion of T-cells can lead to immunodeficiency and increased susceptibility to infections. On the other hand, an overactive T-cell response can contribute to autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

An epitope is a specific region on the surface of an antigen (a molecule that can trigger an immune response) that is recognized by an antibody, B-cell receptor, or T-cell receptor. It is also commonly referred to as an antigenic determinant. Epitopes are typically composed of linear amino acid sequences or conformational structures made up of discontinuous amino acids in the antigen. They play a crucial role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between self and non-self molecules, leading to the targeted destruction of foreign substances like viruses and bacteria. Understanding epitopes is essential for developing vaccines, diagnostic tests, and immunotherapies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "hybrid cells" is not a standard medical term with a widely accepted or specific definition in the field of medicine. The term "hybrid" is used in various scientific and medical contexts to describe combinations or mixtures of different elements, such as hybridoma cells (a type of fusion cell used in research, created by combining a B cell and a tumor cell) or hybridization (in genetics, the process of combining DNA from two different sources).

Without more specific context, it's difficult to provide an accurate medical definition for "hybrid cells." If you could provide more information about the context in which this term was used, I would be happy to help you further!

Genetic variation refers to the differences in DNA sequences among individuals and populations. These variations can result from mutations, genetic recombination, or gene flow between populations. Genetic variation is essential for evolution by providing the raw material upon which natural selection acts. It can occur within a single gene, between different genes, or at larger scales, such as differences in the number of chromosomes or entire sets of chromosomes. The study of genetic variation is crucial in understanding the genetic basis of diseases and traits, as well as the evolutionary history and relationships among species.

An open reading frame (ORF) is a continuous stretch of DNA or RNA sequence that has the potential to be translated into a protein. It begins with a start codon (usually "ATG" in DNA, which corresponds to "AUG" in RNA) and ends with a stop codon ("TAA", "TAG", or "TGA" in DNA; "UAA", "UAG", or "UGA" in RNA). The sequence between these two points is called a coding sequence (CDS), which, when transcribed into mRNA and translated into amino acids, forms a polypeptide chain.

In eukaryotic cells, ORFs can be located in either protein-coding genes or non-coding regions of the genome. In prokaryotic cells, multiple ORFs may be present on a single strand of DNA, often organized into operons that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that not all ORFs necessarily represent functional proteins; some may be pseudogenes or result from errors in genome annotation. Therefore, additional experimental evidence is typically required to confirm the expression and functionality of a given ORF.

'Tumor cells, cultured' refers to the process of removing cancerous cells from a tumor and growing them in controlled laboratory conditions. This is typically done by isolating the tumor cells from a patient's tissue sample, then placing them in a nutrient-rich environment that promotes their growth and multiplication.

The resulting cultured tumor cells can be used for various research purposes, including the study of cancer biology, drug development, and toxicity testing. They provide a valuable tool for researchers to better understand the behavior and characteristics of cancer cells outside of the human body, which can lead to the development of more effective cancer treatments.

It is important to note that cultured tumor cells may not always behave exactly the same way as they do in the human body, so findings from cell culture studies must be validated through further research, such as animal models or clinical trials.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

DNA fingerprinting, also known as DNA profiling or genetic fingerprinting, is a laboratory technique used to identify and compare the unique genetic makeup of individuals by analyzing specific regions of their DNA. This method is based on the variation in the length of repetitive sequences of DNA called variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) or short tandem repeats (STRs), which are located at specific locations in the human genome and differ significantly among individuals, except in the case of identical twins.

The process of DNA fingerprinting involves extracting DNA from a sample, amplifying targeted regions using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and then separating and visualizing the resulting DNA fragments through electrophoresis. The fragment patterns are then compared to determine the likelihood of a match between two samples.

DNA fingerprinting has numerous applications in forensic science, paternity testing, identity verification, and genealogical research. It is considered an essential tool for providing strong evidence in criminal investigations and resolving disputes related to parentage and inheritance.

Repetitive sequences in nucleic acid refer to repeated stretches of DNA or RNA nucleotide bases that are present in a genome. These sequences can vary in length and can be arranged in different patterns such as direct repeats, inverted repeats, or tandem repeats. In some cases, these repetitive sequences do not code for proteins and are often found in non-coding regions of the genome. They can play a role in genetic instability, regulation of gene expression, and evolutionary processes. However, certain types of repeat expansions have been associated with various neurodegenerative disorders and other human diseases.

Cell division is the process by which a single eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) divides into two identical daughter cells. This complex process involves several stages, including replication of DNA, separation of chromosomes, and division of the cytoplasm. There are two main types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis.

Mitosis is the type of cell division that results in two genetically identical daughter cells. It is a fundamental process for growth, development, and tissue repair in multicellular organisms. The stages of mitosis include prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm.

Meiosis, on the other hand, is a type of cell division that occurs in the gonads (ovaries and testes) during the production of gametes (sex cells). Meiosis results in four genetically unique daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for sexual reproduction and genetic diversity. The stages of meiosis include meiosis I and meiosis II, which are further divided into prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

In summary, cell division is the process by which a single cell divides into two daughter cells, either through mitosis or meiosis. This process is critical for growth, development, tissue repair, and sexual reproduction in multicellular organisms.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, also known as CD8+ T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the cell-mediated immune system. They are responsible for identifying and destroying virus-infected cells and cancer cells. When a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte recognizes a specific antigen presented on the surface of an infected or malignant cell, it becomes activated and releases toxic substances such as perforins and granzymes, which can create pores in the target cell's membrane and induce apoptosis (programmed cell death). This process helps to eliminate the infected or malignant cells and prevent the spread of infection or cancer.

A genetic vector is a vehicle, often a plasmid or a virus, that is used to introduce foreign DNA into a host cell as part of genetic engineering or gene therapy techniques. The vector contains the desired gene or genes, along with regulatory elements such as promoters and enhancers, which are needed for the expression of the gene in the target cells.

The choice of vector depends on several factors, including the size of the DNA to be inserted, the type of cell to be targeted, and the efficiency of uptake and expression required. Commonly used vectors include plasmids, adenoviruses, retroviruses, and lentiviruses.

Plasmids are small circular DNA molecules that can replicate independently in bacteria. They are often used as cloning vectors to amplify and manipulate DNA fragments. Adenoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide range of host cells, including human cells. They are commonly used as gene therapy vectors because they can efficiently transfer genes into both dividing and non-dividing cells.

Retroviruses and lentiviruses are RNA viruses that integrate their genetic material into the host cell's genome. This allows for stable expression of the transgene over time. Lentiviruses, a subclass of retroviruses, have the advantage of being able to infect non-dividing cells, making them useful for gene therapy applications in post-mitotic tissues such as neurons and muscle cells.

Overall, genetic vectors play a crucial role in modern molecular biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study gene function, develop new therapies, and modify organisms for various purposes.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Lymphocyte activation is the process by which B-cells and T-cells (types of lymphocytes) become activated to perform effector functions in an immune response. This process involves the recognition of specific antigens presented on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells or macrophages.

The activation of B-cells leads to their differentiation into plasma cells that produce antibodies, while the activation of T-cells results in the production of cytotoxic T-cells (CD8+ T-cells) that can directly kill infected cells or helper T-cells (CD4+ T-cells) that assist other immune cells.

Lymphocyte activation involves a series of intracellular signaling events, including the binding of co-stimulatory molecules and the release of cytokines, which ultimately result in the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and effector functions. The activation process is tightly regulated to prevent excessive or inappropriate immune responses that can lead to autoimmunity or chronic inflammation.

Sequence Tagged Sites (STSs) are specific, defined DNA sequences that are mapped to a unique location in the human genome. They were developed as part of a physical mapping strategy for the Human Genome Project and serve as landmarks for identifying and locating genetic markers, genes, and other features within the genome. STSs are typically short (around 200-500 base pairs) and contain unique sequences that can be amplified by PCR, allowing for their detection and identification in DNA samples. The use of STSs enables researchers to construct physical maps of large genomes with high resolution and accuracy, facilitating the study of genome organization, variation, and function.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) is a single-stranded, linear polymer of ribonucleotides. It is a nucleic acid present in the cells of all living organisms and some viruses. RNAs play crucial roles in various biological processes such as protein synthesis, gene regulation, and cellular signaling. There are several types of RNA including messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), small nuclear RNA (snRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). These RNAs differ in their structure, function, and location within the cell.

Viral DNA refers to the genetic material present in viruses that consist of DNA as their core component. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the two types of nucleic acids that are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information in living organisms. Viruses are infectious agents much smaller than bacteria that can only replicate inside the cells of other organisms, called hosts.

Viral DNA can be double-stranded (dsDNA) or single-stranded (ssDNA), depending on the type of virus. Double-stranded DNA viruses have a genome made up of two complementary strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA viruses contain only one strand of DNA.

Examples of dsDNA viruses include Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, and Poxviruses, while ssDNA viruses include Parvoviruses and Circoviruses. Viral DNA plays a crucial role in the replication cycle of the virus, encoding for various proteins necessary for its multiplication and survival within the host cell.

A DNA probe is a single-stranded DNA molecule that contains a specific sequence of nucleotides, and is labeled with a detectable marker such as a radioisotope or a fluorescent dye. It is used in molecular biology to identify and locate a complementary sequence within a sample of DNA. The probe hybridizes (forms a stable double-stranded structure) with its complementary sequence through base pairing, allowing for the detection and analysis of the target DNA. This technique is widely used in various applications such as genetic testing, diagnosis of infectious diseases, and forensic science.

Contig mapping, short for contiguous mapping, is a process used in genetics and genomics to construct a detailed map of a particular region or regions of a genome. It involves the use of molecular biology techniques to physically join together, or "clone," overlapping DNA fragments from a specific region of interest in a genome. These joined fragments are called "contigs" because they are continuous and contiguous stretches of DNA that represent a contiguous map of the region.

Contig mapping is often used to study large-scale genetic variations, such as deletions, duplications, or rearrangements, in specific genomic regions associated with diseases or other traits. It can also be used to identify and characterize genes within those regions, which can help researchers understand their function and potential role in disease processes.

The process of contig mapping typically involves several steps, including:

1. DNA fragmentation: The genomic region of interest is broken down into smaller fragments using physical or enzymatic methods.
2. Cloning: The fragments are inserted into a vector, such as a plasmid or bacteriophage, which can be replicated in bacteria to produce multiple copies of each fragment.
3. Library construction: The cloned fragments are pooled together to create a genomic library, which contains all the DNA fragments from the region of interest.
4. Screening and selection: The library is screened using various methods, such as hybridization or PCR, to identify clones that contain overlapping fragments from the region of interest.
5. Contig assembly: The selected clones are ordered based on their overlapping regions to create a contiguous map of the genomic region.
6. Sequencing and analysis: The DNA sequence of the contigs is determined and analyzed to identify genes, regulatory elements, and other features of the genomic region.

Overall, contig mapping is an important tool for studying the structure and function of genomes, and has contributed significantly to our understanding of genetic variation and disease mechanisms.

A multigene family is a group of genetically related genes that share a common ancestry and have similar sequences or structures. These genes are arranged in clusters on a chromosome and often encode proteins with similar functions. They can arise through various mechanisms, including gene duplication, recombination, and transposition. Multigene families play crucial roles in many biological processes, such as development, immunity, and metabolism. Examples of multigene families include the globin genes involved in oxygen transport, the immune system's major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, and the cytochrome P450 genes associated with drug metabolism.

An oligonucleotide probe is a short, single-stranded DNA or RNA molecule that contains a specific sequence of nucleotides designed to hybridize with a complementary sequence in a target nucleic acid (DNA or RNA). These probes are typically 15-50 nucleotides long and are used in various molecular biology techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, microarray analysis, and blotting methods.

Oligonucleotide probes can be labeled with various reporter molecules, like fluorescent dyes or radioactive isotopes, to enable the detection of hybridized targets. The high specificity of oligonucleotide probes allows for the precise identification and quantification of target nucleic acids in complex biological samples, making them valuable tools in diagnostic, research, and forensic applications.

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) is a term used in molecular biology and genetics. It refers to the presence of variations in DNA sequences among individuals, which can be detected by restriction enzymes. These enzymes cut DNA at specific sites, creating fragments of different lengths.

In RFLP analysis, DNA is isolated from an individual and treated with a specific restriction enzyme that cuts the DNA at particular recognition sites. The resulting fragments are then separated by size using gel electrophoresis, creating a pattern unique to that individual's DNA. If there are variations in the DNA sequence between individuals, the restriction enzyme may cut the DNA at different sites, leading to differences in the length of the fragments and thus, a different pattern on the gel.

These variations can be used for various purposes, such as identifying individuals, diagnosing genetic diseases, or studying evolutionary relationships between species. However, RFLP analysis has largely been replaced by more modern techniques like polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods and DNA sequencing, which offer higher resolution and throughput.

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

Artificial chromosomes, yeast are synthetic chromosomes that have been created in the laboratory and can function in yeast cells. They are made up of DNA sequences that have been chemically synthesized or engineered from existing yeast chromosomes. These artificial chromosomes can be used to introduce new genes or modify existing ones in yeast, allowing for the study of gene function and genetic interactions in a controlled manner.

The creation of artificial chromosomes in yeast has been an important tool in biotechnology and synthetic biology, enabling the development of novel industrial processes and the engineering of yeast strains with enhanced properties for various applications, such as biofuel production or the manufacture of pharmaceuticals. Additionally, the study of artificial chromosomes in yeast has provided valuable insights into the fundamental principles of genome organization, replication, and inheritance.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

Bacterial typing techniques are methods used to identify and differentiate bacterial strains or isolates based on their unique characteristics. These techniques are essential in epidemiological studies, infection control, and research to understand the transmission dynamics, virulence, and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens.

There are various bacterial typing techniques available, including:

1. **Bacteriophage Typing:** This method involves using bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to identify specific bacterial strains based on their susceptibility or resistance to particular phages.
2. **Serotyping:** It is a technique that differentiates bacterial strains based on the antigenic properties of their cell surface components, such as capsules, flagella, and somatic (O) and flagellar (H) antigens.
3. **Biochemical Testing:** This method uses biochemical reactions to identify specific metabolic pathways or enzymes present in bacterial strains, which can be used for differentiation. Commonly used tests include the catalase test, oxidase test, and various sugar fermentation tests.
4. **Molecular Typing Techniques:** These methods use genetic markers to identify and differentiate bacterial strains at the DNA level. Examples of molecular typing techniques include:
* **Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE):** This method uses restriction enzymes to digest bacterial DNA, followed by electrophoresis in an agarose gel under pulsed electrical fields. The resulting banding patterns are analyzed and compared to identify related strains.
* **Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST):** It involves sequencing specific housekeeping genes to generate unique sequence types that can be used for strain identification and phylogenetic analysis.
* **Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS):** This method sequences the entire genome of a bacterial strain, providing the most detailed information on genetic variation and relatedness between strains. WGS data can be analyzed using various bioinformatics tools to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene deletions or insertions, and other genetic changes that can be used for strain differentiation.

These molecular typing techniques provide higher resolution than traditional methods, allowing for more accurate identification and comparison of bacterial strains. They are particularly useful in epidemiological investigations to track the spread of pathogens and identify outbreaks.

"Poly A" is an abbreviation for "poly(A) tail" or "polyadenylation." It refers to the addition of multiple adenine (A) nucleotides to the 3' end of eukaryotic mRNA molecules during the process of transcription. This poly(A) tail plays a crucial role in various aspects of mRNA metabolism, including stability, transport, and translation. The length of the poly(A) tail can vary from around 50 to 250 nucleotides depending on the cell type and developmental stage.

Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) are short, single-pass DNA sequences that are derived from cDNA libraries. They represent a quick and cost-effective method for large-scale sequencing of gene transcripts and provide an unbiased view of the genes being actively expressed in a particular tissue or developmental stage. ESTs can be used to identify and study new genes, to analyze patterns of gene expression, and to develop molecular markers for genetic mapping and genome analysis.

Cricetinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes hamsters, gerbils, and relatives. These small mammals are characterized by having short limbs, compact bodies, and cheek pouches for storing food. They are native to various parts of the world, particularly in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Some species are popular pets due to their small size, easy care, and friendly nature. In a medical context, understanding the biology and behavior of Cricetinae species can be important for individuals who keep them as pets or for researchers studying their physiology.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Viral genes refer to the genetic material present in viruses that contains the information necessary for their replication and the production of viral proteins. In DNA viruses, the genetic material is composed of double-stranded or single-stranded DNA, while in RNA viruses, it is composed of single-stranded or double-stranded RNA.

Viral genes can be classified into three categories: early, late, and structural. Early genes encode proteins involved in the replication of the viral genome, modulation of host cell processes, and regulation of viral gene expression. Late genes encode structural proteins that make up the viral capsid or envelope. Some viruses also have structural genes that are expressed throughout their replication cycle.

Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines. By targeting specific viral genes, researchers can develop drugs that inhibit viral replication and reduce the severity of viral infections. Additionally, knowledge of viral gene sequences can inform the development of vaccines that stimulate an immune response to specific viral proteins.

1. Receptors: In the context of physiology and medicine, receptors are specialized proteins found on the surface of cells or inside cells that detect and respond to specific molecules, known as ligands. These interactions can trigger a range of responses within the cell, such as starting a signaling pathway or changing the cell's behavior. There are various types of receptors, including ion channels, G protein-coupled receptors, and enzyme-linked receptors.

2. Antigen: An antigen is any substance (usually a protein) that can be recognized by the immune system, specifically by antibodies or T-cells, as foreign and potentially harmful. Antigens can be derived from various sources, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or even non-living substances like pollen, chemicals, or toxins. An antigen typically contains epitopes, which are the specific regions that antibodies or T-cell receptors recognize and bind to.

3. T-Cell: Also known as T lymphocytes, T-cells are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in cell-mediated immunity, a part of the adaptive immune system. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. There are several types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells (Tregs). T-cells recognize antigens presented to them by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) via their surface receptors called the T-cell receptor (TCR). Once activated, T-cells can proliferate and differentiate into various effector cells that help eliminate infected or damaged cells.

Molecular epidemiology is a branch of epidemiology that uses laboratory techniques to identify and analyze the genetic material (DNA, RNA) of pathogens or host cells to understand their distribution, transmission, and disease associations in populations. It combines molecular biology methods with epidemiological approaches to investigate the role of genetic factors in disease occurrence and outcomes. This field has contributed significantly to the identification of infectious disease outbreaks, tracking the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, understanding the transmission dynamics of viruses, and identifying susceptible populations for targeted interventions.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

A peptide library is a collection of a large number of peptides, which are short chains of amino acids. Each peptide in the library is typically composed of a defined length and sequence, and may contain a variety of different amino acids. Peptide libraries can be synthesized using automated techniques and are often used in scientific research to identify potential ligands (molecules that bind to specific targets) or to study the interactions between peptides and other molecules.

In a peptide library, each peptide is usually attached to a solid support, such as a resin bead, and the entire library can be created using split-and-pool synthesis techniques. This allows for the rapid and efficient synthesis of a large number of unique peptides, which can then be screened for specific activities or properties.

Peptide libraries are used in various fields such as drug discovery, proteomics, and molecular biology to identify potential therapeutic targets, understand protein-protein interactions, and develop new diagnostic tools.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Surface antigens are molecules found on the surface of cells that can be recognized by the immune system as being foreign or different from the host's own cells. Antigens are typically proteins or polysaccharides that are capable of stimulating an immune response, leading to the production of antibodies and activation of immune cells such as T-cells.

Surface antigens are important in the context of infectious diseases because they allow the immune system to identify and target infected cells for destruction. For example, viruses and bacteria often display surface antigens that are distinct from those found on host cells, allowing the immune system to recognize and attack them. In some cases, these surface antigens can also be used as targets for vaccines or other immunotherapies.

In addition to their role in infectious diseases, surface antigens are also important in the context of cancer. Tumor cells often display abnormal surface antigens that differ from those found on normal cells, allowing the immune system to potentially recognize and attack them. However, tumors can also develop mechanisms to evade the immune system, making it difficult to mount an effective response.

Overall, understanding the properties and behavior of surface antigens is crucial for developing effective immunotherapies and vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer.

Protein biosynthesis is the process by which cells generate new proteins. It involves two major steps: transcription and translation. Transcription is the process of creating a complementary RNA copy of a sequence of DNA. This RNA copy, or messenger RNA (mRNA), carries the genetic information to the site of protein synthesis, the ribosome. During translation, the mRNA is read by transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules, which bring specific amino acids to the ribosome based on the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA. The ribosome then links these amino acids together in the correct order to form a polypeptide chain, which may then fold into a functional protein. Protein biosynthesis is essential for the growth and maintenance of all living organisms.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

1. Receptors: In the context of physiology and medicine, receptors are specialized proteins found on the surface of cells or inside cells that detect and respond to specific molecules, known as ligands. Receptors play a crucial role in signal transduction, enabling cells to communicate with each other and respond to changes in their environment.
2. Antigen: An antigen is any substance (usually a protein) that can be recognized by the immune system and stimulate an immune response. Antigens can be foreign substances such as bacteria, viruses, or pollen, or they can be components of our own cells, such as tumor antigens in cancer cells. Antigens are typically bound and presented to the immune system by specialized cells called antigen-presenting cells (APCs).
3. T-Cell: T-cells, also known as T lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. T-cells are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. There are two main types of T-cells: CD4+ helper T-cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells. Helper T-cells assist other immune cells, such as B-cells and macrophages, in mounting an immune response, while cytotoxic T-cells directly kill infected or cancerous cells.
4. Alpha-Beta: Alpha-beta is a type of T-cell receptor (TCR) that is found on the surface of most mature T-cells. The alpha-beta TCR is composed of two polypeptide chains, an alpha chain and a beta chain, that are held together by disulfide bonds. The alpha-beta TCR recognizes and binds to specific antigens presented in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on the surface of APCs. This interaction is critical for initiating an immune response against infected or cancerous cells.

In situ hybridization, fluorescence (FISH) is a type of molecular cytogenetic technique used to detect and localize the presence or absence of specific DNA sequences on chromosomes through the use of fluorescent probes. This technique allows for the direct visualization of genetic material at a cellular level, making it possible to identify chromosomal abnormalities such as deletions, duplications, translocations, and other rearrangements.

The process involves denaturing the DNA in the sample to separate the double-stranded molecules into single strands, then adding fluorescently labeled probes that are complementary to the target DNA sequence. The probe hybridizes to the complementary sequence in the sample, and the location of the probe is detected by fluorescence microscopy.

FISH has a wide range of applications in both clinical and research settings, including prenatal diagnosis, cancer diagnosis and monitoring, and the study of gene expression and regulation. It is a powerful tool for identifying genetic abnormalities and understanding their role in human disease.

B-lymphocytes, also known as B-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune system's response to infection. They are responsible for producing antibodies, which are proteins that help to neutralize or destroy pathogens such as bacteria and viruses.

When a B-lymphocyte encounters a pathogen, it becomes activated and begins to divide and differentiate into plasma cells, which produce and secrete large amounts of antibodies specific to the antigens on the surface of the pathogen. These antibodies bind to the pathogen, marking it for destruction by other immune cells such as neutrophils and macrophages.

B-lymphocytes also have a role in presenting antigens to T-lymphocytes, another type of white blood cell involved in the immune response. This helps to stimulate the activation and proliferation of T-lymphocytes, which can then go on to destroy infected cells or help to coordinate the overall immune response.

Overall, B-lymphocytes are an essential part of the adaptive immune system, providing long-lasting immunity to previously encountered pathogens and helping to protect against future infections.

Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell, or stem cell, becomes a more specialized cell type with specific functions and structures. This process involves changes in gene expression, which are regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors. Differentiation results in the development of distinct cell types that make up tissues and organs in multicellular organisms. It is a crucial aspect of embryonic development, tissue repair, and maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

Clone (cell biology) Nossal, G. J. V. & Lederberg, J. (1958). "Antibody production by single cells". Nature. 181: 1419-1420. ... The expansion of a particular clone of immune B cells is usually interpreted by clinicians as evidence of unrestricted cell ... This differentiation and activation of the B cell occurs most rapidly after exposure to antigen by antigen-presenting cells in ... The process of immunological B-cell maturation involves transformation from an undifferentiated B cell to one that secretes ...
... so they are technically a single clone of cells. However, during course of cell division, one of the cells can get mutated ... bone marrow cells. Most other cells cannot divide indefinitely as after a few cycles of cell division the cells stop expressing ... A clone is a group of identical cells that share a common ancestry, meaning they are derived from the same cell. Clonality ... This concept of clone assumes importance as all the cells that form a clone share common ancestry, which has a very significant ...
However, the cloning was done from early embryonic cells, while the sheep Dolly in 1996 was cloned from an adult cell. Megan ... 24 January 2018). "Cloning of Macaque Monkeys by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer". Cell. 172 (4): 881-887.e7. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... Peru cloned a Jersey cattle by handmade cloning method using cells of an ear of a cow. The first Peruvian clone was called " ... They also reportedly charged $100,000 for each cloned puppy. One puppy was cloned from the cells of a dog that had died 12 days ...
"A modified method for cloning adherent mammalian cells". "Cloning by Limiting Dilution".[permanent dead link] "Cloning by ... Dilution cloning or cloning by limiting dilution describes a procedure to obtain a monoclonal cell population starting from a ... Applications for the procedure include cloning of parasites, T cells, transgenic cells, and macrophages. Freshney, R. Ian (2010 ... A suspension of the parent cells is made. Appropriate dilutions are then made, depending on cell number in the starting ...
Gor, Mosam (2016-05-20). "What is Cell Phone Cloning - Everything You Need to Know". MovZio. Retrieved 2019-04-05. Preuβ ... as the target telephone is now a clone of the telephone from which the original ESN and MIN data were obtained. GSM cloning ... Phone cloning is the copying of identity from one cellular device to another. Analogue mobile telephones were notorious for ... Phone cloning is outlawed in the United States by the Wireless Telephone Protection Act of 1998, which prohibits "knowingly ...
24 January 2018). "Cloning of Macaque Monkeys by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer". Cell. 172 (4): 881-887.e7. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... Trounson A, DeWitt ND (2013). "Pluripotent stem cells from cloned human embryos: success at long last". Cell Stem Cell. 12 (6 ... Two commonly discussed types of human cloning are therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning. Therapeutic cloning would ... "Human somatic cell nuclear transfer using adult cells". Cell Stem Cell. 14 (6): 777-80. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2014.03.015. PMID ...
"Cloning, Stem Cells, and the Current National Debate: Incorporating Ethics into a Large Introductory Biology Course." Cell ... While most Christians do not support reproductive cloning, therapeutic cloning is a branch of cloning which has garnered ... Stem cell law Stem cell controversy Weasel, Lisa H., and Eric Jensen. "Language and Values in the Human Cloning Debate: A Web- ... "Cloning, like all science, must be used responsibly. Cloning humans is not desirable. But cloning sheep has its uses." On the ...
Kolb, A.F. (2002). "Genome Engineering Using Site-Specific Recombinases". Cloning & Stem Cells. 4 (1): 65-80. doi:10.1089/ ... Cell. 58 (4): 779-90. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(89)90111-6. PMID 2548736. S2CID 46508016. Stark, W.M.; Boocock, M.R. (1994). "The ... Cell. 82 (2): 193-207. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(95)90307-0. PMID 7628011. S2CID 15849525. Li, W.; Kamtekar, S; Xiong, Y; Sarkis, ... Cell. 25 (3): 721-8. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(81)90179-3. PMID 6269756. S2CID 28410571. Reed, R.R.; Moser, C.D. (1984). "Resolvase ...
"Amniotic Fluid Cells Are More Efficiently Reprogrammed to Pluripotency Than Adult Cells". Cloning Stem Cells. 12 (2): 117-25. ... doi:10.1089/cell.2009.0077. PMC 2998987. PMID 20677926. Copperman, KB; Schertz, JC; Witkin, G; Sandler, B; Brodman, M; ...
... a cell means to derive a population of cells from a single cell. In the case of unicellular organisms such as bacteria ... 24 January 2018). "Cloning of Macaque Monkeys by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer". Cell. 172 (4): 881-887.e7. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... However, in the case of cell cultures from multi-cellular organisms, cell cloning is an arduous task as these cells will not ... Two commonly discussed types of theoretical human cloning are therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning. Therapeutic cloning ...
Alice Park (17 April 2014). "Researchers Clone Cells From Two Adult Men". TIME. Retrieved 17 April 2014. "Leukaemia: Cardiff ... fat cells into brown, or "good," fat cells. Two compounds have already been shown to achieve this in human cells. 10 December ... "Stem cells created from a drop of blood: DIY finger-prick technique opens door for extensive stem cell banking". Science Daily ... "Stap cells: research paper on stem cell breakthrough was partly falsified". The Guardian. 1 April 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2014 ...
"Conservation Cloning"?". Cloning and Stem Cells. 11 (3): 341-346. doi:10.1089/clo.2009.0026. ISSN 1536-2302. PMID 19594389. ... "First Extinct-Animal Clone Created". news.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved 2017-06-29. Piña-Aguilar, Raul E.; Lopez-Saucedo, ...
... cloned cells of Celia taken by a research team are still being studied in attempt to create hybrids. Cells for this organism ... "conservation cloning"?". Cloning and Stem Cells. 11 (3): 341-346. doi:10.1089/clo.2009.0026. PMID 19594389. Burton, A. (2022). ... Celia provided suitable tissue samples for cloning. However, attempts to clone her highlighted a major problem: even if it were ... only certain extinct animals are candidates for cloning because of the need for a suitable proxy surrogate to carry the clone ...
Cloning and Stem Cells. 11 (3): 427-435. doi:10.1089/clo.2009.0024. PMID 19751112. Gamer LW, Wolfman NM, Celeste AJ, Hattersley ... No endogenous GDF11 production results in the cessation of stem cell DNA repair which causes stem cells to die off and their ... GDF11 fed mice saw 45.7% reduction in senescent liver cells and a 21.7% reduction in senescent kidney cells. GDF11 induces ... GDF11 induces tumor suppressive properties in human hepatocellular carcinoma-derived cells, Huh7 and Hep3B cell lines, ...
J. Cell Cloning. 10 (5): 269-76. doi:10.1002/stem.5530100504. PMID 1453013. Aplan PD, Lombardi DP, Reaman GH, Sather HN, ... T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia protein 1 (i.e. TAL1 but also termed stem cell leukemia/T-cell acute leukemia 1 [i.e. SCL/ ... Cell. Biol. 13 (2): 801-8. doi:10.1128/mcb.13.2.801. PMC 358963. PMID 8423803. TAL1+protein,+human at the U.S. National Library ... Cell. Biol. 10 (12): 6426-35. doi:10.1128/mcb.10.12.6426. PMC 362919. PMID 2247063. Chen Q, Cheng JT, Tasi LH, Schneider N, ...
Cloning and Stem Cells. 6 (4): 375-385. doi:10.1089/clo.2004.6.375. ISSN 1536-2302. PMID 15671666. Martins Da Silva, Sarah ... Martins da Silva's research investigates the functionality of sperm cells, particularly the sperm-specific calcium channel ... and investigated egg cell maturation and the development of the ovaries. Her advisor was Richard Anderson. In 2008 she ... activin A promotes germ cell survival and proliferation before primordial follicle formation". Developmental Biology. 266 (2): ...
Trounson's areas of interest include cloning, stem cells, biotechnology, cloning for agricultural industry, gene storage and in ... "Cloning and Stem Cells". Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. "ISSCR Officers". International Society for Stem Cell ... when in fact the cells were germ cells from a fetal rat. In 2003 he was appointed a Personal Chair as Professor of Stem Cell ... March 2007). "Cloning and Stem Cells". ISSN 1536-2302. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Clohesy, ...
Ihle JN, Askew D (1989). "Origins and properties of hematopoietic growth factor-dependent cell lines". Int J Cell Cloning. 9 (1 ... TF-1 cells are immortal cell line derived from the human Erythroleukemia used in biomedical research. This cells are ... Other cell lines in LL-100 panel Kitamura T, Tange T, Terasawa T, Chiba S, Kuwaki T, Miyagawa K, Piao YF, Miyazono K, Urabe A, ... Information on TF-1 in the ATCC catalog Cellosaurus entry for TF-1 (Human cell lines). ...
In cloning, the nucleus of a diploid cell from a donor organism is inserted into an enucleated egg cell and the cell is then ... Mature egg cells are produced by mitotic divisions, and these cells directly develop into embryos. In flowering plants, cells ... Cloning and Stem Cells. 10 (1): 11-24. doi:10.1089/clo.2007.0063. PMID 18092905. Williams, Chris. "Stem cell fraudster made ' ... "Patient-Specific Stem Cell Lines Derived from Human Parthenogenetic Blastocysts". Cloning and Stem Cells. 9 (3): 432-449. doi: ...
They may also be created by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) into an egg cell of another species, creating a cloned embryo ... 1] Fulka Jr, J.; Loi, P.; Ptak, G.; Fulka, H.; John, J. (2009). "Hope for the mammoth?". Cloning and Stem Cells. 11 (1): 1-4. ... The remaining inner cell mass can be injected into a blastocele of the recipient species to acquire its trophoblastic cells. It ... In this experiment, nuclei from cells taken from abdominal muscles of giant pandas were transferred to egg cells of rabbits and ...
Maienschein, Jane (2009-06-30). Whose View of Life? Embryos, Cloning, and Stem Cells. Harvard University Press. p. 120. ISBN ... He coined the word "clone" in 1903 and was the first to use it to describe a colony of organisms derived asexually from a ... Enacting Conservation and Biomedicine: Cloning Animals of Endangered Species. p. 58. ISBN 9780549132806. "Father of Cornell ...
"Stem cell cloning ban overturned". News.com.au. 6 December 2006. Retrieved 31 August 2007.[dead link] "Andrews sets out ... In taking a stance against stem cell research in 2002, he stated that it was the "first time" that "human beings can be treated ... cite news}}: Check ,url= value (help)[dead link] "Politicians prepare to vote on stem cell issue". Australian Broadcasting ... as a commodity". He also took a stance against stem cell research during a debate in 2006, which resulted in the overturning of ...
Cloning, and Stem Cells". Maienschein and Manfred Laubichler collaborated to co-write: "From Embryology to Evo-Devo: A History ... Maienschein researched the history and philosophy of developmental biology as well as issues surrounding stem cell research and ... In 2009, Maienschein presented, with Tedx Talks on "Stem Cells, Regenerative Medicine and Us". In November 2010, Maienschein ...
Cyranoski, David (2007-11-14). "Cloned monkey stem cells produced". Nature News. doi:10.1038/news.2007.245. White-house, David ... Semos - a nine-year-old male rhesus macaque at the Oregon National Primate Research Center who supplied the skin cells from ... Tetra - a rhesus macaque at the Oregon National Primate Research Center who was the first cloned primate, created through ... 14 January 2000). "Scientists 'clone' monkey". BBC News. "Stranger Than Fiction: Jack the Signalman". www.knoxvilledailysun.com ...
"Somatic Cell Cloning without Micromanipulators". Cloning. 3 (2): 89-95. doi:10.1089/15204550152475590. PMID 11900643. Vajta, G ... "Birth of a cloned calf derived from a vitrified hand-made cloned embryo". Reproduction, Fertility and Development. 15 (7): 361- ... OPS is also regarded as the most appropriate carrier tool for vitrification of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Vajta, G. B ... All work is done by hand, with simple handheld tools (blade and micropipette). The first cloned animals in Africa and ...
Lindström, Sara; Larsson, Rolf; Svahn, Helene Andersson (2008-03-01). "Towards high-throughput single cell/clone cultivation ... cell culture and detection of antimicrobial activity. The enormous growth in studies of whole live cells has led to an entirely ... "High-density microwell chip for culture and analysis of stem cells". PLOS ONE. 4 (9): e6997. Bibcode:2009PLoSO...4.6997L. doi: ... modified using an oxygen plasma discharge to make their surfaces more hydrophilic so that it becomes easier for adherent cells ...
Clones of alloreactive T cells. Nature 272:617-8. Kimoto, Masao, and Fathman, C. Garrison. (1981) Antigen-reactive T cell ... His research centers on a molecular and cellular understanding of CD4 T cell responsiveness in mice and man. President of the ... 1996) Monoclonal T cells identified in early NOD islet infiltrates. Immunity 4:189-194. Anandasabapathy, Niroshana, Ford, ... 2004) Two isoforms of otubain 1 regulate T cell anergy via GRAIL. Nat Immunol 5:45-54. Kodama, Keiichi, Butte, Atul J., Creusot ...
"Green light for stem cell clones". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013. ... Newcastle University was the first in the UK and the second in Europe to receive a licence to perform research on stem cells ... Newcastle University is now a leading institution in the development of stem cell technology being the first in the United ... Many new healthcare developments have arisen from this stem cell expertise in the region.[citation needed] Today the region has ...
Genetics, Stem Cell Research, and Cloning. Kregel, 2004. Kilner, John F., co-authored. Biotechnology and the Human Good. ... Stem Cell Research, and Cloning. Reviewed and discussed in Bevington, Linda K., Ray G. Bohlin, Gary P. Stewart, John F. Kilner ... and C. Christopher Hook (2004). Genetics, Stem Cell Research, and Cloning. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Kregel. He has also written ... Kilner, John F., and C. Ben Mitchell (2003). Does God Need Our Help? Cloning, Assisted Suicide, & Other Challenges in Bioethics ...
Evan Snyder clones the first neural stem cells from the human central nervous system of a fetus in 1998, offering the ... "Nerve Cell Clones Repair Brain Damage". The Harvard University Gazette. Archived from the original on 3 October 1999. Retrieved ... a young patient with sickle cell disease, to try Hydroxyurea, a drug used to treat blood cancer, to treat her sickle cell ... even in the absence of conventional T-helper cells. In addition, NKT cells respond to a different class of antigens that are ...
Clone (cell biology) Nossal, G. J. V. & Lederberg, J. (1958). "Antibody production by single cells". Nature. 181: 1419-1420. ... The expansion of a particular clone of immune B cells is usually interpreted by clinicians as evidence of unrestricted cell ... This differentiation and activation of the B cell occurs most rapidly after exposure to antigen by antigen-presenting cells in ... The process of immunological B-cell maturation involves transformation from an undifferentiated B cell to one that secretes ...
Cloning of human cells is a technology that holds the potential to cure many diseases and provide a source of exactly matched ... One cloning technology that has been developed for mammalian and human cells is somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). SCNT is a ... They derived several human embryonic stem cell lines from these cloned embryos whose DNA was an exact match to the adult cell ... This was the first successful reprogramming of human somatic cells into embryonic stem cells using a cloning technique, SCNT. ...
... have been cloned by transfer of a nucleus from a somatic cell into an egg cell (oocyte) that has had its nucleus removed. This ... Here we describe the cloning of two Afghan hounds by nuclear transfer from adult skin cells into oocytes that had matured in ... the ability to clone dogs by somatic-cell nuclear transfer should help to determine genetic and environmental contributions to ... Attempts to clone dogs using the method that made Dolly have failed due to the difficulty of maturing canine oocytes in vitro. ...
... Nature. 1973 Jun 22;243(5408):441-5. doi: 10.1038/243441a0. ...
Stem Cell Cloning Law, Science, Religion Air Date 02/04/2008 Dr. George Daley and correspondent Robert Bazell discuss the ... Science Series: Stem Cell Research Society, Health, Science Air Date 05/16/2007 As part of Charlies ongoing Science Series, co ... Political scientist Sheila Jasanoff discusses Senator Bill Frists support of a bill funding stem cell research. 10:10 *Play ... and ethics of new developments in embryonic stem cell cloning. ... Harold Ford, Jr.; Barbara Lippert; Stem Cell Cloning. See ...
"Clone Cells" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Clone Cells" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Clone Cells" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & ... Renegade T cell clones and autoimmune disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2023 08; 120(31):e2310236120. ...
Stem Cell Research and Cloning. The Church boldly defends and protects human life in all cases. Catholic teaching on difficult ... like stem cell research and cloning, must be understood in order to recognize and respect all human life. Take time to learn ...
Clone: Polyclonal, Size: 5 MG   at Fishersci.com ... Shop Bio X Cell InVivoMab polyclonal rabbit IgG, ... Bio X Cell InVivoMab polyclonal rabbit IgG, Clone: Polyclonal, Size: 5 MG ...
... purified from hybridoma cell culture; Synonyms: 抗CD227抗体,抗EMA抗体,抗H23AG抗体,抗KL-6抗体,抗MAM6抗体,抗PEMT抗体,抗PEM抗体,抗PUM抗体,抗ムチン1抗体; find ... "モノクローナル抗MUC1抗体 マウス宿主抗体 clone 1D1, ... Monoclonal Anti-MUC1 (mouse IgG1 isotype) is derived from the hybridoma 1D1 produced by the fusion of mouse myeloma cells and ... Mucin 1 (Muc1) exhibits protective action by binding to pathogens and
Lecture 30: Stem Cells/Cloning 2. author: Robert A. Weinberg, Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT ...
This procedure allows cell-free cloning of individual synthetic DNA molecules that cannot be cloned in Escherichia coli, for ... It also allows cell-free cloning of genomic DNA isolated from bacteria. This DNA can be sequenced directly from the phi29 DNA ... Cell-free cloning of single circular molecules by using phi29 DNA polymerase was achieved by carrying out the amplification ... Cell-free cloning has many potential applications to both natural and synthetic DNA. These include environmental DNA samples ...
The authors apply LACIS to primary T cells after CRISPR-Cas9 editing of CXCR4 and show that selection of edited clones was ... Briefly, after electroporation of primary T cells with CXCR4-targeting Cas9 ribonucleoproteins, single T cells are isolated on ... Using this method, single-clone editing efficiencies, including the rate of mono- and bi-allelic indels or precise nucleotide ... Here, we establish a method to enable clonal isolation, selection, and expansion of properly edited cells, using ...
O clone resultante tem o DNA cromossómico idêntico ao animal original. Mas o DNA mitocondrial é frequentemente diferente já que ... Embora o DNA cromossómico do clone seja o mesmo do dador do núcleo, ele pode ter DNA mitocondrial diferente, uma vez que as ... Embora os clones possam ser produzidos dividindo um embrião inicial-semelhante ao que acontece naturalmente com gémeos ... Ayala, Francisco J. "Cloning Humans? Biological, Ethical, and Social Considerations." Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
Clone: 29F.1A12, Size: 25 MG   at Fishersci.com ... Shop Bio X Cell InVivoMab anti-mouse PD-1 (CD279), ... Bio X Cell InVivoMab anti-mouse PD-1 (CD279), Clone: 29F.1A12, Size: 25 MG. ... InVivoMab anti-mouse PD-1 (CD279), Clone: 29F.1A12, Size: 25 MG, Isotype: rat IgG2a, kappa, Applications: in vivo blocking of ...
Bayesian inference of clone-specific gene expression estimates by integrating single-cell RNA-seq and single-cell DNA-seq data ... Bayesian inference of clone-specific gene expression estimates by integrating single-cell RNA-seq and single-cell DNA-seq data ... A clonealign_fit for 200 cells, 100 genes, and 3 clones To access clone assignments, call x$clone To access ML parameter ... Bayesian inference of clone-specific gene expression estimates by integrating single-cell RNA-seq and single-cell DNA-seq data ...
... clone RM101, purified immunoglobulin; Synonyms: pan acetyl Lysine; find Sigma-Aldrich-SAB5600275 MSDS, related peer-reviewed ...
... that we recently cloned. One positive clone of 3,588 bp was identified. Transfection of this cDNA into COS cells resulted in ... Cloning, characterization, and expression of a human calcitonin receptor from an ovarian carcinoma cell line.. ... Cloning, characterization, and expression of a human calcitonin receptor from an ovarian carcinoma cell line.. ... A human ovarian small cell carcinoma line (BIN-67) expresses abundant calcitonin (CT) receptors (CTR) (143,000 per cell) that ...
... human stem cell research, fetal tissue and human embryos, and cloning. ... Bioethics, Stem Cell Research and Cloning Talking Points and Basic Information:. Stem Cell Research: Talking Points. Daily ... The heated debate in our society over reproductive cloning, as well as therapeutic cloning to obtain embryonic stem cells, has ... Scientists clone first human embryos (2013, Live Action). Ethical Stem-Cell Researcher Wins Nobel Prize for Medicine (2012, The ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
... is present in B-cell clones of diverse malignant origin: probing a potential anti-tumor target for psychotropics FASEB J 2005 ... "The serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) is present in B-cell clones of diverse malignant origin: probing a potential anti-tumor ... SERT was readily detected in derived B cell lines with origins as diverse as B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, ... is present in B-cell clones of diverse malignant origin: probing a potential anti-tumor target for psychotropics" FASEB J. 2005 ...
We have purified and cloned a HeLa cell nuclear protein that strongly stimulates binding of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone ... Purification, cloning, and RXR identity of the HeLa cell factor with which RAR or TR heterodimerizes to bind target sequences ... We have purified and cloned a HeLa cell nuclear protein that strongly stimulates binding of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone ... have also been cloned, and their interactions with RARs and TRs have been investigated. Under conditions where RAR, RXR, and TR ...
Bioethics, Stem Cell / Cloning ,. May 14, 2018. Mary Anns Story: A Journey of Faith (An Adult Stem Cell Success Story). Mrs. ... Bioethics, Stem Cell / Cloning ,. May 14, 2018. Cloning: Where Will It All End?. Rev. Robert Fleischmann, National Director, ... Bioethics, Other Health Issues, Stem Cell / Cloning ,. May 14, 2018. Embryonic Stem Cell Research: Peoples Arguments and A ... Stem Cell / Cloning ,. May 14, 2018. The Moral Status of the Human Embryo. By Paul R. Boehlke, Ph.D., Wisconsin Lutheran ...
... is present in B-cell clones of diverse malignant origin: probing a potential antitumor target for psychotropics FASEB J 2005 ... "The serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) is present in B-cell clones of diverse malignant origin: probing a potential antitumor ... SERT was readily detected in derived B cell lines with origins as diverse as B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, ... is present in B-cell clones of diverse malignant origin: probing a potential antitumor target for psychotropics" FASEB J. 2005 ...
RedaSoft Visual Cloning Lenti-Vector Plasmids. PCR primer design, Protein sequence, BLAST, FASTA ... biology cells notes biology cells parts biology cells pdf biology cells practice test biology cells questions biology cells ... gcse biology cells study biology cells study guide biology cells test biology cells unit biology cells unit test biology cells ... quiz biology cells quiz 3 biology cells quizlet biology cells review biology cells revision flashcards gcse biology cells ...
... or somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), is the technique used to produce Dolly the sheep, the first animal to be produced as a ... Explore Stem Cells. Cloning, or somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), is the technique used to produce Dolly the sheep, the ... Cloned animals. This form of cloning is unrelated to stem cell research. In most countries, it is illegal to attempt ... In therapeutic cloning, the blastocyst is not transferred to a womb. Instead, embryonic stem cells are isolated from the cloned ...
Cloning, Stem Cells and the Bible - Mike Riddle. $0.00. - $9.95. Everything you need to know about cloning and stem cells as it ...
ALK and ROS1 Clones from CST Featured in Latest Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. ... Cell Signaling Technology®, CST™,D5F3® and D4D6® are registered trademarks of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc. ... Cell Signaling Technology (CST) is a private, family-owned company, founded by scientists and dedicated to providing high ... Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.. Director of Marketing Communications. Phone: 978-867-2382. email: [email protected] ...
Human Cloning & Stem Cell Research *Stand up against abortion. Often aborted babies are harvested for Stem Cell Research. Pray ... Stem Cell &Human Cloning Awareness * *Ministries & Offices *List Alphabetically *Search by Resource *Request a Papal Blessing * ... Cloning/Stem Cell & Conscience Protection *Capital Punishment/Violence & Peace *Adoption/Foster Care *Charities & Life Issues * ... Stem Cell & Human Cloning Awareness. From Donum Vitae (4):. "If the embryos are living, whether viable or not, they must be ...
5 the man ``manufactured approximately 321 cloned phones by transferring illegally obtained/stolen cell phone numbers into ... A Central City man has been charged in connection with cloning more than 300 stolen cellular phones. Between Oct. 1, 1997, and ... Central City man is charged in cloning of 321 cell phones. By Deseret News ... SHARE Central City man is charged in cloning of 321 cell phones CLOSE. ...
Characterization and Cloning of MHC Class I Sequences From Choriocarcinoma JEG-3 Cells ... Ward, Joanne (1989) Characterization and Cloning of MHC Class I Sequences From Choriocarcinoma JEG-3 Cells. PhD thesis, ...
  • The therapeutic potential of cloned human cells has been demonstrated by another study using human oocytes to reprogram adult cells of a type 1 diabetic. (news-medical.net)
  • Although attempts have not yet been made to create a therapeutic transplant from embryonic stem cells, the methods have been developed to allow the creation of functional, mature cells using human cell cloning technology. (news-medical.net)
  • The heated debate in our society over reproductive cloning, as well as therapeutic cloning to obtain embryonic stem cells, has been fueled by misconceptions and hyperbole on both sides. (flfamily.org)
  • Following our previous description of the serotonin transporter (SERT) acting as a conduit to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-mediated apoptosis, specifically in Burkitt's lymphoma, we now detail its expression among a broad spectrum of B cell malignancy, while exploring additional SERT substrates for potential therapeutic activity. (erowid.org)
  • In therapeutic cloning, the blastocyst is not transferred to a womb. (eurostemcell.org)
  • Another long-term hope for therapeutic cloning is that it could be used to generate cells that are genetically identical to a patient. (eurostemcell.org)
  • To date, no human embryonic stem cell lines have been derived using therapeutic cloning, so both these possibilities remain very much in the future. (eurostemcell.org)
  • From the ethical point of view, so-called therapeutic cloning is even more serious. (archdiocese-no.org)
  • Therapeutic cloning, which creates embryonic stem cells . (medlineplus.gov)
  • This led to the development of therapeutic cloning as a source for genetically matching replacement cells for patients with degenerative diseases. (ed.ac.uk)
  • However, therapeutic cloning depends on the availability of human eggs, which are in very limited supply. (ed.ac.uk)
  • 5. In 2001, France and Germany requested the United Nations General Assembly to develop international conventions on human reproductive cloning, therapeutic cloning and research on stem cells. (who.int)
  • With this background information as a foundation, we then discuss each of the key questions in relation to the upcoming therapeutic trial and critically assess if the time is ripe for clinical translation of parthenogenetic stem cell technology in Parkinson's disease. (lu.se)
  • To clone a human CTR (hCTR), a BIN-67 cDNA library was screened using a cDNA probe from a porcine renal CTR (pCTR) that we recently cloned. (jci.org)
  • Transfection of this cDNA into COS cells resulted in expression of receptors with high affinity for salmon CT (Kd = approximately 0.44 nM) and for human CT (Kd = approximately 5.4 nM). (jci.org)
  • The cloned cDNA encodes a putative peptide of 490 amino acids with seven potential transmembrane domains. (jci.org)
  • Many of the novel cDNA sequences that were highly represented in the library showed a relative specificity to β-cells compared with other tissues, including glucagonoma, liver, kidney, brain, 3T3 fibroblasts, and AtT20 corticotrophs, and warrant further investigation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The products in this section are designed for molecular cloning of cDNA, gene, PCR fragments (up to 15kb) and also the construction of libraries for much larger fragments (up to 40kb) such as fosmids. (cambio.co.uk)
  • A cDNA clone coding for a membrane proteoglycan core protein was isolated from a neonatal rat Schwann cell cDNA library by screening with an oligonucleotide based on a conserved sequence in cDNAs coding for previously described proteoglycan core proteins. (rupress.org)
  • On Northern blots the cDNA hybridized to a single 5.6-kb mRNA that was present in Schwann cells, neonatal rat brain, rat heart, and rat smooth muscle cells. (rupress.org)
  • Our Stellar Competent Cells can be used in a wide variety of applications-from preparation of cDNA and genomic libraries to construction of longer-length genomic libraries, subcloning, and even methylated DNA cloning. (takarabio.com)
  • cDNA encoding variable regions could be amplified from single hybridoma cells isolated by micromanipulation. (lu.se)
  • Generation and characterization of infectious molecular clones of transmitted/founder HIV-1 subtype C viruses. (harvard.edu)
  • Despite improvements in the CRISPR molecular toolbox, identifying and purifying properly edited clones remains slow, laborious, and low-yield. (nature.com)
  • So that it features which are useful for molecular cloning experiments. (biologyexams4u.com)
  • 1990. Cell replication and unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) activity of low molecular weight chlorinated paraffins in the rat liver in vivo. (cdc.gov)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular cloning of an oxytocin/vasopressin-like receptor and its ligand from arthropods. (lu.se)
  • By transferring adult cell DNA into an embryonic stem cell, it is possible to create a line of immortal embryonic cells that are able to develop into any type of adult cell, genetically identical to the donor. (news-medical.net)
  • We tested whether the cloned dogs were genetically identical by microsatellite analysis of genomic DNA from the donor Afghan, the cloned dogs and the surrogates (see supplementary information ). (nature.com)
  • Analysis of eight canine-specific microsatellite loci confirmed that the cloned dogs were genetically identical to their donor dog. (nature.com)
  • A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. (harvard.edu)
  • These stem cells are genetically matched to the donor organism, holding promise for studying genetic disease. (eurostemcell.org)
  • Somatic cell cloning (cloning or nuclear transfer) is a technique in which the nucleus (DNA) of a somatic cell is transferred into an enucleated metaphase-II oocyte for the generation of a new individual, genetically identical to the somatic cell donor (Figure 1 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, the clone would be genetically identical to the nucleus donor only if the egg came from the same donor or from her maternal line. (who.int)
  • Beyond this scientific interest, the commercial concern in animal cloning focuses on replicating large numbers of genetically identical animals, especially those derived from a progenitor that has been modified genetically. (who.int)
  • The resulting group of genetically identical cells (called a clone) produces a large quantity. (msdmanuals.com)
  • SCNT is a method of cloning mammalian cells that can be used to create personalized embryonic stem cells from an adult animal or human. (news-medical.net)
  • Dr. Wurm reported that 70% of the $20-billion to $30-billion annual bioproducts inventory is generated with mammalian cells, and the gap separating them from other approaches (yeast, bacteria, baculovirus, transgenic plants, and animals) is only growing wider. (genengnews.com)
  • We anticipate that mammalian cells will continue to dominate bioproduction for the next 10 years as new technologies carry the process forward. (genengnews.com)
  • These include environmental DNA samples that have proven difficult to clone and synthetic genes encoding toxic products. (jcvi.org)
  • Genes known to be highly expressed in β-cells were represented at a high frequency, namely insulin (15 of 80 clones), islet amyloid polypeptide (8 of 80 clones), proinsulin convertase 1 (6 of 80 clones), and neuropeptide Y (2 of 80 clones). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The cloned genes in these vectors are not expected to express themselves at the transcription or translation level. (biologyexams4u.com)
  • The approach was applied to five different hybridomas producing human monoclonal antibodies and variable regions for both bold gamma and mu heavy chain and kappa and lambda light chain genes were successfully cloned. (lu.se)
  • Scientists were initially interested in somatic-cell nuclear transfer as a means of determining whether genes remain functional even after most of them have been switched off as the cells in a developing organism assume their specialized functions as blood cells, muscle cells, and so forth. (who.int)
  • The fact that the DNA of a fully differentiated (adult) cell could be stimulated to revert to a condition comparable to that of a newly fertilized egg and to repeat the process of embryonic development demonstrates that all the genes in differentiated cells retain their functional capacity, although only a few are active. (who.int)
  • While the transfer of already existing genes from one cell to another characterized an earlier phase of the field of biotechnology, synthetic biology involves the design, assembly, synthesis, or manufacture of new genomes, biological pathways, devices or organisms not found in nature. (cdc.gov)
  • A second capability of synthetic biology involves the re-design of existing genes, cells or organisms for the purpose of gene therapy. (cdc.gov)
  • Modification of existing genes in living animal and human cells is enabled by engineered nucleases such as meganucleases, zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector-based nucleases, and the CRISPR-Cas system. (cdc.gov)
  • The thesis work would focus on identification of genes that are essential for the optimal functioning of the ubiquitin-proteasomal system in leukemic cells. (lu.se)
  • When genome editing induces a phenotypic alteration that is detectable by fluorescence (i.e., cell-surface expression of a target that can be non-lethally assessed with fluorescently labeled antibody), FACS provides a method of enriching edited cells 9 , narrowing the number of clones to propagate and analyze. (nature.com)
  • DANVERS, MA (PRWEB) - June 22, 2018 Cell Signaling Technology (CST), a leading provider of antibodies, kits, and services announced that two of its antibody clones, ALK (D5F3®) and ROS1 (D4D6®), were featured in an article authored by the Tumor Biomarker Experts of the Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology. (cellsignal.com)
  • The ALK (D5F3®) and ROS1 (D4D6®) antibody clones recognize both the normal protein and the oncogenic fusion proteins and are therefore important tools for preliminarily identifying patients that may benefit from treatment with first-line or second-line drugs that specifically inhibit the activity of the fusion proteins. (cellsignal.com)
  • Mx9/9 is a CD4 clone bearing an antigen receptor recognized by the Mx9 anti-V beta 8 monoclonal antibody (MoAb). (ox.ac.uk)
  • This approach will permit analysis of B cell clonal ontogeny, antibody diversity and lymphoma cell progression and heterogeneity. (lu.se)
  • in which abnormal plasma cells multiply and produce excessive amounts of an antibody that damages organs. (msdmanuals.com)
  • This has led to a lot of interest in SCNT, which is best known as the method used to pioneer whole animal cloning technology, such as Dolly the sheep. (news-medical.net)
  • A ovelha Dolly, produzida em 1996, foi o primeiro clone de um animal adulto mas várias outras espécies foram clonados desde então, incluindo cães e gatos. (jove.com)
  • Cloning, or somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), is the technique used to produce Dolly the sheep, the first animal to be produced as a genetic copy of another adult. (eurostemcell.org)
  • To produce Dolly, the cloned blastocyst was transferred into the womb of a recipient ewe, where it developed and when born quickly became the world's most famous lamb. (eurostemcell.org)
  • The most famous clone was a Scottish sheep named Dolly. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, his results and improved methods inspired researchers at The Roslin Institute to use nuclear transfer to clone sheep and produce Dolly the Sheep, the first animal to be cloned from an adult cell. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Together, Gurdon's and the Dolly team's successes introduced the concept of reprogramming the DNA of specialized cells to be able to make new organisms or new stem cells. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Although many species produce clonal offspring in this fashion, Dolly, the lamb born in 1996 at a research institute in Scotland, was the first asexually produced mammalian clone. (who.int)
  • Somatic-cell nuclear transfer, the technique by which Dolly was created, was first used 40 years ago in research with tadpoles and frogs. (who.int)
  • Cloning, characterization, and expression of a human calcitonin receptor from an ovarian carcinoma cell line. (jci.org)
  • One cloning technology that has been developed for mammalian and human cells is somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). (news-medical.net)
  • This was the first successful reprogramming of human somatic cells into embryonic stem cells using a cloning technique, SCNT. (news-medical.net)
  • Successful somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) depends on the quality, availability and maturation of the animal's unfertilized oocytes. (nature.com)
  • Figure 1: Dog cloned by somatic-cell nuclear transfer. (nature.com)
  • a , Snuppy, the first cloned dog, at 67 days after birth (right), with the three-year-old male Afghan hound (left) whose somatic skin cells were used to clone him. (nature.com)
  • Cloning by nuclear transfer using mammalian somatic cells has enormous potential application. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, somatic cloning has been inefficient in all species in which live clones have been produced. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These developmental defects have been attributed to incomplete reprogramming of the somatic nuclei by the cloning process. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because cattle are a species widely used for nuclear transfer studies, and more laboratories have succeeded in cloning cattle than any other specie, this review will be focused on somatic cell cloning of cattle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Schematic diagram of the somatic cloning process. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The somatic cell and the oocyte is then fused (f) and the embryos is allowed to develop to a blastocyst in vitro (g). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Developmental defects, including abnormalities in cloned fetuses and placentas, in addition to high rates of pregnancy loss and neonatal death have been encountered by every research team studying somatic cloning. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The nucleus of an adult somatic cell (such as a skin cell) is removed and transferred to an enucleated egg, which is then stimulated with electric current or chemicals to activate cell division. (who.int)
  • if it implants and the pregnancy goes to term, the resulting individual will carry the same nuclear genetic material as the donor of the adult somatic cell. (who.int)
  • Welcome to Reportergene IMAGE clones, Plasmids & Lentivectors! (reportergene.com)
  • This product is not a suitable cloning host, so for transformation, it is highly recommended to use this product for constructing plasmids as mentioned above. (takarabio.com)
  • The high efficiency of Stellar Competent Cells was especially noticeable in the transformation of 10 kb and 20 kb plasmids. (takarabio.com)
  • Using DNA plasmids of 2 kb (100 pg), 10 kb (1 ng), and 20 kb (1 ng), each strain of competent cells was transformed and plated on ampicillin-containing LB agar plates. (takarabio.com)
  • Any DNA molecule that has the ability to replicate inside the host to which the desired gene is integrated for cloning- include plasmids, bacteriophages, cosmids, BAC, yeast vectors, shuttle vectors etc. (biologyexams4u.com)
  • Cosmid can be defined as the hybrid vectors derived from plasmids that contain cos site of phage which is essential for packaging of nucleic acid into protein coat plus essential features of plasmids and several unique restriction sites for the insertion of DNA to be cloned. (biologyexams4u.com)
  • Cell engineering through gene editing is fundamentally a two-step bioprocess. (nature.com)
  • corresponding to the copy number of each gene in each clone. (github.com)
  • This E. coli HST08 strain provides high transformation efficiency and since these cells lack the gene cluster for cutting foreign methylated DNA ( mrr-hsdRMS-mcrBC and mcrA ), they are very useful for cloning methylated DNA. (takarabio.com)
  • The cells can also be used for blue/white screening (i.e., alpha-complementation) when transformed with vectors containing the lacZ alpha gene. (takarabio.com)
  • Stellar Competent Cells lack the gene cluster for cutting foreign methylated DNA ( mrr-hsdRMS-mcrBC and mcrA ), and are therefore useful for cloning methylated DNA. (takarabio.com)
  • 2. Nuclear transfer is a technique used to duplicate genetic material by creating an embryo through the transfer and fusion of a diploid cell in an enucleated female oocyte.2 Cloning has a broader meaning than nuclear transfer as it also involves gene replication and natural or induced embryo splitting (see Annex 1). (who.int)
  • Pro-cloning forces have been working hard to convince state governments to pass constitutional amendments enshrining a "right" to clone and to destroy embryos for research. (flfamily.org)
  • Some prohibit only cloning for reproductive purposes and allow the creation of cloned human embryos for research, whereas others prohibit the creation of cloned embryos for any purpose. (who.int)
  • In lymphocytic neoplastic diseases such as multiple myeloma and lymphoma, but also other illnesses, there can be a massive expansion of a single B-cell clone, detectable by measuring the excessively-produced antibodies, measured in a serum protein electrophoresis test or peripheral blood flow cytometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • A majority of neoplastic clones were sensitive to one or more of the serotonergic compounds. (erowid.org)
  • Leukemias are a group of heterogeneous neoplastic disorders of white blood cells. (medscape.com)
  • The neoplastic cell is a hypoproliferative, immunologically incompetent small lymphocyte. (medscape.com)
  • Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is a group of neoplastic disorders of the hematopoietic precursor cells of the bone marrow. (medscape.com)
  • AML is not a disorder of rapidly proliferating neoplastic cells. (medscape.com)
  • A failure of maturation of the neoplastic cell clone exists. (medscape.com)
  • When the cloning process is used in this way, to produce a living duplicate of an existing animal, it is commonly called reproductive cloning. (eurostemcell.org)
  • In most countries, it is illegal to attempt reproductive cloning in humans. (eurostemcell.org)
  • 2. Over the years, the international community has tried without success to build a consensus on an international convention against the reproductive cloning of human beings. (who.int)
  • 3. Creating awareness among ministries of health in the African Region will provide them with critical and relevant information on the reproductive cloning of human beings and its implications to the health status of the general population. (who.int)
  • 7. The WHO Regional Committee for Africa is invited to review this document for information and guidance concerning reproductive cloning of human beings. (who.int)
  • 3. Media reports on nuclear transfer are usually about one form, reproductive nuclear transfer, also known as reproductive cloning of human beings . (who.int)
  • Elaboration of an international convention against reproductive cloning of human beings has been under consideration in the United Nations since December 2001 when the subject was included in the agenda of the fifty- sixth session as a supplementary agenda item at the request of France and Germany. (who.int)
  • Such an expansion is said to be "monoclonal", and monoclonal antibodies produced by such a group of B cells can cause illnesses such as amyloidosis and lupus, or can be indicative of an underlying malignancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monoclonal Anti-MUC1 (mouse IgG1 isotype) is derived from the hybridoma 1D1 produced by the fusion of mouse myeloma cells and splenocytes from BALB/c mice immunized with semi-purified MUC1 from pleural effusion of a breast cancer patient. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Kits are available with both electrocompetent and chemically competent cells. (cambio.co.uk)
  • Clone (cell biology) Nossal, G. J. V. & Lederberg, J. (1958). (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology plays a dominant role in cell performance," Dr. Wurm added, believing that the karyotypic makeup of the transfected cell lines needs to be carefully monitored during expansion. (genengnews.com)
  • Synthetic biology is playing an increasing role in the commercial bioeconomy as providers of biological designs, optimized biological molecules, laboratory suppliers of customer-specified DNA, RNA, enzymes and cell-cloning services, and in drug development. (cdc.gov)
  • They derived several human embryonic stem cell lines from these cloned embryos whose DNA was an exact match to the adult cell that donated the DNA. (news-medical.net)
  • The adult cell nuclei were transferred into metaphase-II stage human oocytes, producing a karyotypically normal diploid embryonic stem cell line from each of the adult male donor cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Dr. George Daley of the Harvard Stem Cell Institute and NBC science correspondent Robert Bazell discuss the significance, legality, and ethics of new developments in embryonic stem cell cloning. (charlierose.com)
  • Political scientist Sheila Jasanoff discusses Senator Bill Frist's support of a bill funding stem cell research. (charlierose.com)
  • As part of Charlie's ongoing Science Series, co-host Sir Paul Nurse and a panel of scientists tackle the controversial subject of stem cell research. (charlierose.com)
  • Colorimetric Barcoding to Track, Isolate, and Analyze Hematopoietic Stem Cell Clones. (harvard.edu)
  • Catholic teaching on difficult issues, like stem cell research and cloning, must be understood in order to recognize and respect all human life. (catholicscomehome.org)
  • Moreover, even when high-purity single-cell sorting can be achieved, viability after sorting is often low to moderate, especially for cell types that are particularly sensitive to hydrodynamic stress or low-density culture conditions (e.g., primary cells or pluripotent stem cell lines). (nature.com)
  • Paul Wagle, M.A., discusses his experience with a life-saving adult stem cell treatment, and the importance of promoting ethical approaches to medical research. (flfamily.org)
  • What is cloning, and what does it have to do with stem cell research? (eurostemcell.org)
  • This form of cloning is unrelated to stem cell research. (eurostemcell.org)
  • Often aborted babies are harvested for Stem Cell Research. (archdiocese-no.org)
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved omidubicel-onlv (Omisirge) for reducing infections and hastening neutrophil recovery for blood cancer patients aged 12 years and older who are undergoing allogeneic umbilical cord blood stem cell transplants. (medscape.com)
  • Hastening the return of the body's white blood cells can reduce the possibility of serious or overwhelming infection associated with stem cell transplantation," Peter Marks, MD, PhD, director of the FDA's Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, said in an agency press release . (medscape.com)
  • Abbey Jenkins, president and CEO of Gamida, called the approval "a major advancement in the treatment of patients with hematologic malignancies that we believe may increase access to stem cell transplant and help improve patient outcomes. (medscape.com)
  • Adverse events are consistent with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation . (medscape.com)
  • Cite this: FDA OKs Stem Cell Therapy to Reduce Infection Risk in Blood Cancer Patients - Medscape - Apr 18, 2023. (medscape.com)
  • Are Stem Cell-Based Therapies for Parkinson's Disease Ready for the Clinic in 2016? (lu.se)
  • Based on discussions held by a global collaborative initiative on translation of stem cell therapy in Parkinson's disease, we have identified a set of key questions that we believe should be addressed ahead of every clinical stem cell-based transplantation trial in this disorder. (lu.se)
  • In this article, we first provide a short history of cell therapy in Parkinson's disease and briefly describe the current state-of-art regarding human stem cell-derived dopamine neurons for use in any patient trial. (lu.se)
  • Stem cell-based therapies for Parkinson's dis- ogy company International Stem Cell Corporation ease (PD) are rapidly moving towards clinical trials. (lu.se)
  • A second press release [2] has indicated stem cell source, resulting in widespread excitement that the program is planning to move forward very rapidly, with all of the patients being enrolled in the Correspondence to: Roger A. Barker, John van Geest Centre first quarter of 2016 and interim results being shared for Brain Repair, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Univer- in October 2016. (lu.se)
  • This complex of mb-1 and B29 polypeptides and immunoglobulin constitute the B cell Ag receptor. (neobiotechnologies.com)
  • Some of these cloned anti-clone cells proliferated after stimulation with irradiated Mx9/9 cells, but not after stimulation with other autologous cloned T cells or heterologous PBM, suggesting that these clones recognize the T cell receptor (TCR) of the Mx9/9 cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Between Oct. 1, 1997, and Jan. 5 the man "manufactured approximately 321 cloned phones by transferring illegally obtained/stolen cell phone numbers into cellular phones supplied by customers," charges filed in 3rd District Court say.The man then sold the cloned phones back to the customers, the charges state. (deseret.com)
  • WHA50.37 of 1997 argues that human cloning is ethically unacceptable and contrary to human integrity and morality. (who.int)
  • General Assembly the following year,3 and the World Medical Association's Resolution on Cloning, endorsed in 1997, have confronted the issue but lack binding legal force. (who.int)
  • Retrieved on December 04, 2023 from https://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/Cloning-Human-Cells.aspx. (news-medical.net)
  • Renegade T cell clones and autoimmune disease. (harvard.edu)
  • Current data suggest that oral lichen planus (OLP) is a T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease in which autocytotoxic CD8 + T cells trigger the apoptosis of oral epithelial cells. (medscape.com)
  • In humans, a major roadblock in achieving successful SCNT leading to embryonic stem cells has been the fact that human SCNT embryos fail to progress beyond the eight-cell stage. (news-medical.net)
  • Gurdon's results surprised the scientific community and stirred talk of the possibility of cloning other animals, including humans. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Embryonic stem cells are immortal, and have the potential to develop into any type of adult cell, even after months growing in culture dishes. (news-medical.net)
  • The cloning method is based on the fact that cytoplasmic factors in mature, metaphase II oocytes are able to reset the identity of a transplanted adult cell nucleus to an embryonic state. (news-medical.net)
  • Another successful attempt at human SCNT was made using cells from two adult males. (news-medical.net)
  • Here we describe the cloning of two Afghan hounds by nuclear transfer from adult skin cells into oocytes that had matured in vivo . (nature.com)
  • In this procedure, the nucleus of an egg cell is removed and replaced by the nucleus of a cell from another adult. (eurostemcell.org)
  • In Dolly's case, the cell came from the mammary gland of an adult ewe. (eurostemcell.org)
  • After being inserted into the egg, the adult cell nucleus is reprogrammed by the host cell. (eurostemcell.org)
  • After many divisions in culture, this single cell forms a blastocyst (an early stage embryo with about 100 cells) with almost identical DNA to the original donor who provided the adult cell - a genetic clone. (eurostemcell.org)
  • For example, stem cells could be generated using the nuclear transfer process described above, with the donor adult cell coming from a patient with diabetes or Alzheimer's. (eurostemcell.org)
  • Contrary to Briggs and King's results, these cells gave rise to adult frogs. (ed.ac.uk)
  • While his tadpoles matured to fully functioning adult frogs at the time, subsequent experiments trying to clone frogs using fully adult cells only produced tadpoles that did not mature. (ed.ac.uk)
  • As a result, the need to be able to directly reprogram adult cells developed. (ed.ac.uk)
  • A factory produces a contaminated product, and the lives of a cell connect a retired person on a limited income to a young adult consuming the same product in a different county. (cdc.gov)
  • Instead, embryonic stem cells are isolated from the cloned blastocyst. (eurostemcell.org)
  • The blastocyst can then be transferred to a recipient (h) and cloned animals are born after completion of gestation (i). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Currently, the efficiency for nuclear transfer is between 0-10%, i.e., 0-10 live births after transfer of 100 cloned embryos. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Various strategies have been employed to modify donor cells and the nuclear transfer procedure in attempts to improve the efficiency of nuclear transfer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although the efficiency of nuclear transfer has been dramatically improved from the initial success rate of one live clone born from 277 embryo transfers [ 1 ], none of the aforementioned efforts abolished the common problems associated with nuclear transfer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Briggs and King were the first to perform cloning by nuclear transfer using eggs and cells from the Northern Leopard Frog, Rana pipiens . (ed.ac.uk)
  • Gurdon used the technique of nuclear transfer to remove the DNA from a tadpole's intestinal cell and place it into an egg cell. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (harvard.edu)
  • The most important requirement for recombinant DNA technology is the cloning vector and expression vectors. (biologyexams4u.com)
  • Cloning describes the processes used to create an exact genetic replica of another cell, tissue or organism. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This observation led to the belief that the DNA in specialised cells was 'fixed' and could not be used to produce a new organism. (ed.ac.uk)
  • A clone is an organism that is a genetic copy of an existing one. (who.int)
  • This procedure allows cell-free cloning of individual synthetic DNA molecules that cannot be cloned in Escherichia coli, for example synthetic phage genomes carrying lethal mutations. (jcvi.org)
  • In sexual reproduction, clones are created when a fertilized egg splits to produce identical (monozygous) twins with identical genomes. (who.int)
  • Cloning vectors are used for obtaining millions of copies of the cloned DNA fragments. (biologyexams4u.com)
  • The term applies not only to entire organisms but also to copies of molecules (such as DNA) and cells. (who.int)
  • Cell-free cloning of single circular molecules by using phi29 DNA polymerase was achieved by carrying out the amplification reactions in very small volumes, typically 600 nl. (jcvi.org)
  • When combined with functional or immunological screening procedures, the approach will be useful for the isolation of β-cell-specific molecules for immunological and genetic investigations of β-cell function and pathology. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The difference in transformation efficiencies of the competent cells was particularly prominent when cloning 20 kb fragments. (takarabio.com)
  • A vector used to clone DNA fragments of 100-300 kb insert size in E.coli cells. (biologyexams4u.com)
  • Localized heterochrony integrates overgrowth potential of oncogenic clones. (harvard.edu)
  • ALK and ROS act as oncogenic fusion partners to an array of proteins and have been identified as tumor drivers in non-small cell lung carcinomas. (cellsignal.com)
  • Parkin pathway activation mitigates glioma cell proliferation and predicts patient survival. (cellosaurus.org)
  • Anti-V beta 8 MoAbs activate and induce cell proliferation of this clone. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The proliferation of the Mx9/9 stimulated cloned anticlone cells was blocked by anti-class II MoAbs, indicating that the autoreactive clones recognize their target antigen in conjunction with HLA Class II products. (ox.ac.uk)
  • However, clone 121 lost its suppressor function after 4 months in culture and instead gained the ability to enhance the proliferation of Mx9/9 cells in the presence of anti-V beta 8 MoAb. (ox.ac.uk)
  • An accompanying proliferation of erythroid cells and megakaryocytes usually is present. (medscape.com)
  • They stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow cells in agar cultures and the formation of colonies of granulocytes and/or macrophages. (bvsalud.org)
  • Selection of edited cell clones currently relies on limiting dilution or fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-based single-cell sorting to isolate single cells. (nature.com)
  • In this webinar, Dr. Jenna Capyk provides a comparison of limiting dilution cloning and semi-solid cloning with respect to their application to cell line development and the probability of monoclonality for the cultures that are isolated using these methods. (stemcell.com)
  • Therefore, early in the formation of oral lichen planus lesions, CD8 + T cells may recognize an antigen associated with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I on keratinocytes. (medscape.com)
  • Dr. Krol will discuss his progress developing a single-cell cloning process suitable for manufacturing clinical-grade iPS cells with adherence to cGMP regulations, concentrating on automated single-cell dispensing and culture protocol optimization. (cytena.com)
  • The authors conclude that the Alamar- blue assay employing the NCTC-clone-929 subclone A12 is effective in the quantitation of low levels of TNF, particularly when a suitable immunoassay is unavailable. (cdc.gov)
  • Cloning of human cells is a technology that holds the potential to cure many diseases and provide a source of exactly matched transplant tissues and organs. (news-medical.net)
  • But SCNT can also be used to clone human cells for transplant or other therapies. (news-medical.net)
  • The rapidly emerging "regenerative" field of medicine is relying heavily on the use of ethically obtained stem cells. (flfamily.org)
  • WHA50.37, which states "the use of cloning for the replication of human individuals is ethically unacceptable and contrary to human integrity and morality. (who.int)
  • Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is a malignant clonal disorder of the bone marrow lymphopoietic precursor cells. (medscape.com)
  • The time for 1 cell division is prolonged with respect to that of normal bone marrow blast cells. (medscape.com)
  • The bone marrow is gradually replaced by blast cells. (medscape.com)
  • There are virtually no diploid cell lines used in bioprocessing today," Dr. Wurm continued, "and it's a good thing we didn't follow recommendations to use them that were current 20 years ago, as it would have set back the industry tremendously. (genengnews.com)
  • Some DNA differences result from the blunders during the DNA replication necessary for cell division. (cdc.gov)
  • Cloning vectors (Cloning vehicles) are used for creating genomic libraries, preparing probes, genetic engineering, or other basic studies. (biologyexams4u.com)
  • However, an animal created through this technique would not be a precise genetic copy of the source of its nuclear DNA because each clone derives a small amount of its DNA from the mitochondria of the egg (which lie outside the nucleus) rather than from the donor of cell nucleus. (who.int)
  • They are preferentially expressed by a variety of adenocarcinomas, including breast, prostate, ovarian and pancreatic carcinomas as well as malignant plasma cells of multiple myelomas. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These data indicate a potential for SERT as a novel anti-tumor target for amphetamine analogs, while evidence is presented that the seemingly more promising antidepressants are likely impacting malignant B cells independently of the transporter itself. (erowid.org)
  • In leukemias, a clone of malignant cells may arise at any stage of maturation, that is, in the lymphoid, myeloid, or pluripotential stage. (medscape.com)
  • Those were spindle removal, donor cell fusion, and cytoplast activation. (news-medical.net)
  • For SCNT, the chromosomes of the unfertilized canine oocytes were removed by micromanipulation, and a single donor cell was transferred into each enucleated oocyte. (nature.com)
  • A matured oocyte (c) is then enucleated (d) and a donor cell is transferred into the enucleated oocyte (e). (biomedcentral.com)
  • This differentiation and activation of the B cell occurs most rapidly after exposure to antigen by antigen-presenting cells in the reticuloendothelial system, and under modulation by T cells, and is closely intertwined with affinity maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such information is mediated immunity, secreting the cytokine crucial to determine the optimal approach interferon-gamma (IFN) that inhibits Th2 to improve the immune response of DN cell differentiation. (who.int)
  • The process of immunological B-cell maturation involves transformation from an undifferentiated B cell to one that secretes antibodies with particular specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ultraviolet radiation shapes dendritic cell leukaemia transformation in the skin. (harvard.edu)
  • Stellar Competent Cells are an E. coli HST08 strain that provides high transformation efficiency. (takarabio.com)
  • Stellar Competent Cells provided the highest transformation efficiencies for all the ligation reaction mixtures tested. (takarabio.com)
  • We have purified and cloned a HeLa cell nuclear protein that strongly stimulates binding of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptors (RARs and TRs) to response elements. (nih.gov)
  • Mammalian cell culture is and will remain the principle vehicle for protein production in upstream manufacturing, according to Florian Wurm, Ph.D., professor of biochemistry at the University of Lausanne and founder of ExcellGene . (genengnews.com)
  • By periodically monitoring the karyotype of the cells during the scale-up process, it is possible to guarantee the presence of the target marker, assuring that the cell will in fact produce the desired protein. (genengnews.com)
  • Embora os clones possam ser produzidos dividindo um embrião inicial-semelhante ao que acontece naturalmente com gémeos idênticos-a clonagem de animais adultos geralmente é feita por um processo chamado transferência nuclear de células somáticas (SCNT). (jove.com)
  • An improved tumor necrosis factor (TNF) bioassay using an isolated subclone from the murine fibroblastoid NCTC-clone-929 cell line and a new fluorescence indicator system for detecting target cell viability was described. (cdc.gov)