Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Muscle Cells: Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.Muscle Denervation: The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Adult Stem Cells: Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Muscle, Striated: One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Muscle Spindles: Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.Abdominal Muscles: Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle: Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Masseter Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Facial Muscles: Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.Muscular Atrophy: Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Stem Cell Niche: A particular zone of tissue composed of a specialized microenvironment where stem cells are retained in a undifferentiated, self-renewable state.Neural Stem Cells: Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Intercostal Muscles: Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells from adult organisms that have been reprogrammed into a pluripotential state similar to that of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Myoblasts: Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Mice, Inbred C57BLMyosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Muscular Diseases: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.Multipotent Stem Cells: Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Pectoralis Muscles: The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.Myofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the sis gene (GENES, SIS). c-sis proteins make up the B chain of PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR. Overexpression of c-sis causes tumorigenesis.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Myoblasts, Skeletal: Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Carotid Artery Injuries: Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Psoas Muscles: A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Stem Cell Factor: A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.MyoD Protein: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Desmin: An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.Temporal Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.GlycogenStress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Muscular Dystrophy, AnimalCarotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Pharyngeal Muscles: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.Receptors, Cholinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Fetal Stem Cells: Cells derived from a FETUS that retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Myogenin: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.Mice, Inbred mdx: A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Dystrophin: A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Sarcomeres: The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum: A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Stem Cell Research: Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Myostatin: A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Cell SeparationMuscle Cramp: A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)Sarcolemma: The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne: An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Myositis: Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Arterioles: The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Tropomyosin: A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Muscular Dystrophies: A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Myogenic Regulatory Factors: A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
2006). "Smooth muscle of the dorsal aorta shares a common clonal origin with skeletal muscle of the myotome". Develop. 133 (4 ... immune cells, and even platelets all originate from the same progenitor cell, the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC). As these cells ... Stem Cell. 7 (3): 391-402. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2010.06.020. PMID 20804974. Adams GB; et al. (2006). "Stem cell engraftment at ... Schofield R. (1978). "The relationship between the spleen colony-forming cell and the haemopoietic stem cell". Blood Cells. 4 ( ...
"Multiple differentiation of clonal teratocarcinoma stem cells following embryoid body formation in vitro". Cell. 6 (4): 467-74 ... P19 cells provide valuable formation of both neuronal cells and muscle cells in vitro. Since P19 cells are easy to maintain and ... These stem cells were named embryonal carcinoma P19 cells. These derived P19 cells grew rapidly without feeder cells and were ... The content of cardiac muscle cells were 25% of the cells. After 10 days of exposure, skeletal muscle cells appeared around the ...
... muscle cells) and adipocytes (fat cells which give rise to marrow adipose tissue). While the terms mesenchymal stem cell and ... Scientists Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till first revealed the clonal nature of marrow cells in the 1960s. An ex vivo ... These bone marrow stem cells do not contribute to the formation of blood cells so do not express the hematopoietic stem cell ... Mesenchymal stem cells are characterized morphologically by a small cell body with a few cell processes that are long and thin ...
For example, the process of breeding at least two strains of transgenic animals from embryonic stem cells is both time ... Mach, Jennifer (2011-07-01). "Clonal Analysis with the Brother of Brainbow System". The Plant Cell. 23 (7): 2471-2471. doi: ... In using these methods to create a complete map and track the axons of a mouse muscle, it is necessary to collect tens of ... It is then possible to trace each motor axon and its synaptic contacts to construct a complete connectome of the muscle. More ...
Eliminating either PDGFRB, or PDGF-B reduces the number of pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells, and thereby compromises ... the ability to continuously stimulate the growth and proliferation of hematological stem cells; and c) the ability to cause ... The disease is now classified by the World Heath Organization as one form of clonal eosinophilia. It is critical that the ... PDGFRB is extensively expressed in the neurons, chorioid plexus, vascular smooth muscle cells, and pericytes of the human brain ...
Stem cells can be grown in tissue culture. In culture, they can be transformed into specialised cells, such as those of muscles ... "Cytological demonstration of the clonal nature of spleen colonies derived from transplanted mouse marrow cells". Nature 197: ... Embryonic stem cells (ES cells) are stem cells taken from the inner cell mass of the early stage embryo known as a blastocyst. ... The two broad types of mammalian stem cells are: embryonic stem cells, and adult stem cells, which are found in adult tissues. ...
Polyclonal plasma cells and CD21+ follicular dendritic cells are also seen. Clonal T-cell receptor gene rearrangements are ... Stem cell transplantation is the treatment of choice, with the allogeneic one being the preference because AITL tends to recur ... anti-smooth muscle antibodies, and positive rheumatoid factor. The normal architecture of a lymph node is partially effaced by ... October 1999). "Peripheral T-cell lymphoma with Reed-Sternberg-like cells of B-cell phenotype and genotype associated with ...
Clonal cell lines are created by growing up a single cell. Evans and Kaufman showed that the cells grown out from these ... muscle, liver cells) that have reduced or eliminated ability to cause tumors. Following differentiation, the cells are ... Embryonic stem cells (ES cells) are pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, an early-stage pre ... Pluripotency distinguishes embryonic stem cells from adult stem cells found in adults; while embryonic stem cells can generate ...
This interaction leads to a role in clonal expansion of T cells. HDAC9 KO mice are shown to suffer from cardiac hypertrophy ... HDAC3 also shows involvement in stem cell self-renewal and a transcription independent role in mitosis. HDAC8 has been found to ... HDACs 5 and 7 have been shown to work in opposition to HDAC4 during muscle differentiation regulation so as to keep a proper ... HDACs expression and activity in tumor cells is very different from normal cells. The overexpression and increased activity of ...
In single-cell organisms like bacteria, the functional analogue of an organ is called organelle. A hollow organ is a visceral ... For example, the liver evolved in the stem vertebrates more than 500 million years ago, while the gut and brain are even more ... Muscular system: movement with muscles. Nervous system: collecting, transferring and processing information with brain, spinal ... see clonal colony). The English word "organ" derives from the Latin organum, meaning "instrument", itself from the Greek word ...
"Combined PDK1 and CHK1 inhibition is required to kill glioblastoma stem-like cells in vitro and in vivo". Cell Death & Disease ... "Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 controls mitochondrial metabolism and insulin secretion in INS-1 832/13 clonal beta-cells". The ... n-3 fatty acids in a high-fat diet attenuate the increase in PDH kinase activity but not PDH activity in human skeletal muscle ... In a further developed study, combined PDK1 and CHK1 inhibition was shown to be required to kill glioblastoma stem-like cells ...
Genetic instability: In heart muscle cells, dogs annually lose approximately 3.3% of the DNA in their heart muscle cells while ... cancer cells which have lost the ability to die when maintained in a cell culture such as the HeLa cell line, and specific stem ... Clonal immortality apart, there are certain species whose individual lifespans stand out among Earth's life-forms, including ... Cell Stem Cell. 12 (3): 293-297. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2013.01.005. PMID 23472871. Stephen Moss (July 2013). "Big ears: they ...
"Pluripotent stem cells from cloned human embryos: success at long last". Cell Stem Cell. 12 (6): 636-8. doi:10.1016/j.stem. ... "Moving Toward the Clonal Man", in 1971. With the cloning of a sheep known as Dolly in 1996 by somatic cell nuclear transfer ( ... muscle, bone, blood, urogenital), or ectoderm (epidermal tissues and nervous tissue). A specific set of genes, often called " ... "Human somatic cell nuclear transfer using adult cells". Cell Stem Cell. 14 (6): 777-80. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2014.03.015. PMID ...
Stromal cells originate from multipotent mesenchymal stem cells. Lymph nodes are enclosed in an external fibrous capsule and ... Most T cells are, in time, eliminated in the thymus by a process of clonal deletion. However, some of them escape this process ... fibronectin and intracellular components such as desmin and α-actin smooth muscle that may influence the formation of the ... dendritic cells move to the T cell zone or to the B cell follicle along the fibroblast reticular cell network. Dendritic cells ...
The mutations can be inherited or acquired, and most probably occur in the intestinal crypt stem cell. The most commonly ... Dukes stage B bowel cancer; the cancer has invaded the muscle. Dukes stage C bowel cancer; the cancer has invaded the nearby ... of the somatic mutations found in mutator phenotype human colorectal tumors occur before the onset of terminal clonal expansion ... normally monitors cell division and kills cells if they have Wnt pathway defects. Eventually, a cell line acquires a mutation ...
In the UK, the name 'Wrotham Pinot' is a permitted synonym for Pinot Meunier and stems from a vine that one of the pioneers of ... wines favored by those who like muscle rather than charm and velvety finesse in their Pinot noir wines.[citation needed] In ... in the epidermal cells) which makes the shoot tips and leaves prominently hairy-white and the vine a little smaller and early ... by Harold Olmo for UCD in the 1950s and was one of the first pinot noir vines this institution offered as a high health clonal ...
If considered singular entities, the largest organisms are clonal colonies which can spread over large areas. Pando, a clonal ... The floating stem of Macrocystis pyrifera can grow to a height of over 45 m (148 ft). Macrocystis also qualifies as the largest ... Cyanobacteria One of the largest "blue green algae" is Lyngbya, whose filamentous cells can be 50 μm wide. The largest virus on ... The bodies have seven transverse bands of muscle interspersed by white, translucent patches. A stolon grows from near the ...
Saló E. (2006). "The power of regeneration and the stem-cell kingdom: freshwater planarians (Platyhelminthes)". BioEssays. 28 ( ... Scientists have observed that a person's VO2max value (a measure of the volume of oxygen flow to the cardiac muscle) decreases ... The oldest known plant (possibly oldest living thing) is a clonal Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides) tree colony in the ... Most living species have at least one upper limit on the number of times the cells of a member can divide. This is called the ...
"In vitro high-capacity assay to quantify the clonal heterogeneity in trilineage potential of mesenchymal stem cells reveals a ... including vascular endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and pericytes. Its function is still poorly understood, but evidence ... Schwab KE, Gargett CE (2007). "Co-expression of two perivascular cell markers isolates mesenchymal stem-like cells from human ... "In vitro high-capacity assay to quantify the clonal heterogeneity in trilineage potential of mesenchymal stem cells reveals a ...
4 allotypically committed precursor cells in each follicle. Bursal follicles are colonized by 2-5 pre-bursal stem cells and ... Internal cancers can occur in the kidneys, liver, stomach, ovary, muscles or bone. Squamous cell carcinoma is a form of skin ... High CD8 expression precedes the dual expression of CD4 and CD8 but following clonal selection and expansion, avian T cells ... These include a new lineage of cytoplasmic CD3+ lymphoid cells (TCR0 cells) and a T cell sublineage that expresses a different ...
EC cells are believed to be derived from endodermal origins and are descended from the stem cells that form other epithelial ... "Gastric endocrine cells share a clonal origin with other gut cell lineages". Development. 110 (2): 477-81. PMID 2133551. Lee, ... Secreted 5-HT acts on different receptor subtypes found localised in cells in the gastrointestinal epithelium, smooth muscle ... ECL cells histologically appear similar to EC cells and are hence named as such. They are however a different cell type and do ...
MeWo cells are characteristically less invasive than their clonal variant cell line 70W. One lab studied perlecan expression in ... components and cell-surface molecules. Perlecan is synthesized by both vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells and ... Stem Cells. 25 (11): 2845-54. doi:10.1634/stemcells.2007-0065. PMID 17702986. Zoeller JJ, McQuillan A, Whitelock J, Ho SY, ... and c-Src are activated in human aortic smooth muscle cells by pressure stress". Mol. Cell. Biochem. 262 (1-2): 71-8. doi: ...
... smooth muscle cells, fibrocytes, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, often derived from bone marrow), or via epithelial-mesenchymal ... The draining lymph nodes are the likely location for T cell clonal reproduction, although this also occurs within the tumor. ... TILs have a common origin with myelogenous cells at the hematopoietic stem cell, but diverge in development. Concentration is ... T cells reach tumor sites via the circulatory system. The TME appears to preferentially recruit other immune cells over T cells ...
A mutant or epigenetically altered stem cell may replace the other nearby stem cells by natural selection. Thus, a patch of ... These cells are presumed to be clonal - that is, they are derived from the same cell, and all carry the same genetic or ... "The association of Epstein-Barr virus with smooth-muscle tumors occurring after organ transplantation". N. Engl. J. Med. 332 (1 ... such mutation or epigenetic alteration may occur so that a given stem cell acquires an advantage compared to other stem cells ...
The mutations can be inherited or acquired, and most probably occur in the intestinal crypt stem cell.[37][38][39] The most ... of the somatic mutations found in mutator phenotype human colorectal tumors occur before the onset of terminal clonal expansion ... normally monitors cell division and kills cells if they have Wnt pathway defects. Eventually, a cell line acquires a mutation ... These genes are normally important for stem cell renewal and differentiation, but when inappropriately expressed at high levels ...
... and the secretion of several types of type 2 cytokines like IL-3 and Stem Cell Factor (SCF) which both help the mast cells ... which relax smooth muscle of constricted airway in asthma, or (4) mast cell stabilizers, which inhibit the degranulation of ... FcεRI is expressed on mast cells, basophils, and the antigen-presenting dendritic cells in both mice and humans. Binding of ... Regulation of IgE levels through control of B cell differentiation to antibody-secreting plasma cells is thought to involve the ...
Erratum for the Research Article "Asymmetric division of clonal muscle stem cells coordinates muscle regeneration in vivo" by D ... Erratum for the Research Article "Asymmetric division of clonal muscle stem cells coordinates muscle regeneration in vivo" by D ... Erratum for the Research Article "Asymmetric division of clonal muscle stem cells coordinates muscle regeneration in vivo" by D ... Erratum for the Research Article "Asymmetric division of clonal muscle stem cells coordinates muscle regeneration in vivo" by D ...
Muscle Stem Cells Exhibit Distinct Clonal Dynamics in Response to Tissue Repair and Homeostatic Aging. ... Cell Stem Cell. 2018 Jan 4;22(1):119-127.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.stem.2017.11.009. Epub 2017 Dec 14. ... Single Stem Cell Imaging and Analysis Reveals Telomere Length Differences in Diseased Human and Mouse Skeletal Muscles. ... Stem Cell Reports. 2017 Oct 10;9(4):1328-1341. doi: 10.1016/j.stemcr.2017.08.003. Epub 2017 Sep 7. ...
Erratum for the Research Article "Asymmetric division of clonal muscle stem cells coordinates muscle regeneration in vivo" by D ... Asymmetric division of clonal muscle stem cells coordinates muscle regeneration in vivo ... Robotic stingray powered by light-activated muscle cells. Light-controlled cardiac muscle cells make nickel-sized raybot come ... COVER A robotic ray made up of rat heart cells, gold, and a polymer commonly used in breast implants. The robot ray mimics the ...
Animal Cell Culture, the latest volume in Humanas highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series, provides detailed ... Primary Kidney Cells.- Adipocytes.- Tissue Culture of Skeletal Muscle.- Derivation and Maintenance of Embryonic Stem Cell ... In Vitro Clonal Culture of Human Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells.- Flow Sorting for Isolating CFU-E.- Production of Human and ... Basic Cell Culture.- Establishment, Maintenance, and Cloning of Human Primary Cell Strains.- Aging of Cultured Human Skin ...
2012 May 4;10(5):515-9. doi: 10.1016/j.stem.2012.04.002. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... G, H) Clonal myogenesis assays of double-sorted satellite cells from young control or CR-treated mice. Data represent mean ± SD ... Skeletal muscle stem cell frequency and function are enhanced in CR-treated muscle ... Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Harvard Stem Cell Institute, 7 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge ...
Muscle regeneration was attempted by means transplantation of myogenic cells (from myoblast to embryonic stem cells) and also ... Muscle regeneration was attempted by means transplantation of myogenic cells (from myoblast to embryonic stem cells) and also ... Taking into account the advances in the isolation of new subpopulation of stem cells and in the creation of artificial stem ... Taking into account the advances in the isolation of new subpopulation of stem cells and in the creation of artificial stem ...
9. Stem cells in the body.. Epidermis, neural stem cells, muscle satellite cells, haematopoiesis, spermatogenesis, mesenchymal ... Cancer and cancer stem cells.. Multi-hit mutagenesis; clonal analysis of tumours; definition of cancer stem cells; implications ... Mouse embryonic stem cells, human embryonic stem cells, naive and primed states, induced pluripotent stem cells. Somatic cell ... Pluripotent stem cell; in vivo stem cell; in vitro clonogenic cell; transplantable cell; cell expressing certain markers; label ...
Asymmetric division of clonal muscle stem cells coordinates muscle regeneration in vivo. Science 353, aad9969 (2016).. ... Muscle satellite cells (MuSCs) are muscle-resident stem cells that play an indispensable role in myogenesis, and their function ... Highly efficient, functional engraftment of skeletal muscle stem cells in dystrophic muscles. Cell 134, 37-47 (2008).. ... Rejuvenation of the muscle stem cell population restores strength to injured aged muscles. Nat. Med. 20, 255-264 (2014).. ...
Enumeration of Neural Stem Cells Using Clonal Assays, In Vitro Culture of Epicardial Cells From Mouse Embryonic Heart, ... Adult and Embryonic Skeletal Muscle Microexplant Culture and Isolation of Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells. ... Microbead Implantation in the Zebrafish Embryo, A Novel Culture Model for Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Propagation on Gelatin ... Efficient Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells into Motor Neurons, Semi-automated Imaging of Tissue-specific ...
These cells can be administered as a liquid injectible or as a preparation of cells in a matrix which is or becomes solid or ... The cells can be genetically modified to enhance myocardial differentiation and integration. Also disclosed is a method for ... in vivo by administering to the heart of an individual a cardiomyocyte producing amount of mesenchymal stem cells. ... replacing cells ex vivo in a heart valve for implantation. ... Unselected MSCs on a clonal line, isolated by limiting dilution ...
Human Amniotic Fluid Stem Cell Differentiation Along Smooth Muscle Lineage FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the ... Herein we showed for the first time that efficient SMCs can be obtained from human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs). Clonal ... Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). May, 2007 , Pubmed ID: 17255522 Cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells constitute a ... Stem Cells and Development. Jun, 2013 , Pubmed ID: 23311301 Maturation of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes ( ...
iii) these muscle-bound primordial stem-cells first part to individual muscles and then differentiate into myogenic and non- ... trees from somatic mutations to MSCs and myogenic and non-myogenic cells from individual myofiber that were cultured at clonal ... myofiber-associated non-myogenic and myogenic cells share the same muscle-bound primordial stem cells of a lineage distinct ... and it further addresses open questions in colon stem cells. In addition, this method can be applied to study stem cell ...
Benjamin Cosgrove, PhD, Assistant Professor, Cornell University: Single-cell Dissociation of Muscle Stem Cell Dysfunction in ... Understanding the Etiology and Effects of Age-related Clonal Hematopoiesis. Andreas Pfenning, PhD, Assistant Professor, ... Wnt4 as a novel therapeutic for rejuvenating muscle stem cell function during aging. Karl Miller, PhD, Postdoctoral Associate, ... Defining and reversing neural stem cell aging. Andrew Kane, Harvard University: Examining the role of Hsf1 in age-related ...
... proteomics and metabolomics to study a system at a single cell level. ... Single-cell assay is an ensemble of genomics, transcriptomics, ... using micro-contact printing for clonal muscle stem cell ... Adult muscle stem cells (also called satellite cells) are an anatomically defined population of cells that are essential for ... Adult muscle stem cells (also called satellite cells) are an anatomically defined population of cells that are essential for ...
To address the clonal origin of these lineages, we isolated Nkx2.5(+) cells from in vitro differentiated murine embryonic stem ... Developmental origin of a bipotential myocardial and smooth muscle cell precursor in the mammalian heart CELL Wu, S. M., ... Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), including embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, are capable of ... Mesp1 at the heart of mesoderm lineage specification CELL STEM CELL Wu, S. M. 2008; 3 (1): 1-2 Abstract. Stem cell-based ...
Muscle Stem Cells Undergo Extensive Clonal Drift during Tissue Growth via Meox1-Mediated Induction of G2 Cell-Cycle Arrest. ... New Monoclonal Antibodies to Defined Cell Surface Proteins on Human Pluripotent Stem Cells. OBrien, C. M., Chy, H. S., Zhou, Q ... Preparation of DNA from embryonic stem cells or other cultured cells. Behringer, R., Gertsenstein, M., Nagy, K. V. & Nagy, A., ... Cell Stem Cell. 21, 1, p. 107-119.e6 19 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › Research › peer-review ...
"Multiple differentiation of clonal teratocarcinoma stem cells following embryoid body formation in vitro". Cell. 6 (4): 467-74 ... P19 cells provide valuable formation of both neuronal cells and muscle cells in vitro. Since P19 cells are easy to maintain and ... These stem cells were named embryonal carcinoma P19 cells. These derived P19 cells grew rapidly without feeder cells and were ... The content of cardiac muscle cells were 25% of the cells. After 10 days of exposure, skeletal muscle cells appeared around the ...
... and anti-smooth muscle actin (SMA) antibodies to label smooth muscle cells (red) (scale bar 20μm). AFS cells coexpressing GFP ... Cells. Clonal AFS cells lines were generated from green fluorescent protein (GFP)+ transgenic Sprague-Dawley rats at E14 as ... Amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells are immunoselected by the stem cell factor receptor c-kit (CD117) and are able to give rise to ... In vitro and in vivo cardiomyogenic differentiation of amniotic fluid stem cells. Stem Cell Rev 2011;7:364-80. ...
As one kind of adult stem cell, epidermal stem cells have the potential to generate diversified types of progeny cells in the ... Although its biology is still largely unclarified, epidermal stem cells are widely used in stem cell research and regenerative ... cell differentiation and tissue regeneration. Tissue homeostasis in adults is maintained by adult stem cells resident in the ... In this review, we will briefly discuss the current understanding of epigenetic modulation in epidermal stem cells. ...
... clearly differentiated between two classes of mammalian cell lines: 1) Those typified by HeLa are apparently immortal and may ... Clonal analysis of vertebrate myogenesis III. Developmental changes in the muscle-colony-forming cells of the human fetal limb ... A stochastic model of stem cell proliferation, based on the growth of spleen colony-forming cells. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 51 ... Clonal growth of primary human cell cultures. Exp. Cell Res. 33: 495.Google Scholar ...
... and clinical studies in all areas of stem cell biology and applications. The journal will consider basic, translational, and ... Stem Cells International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, ... "Clonal multipotency of skeletal muscle-derived stem cells between mesodermal and ectodermal lineage," Stem Cells, vol. 25, no. ... "Adipose derived stem cells" (. ), "Dental pulp stem cells" (. ), "Neural stem cells" (. ), "Skin derived stem cells" (. ), " ...
2017) Muscle stem cells undergo extensive clonal drift during tissue growth via Meox1-mediated induction of G2 cell-cycle ... 2004) SOX2, a persistent marker for multipotential neural stem cells derived from embryonic stem cells, the embryo or the adult ... S4 A and B). To determine whether the CHERRY+/Cherry− cells represented neurons newly born from a stem cell, we pulse-labeled ... 2015) Planar cell polarity-mediated induction of neural stem cell expansion during axolotl spinal cord regeneration. Elife 4: ...
Influence of culture medium on smooth muscle cell differentiation from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Tissue ... Swenson ES, Xanthopoulos J, Nottoli T, McGrath J, Theise ND, Krause DS: Chimeric mice reveal clonal development of pancreatic ... Stem Cell Center, Yale: Stem Cells and Tissue Repair , Tissue Specific Stem Cells ... Very small embryonic-like stem cells from the murine bone marrow differentiate into epithelial cells of the lung. Stem Cells ...
Self-renewal is the process by which stem cells divide to make more stem cells, perpetuating stem cells throughout life in ... Sean Morrisons laboratory studies the mechanisms that regulate stem cell self-renewal in the hematopoietic and nervous systems ... Cultures of purified neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) at clonal density were supplemented either with Delta-Fc (A-C) or with ... smooth muscle actin, green) markers. Single purified NCSCs gave rise to multilineage colonies like this one, containing more ...
These hESC-derived hemangioblasts were defined by the expression of KDR and could generate clonal cells sharing both ... such as smooth muscle [117, 118]. ... Division of Stem Cell Processing, Center for Stem Cell Biology ... It is well believed that human embryonic stem cells (hESCs [1]) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs [2]) are of great ... Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Primitive and Definitive Hematopoiesis, Pluripotent Stem Cell Biology - Advances in ...
  • The development of cells within a multi-cellular organism has similarities to the development of populations, and hence is amenable to study using concepts and tools of population genetics. (
  • Yet, cell populations possess unique features that are absent or rare in organism populations (e.g. the presence of stem cells and a small number of generations since the zygote). (
  • This method opens up the possibility of marking and perturbing gene function inducibly in any definable cell populations in the axolotl, a key functionality required for the precise, rigorous understanding of processes such as regeneration. (
  • However, due to the lack of targeted gene knockin approaches, it has been difficult to label and manipulate some of the cell populations that are crucial for understanding the mechanisms underlying regeneration. (
  • Subsequently, asymmetric cell divisions play a critical role in maintaining adult stem cell populations, while at the same time generating an adequate number of differentiating daughter cells to maintain tissue homeostasis and repair. (
  • Since that time, we have focused on several important questions regarding this plasticity including which cell populations in the bone marrow are responsible for this plasticity, and how these cells are regulated. (
  • Every cell has thousands of different areas of damage in their DNA, and it is becoming apparent that the damage in stem cell populations is cloned out into tissues . (
  • Stress-Induced Changes in Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Populations Revealed through Single-Cell Protein Expression Mapping. (
  • Nevertheless the phenotype of the average person cells in these populations isn't continuous. (
  • In today's study we looked into the relationship between your phenotypic change and spatial distribution in clonal populations of principal muscle-derived cells using cell lifestyle experiments and pc simulations. (
  • His research program continues to focus on developing genome editing by homologous recombination as curative therapy for children with genetic diseases but also has interests in the clonal dynamics of heterogeneous populations and the use of genome editing to better understand diseases that affect children including infant leukemias and genetic diseases that affect the muscle. (
  • The objectives of our proposal are the isolations of blood-forming and heart-forming stem cells from human embryonic stem cell (hESCs) cultures, and the generation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that eliminate residual teratogenic cells from transplantable populations of differentiated hESCs. (
  • Adult cortical muscle originates from a small number of cardiomyocytes-an average of approximately eight per animal-that display clonal dominance reminiscent of stem cell populations. (
  • The color-label technique was originally developed by other biologists and was critical to allow the researchers to track heart cell populations. (
  • Here, we genetically labeled different myeloid populations and unequivocally demonstrated that plaque-associated myeloid cells in the AD brain are derived exclusively from resident microglia, with no contribution from circulating peripheral monocytes. (
  • Our lab pioneered the concept, the mathematical foundations, as well as the implementation of utilizing somatic mutations naturally acquired by individual cells, to reconstruct cell lineage trees among cells of multi-cellular organisms and applied it to various questions of biological and medical importance. (
  • In particular, the reconstruction of a cell lineage tree, capturing the cell division history of organism cells, can be attempted by applying algorithms and techniques of population genetics to somatic mutations accumulated during cell division. (
  • Our group developed a method for reconstructing cell lineage trees using highly unstable microsatellite loci. (
  • Overall, our study demonstrates the reliability of cell lineage reconstruction for the study of stem cell dynamics, and it further addresses open questions in colon stem cells. (
  • Lineage analysis of muscle-bound primordial stem cells from myofiber-associated myogenic and nonmyogenic progenitors. (
  • We applied a method for reconstructing cell lineage trees from somatic mutations to MSCs and myogenic and non-myogenic cells from individual myofiber that were cultured at clonal density. (
  • ii) myofiber-associated non-myogenic and myogenic cells share the same muscle-bound primordial stem cells of a lineage distinct from bone marrow MSCs. (
  • We analyze acquired somatic mutations to reconstruct lineage trees of hundreds of oocytes and other cells, sampled from mismatch-repair deficient mice at various ages. (
  • We discovered that in the reconstructed lineage trees oocytes cluster distinctly from cells of bone marrow origin, show no lineage barrier between ovaries and increase in depth (number of cell divisions since the zygote) with mouse age, an increase accelerated after unilateral ovariectomy. (
  • In the current study, a high-throughput method that utilizes neutral somatic mutations accumulated in individual cells to reconstruct cell lineage trees was applied to hundreds of cells of human acute leukemia harvested from multiple patients at diagnosis and at relapse. (
  • Cell tracking has demonstrated the existence of lineage-specific progenitors giving rise to corresponding regenerated tissues ( 1 ). (
  • Cell lineage tracing demonstrates that col1a2 + MPCs contribute to new myofibers in normal muscle growth and also during muscle regeneration. (
  • The concept of "master genes" controlling cell fate by activating a suite of lineage-specific genes was compelling, and molecular detectives had eagerly enlisted to track down the dictators. (
  • The approach initially taken was to clone a lineage-specific transcription factor and test whether its ectopic expression was capable of compelling another cell type to switch lineage identity. (
  • Lineage Tracing Reveals a Subset of Reserve Muscle Stem Cells Capable of Clonal Expansion under Stress. (
  • Lineage Tracing in Humans Enabled by Mitochondrial Mutations and Single-Cell Genomics. (
  • Dulauroy S, Di Carlo S, Langa F, Eberl G, Peduto L. Lineage tracing and genetic ablation of ADAM12(+) perivascular cells identify a major source of profibrotic cells during acute tissue injury. (
  • Lescroart F, Kelly R, Le Garrec J, Nicolas J, Meilhac S, Buckingham M. Clonal analysis reveals common lineage relationships between head muscles and second heart field derivatives in the mouse embryo. (
  • Sacco's research team used a technology called in vivo multi lineage tracing to follow the self-renewal capacity and range of progeny produced by individual stem cells. (
  • An illustration of the skeletal stem cells lineage as published by Chan et al. (
  • For isolation of progenitors, we hypothesized that precursors derived from hESCs could be identified and isolated using mAbs that label unique combinations of lineage-specific cell surface molecules. (
  • As juvenile zebrafish mature into adults, this structure becomes fully enveloped by a new lineage of cortical muscle. (
  • This concept is known as the 'disposable soma' theory, the soma consisting of all those parts of body which do not form a part of the reproductive cell lineage, or germ-line (the germ-line must of course be maintained to a high standard, else the reproductive lineage would die out over successive generations). (
  • Stem cell dynamics in vivo are often being studied by lineage tracing methods. (
  • Our laboratory has previously developed a retrospective method for reconstructing cell lineage trees from somatic mutations accumulated in microsatellites. (
  • Our laboratory developed a method that utilizes somatic microsatellite (MS) mutations for reconstructing cell lineage trees - . (
  • The distances between the genomic signatures of different cells, as measured using various mathematical methods , can then be used to reconstruct the organism's cell lineage tree. (
  • The MS mutation rate of these mice is much higher than that of wild type, thus increasing the precision of the cell lineage analysis. (
  • Using a conditionally inducible Notch3-CreERT2 SAT transgenic mouse, we genetically marked Notch3-expressing cells throughout mammary gland development and followed their lineage in vivo. (
  • More recent studies afforded new insights into the morphogenesis of the mammary epithelium, revealing hierarchical cell lineage relationships. (
  • Although the adipogenic lineage-specific marker gene FABP4 was also expressed in micromass cultures, Oil Red O-positive cells along with PPARγ2 transcripts were only detected in C3H10T1/2-derived micromass cultures. (
  • Apart from lineage-specific marker genes, pluripotency factors ( Nanog and Sox2 ) were also expressed in these models, reflecting on the presence of various mesenchymal lineages as well as undifferentiated cells. (
  • In vitro induction of undifferentiated hESC to functionally mature blood cells may mimic the early hematopoietic development during human embryonic and fetal stages. (
  • So far until now, in vitro hESC-derived blood cells possess phenotypical maturity and partial functions while still more or less share embryonic/fetal characteristics, differing greatly from their adult counterparts. (
  • In vitro and in vivo cell and molecular approaches will help us to better understand hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis. (
  • To address the clonal origin of these lineages, we isolated Nkx2.5 (+) cells from in vitro differentiated murine embryonic stem cells and found approximately 28% of these cells expressed c-kit . (
  • Combining stem cells with biomaterial scaffolds serves as a promising strategy for engineering tissues for both in vitro and in vivo applications. (
  • Striking and unexpected insight came when Nutt and his colleagues tried differentiating Pax5-deficient pro-B cells on stromal cells in vitro ( 1 ). (
  • Since it successfully replicates the specific human stem cell niche in vitro, it makes it the optimal matrix for efficient generation and robust large-scale expansion of human ES and iPS cells (Rodin et al. (
  • In vitro, cultured MDSC spontaneously differentiated into insulin-expressing islet-like cell clusters as revealed using MDSC from transgenic mice expressing GFP or mCherry under the control of an insulin promoter. (
  • These data show that MDSC are capable of differentiating into mature pancreatic beta islet-like cells, not only upon culture in vitro, but also in vivo after systemic injection in STZ-induced diabetic mouse models. (
  • The pluripotency of ES and EG cells can be demonstrated in vitro and in vivo . (
  • In addition, mouse ES cells have been used to generate in vitro cultures of neurons ( 26 ), skeletal muscle ( 27 ), and vascular endothelial cells ( 28 ). (
  • To mimic myocardial I/R injury, they established a hypoxia/reoxygenation model in H9C2 cells and neonatal rat ventricle myocytes in vitro . (
  • Currently available in vitro models to study human cell biology, human tissue organization or human diseases often fail to correctly recapitulate the in vivo cell behaviour, resulting in not fully representative systems. (
  • Cells from many tissues can be propagated in vitro (in culture outside the body) and normal cells grown in this way have finite replicative life spans. (
  • Moreover, hPSC-derived motor neurons were able to form neuromuscular junctions with human myotubes in vitro and induced acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering, as detected by Alexa 555-conjugated α-Bungarotoxin (α-BTX), suggesting that these hPSC-derived motor neurons formed functional contacts with skeletal muscles. (
  • In particular, neural cells derived from disease-specific hiPSCs from patients with neurological disorders have been especially useful as in vitro disease models recapitulating in vivo pathogenesis, as cells in the nervous system cannot be usually obtained from patients themselves. (
  • Objective The present study addresses the question, "Are plaque smooth muscles cells (SMCs) genetically distinct from medial SMCs as reflected by the ability to maintain a distinctive expression phenotype in vitro? (
  • Light-controlled cardiac muscle cells guide swimming of raybot. (
  • Dr. Wu also conduct research in cardiac developmental biology/congenital heart disease, stem cell biology and translation of stem cells into new treatments for congenital heart disease, adult heart failure and rhythm disorders. (
  • Also, it is the most characterized embryonic carcinoma (EC) cell line that can be induced into cardiac muscle cells and neuronal cells by different specific treatments. (
  • When treated with DMSO, Cardiac muscle cells developed after 5 days of exposure and skeletal muscle cells appeared after 8 days of exposure. (
  • These results demonstrate for the first time that transplantation of a person s own stem cells through direct intracoronary injection increased cardiac function, blood flow and metabolism in the damaged zone, said senior author Bodo E. Strauer, M.D., professor of medicine at Heinrich Heine University in D sseldorf, Germany. (
  • To explore the relationship between developmental fate and potential, we isolated a cardiac-specific Nkx2.5 (+) cell population from the developing mouse embryo . (
  • In the area of cardiovascular applications, the major challenge in using iPSCs has been poor cell engraftment: iPSCs have consistently not shown long-term survival, engraftment to the host myocardium and successful integration with the cardiac syncytium. (
  • Distinct families of multipotent heart progenitors play a central role in the generation of diverse cardiac, smooth muscle and endothelial cell lineages during mammalian cardiogenesis. (
  • By comparing angiocrine factors expressed by the human OFT-ECs and non-cardiac ECs, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A was identified as the most abundantly expressed factor, and clonal assays documented its ability to drive endothelial specification of human embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived Isl1+ progenitors in a VEGF receptor-dependent manner. (
  • We have generated hESC-lines that express the anti-apoptotic gene BCL2, and have found that these cells produce significantly greater amounts of hematopoietic and cardiac cells, because of their increased survival during culturing and sorting. (
  • Our results illuminate the dynamic proliferative behaviours that generate adult cardiac structure, revealing clonal dominance as a key mechanism that shapes a vertebrate organ. (
  • The growth of the zebrafish heart from embryo to adult is tracked using colored cardiac muscle clones, each containing many cellular progeny of a single cardiac muscle cell. (
  • Here, a large clone of green cardiac muscle cells (top) expands over the surface of many smaller clones in a growing heart. (
  • The most surprising aspect of this work is that a very small number of cardiomyocytes (heart muscle cells) in the growing animal can give rise to the thousands of cardiomyocytes that form the wall of the cardiac ventricle," said Vikas Gupta, lead author, who is in the Duke Medical Scientist Training Program for MD and PhD degrees. (
  • For example, following transplantation of donor bone marrow (BM) or enriched hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) into allogeneic recipients, skeletal myoblasts, cardiac myoblasts, endothelium, hepatic and biliary duct epithelium, lung, gut and skin epithelia, and neuroectodermal cells of donor origin have been detected (Verfaillie et al. (
  • Where clonal development was reported this is achieved at a prevalence ≤0 frequently.1% for fresh cells or contingent on prior version to lifestyle10 20 21 22 23 24 In a single research only 0.03% of adult cardiac Sca1+ cells proliferated beyond 14 times20. (
  • Linens of clonally expanded Sca1+ cells improve cardiac function after infarction21. (
  • Tracking cell progeny with Cre recombinase suggests that Sca1-fated cells generate cardiac muscle mass JTC-801 during normal ageing3 and that Sca1+ cells are a major source of fresh myocytes after ischaemic injury2. (
  • Here we have dissected the cardiac Sca1+ cells-based on their SP phenotype PECAM-1 (CD31) and PDGFRα-using single-cell manifestation profiles and demanding clonal analysis. (
  • JTC-801 Results A cardiogenic signature in SP cells by single-cell profiling To address the innate heterogeneity of the cardiac Sca1+ populace single-cell qRT-PCR (PCR with quantitative reverse transcription) was performed on new cells obviating potential bias from growth. (
  • Given JTC-801 that adult cardiac Sca1+ cells are enriched for SP cells with cardiogenic potential was indicated in all Sca1+ SP and non-SP cells as expected using their purification via Sca1 (Fig. 1b c). was not portrayed in myocytes which acquired near-uniform appearance of sarcomeric genes (and JTC-801 and was even more rarely discovered. (
  • Parting visualized by primary component (Computer)2 and Computer3 was due to four subsets of genes which collectively define the primary distinctions (and (ref. 30) just 8 of 43 cardiac SP cells portrayed all four-a 'mosaic' transcription aspect phenotype in >80% from the cells. (
  • Introduces all of the essential cell biology and developmental biology background for the study of s. (
  • Stem cell biology has huge potential for advancing therapies for many distressing and recalcitrant diseases, and its potential will be realized most quickly when as many people as possible have a good grounding in the science of stem cells. (
  • This data is nicely presented in an article published in Nature Cell Biology by the groups of Drs. Austin Smith and Jennifer Nichols where they also show that laminin-511 is crucial for acquisition of naive pluripotency (Boroviak et al. (
  • A new study led by researchers at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute (SBP) describes the biology behind why muscle stem cells respond differently to aging or injury. (
  • As established cell lines emerged, the application of well-defined normal and transformed cells in biomedical investigations has become an important staple in the development of cellular and molecular biology. (
  • Cancer progression from initiation to metastasis development is intimately linked to stem cell biology. (
  • Dr. Aguirre-Ghiso's work focuses on understanding the biology of residual cancer cells that persist in a dormant state after initial therapy. (
  • The scientists were surprised by how few cells went into making a critical organ structure and they suspect that other organs may form in a similar fashion, said Kenneth Poss, PhD, professor in the Duke Department of Cell Biology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute. (
  • Although tremendous efforts have been put into these areas, it is clear that a better understanding of stem cell biology is required before these approaches can be realized. (
  • The discovery of embryonic stem cells - arose not accidentally, but appeared on the prepared soil of scientific research in the field of developmental biology. (
  • His early work as a fellow at the Transplantation Biology Research Center with Dr. David Sachs focused on transplant tolerance induction in miniature swine using in utero stem cell transplantation, a research interest that he developed while a research fellow in the laboratory of Dr. Alan Flake at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. (
  • In the case of human diploid somatic cells, it is probable that some thousands of such clones have been followed in many different laboratories and to the best of our knowledge, all of them eventually stop growing, unless they are induced to undergo malignant transformation. (
  • Hybridization of Somatic Cells. (
  • Human somatic cells, however, do not show telomerase activity and their telomeres are considerably shorter. (
  • Stem cells cells of the body ( somatic cells ) which can divide and become differentiated . (
  • Specifically, we are using primary cells as well as murine and human embryonic stem cells to study RBM15 and MKL1, two genes that are fused in the t(1;22) translocation associated with Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia AMKL). (
  • Goldstein J, Balderas R, Marodon G. Continuous activation of the CD122/STAT-5 signaling pathway during selection of antigen-specific regulatory T cells in the murine thymus. (
  • A molecular map of murine lymph node blood vascular endothelium at single cell resolution. (
  • Abstract] For many infectious diseases T cells are an important part of naturally acquired protective immune responses, and inducing these by vaccination has been the aim of much research. (
  • Derivation and Maintenance of Embryonic Stem Cell Cultures. (
  • Scaffolds, 3D cultures, 3D printing of matrices and cells. (
  • Microcontact printing (μCP) is a simple and versatile method for generating cell culture substrates for micro-scale features for spatially restricting the cultures of single cells and their progeny. (
  • Cell cultures containing undifferentiatied stem cells were isolated from the primary tumor which have a euploid karyotype. (
  • Cultures of cells from immunized mouse lymph nodes and thoracic duct lymph on fibroblast monolayers. (
  • The present invention relates to methods for culturing primate embryonic stem cell cultures and culture media useful therewith. (
  • Both XX and XY cell cultures have been obtained. (
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of embryoid bodies collected from these cultures revealed a wide variety of differentiated cell types, including derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers. (
  • Finally, we have utilized the novel mAbs that we prepared against undifferentiated hESCs, to deplete residual teratogenic cells from differentiated cultures that were transplanted into animal models. (
  • To grow cultures of human ES cells, Thomson and his collaborators used 36 fresh or frozen embryos generated in IVF laboratories from couples undergoing treatment for infertility. (
  • To generate human ES cell cultures, cells from the inner cell mass of a human blastocyst were cultured in a multi-step process. (
  • To generate clonal cell lines from individual H9 ES cells, 384 single cells were removed from these cultures and transferred individually to the wells of larger plates that contained non-dividing mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) as feeder layers. (
  • After as many as 60 cell divisions, the growth rate of fibroblast cultures slows down, the cells stop dividing, and eventually they will die. (
  • Initial studies looking at adherent cell layers in Dexter-type long-term cultures indicated that the composition and function of such cells were similar to those of their normal counterparts, suggesting that the MDS-derived MSC is normal ( 10 , 11 ). (
  • They provide detailed protocols and describe their cultures in practical terms, from when the cells are first plated through the various phases of their development. (
  • Conclusions The SMC cultures were nearly indistinguishable by morphological features, population doubling time, and sensitivity to cell death induced by Fas cross-linking. (
  • Although the BMP-2 overexpressing C3H10T1/2 cells failed to form chondrogenic nodules, cells of both models expressed mRNA transcripts for major cartilage-specific marker genes including Sox9 , Acan , Col2a1 , Snorc , and Hapln1 at similar temporal sequence, while notable lubricin expression was only detected in primary cultures. (
  • Pathological conditions modify the microenvironment of stem cells (the so-called niche) preventing the activation of resident stem cells and reducing the success of exogenous cell therapies. (
  • On the other hand, functionally matured blood cells derived from hESC/hiPSCs are expected to be widely used for clinical cellular therapies. (
  • The results from recent preclinical studies regarding stem cell-based therapies are promising. (
  • We review in this article the latest clinical trials performed to treat SUI using cell-based therapies. (
  • However, there is not yet a consensus for the best cell source to be used to treat SUI and not all patients may be suitable for these therapies. (
  • Moreover, iPS cells and the reprogramming technology are of great interest in pharmaceutical and clinical settings, as the technology can be used to generate animal and cellular models for the study of various diseases as well as provide (in the future) specific patient tailor-made cells for their use in cellular replacement therapies. (
  • Theme 1 examines patient recruitment networks for experimental stem cell therapies and cooperation between research and health institutions involving exchanges of patients against other resources. (
  • Poss said the manner in which these muscle cells envelope the heart could lead to new therapies. (
  • They are now used in medical therapies, and researchers expect that stem cells will be used in many future therapies. (
  • The beneficial effect was achieved via modulation of stromal cells expressing cyclooxygenase 2 in the lamina propria, as shown by survival studies using selective and non-selective cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors. (
  • Surprisingly, however, when the Pax5-deficient cells were inadvertently cultured for several weeks on ST2 stromal cells in the absence of the cytokine IL-7, they changed in appearance, looking suspiciously like myeloid cells. (
  • Bernardo ME, Locatelli F, Fibbe WE (2009) Mesenchymal stromal cells. (
  • Pal D, Moad M, Hepburn AC, Williamson SC, Robson CN, Heer R. Reply from Authors re: "Reprogramming Stromal Cell from the Urinary Tract and Prostate: A Trip to Pluripotency and Back?" . (
  • Reprogramming Stromal Cells from the Urinary Tract and Prostate: A Trip to Pluripotency and Back? (
  • We determined whether stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1/CXCL12 and its receptor, CX chemokine receptor (CXCR)4, are important for the survival of β-cells. (
  • In VSMCs, rapamycin increased a homing chemokine for MSCs, stromal cell-derived factor-1-alpha, at mRNA and protein levels. (
  • Expression of Foreign Genes in Cultured Insect Cells Using a Recombinant Baculovirus Vector. (
  • Introducing genes to cells, homologous recombination in mice, CRISPR-Cas. (
  • Interestingly, AFS cells differentially expressed genes of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, which regulate intestinal epithelial stem cell function and cell migration and growth factors known to maintain gut epithelial integrity and reduce mucosal injury. (
  • Ultimately, asymmetric divisions are regulated directly by genes that control the process of asymmetric cell division itself or determine the distinct cell fates of the two daughter cells. (
  • These cells are located in a superficial layer external to muscle fibers and express many extracellular matrix (ECM) genes, including collagen type 1 α2 ( col1a2 ). (
  • Inactivation of Pax5 blocked B lymphoid ontogeny at the pro-B cell (also termed pre-B1) stage, during which time DNA recombination between D H and J H elements initiates the process that generates functional Ab genes ( 13 ). (
  • 14 ) injected Pax5-deficient pro-B clones into immunodeficient RAG-2 null mice and showed that they could reconstitute T cell development, with the resulting T cells bearing clonal D H -J H DNA rearrangements, indicative of their B lymphoid origin, as well as fully rearranged TCR genes. (
  • Feedback from each retinal neuron population drives expression of subsequent fate determinant genes without influencing the cell cycle exit timing. (
  • Individuals with Primary Immune Deficiency (PID) may develop severe, life-threatening infections as a result of inherited defects in the genes that normally instruct blood-forming cells to develop and to fight infections. (
  • The Currie group use zebrafish embryos to learn about muscle cell types. (
  • Embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from the inner cell mass of preimplantation embryos ( 1 , 2 ), and embryonic germ (EG) cells are derived from primordial germ cells (PGCs) ( 3 , 4 ). (
  • From the 14 embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage, they established 5 human ES cell lines-H1, H7, H9, H13 and H14 [ 35 ]. (
  • Researchers at Duke University Medical Center used zebrafish embryos and careful employment of a new technique that allows for up to 90 color labels on different cells to track individual cells and cell lines as the heart formed. (
  • Therefore, usually the source of the ESC lines created for clinical needs is the internal cell mass of the blastocyst, separate blastomeres of embryos of the 8-cell stage of development, morula cells of later stages, and primary sex cells. (
  • Even later, at the blastocyst stage, only 20-25% of human embryos consist of cells with a normal karyotype. (
  • Metabolic regulation of pluripotency and germ cell fate through α-ketoglutarate. (
  • Predominant Asymmetrical Stem Cell Fate Outcome Limits the Rate of Niche Succession in Human Colonic Crypts. (
  • Asymmetric localization of cell-cell junctions and/or intrinsic cell fate determinants and position within specific environment ("niche") are examples of mechanisms used to specify cell polarity and direct asymmetric divisions. (
  • During development, asymmetric divisions provide the basis for establishment of the body axis and cell fate determination in a range of processes. (
  • In some cases, factors within the dividing mother cell lead to the differential segregation of cell fate determinants to give two distinct daughters upon division. (
  • 1. Cell fate determinants are segregated to the basal cortex of the dividing NB, resulting in a disruption of the symmetry of the mother cell prior to division. (
  • 2. The mitotic spindle is aligned along the apical-basal axis to ensure accurate segregation of these cell fate determinants to the appropriate daughter cell. (
  • however, some studies suggest that extrinsic signals from the overlying epithelium also facilitate proper spatio-temporal localization of cell fate determinants (Lee et al. (
  • These data indicate that embryonic NBs respond to signals from the adjacent epithelium to specify correct spindle orientation and localization of cortical cell fate determinants. (
  • Segregation of cell fate determinants to the daughter GMC is regulated by the reciprocal localization of four protein complexes: two complexes are localized to the apical cortex and two to the basal cortex (see Figure 1 ). (
  • Some, surprisingly, adopted a smooth muscle fate. (
  • In doing so, they significantly deepened understanding about how competition between transcription factors can dictate cell fate. (
  • These observations are discussed with respect to the origin and function of Pax3-expressing cells in blood vessels, and more general questions of cell fate determination and adult cell plasticity and reprogramming. (
  • The Polo group is interested in the transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms that govern cell identity and cell fate. (
  • By performing SC fate tracing experiments, we show that 8 weeks of voluntary wheel running increased SC contribution to myofibers in mouse plantar flexor muscles in a load-dependent, but fiber type-independent manner. (
  • Cell-based phenotypic and pathway screens of synthetic compounds have led recently to the discovery of several small molecules that can be used to control stem cell fate. (
  • Chemicals that control stem cell fate. (
  • Traditionally, adult stem cells have been viewed as committed to a particular cell fate. (
  • Moreover, oligodendrocytes also developed and migrated into fiber bundles in mice when the RA-induced cells were transplanted into the brains. (
  • Consistent with these findings in human cells, knock out of MKL1 in mice leads to reduced platelet counts, and reduced ploidy in bone marrow megakaryocytes. (
  • We report expression of Pax3, an important regulator of skeletal muscle stem cell behaviour, in the brachial and femoral arteries of adult mice. (
  • In these contractile arteries of the limb, but not in the elastic arteries of the trunk, bands of GFP-positive cells were observed in Pax3(GFP/+) mice. (
  • Transgenic mice overexpressing SDF-1 within their β-cells (RIP-SDF-1 mice) are resistant to STZ-induced β-cell apoptosis and diabetes. (
  • Active phosphorylated prosurvival kinase Akt is increased both in the β-cells of RIP-SDF-1 mice and in INS-1 cells treated with SDF-1 and sensitive to AMD3100. (
  • Cells cultured for 95 days (17 passages) on laminin-511 were used to successfully generate chimeric mice (Domogatskaya et al. (
  • ES and EG cells from some species can form teratocarcinomas when injected into histocompatible or immunologically compromised mice. (
  • Additionally, when injected into mice, these cells initiated tumors that closely resemble human cancer. (
  • Lesion formation after mechanical arterial injury was markedly increased in mice with homozygous deletion of p27 Kip1 , characterized by prominent vascular infiltration by immune and inflammatory cells. (
  • Vascular occlusion was substantially increased when BM-derived cells from p27 -/- mice repopulated vascular lesions induced by mechanical injury in p27 +/+ recipients, in contrast to p27 +/+ BM donors. (
  • Although this capability is certainly a cell-intrinsic real estate the cells change their phenotype beneath the constraints enforced by the extremely heterogeneous microenvironment made by their very own collective motion. (
  • The causing Laropiprant heterogeneous cell inhabitants is seen as a a powerful equilibrium between "high Compact disc56" and "low Compact disc56" phenotype cells with distinctive spatial distribution. (
  • The main goal was to retard the atrophy and replace diseased muscle with new healthy and functional muscle fibers by using myogenic stem cells ( Brunelli and Rovere-Querini, 2008 ). (
  • This myogenic conversion depends on the expression of Pax3, but is rare and non-cell autonomous as it requires cell fusion. (
  • We present that proliferating myogenic cells in lifestyle can fluctuate between phenotypic state governments under the impact of the neighborhood microenvironment. (
  • A second group of rats with PAH received skin fibroblasts (cells), while a third group, which did not have PAH, were used as controls. (
  • Their discovery emerged from a decade of effort galvanized by the startling discovery of Davis, Weintraub, and Lassar that MyoD could entrain fibroblasts to become muscle cells ( 2 ). (
  • Zandstra and his team used cells extracted from mouse skin, known as mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). (
  • The inner cell masses were plated in culture dishes containing growth medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum on feeder layers of mouse embryonic fibroblasts that had been gamma-irradiated to prevent their replication. (
  • Intriguingly, cells grown from malignant tumours or cells treated with cancer-causing chemicals or viruses often grow without limit. (
  • Benditt proposed that monoclonality of the plaque cap was the result of a mutation or viral event as in neoplasia.3 This hypothesis is not consistent with the current consensus that the atherosclerotic plaque is an inflammatory lesion where smooth muscle cells (SMCs) arise as a fibrotic reaction encapsulating the inflammatory necrotic core.4 Malignant neoplasms, however, are not the only instance of clonality. (
  • Current work in the lab includes the identification of new growth factors that regulate stem cell function and the characterization of aspects of cellular physiology that have not previously been studied in stem cells. (
  • The ability of cells to divide asymmetrically to produce two different cell types provides the cellular diversity found in every multicellular organism. (
  • In 1978, after observing that the prototypical colony-forming stem cells were less capable at replacing differentiated cells than bone marrow cells injected into irradiated animals, Schofield proposed that a specialized environment in the bone marrow allows these precursor cells to maintain their cellular reconstitution potential. (
  • The study noted here provides numbers for the mutation rates in muscle stem cells , the stochastic damage that occurs over time as small numbers of errors slip past the highly efficient molecular machinery of cellular replication and DNA repair . (
  • One can look at the numbers for mutational damage in old cells and it sounds fairly horrific out of context, but everything irelated cells and cellular biochemistry involves huge numbers. (
  • Several groups recently coupled CRISPR perturbations and single-cell RNA-seq for pooled genetic screens. (
  • It might be possible in the near future to use one of the new forms of genetic technology to tackle the clonal expansions of specific mutations, provided there are only a few of them and they are present in large numbers of cells. (
  • Although these cells have a similar genetic makeup and outward appearance compared to their siblings, their higher fitness enabled them to produce more progeny, that is, clone themselves with greater frequency. (
  • Factors include maintained epigenetic memory, genetic background, and features incurred on reprogramming have been cited as possible reasons for the clonal diversity if iPSCs. (
  • For his fellowship and post-doctoral research he worked with Dr. David Baltimore at MIT and CalTech where he began his studies in developing homologous recombination as a strategy to correct disease causing mutations in stem cells as definitive and curative therapy for children with genetic diseases of the blood, particularly sickle cell disease. (
  • Moreover, because of the inherent difficulty of genetic manipulation for many types of stem cells (e.g., low transfection efficiency or poor clonal expansion), small-molecule tools are especially useful for the stem cell field. (
  • Being nonteratogenic, MDSC can be used directly by systemic injection, and this potential reveals a promising alternative avenue in stem cell-based treatment of beta-cell deficiencies. (
  • Conclusions We demonstrated here for the first time that AFS cells injected in an established model of NEC improve survival, clinical status, gut structure and function. (
  • We also discuss some of the biological, practical, ethical, and commercial considerations in using these different stem cells for future clinical application. (
  • ES cells have been isolated from humans, however their use in research as well as in clinical practice has been hampered by ethical and technical considerations (Frankel, 2000). (
  • Here we summarize computational methods for analysis and integration of single-cell omics data across different modalities and discuss their applications, challenges and future directions. (
  • By clonal analysis, one cell was able to give rise to many cells eventually filling the culture well. (
  • On one hand, recent developments in single-cell analysis allow to distinguish the behaviour of every single cell from the average of the population. (
  • The specificity of this reporter was confirmed through immunocytochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR analysis of high-positive fractions obtained via fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), suggesting its applicability for motor neuron-specific analysis. (
  • Surprisingly, array expression analysis identified differences so extensive that we conclude that plaque and medial SMCs are distinctly different SMC cell types. (
  • Cell Rep. 2018 Jan 9;22(2):313-322. (
  • To kick off the 2018 Till & McCulloch Meetings in style, the Stem Cell Network and CCRM will be hosting a welcome reception on the evening of Sunday November 11. (