A tricyclic antidepressant similar to IMIPRAMINE that selectively inhibits the uptake of serotonin in the brain. It is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and demethylated in the liver to form its primary active metabolite, desmethylclomipramine.
Substances that contain a fused three-ring moiety and are used in the treatment of depression. These drugs block the uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into axon terminals and may block some subtypes of serotonin, adrenergic, and histamine receptors. However the mechanism of their antidepressant effects is not clear because the therapeutic effects usually take weeks to develop and may reflect compensatory changes in the central nervous system.
Drugs that act principally at one or more sites within the peripheral neuroeffector systems, the autonomic system, and motor nerve-skeletal system. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p75)
Compounds with two BENZENE rings fused to AZEPINES.
Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.
Tricyclic antidepressant with anticholinergic and sedative properties. It appears to prevent the re-uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin at nerve terminals, thus potentiating the action of these neurotransmitters. Amitriptyline also appears to antagonize cholinergic and alpha-1 adrenergic responses to bioactive amines.
A quinolizidine alkaloid isolated from several FABACEAE including LUPINUS; SPARTIUM; and CYTISUS. It has been used as an oxytocic and an anti-arrhythmia agent. It has also been of interest as an indicator of CYP2D6 genotype.
Tricyclic antidepressant similar to IMIPRAMINE, but with more antihistaminic and sedative properties.
Chlorinated analog of AMPHETAMINE. Potent neurotoxin that causes release and eventually depletion of serotonin in the CNS. It is used as a research tool.
Disease or trauma involving a single peripheral nerve in isolation, or out of proportion to evidence of diffuse peripheral nerve dysfunction. Mononeuropathy multiplex refers to a condition characterized by multiple isolated nerve injuries. Mononeuropathies may result from a wide variety of causes, including ISCHEMIA; traumatic injury; compression; CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES; CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS; and other conditions.
A bridged-ring tetracyclic antidepressant that is both mechanistically and functionally similar to the tricyclic antidepressants, including side effects associated with its use.
A tricyclic dibenzazepine compound that potentiates neurotransmission. Desipramine selectively blocks reuptake of norepinephrine from the neural synapse, and also appears to impair serotonin transport. This compound also possesses minor anticholinergic activity, through its affinity to muscarinic receptors.
The prototypical tricyclic antidepressant. It has been used in major depression, dysthymia, bipolar depression, attention-deficit disorders, agoraphobia, and panic disorders. It has less sedative effect than some other members of this therapeutic group.
A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of depression.
Loss of consciousness due to a reduction in blood pressure that is associated with an increase in vagal tone and peripheral vasodilation.
The only family of the order SCANDENTIA, variously included in the order Insectivora or in the order Primates, and often in the order Microscelidea, consisting of five genera. They are TUPAIA, Ananthana (Indian tree shrew), Dendrogale (small smooth-tailed tree shrew), Urogale (Mindanao tree shrew), and Ptilocercus (pen-tailed tree shrew). The tree shrews inhabit the forest areas of eastern Asia from India and southwestern China to Borneo and the Philippines.
Drugs used for their effects on serotonergic systems. Among these are drugs that affect serotonin receptors, the life cycle of serotonin, and the survival of serotonergic neurons.
The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.
A selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is used in the treatment of DEPRESSION and a variety of ANXIETY DISORDERS.
A standard and widely accepted diagnostic test used to identify patients who have a vasodepressive and/or cardioinhibitory response as a cause of syncope. (From Braunwald, Heart Disease, 7th ed)

Negative immunoregulatory effects of antidepressants: inhibition of interferon-gamma and stimulation of interleukin-10 secretion. (1/147)

There is now some evidence that major depression is accompanied by activation of the inflammatory response system. There is also some evidence that antidepressants may suppress the release of cytokines, such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and IL-6 by activated monocytes and IL-2 and interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) by activated T cells. This study was carried out to examine the effects of clomipramine, sertraline, and trazodone on the stimulated production of IFN gamma, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, and IL-10, a negative immunoregulatory cytokine. Whole blood of nine healthy volunteers was stimulated with PHA, 5 micrograms/mL and LPS, 25 micrograms/mL for 72 hr with and without incubation with clomipramine, 10(-6) and 10(-9) M, sertraline, 10(-6) and 10(-8) M, and trazodone, 10(-6) and 10(-8) M. All three antidepressants significantly reduced IFN gamma secretion, whereas clomipramine and sertraline significantly increased IL-10 secretion in culture supernatant. All three antidepressants significantly reduced the IFN gamma/IL-10 ratio. The results suggest that antidepressants, at concentrations in the therapeutical range, have negative immunoregulatory effects through inhibition of IFN gamma and stimulation of IL-10 release.  (+info)

Clomipramine-induced urinary retention in a cat. (2/147)

A 10-year-old, female, spayed shorthair with presumed psychogenic alopecia was treated with clomipramine (1 mg/kg body weight/day). The cat developed urinary retention within 2 days. Clomipramine was discontinued. Clinical signs resolved over the next 7 days. The urinary retention was attributed to the anticholinergic effects of clomipramine.  (+info)

Clomipramine N-demethylation metabolism in human liver microsomes. (3/147)

AIM: To study the effect of cytochrome P-450 (CYP450) inhibitors on clomipramine (Clo) N-demethylation in vitro. METHODS: The kinetic parameters of Clo N-demethylation in human liver microsomes were obtained by the Michaelis-Menten equation. The parameters after pretreatment with putative inhibitors of various CYP450 isoforms were compared with controls. RESULTS: K(m1), K(m2), Vmax1, Vmax2, Vmax1/K(m1), and Vmax2/K(m2) were (0.11 +/- 0.06), (24 +/- 14) mumol.L-1, (114 +/- 47), (428 +/- 188) nmol.g-1.min-1, (1.8 +/- 1.6), and (0.019 +/- 0.005) L.g-1.min-1, respectively. The interindividual variations for the last 4 parameters reached up to 2.5-, 7.3-, 3.4-, and 1.8-fold. At 5 mumol.L-1 of Clo, troleandomycin (Tro), furafylline (Fur), ditiocarb sodium (Dit), and S-mephenytoin (Mep) produced a marked inhibition on Clo N-demethylation while sulfaphenazole (Sul) and quinidine (Qui) had only slight effects. The inhibitory rates by Dit 30, Mep 500, Fur 10, Tro 10, Fur 80, Tro 200 and Fur 80 + Tro 200 mumol.L-1 were 27.0%, 32.9%, 42.8%, 40.5%, 63.9%, 66.4%, and 78.3%, respectively. The IC50 (95% confidence limits) for Fur and Tro were 27.7 (19.1-36.3) and 42.1 (20.9-63.3) mumol.L-1, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The N-demethylation of Clo exhibited a biphasic behavior. This reaction was mediated mainly by both CYP1A2 and CYP3A4, to a minor extent by CYP2C19 at the low concentration of Clo in vitro.  (+info)

Local treatments of dorsal raphe nucleus induce changes in serotonergic activity in rat major cerebral arteries. (4/147)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Rat major cerebral arteries seem to receive serotonergic fibers originating from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), but little is known about their function. The aim of our present work was to establish a functional relationship between this brain stem nucleus and the cerebral blood vessels by studying the effects of several treatments in the DRN on cerebrovascular serotonergic activity. METHODS: Serotonin, clomipramine, 8-OH-DPAT, and WAY-100635 were administered in DRN. A stereotaxically localized electrode allowed the electrical stimulation of this brain stem nucleus. Serotonergic activity was appraised in major cerebral arteries, striatum, and hippocampus from 5-hydroxytryptophan accumulation after aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibition with NSD-1015. RESULTS: Serotonin significantly decreased serotonergic activity in major cerebral arteries and striatum without affecting it in hippocampus. This reduction was blocked by previous injection of WAY-100635 in DRN. Local administration of 8-OH-DPAT or clomipramine elicited an effect similar to that of serotonin, whereas that of WAY-100635 did not modify serotonergic activity in either of the tissues. Electrical stimulation of DRN significantly increased serotonergic activity in major cerebral arteries and striatum but not in hippocampus. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm the presence of a serotonergic innervation in rat major cerebral arteries functionally related to DRN. 5-HT(1A) receptor activation partly mediates the action of serotonin in DRN. A serotonergic tone acting on these somatodendritic receptors was not clearly found.  (+info)

Recovery of dopamine neuronal transporter but lack of change of its mRNA in substantia nigra after inactivation by a new irreversible inhibitor characterized in vitro and ex vivo in the rat. (5/147)

1. In vitro, the ability of DEEP-NCS {1-[2-(diphenylmethoxy)ethyl]-4-[2-(4-isothiocyanatophenyl)ethyl]- piperazine} to inhibit [3H]-dopamine uptake by rat striatal synaptosomes was concentration-dependent and inversely related to the protein concentration. This inhibition was irreversible and resulted from changes in Vmax and KM. DEEP-NCS was less potent on noradrenaline, serotonin and choline transport. 2. One day after intrastriatal injections of DEEP-NCS (100 and 1000 pmol) in 20% dimethylsulphoxide, moderate decreases in the ex vivo dopamine uptake were observed in synaptosomes obtained from striatum injected with DEEP-NCS or solvent, and the contralateral uninjected striatum. 3. In similar conditions, 300 pmol DEEP-NCS in 45% 2 hydroxypropyl-gamma-cyclodextrin - 0.5% dimethylsulphoxide solution sub-totally reduced ex vivo dopamine uptake and mazindol binding, and moderately decreased choline and serotonin transport. These reductions were specific to DEEP-NCS-injected striata. A clomipramine pretreatment (16 mg kg-1 i.p. 1 h before) was performed in following experiments, since it reduced the DEEP-NCS-elicited decrease in serotonin uptake without affecting other indices. 4. One day after intrastriatal injection, DEEP-NCS elicited similar dose-dependent decreases in ex vivo dopamine uptake and mazindol binding (ID50=6.9-8 ng striatum-1). Changes in KM and Vmax for ex vivo dopamine transport produced by DEEP-NCS disappeared according to similar time-courses. 5. The t(1/2) for transporter recovery was 6. 1 days. This value should correspond to its actual turnover rate in vivo, since no change in transporter mRNA level was observed in substantia nigra ipsilateral to 300 pmol DEEP-NCS-injected striatum. 6. The results indicate that DEEP-NCS behaves as a potent, quite selective, irreversible inhibitor of the DAT, in vitro and in vivo. Its use in vivo suggests that the physiological half-life of the rat striatal DAT is close to 6 days.  (+info)

Citalopram controls phobic symptoms in patients with panic disorder: randomized controlled trial. (6/147)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of long-term treatment with citalopram or clomipramine on subjective phobic symptoms in patients with panic disorder. DESIGN: Double-blind, parallel-group, five-arm study. PATIENTS: Patients aged 18 to 65 years with panic disorder (DMS-III-R diagnosis) and with no major depressive symptoms. INTERVENTIONS: Four hundred and seventy-five patients were randomized to 8 weeks of treatment with either citalopram (10 to 15 mg per day; 20 to 30 mg per day; or 40 to 60 mg per day), clomipramine (60 to 90 mg per day) or placebo. Two hundred and seventy-nine patients continued treatment after the 8-week acute phase. OUTCOME MEASURES: Phobic symptoms were assessed using the Phobia Scale and the Symptom Checklist's (SCL-90) phobia-related factors. RESULTS: At all dosages, citalopram was more efficacious than placebo, with 20 to 30 mg generally being the most effective dosage. Citalopram (20 to 30 mg) generally decreased phobic symptoms significantly more than placebo after Month 3. Interpersonal sensitivity decreased when measured on the respective SCL-90 sub-scale. Alleviation of phobic symptoms generally continued to increase towards the end of the treatment. The effect of clomipramine was not as consistent. CONCLUSIONS: All active treatment groups, especially the group receiving 20 to 30 mg per day of citalopram, effectively controlled phobic symptoms in patients with panic disorder. Long-term treatment with citalopram further decreased phobic symptoms.  (+info)

Effect of clomipramine on monoamine metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid of behaviorally normal dogs. (7/147)

The tricyclic antidepressant, clomipramine, is an effective treatment for canine compulsive disorder (canine CD). This disorder is a clinical syndrome of abnormal conflict behaviors and its pathophysiology is unknown. However, because clomipramine is an effective treatment, information about the drug's neurochemical effect could enhance the understanding of canine CD. The following experiment used 6 behaviorally normal dogs to assess the effect of clomipramine (3 mg/kg, q24h, PO) on the central turnover of 3 monoamines (serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine) as measured by the concentrations of their respective metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In a randomized, placebo-controlled, AB-BA crossover experiment, cisternal CSF was taken after 1, 2, 4, and 6 wk on each treatment. No effect of clomipramine was detected. This contrasts with human studies that have suggested that clomipramine affects the concentrations of monoamine metabolites in lumbar CSF. However, those papers do not address methodological assumptions, such as (i) metabolites in CSF originate only from the brain, and (ii) concentrations of metabolites in cisternal/lumbar CSF reflect the concentrations in local areas of the brain. Notwithstanding the small sample size, our results suggest that more localized sampling techniques (e.g. microdialysis) are needed when examining the effect of drugs on central monoamine metabolites. Clomipramine's efficacy for canine CD indicates the need for neurobiological research and, to our knowledge, our study is the first of its kind in dogs. The resulting data are preliminary but they can inform optimal neurobiological studies of canine CD.  (+info)

Determination of fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, and clomipramine in pharmaceutical formulations by capillary gas chromatography. (8/147)

A simple and fast capillary gas chromatographic method with flame ionization detection is proposed for the simultaneous determination of fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, and clomipramine without a prederivatization. The reported method is the first one that allows the determination of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Optimal conditions for the quantitative separation were investigated: column head pressure (80 kPa), injector and detector temperatures (260 and 250 degrees C), time and temperature for the splitless step (0.75 min and 60 degrees C), size of sample (2 microL), and oven temperature program, providing analysis times shorter than 10 min. Aspects such as the stability of the solutions, linearity, accuracy, and precision are examined in order to validate this method. Peak purity and detection and quantitation limits are also assessed using mass selective detection. The scope of the validated method is tested in the analysis of pharmaceutical preparations, with recoveries between 97.5 and 102.5% with regard to their nominal contents.  (+info)

Clomipramine is a tricyclic antidepressant drug that is primarily used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, in the brain. These neurotransmitters are involved in regulating mood and behavior.

Clomipramine is also used off-label to treat other conditions, including panic disorder, depression, chronic pain, and sleep disorders. It is available as a tablet or capsule and is typically taken one to three times a day. Common side effects of clomipramine include dry mouth, constipation, blurred vision, dizziness, and drowsiness.

As with all medications, clomipramine should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, who can monitor its effectiveness and potential side effects. It is important to follow the dosage instructions carefully and to report any unusual symptoms or concerns to the healthcare provider promptly.

Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that were commonly used to treat depression. The name "tricyclic" comes from the chemical structure of these drugs, which contain three rings in their molecular makeup. TCAs were first developed in the 1950s and remained a popular choice for treating depression until the introduction of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the late 1980s.

TCAs work by increasing the levels of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, in the brain. Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that transmit signals between nerve cells. By increasing the levels of these neurotransmitters, TCAs can help to improve mood and alleviate symptoms of depression.

Some common examples of tricyclic antidepressants include amitriptyline, imipramine, and nortriptyline. While TCAs are effective in treating depression, they can have significant side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, and drowsiness. In addition, TCAs can be dangerous in overdose and may increase the risk of suicide in some individuals. As a result, they are typically used as a last resort when other treatments have failed.

Overall, tricyclic antidepressants are a class of medications that were commonly used to treat depression but have largely been replaced by newer drugs due to their side effects and potential risks.

Peripheral nervous system (PNS) agents are a category of pharmaceutical drugs that act on the peripheral nervous system, which includes all the nerves outside the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord). These agents can be further classified into various subgroups based on their specific mechanisms of action and therapeutic effects. Here are some examples:

1. Local anesthetics: These drugs block nerve impulses by inhibiting the sodium channels in the neuronal membrane, thereby preventing the generation and transmission of nerve impulses. They are commonly used to provide local or regional anesthesia during surgical procedures or to manage pain. Examples include lidocaine, bupivacaine, and prilocaine.
2. Neuropathic pain agents: These drugs are used to treat neuropathic pain, which is caused by damage or dysfunction of the peripheral nerves. They can act on various targets, including sodium channels, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, and voltage-gated calcium channels. Examples include gabapentin, pregabalin, duloxetine, and amitriptyline.
3. Muscle relaxants: These drugs act on the skeletal muscle to reduce muscle tone and spasticity. They can be classified into two main categories: centrally acting muscle relaxants (e.g., baclofen, tizanidine) and peripherally acting muscle relaxants (e.g., cyclobenzaprine, carisoprodol).
4. Cholinergic agents: These drugs act on the cholinergic receptors in the PNS to modulate nerve impulse transmission. They can be further classified into muscarinic and nicotinic agonists or antagonists, depending on their specific mechanism of action. Examples include neostigmine, pyridostigmine, and physostigmine.
5. Sympathomimetic agents: These drugs stimulate the sympathetic nervous system, which is part of the PNS that regulates the "fight or flight" response. They can be used to treat various conditions, such as hypotension, bronchospasm, and nasal congestion. Examples include epinephrine, norepinephrine, phenylephrine, and pseudoephedrine.
6. Sympatholytic agents: These drugs block the sympathetic nervous system to reduce its activity. They can be used to treat various conditions, such as hypertension, tachycardia, and anxiety. Examples include beta-blockers (e.g., propranolol, metoprolol), alpha-blockers (e.g., prazosin, doxazosin), and combined alpha-beta blockers (e.g., labetalol, carvedilol).
7. Neuropathic pain agents: These drugs are used to treat neuropathic pain, which is caused by damage or dysfunction of the nervous system. They can act on various targets in the PNS, such as sodium channels, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, and opioid receptors. Examples include lidocaine, capsaicin, tramadol, and tapentadol.
8. Antiepileptic drugs: These drugs are used to treat epilepsy, which is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. They can act on various targets in the PNS, such as sodium channels, calcium channels, and GABA receptors. Examples include phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproate, lamotrigine, topiramate, and levetiracetam.
9. Antidepressant drugs: These drugs are used to treat depression, which is a mental disorder characterized by persistent low mood and loss of interest in activities. They can act on various targets in the PNS, such as serotonin receptors, norepinephrine receptors, and dopamine receptors. Examples include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (e.g., fluoxetine, sertraline), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) (e.g., venlafaxine, duloxetine), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) (e.g., amitriptyline, imipramine), and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) (e.g., phenelzine, selegiline).
10. Antipsychotic drugs: These drugs are used to treat psychosis, which is a mental disorder characterized by hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thought processes. They can act on various targets in the PNS, such as dopamine receptors, serotonin receptors, and histamine receptors. Examples include typical antipsychotics (e.g., haloperidol, chlorpromazine) and atypical antipsychotics (e.g., clozapine, risperidone).
11. Anxiolytic drugs: These drugs are used to treat anxiety disorders, which are mental disorders characterized by excessive fear, worry, or nervousness. They can act on various targets in the PNS, such as GABA receptors and benzodiazepine receptors. Examples include benzodiazepines (e.g., diazepam, alprazolam), buspirone, and hydroxyzine.
12. Sedative drugs: These drugs are used to induce sleep or reduce excitement. They can act on various targets in the PNS, such as GABA receptors and histamine receptors. Examples include barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital, secobarbital), benzodiazepines (e.g., diazepam, temazepam), and antihistamines (e.g., diphenhydramine, doxylamine).
13. Hypnotic drugs: These drugs are used to induce sleep. They can act on various targets in the PNS, such as GABA receptors and benzodiazepine receptors. Examples include benzodiazepines (e.g., triazolam, flunitrazepam) and non-benzodiazepine hypnotics (e.g., zolpidem, eszopiclone).
14. Antidepressant drugs: These drugs are used to treat depression, which is a mental disorder characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or worthlessness. They can act on various targets in the PNS, such as serotonin receptors and norepinephrine transporters. Examples include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (e.g., fluoxetine, sertraline), tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline, imipramine), and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (e.g., phenelzine, selegiline).
15. Anxiolytic drugs: These drugs are used to reduce anxiety, which is a feeling of fear, worry, or unease. They can act on various targets in the PNS, such as GABA receptors and benzodiazepine receptors. Examples include benzodiazepines (e.g., alprazolam, lorazepam), buspirone, and hydroxyzine.
16. Antipsychotic drugs: These drugs are used to treat psychosis, which is a mental disorder characterized by hallucinations, delusions, or disordered thinking. They can act on various targets in the PNS, such as dopamine receptors and serotonin receptors. Examples include typical antipsychotics (e.g., haloperidol, chlorpromazine) and atypical antipsychotics (e.g., risperidone, olanzapine).
17. Mood stabilizers: These drugs are used to treat mood disorders, such as bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder. They can act on various targets in the PNS, such as sodium channels and GABA receptors. Examples include lithium, valproic acid, and carbamazepine.
18. Stimulants: These drugs are used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or narcolepsy. They can act on various targets in the PNS, such as dopamine transporters and norepinephrine transporters. Examples include amphetamine, methylphenidate, and modafinil.
19. Antihistamines: These drugs are used to treat allergies or symptoms of the common cold. They can act on various targets in the PNS, such as histamine receptors and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Examples include diphenhydramine, loratadine, and cetirizine.
20. Antiemetics: These

Dibenzazepines are a class of chemical compounds that contain a dibenzazepine structure, which is a fusion of a benzene ring with a diazepine ring. Dibenzazepines have a wide range of pharmacological activities and are used in the treatment of various medical conditions.

Some of the medically relevant dibenzazepines include:

1. Antipsychotics: Some antipsychotic drugs, such as clozapine and olanzapine, have a dibenzazepine structure. These drugs are used to treat schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders.
2. Antidepressants: Mianserin and mirtazapine are dibenzazepine antidepressants that work by blocking the uptake of serotonin and noradrenaline in the brain. They are used to treat depression, anxiety, and insomnia.
3. Anticonvulsants: Some anticonvulsant drugs, such as levetiracetam and brivaracetam, have a dibenzazepine structure. These drugs are used to treat epilepsy and other seizure disorders.
4. Anxiolytics: Prazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative with a dibenzazepine structure that is used to treat anxiety disorders.
5. Analgesics: Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic with a dibenzazepine structure that is used to treat moderate to severe pain.

It's important to note that while these drugs have a dibenzazepine structure, they may also contain other functional groups and have different mechanisms of action. Therefore, it's essential to consider the specific pharmacological properties of each drug when prescribing or administering them.

Serotonin uptake inhibitors (also known as Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors or SSRIs) are a class of medications primarily used to treat depression and anxiety disorders. They work by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps regulate mood, appetite, and sleep, among other functions.

SSRIs block the reuptake of serotonin into the presynaptic neuron, allowing more serotonin to be available in the synapse (the space between two neurons) for binding to postsynaptic receptors. This results in increased serotonergic neurotransmission and improved mood regulation.

Examples of SSRIs include fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), paroxetine (Paxil), citalopram (Celexa), and escitalopram (Lexapro). These medications are generally well-tolerated, with side effects that may include nausea, headache, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, and increased anxiety or agitation. However, they can have serious interactions with other medications, so it is important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting an SSRI.

Amitriptyline is a type of medication known as a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). It is primarily used to treat depression, but it also has other therapeutic uses such as managing chronic pain, migraine prevention, and treating anxiety disorders. Amitriptyline works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the brain, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, which help to regulate mood and alleviate pain.

The medication is available in various forms, including tablets and liquid solutions, and it is typically taken orally. The dosage of amitriptyline may vary depending on the individual's age, medical condition, and response to treatment. It is essential to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking this medication.

Common side effects of amitriptyline include drowsiness, dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, and weight gain. In some cases, it may cause more severe side effects such as orthostatic hypotension (low blood pressure upon standing), cardiac arrhythmias, and seizures. It is crucial to inform the healthcare provider of any pre-existing medical conditions or current medications before starting amitriptyline therapy, as these factors can influence its safety and efficacy.

Amitriptyline has a well-established history in clinical practice, but it may not be suitable for everyone due to its potential side effects and drug interactions. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before using this medication.

Sparteine is not typically referred to as a "medical definition" in the context of modern medicine. However, it is a chemical compound with some historical use in medicine and a well-defined chemical structure.

Here's a chemical definition of sparteine:

Sparteine is an alkaloid derived from plants of the genus *Colutea* and *Genista*, but most notably from *Crotalaria sagittalis* (rattlebox) and *Echium plantagineum* (viper's bugloss). Its chemical formula is C15H24N2, and it has a molecular weight of 228.36 g/mol.

Sparteine is a stereoisomer of lupanine and is structurally related to other natural alkaloids such as nicotine and coniine. It is a chiral compound with two stereocenters, existing as four different stereoisomers: (−)-sparteine, (+)-sparteine, (−)-pseudosparteine, and (+)-pseudosparteine.

Historically, sparteine has been used in medicine as a cardiotonic, uterine stimulant, and antispasmodic. However, due to its narrow therapeutic index and the availability of safer alternatives, it is no longer in common clinical use today.

Trimipramine is a type of antidepressant known as a tricyclic, which is used primarily to treat major depressive disorder. It works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the brain, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, which help to regulate mood.

Trimipramine also has sedative properties and is sometimes used off-label for the treatment of insomnia or anxiety. It is available in immediate-release and extended-release forms, and is typically taken orally.

As with all medications, trimipramine can have side effects, which may include dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, dizziness, drowsiness, and weight gain. In rare cases, it may cause more serious side effects such as heart rhythm abnormalities, seizures, or increased suicidal thoughts or behaviors in some individuals, particularly in children and adolescents.

It is important to take trimipramine exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider, and to discuss any potential risks or benefits with them before starting treatment.

P-Chloroamphetamine, also known as PCA or 4-chloroamphetamine, is a synthetic stimulant drug that has been used in scientific research but is not commonly used medically. It is a derivative of amphetamine and has similar effects, such as increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and alertness. However, it also has hallucinogenic properties and can cause psychological disturbances.

PCA acts as a releasing agent for the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, which are involved in regulating mood, appetite, and other physiological processes. It is classified as a Schedule I controlled substance in the United States due to its high potential for abuse and lack of accepted medical use.

It's important to note that PCA is not approved for any medical use in humans and should only be used in a controlled research setting with appropriate safety measures in place.

Mononeuropathy is a medical condition that refers to damage or dysfunction affecting a single peripheral nerve, outside of the brain and spinal cord. This can result in weakness, numbness, or pain in the area served by that specific nerve. Mononeuropathies can occur due to various reasons such as trauma, compression, infection, or systemic diseases like diabetes. The symptoms and severity may vary depending on the type and location of the affected nerve.

Maprotiline is a tetracyclic antidepressant (TCA) medication that is primarily used to treat major depressive disorder. It works by increasing the levels of neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine and serotonin, in the brain, which can help to improve mood and alleviate symptoms of depression.

Maprotiline has a unique chemical structure that distinguishes it from other antidepressants, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). It is considered to be a second-line treatment option for depression, typically reserved for use when other antidepressants have not been effective.

Like other TCAs, maprotiline can cause a range of side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, and dizziness. It may also cause more serious side effects, such as seizures, irregular heartbeat, and changes in blood pressure. As a result, it is important to use maprotiline under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Maprotiline is available in tablet form and is typically taken two to four times per day, with or without food. The dosage may be gradually increased over time to achieve the desired therapeutic effect. It may take several weeks of treatment before the full benefits of maprotiline are felt.

Desipramine is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) that is primarily used to treat depression. It works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine and serotonin, in the brain. These neurotransmitters are important for maintaining mood, emotion, and behavior.

Desipramine is also sometimes used off-label to treat other conditions, such as anxiety disorders, chronic pain, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is available in oral form and is typically taken one to three times a day.

Like all medications, desipramine can cause side effects, which can include dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, dizziness, and drowsiness. More serious side effects are rare but can include heart rhythm problems, seizures, and increased suicidal thoughts or behavior in some people, particularly children and adolescents.

It is important to take desipramine exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider and to report any bothersome or unusual symptoms promptly. Regular follow-up appointments with a healthcare provider are also recommended to monitor the effectiveness and safety of the medication.

Imipramine is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) medication that is primarily used to treat depression. It works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, in the brain. Imipramine has been found to be effective in treating various types of depression, including major depressive disorder, dysthymia, and depression that is resistant to other treatments.

In addition to its antidepressant effects, imipramine is also used off-label for the treatment of several other conditions, such as anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), enuresis (bedwetting), and chronic pain.

Imipramine was first synthesized in the 1950s and has been widely used since then. It is available in various forms, including immediate-release tablets, extended-release capsules, and liquid solutions. As with all medications, imipramine can have side effects, which may include dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, dizziness, and sedation. In rare cases, it can cause more serious side effects, such as cardiac arrhythmias or seizures.

It is important to use imipramine under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, as dosages may need to be adjusted based on individual patient needs and responses to treatment. Additionally, imipramine should not be stopped abruptly, as doing so can lead to withdrawal symptoms or a recurrence of depression.

Paroxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medication that is primarily used to treat major depressive disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. It works by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps maintain mental balance, leading to an improvement in mood and other symptoms associated with these conditions.

Paroxetine is available under various brand names, such as Paxil and Seroxat, and it comes in different forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid solutions. The medication is typically taken once daily, although the dosage may vary depending on the individual's needs and the specific condition being treated.

As with any medication, paroxetine can have side effects, such as nausea, dizziness, dry mouth, and sleep disturbances. In some cases, it may also cause more serious side effects, including increased risk of suicidal thoughts or behaviors in children, adolescents, and young adults, as well as an increased risk of bleeding and hyponatremia (low sodium levels).

It is important to consult with a healthcare provider before starting paroxetine or any other medication, and to follow their instructions carefully regarding dosage, timing, and potential interactions with other drugs or medical conditions.

Vasovagal syncope is a type of fainting (syncope) that occurs when the body overreacts to certain triggers, such as the sight of blood or extreme emotional distress. This reaction causes the heart rate and blood pressure to drop, leading to reduced blood flow to the brain and loss of consciousness. Vasovagal syncope is usually not a cause for concern and does not typically indicate a serious underlying medical condition. However, it can be dangerous if it occurs during activities such as driving or operating heavy machinery. If you experience frequent episodes of vasovagal syncope, it is important to speak with a healthcare provider for evaluation and treatment options.

Tupaiidae is a family of small mammals commonly known as treeshrews. They are not true shrews (Soricidae) but are included in the order Scandentia. There are about 20 species placed in this family, and they are found primarily in Southeast Asian forests. Treeshrews are small animals, typically weighing between 50 and 150 grams, with a body length of around 10-25 cm. They have pointed snouts, large eyes, and ears, and most species have a long, bushy tail.

Treeshrews are omnivorous, feeding on a variety of plant and animal matter, including fruits, insects, and small vertebrates. They are agile animals, well-adapted to life in the trees, with sharp claws for climbing and a keen sense of sight and smell.

Medically, treeshrews have been used as animal models in biomedical research, particularly in studies of infectious diseases such as malaria and HIV. They are susceptible to these infections and can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of disease and potential treatments. However, they are not typically used in clinical medicine or patient care.

Serotonin agents are a class of drugs that work on the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in the brain and elsewhere in the body. They include several types of medications such as:

1. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs): These drugs block the reabsorption (reuptake) of serotonin into the presynaptic neuron, increasing the availability of serotonin in the synapse to interact with postsynaptic receptors. SSRIs are commonly used as antidepressants and include medications such as fluoxetine, sertraline, and citalopram.
2. Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs): These drugs block the reabsorption of both serotonin and norepinephrine into the presynaptic neuron, increasing the availability of these neurotransmitters in the synapse. SNRIs are also used as antidepressants and include medications such as venlafaxine and duloxetine.
3. Serotonin Receptor Agonists: These drugs bind to and activate serotonin receptors, mimicking the effects of serotonin. They are used for various indications, including migraine prevention (e.g., sumatriptan) and Parkinson's disease (e.g., pramipexole).
4. Serotonin Receptor Antagonists: These drugs block serotonin receptors, preventing the effects of serotonin. They are used for various indications, including nausea and vomiting (e.g., ondansetron) and as mood stabilizers in bipolar disorder (e.g., olanzapine).
5. Serotonin Synthesis Inhibitors: These drugs block the enzymatic synthesis of serotonin, reducing its availability in the brain. They are used as antidepressants and include medications such as monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) like phenelzine and tranylcypromine.

It's important to note that while these drugs all affect serotonin, they have different mechanisms of action and are used for various indications. It's essential to consult a healthcare professional before starting any new medication.

Compulsive behavior is a type of repetitive behavior that an individual feels driven to perform, despite its negative impact on their daily life and mental health. It is often driven by an overwhelming urge or anxiety, and the person may experience distress if they are unable to carry out the behavior. Compulsive behaviors can be associated with various psychiatric conditions, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), body dysmorphic disorder, eating disorders, and impulse control disorders.

Examples of compulsive behaviors include:

1. Excessive handwashing or cleaning
2. Repeatedly checking locks, light switches, or appliances
3. Ordering or arranging items in a specific way
4. Compulsive hoarding
5. Compulsive shopping or spending
6. Compulsive eating or purging behaviors (such as those seen in bulimia nervosa)
7. Compulsive sexual behavior (sex addiction)
8. Compulsive exercise
9. Compulsive hair pulling (trichotillomania)
10. Compulsive skin picking (excoriation disorder)

Treatment for compulsive behaviors typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy), and lifestyle changes to help manage the underlying causes and reduce the urge to engage in the compulsive behavior.

Fluvoxamine is a type of antidepressant known as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). It works by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps maintain mental balance. Fluvoxamine is primarily used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and may also be prescribed for other conditions such as depression, panic disorder, or social anxiety disorder.

The medical definition of Fluvoxamine can be stated as:

Fluvoxamine maleate, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), is a psychotropic medication used primarily in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It functions by increasing the availability of serotonin in the synaptic cleft, which subsequently modulates neurotransmission and helps restore emotional balance. Fluvoxamine may also be employed off-label for managing other conditions, such as depression, panic disorder, or social anxiety disorder, subject to clinical judgment and patient needs.

A tilt-table test is a diagnostic procedure used to evaluate symptoms of syncope (fainting) or near-syncope. It measures your body's cardiovascular response to changes in position. During the test, you lie on a table that can be tilted to change the angle of your body from horizontal to upright. This simulates what happens when you stand up from a lying down position.

The test monitors heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen levels while you're in different positions. If you experience symptoms like dizziness or fainting during the test, these can provide clues about the cause of your symptoms. The test is used to diagnose conditions like orthostatic hypotension (a sudden drop in blood pressure when standing), vasovagal syncope (fainting due to an overactive vagus nerve), and other heart rhythm disorders.

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Vallejo J, Olivares J, Marcos T, Bulbena A, Menchón JM (November 1992). "Clomipramine versus phenelzine in obsessive-compulsive ...
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With respect to tricyclic antidepressants, only clomipramine and imipramine have a risk of causing SS. Many medications may ... 2008). "Serotonin syndrome caused by olanzapine and clomipramine". Minerva Anestesiol. 74 (1-2): 41-5. PMID 18004234. Archived ...
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  • Clomipramine has a number of uses in medicine, including in the treatment of: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) which is its only U.S. FDATooltip Food and Drug Administration-labeled indication. (wikipedia.org)
  • This combination, in a similar vein, has also been used for clomipramine-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clomipramine is used to treat people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (a condition that causes repeated unwanted thoughts and the need to perform certain behaviors over and over). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Anafranil (clomipramine) is an antidepressant drug used to treat symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. (rxconnected.com)
  • The objective of this trial is to compare in an open trial format the efficacy of association of clomipramine and quetiapine with SSRI after SSRI treatment failed to produce complete remission of obsessive compulsive disorder symptoms. (trialbulletin.com)
  • Quetiapine Augmentation Versus Clomipramine Augmentation of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors for Obsessive-compulsive Disorder Patients That do Not Respond to a SSRI Trial: a Randomized Open-trial. (trialbulletin.com)
  • The benefits of clomipramine-fluoxetine combination in obsessive compulsive disorder. (trialbulletin.com)
  • The relationship of plasma clomipramine and N-desmethylclomipramine to response in obsessive-compulsive disorder. (simpleandpractical.com)
  • Biological Activity: Clomipramine-d3 (Chlorimipramine-d3) hydrochloride is a deuterium labeled Clomipramine hydrochloride. (epigenetics-modulation-frontier.com)
  • Clomipramine hydrochloride is a serotonin transporter (SERT), norepinephrine transporter (NET) dopamine transporter (DAT) blocker with K i of 0.14, 54 and 3 nM, respectively [2] . (epigenetics-modulation-frontier.com)
  • What is Clomicalm (clomipramine hydrochloride)? (1800petmeds.com)
  • Fluoxetine is very specific for serotonin, whereas clomipramine inhibits serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake in addition to its antihistaminic and anticholergic effects. (vin.com)
  • Combining a tricyclic (such as clomipramine) with anticholinergic medication may be more effective for treating enuresis than the tricyclic alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Children younger than 18 years of age should not normally take clomipramine, but in some cases, a doctor may decide that clomipramine is the best medication to treat a child's condition. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The doctor or pharmacist will give you the manufacturer's patient information sheet (Medication Guide) when you begin treatment with clomipramine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • At the beginning of treatment, clomipramine is usually taken three times a day with meals as the body adjusts to the medication. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Switch medication from dosulepine to clomipramine . (psychiatrienet.nl)
  • We used Swedish national registry data 2005-2017 on dispensed medications and inpatient care to estimate risks for early-treatment persistence, treatment discontinuation, switching to a new antidepressant medication, and mania within 3 months of treatment initiation in patients treated with citalopram, escitalopram, sertraline, amitriptyline, and clomipramine. (cdc.gov)
  • Some have suggested the possible superior efficacy of clomipramine compared to other antidepressants in the treatment of MDD, although at the current time the evidence is insufficient to adequately substantiate this claim. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contraindications include: Known hypersensitivity to clomipramine, or any of the excipients or cross-sensitivity to tricyclic antidepressants of the dibenzazepine group Recent myocardial infarction Any degree of heart block or other cardiac arrhythmias Mania Severe liver disease Narrow angle glaucoma Untreated urinary retention It must not be given in combination or within 3 weeks before or after treatment with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • A small number of children, teenagers, and young adults (up to 24 years of age) who took antidepressants ('mood elevators') such as clomipramine during clinical studies became suicidal (thinking about harming or killing oneself or planning or trying to do so). (medlineplus.gov)
  • You should know that your mental health may change in unexpected ways when you take clomipramine or other antidepressants even if you are an adult over age 24. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Clomipramine is in a group of medications called tricyclic antidepressants. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Tricyclic antidepressants like clomipramine can be used to deal with anxiety but have a larger incidence of side-effects. (maroon5.com)
  • Clomipramine is the most specific for serotonin of all the tricyclic antidepressants but differs from selective serotonin inhibitors (SSRI) such as fluoxetine. (vin.com)
  • 0.02) and the tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline and clomipramine (HR? (cdc.gov)
  • Fass environmental information for Anafranil (clomipramine) (downloaded date 2018-10-05). (janusinfo.se)
  • In these cases is often prescribed alongside SSRIs (e.g., fluoxetine, paroxetine), venlafaxine and various of the tricyclics (e.g., clomipramine, amitriptyline, nortriptyline, maprotiline), which is why it may feature sometimes in the discussion of depression being managed with clomipramine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasma levels and clinical improvement-a comparative study of clomipramine and amitriptyline in depression. (simpleandpractical.com)
  • Store clomipramine capsules and tablets at room temperature, protected from light. (marvistavet.com)
  • Clomipramine, sold under the brand name Anafranil among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Clomipramine is classified as a "tricyclic" antidepressant (because of its 3 ring chemical structure as shown above) and affects several neurotransmitters including serotonin. (marvistavet.com)
  • Clomipramine is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) and one of the FDA-approved medications to treat separation anxiety in dogs when combined with behavior modification. (vin.com)
  • Clomicalm (clomipramine) is a tricyclic antidepressant that affects chemicals in the brain (serotonin) that may become unbalanced leading to behavioral problems in dogs. (1800petmeds.com)
  • In a meta-analysis of various trials involving fluoxetine (Prozac), fluvoxamine (Faverin/Luvox), and sertraline (Zoloft) to test their relative efficacies in treating OCD, clomipramine was found to be significantly more effective. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clomipramine is incompatible with monoamine oxidase inhibitors. (marvistavet.com)
  • Clomipramine/desmethylclomipramine. (geisingermedicallabs.com)
  • 3. The half life of desmethylclomipramine, the main metabolite of clomipramine is about three to four days. (simpleandpractical.com)
  • The laboratory results will show a serum level for clomipramine, a level for desmethylclomipramine, and a total of the two. (simpleandpractical.com)
  • The combined trough plasma levels of clomipramine and desmethylclomipramine should not exceed 500 ng/mL because the risk of seizures and of cardiac conduction delay is clearly higher above that level (Fineberg et al 2012). (simpleandpractical.com)
  • Marcourakis T, Gorenstein C, Ramos RT, da Motta Singer J. Serum levels of clomipramine and desmethylclomipramine and clinical improvement in panic disorder. (simpleandpractical.com)
  • Clomipramine inhibits the removal of serotonin in the brain so that the serotonin present is present for a longer time. (marvistavet.com)
  • This means that clomipramine inhibits the involuntary functions mediated by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. (marvistavet.com)
  • Clomicalm (clomipramine) is used to treat separation anxiety in dogs in connection with behavior modification and training. (1800petmeds.com)
  • Your doctor may start you on a low dose of clomipramine and gradually increase your dose. (medlineplus.gov)
  • I was placed on clomipramine and I felt a change as of the first day I took the lowest dose. (webmd.com)
  • 2. But , the level should be checked at a lower dose if a drug interaction is present that could raise the clomipramine level (Grant, 2014). (simpleandpractical.com)
  • 4. The blood should be drawn no less than 12 hours after the last dose of clomipramine. (simpleandpractical.com)
  • Clomipramine has potential to produce what are called anticholinergic side effects. (marvistavet.com)
  • The objective of this trial wis to compare in an randomized open trial format the efficacy of association of clomipramine at maximum dosage of 75mg per day and quetiapine at maximum dosage of 200mg per day with SSRI after SSRI treatment for 12 weeks failed to produce complete remission of OCD symptoms. (trialbulletin.com)
  • Bouchez J, Dumur V, Lhermitte M, Goudemand M. Genotypes of cytochrome P450 and clinical response to clomipramine in patients with major depression. (simpleandpractical.com)
  • In any case, it is not necessary to have a diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder (manic-depressive illness), or even to be considered to have subtle elements of it ("soft bipolarity"), to benefit from lithium in the context of treatment with clomipramine. (wikipedia.org)
  • 51 patients with depressive episode (40 - recurrent depressive disorder, 11 - bipolar affective disorder) were treated by the clomipramine intravenous infusions. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Clomipramine works on the central nervous system (CNS) and helps to relieve the symptoms of OCD. (indianpharmacy.info)
  • Anxiety symptoms may temporarily worsen when you first start using Clomipramine. (indianpharmacy.info)
  • Clomipramine was discovered in 1964 by the Swiss drug manufacturer Ciba-Geigy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Emergency Central , emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/Davis-Drug-Guide/51163/all/clomiPRAMINE. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Time course of plasma drug levels during once-daily oral administration of clomipramine. (simpleandpractical.com)
  • Clomipramine could pose a problem with amitraz-containing tick or mite control products as amitraz is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. (marvistavet.com)
  • In the Swedish national screening programme, clomipramine levels have been found in fish up to 8.1 microg/kg. (janusinfo.se)
  • When administering clomipramine in addition to phenobarbital, an increase in plasma levels of clomipramine could occur. (vin.com)
  • Since clomipramine can be toxic at higher serum levels, a serum level should be checked. (simpleandpractical.com)
  • At lower serum levels, response to clomipramine is inadequate. (simpleandpractical.com)
  • Steady-state plasma levels of clomipramine and its metabolites: impact of the sparteine/debrisoquine oxidation polymorphism. (simpleandpractical.com)
  • Your healthcare provider will want to see you often while you are taking clomipramine, especially at the beginning of your treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • After several weeks of treatment, clomipramine is usually taken once a day at bedtime. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Do not stop taking clomipramine without talking to your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If prescribed clomipramine, it is important not to stop taking it abruptly. (vin.com)
  • Vazquez Rodriguez AM, Arranz Peña MI, Lopez Ibor JJ, Garcia Aguilera M, Viñas R, Moreno I, Vecino Morales AM. Clomipramine test: serum level determination in three groups of psychiatric patients. (simpleandpractical.com)
  • Clomipramine is the first to achieve FDA approval for use in dogs as well as humans. (marvistavet.com)
  • While clomipramine is only approved for use in humans and dogs, it is also widely used in cats. (marvistavet.com)
  • Cats and dogs administered clomipramine did exhibit some decreases in thyroid hormones. (vin.com)
  • De Zeeuw RA, Westenberg HG, Van Praag HM, De Cuyper H. Unusual plasma level oscillations of clomipramine in man: a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic dilemma. (simpleandpractical.com)
  • Plasma level studies with clomipramine (anafranil). (simpleandpractical.com)