Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
Insemination, Artificial, Homologous
Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer
Fertilization in Vitro
Endometrial oestrogen and progesterone receptors and their relationship to sonographic appearance of the endometrium. (1/317)The rapid development of ultrasonographic equipment now permits instantaneous assessment of follicles and endometrium. The sonographic appearance of the endometrium has been discussed in relation to in-vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. However, a generally agreed view of the relationship of the sonographic appearance to fecundity in IVF cycles has not emerged. We have studied the relationship between steroid receptors and the sonographic appearance of the preovulatory endometrium in natural cycles and ovulation induction cycles. Preovulatory endometrial thickness was not found to be indicative of fecundity, although a preovulatory endometrial thickness of <9 mm related to an elevated miscarriage rate. The preovulatory endometrial echo pattern did not predict fecundity. No relationships were found among endometrial appearance, endometrial steroid receptors and steroid hormone concentrations in serum. Oestrogen or progesterone receptor concentrations were not related to endometrial thickness or to concentrations of serum oestradiol, the only significant correlation being found between the endometrial concentrations of oestrogen and progesterone receptors. The ratio of progesterone:oestrogen receptor concentration was somewhat less in echo pattern B (not triple line) endometrium compared with pattern A (triple line) endometrium. Oestrogen and progesterone receptor concentrations appeared stable on gonadotrophin induction, though fewer numbers were found during clomiphene cycles than in natural cycles. With regard to the distribution of receptor concentration between clomiphene and natural cycles, most women using clomiphene had very low oestrogen receptor populations. Pregnancy rates were low, in spite of high ovulatory rates during clomiphene treatment and were mainly related to low oestrogen receptor concentrations in preovulatory endometrium. (+info)
Uterine peristalsis during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle: effects of oestrogen, antioestrogen and oxytocin. (2/317)Uterine peristalsis, directing sustained and rapid sperm transport from the external cervical os or the cervical crypts to the isthmic part of the tube ipsilateral to the dominant follicle, changes in direction and frequency during the menstrual cycle, with lowest activity during menstruation and highest activity at mid cycle. It was therefore suggested that uterine peristalsis is under the control of the dominant follicle with the additional involvement of oxytocin. To test this hypothesis, vaginal sonography of uterine peristalsis was performed in the early, mid and late proliferative phases, respectively, of cycles of women treated with oestradiol valerate and with human menopausal gonadotrophin following pituitary downregulation, with clomiphene citrate and with intravenous oxytocin, respectively. Administration of oestradiol valerate resulted in oestradiol serum concentrations comparable with the normal cycle with a simulation of the normal frequency of peristaltic contractions. Elevated oestradiol concentrations and bolus injections of oxytocin resulted in a significant increase in the frequency of peristaltic contractions in the early and mid follicular phases, respectively. Chlomiphene tended, though insignificantly so, to suppress the frequency of peristaltic waves in the presence of elevated oestradiol concentrations. In the late follicular phase of the cycle extremely elevated oestradiol concentrations as well as the injection of oxytocin resulted only in an insignificant further increase of peristaltic frequency. In the normal cycles, as well as during extremely elevated oestradiol concentrations and following oxytocin administration, the peristaltic contractions were always confined to the subendometrial layer of the muscular wall. The results and the review of literature indicate that uterine peristalsis during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle is controlled by oestradiol released from the dominant follicle with the probable involvement of oxytocin, which is presumably stimulated together with its receptor within the endometrial-subendometrial unit and therefore acting in an autocrine/paracrine fashion. Since unphysiological stimulation with oestradiol and oxytocin did not significantly increase the frequency of uterine peristalsis in the late follicular phase of the cycle it is assumed that normal preovulatory frequency of uterine peristalsis is at a level which cannot be significantly surpassed due to phenomena of refractoriness of the system. (+info)
Endometrial evaluation is not predictive for in vitro fertilization treatment. (3/317)PURPOSE: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate ovarian function by clomiphene citrate (CC) challenge test in a group of tubal infertile women and to study endometrial morphological maturation in the early luteal phase of CC-stimulated cycles as compared to in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four women presented with strongly retarded, proliferative endometrium in the luteal phase. Of these, three presented with impaired ovarian function, high basal follicle-stimulating hormone, and high follicle-stimulating hormone levels after clomiphene stimulation on cycle day 10. In the remaining 30 women, showing an in-phase endometrium after CC stimulation, a comparison of six morphological characteristics did not reveal any significant differences between the 14 women who did become pregnant and the 16 who did not. No significant differences in endometrial thickness were observed between the groups. Significant differences were found when comparing estradiol and progesterone area under the curve during the luteal phase (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively) between those who did and those who did not become pregnant. CONCLUSIONS: Luteal endometrium morphology was not a sharp instrument to detect differences between women who did and women who did not become pregnant following IVF treatment, while ovarian function, as measured by hormonal markers, seemed to be a more reliable prognostic factor for IVF treatment outcome. (+info)
Effects of clomiphene citrate and progesterone on resting and proliferative cell-populations in resting and proliferative cell-populations in mouse uterine epithelium. (4/317)Resting cells (GO cells) of the uterine surface epithelium in castrated mice began to synthesize DNA with high synchrony from 10 hr after the injection of 50 ng of estradiol-17beta with or without 5.5 mug of clomiphene citrate. Highly synchronized DNA synthesis in GO cells elicited with estradiol was delayed approximately 5 hr when the simultaneous administration of 0.5 mg of progesterone was given. In GO cells of castrated mice which received 5.5 mug of clomiphene or 55 mug of clomiphene plus 50 ng of estradiol, DNA synthesis with partial synchrony began 15 hr after the injection. The effects of estradiol were completely suppressed by the administration of 55 mug of clomiphene. It is suggested that the inhibitory action of clomiphene may be due to the competitive blocking of estrogen binding, while progesterone suppresses the estrogen-induced DNA synthesis of the surface epithelium and transfers them to the GO cell-compartment. (+info)
Intrauterine insemination treatment in subfertility: an analysis of factors affecting outcome. (5/317)A total of 811 intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles in which clomiphene citrate/human menopausal gonadotrophin (HMG) was used for ovarian stimulation were analysed retrospectively to identify prognostic factors regarding treatment outcome. The overall pregnancy rate was 12.6% per cycle, the multiple pregnancy rate 13.7%, and the miscarriage rate 23.5%. Logistic regression analysis revealed five predictive variables as regards pregnancy: number of the treatment cycle (P = 0.009), duration of infertility (P = 0.017), age (P = 0.028), number of follicles (P = 0.031) and infertility aetiology (P = 0.045). The odds ratios for age < 40 years, unexplained infertility aetiology (versus endometriosis) and duration of infertility < or = 6 years were 3.24, 2.79 and 2.33, respectively. A multifollicular ovarian response to clomiphene citrate/HMG resulted in better treatment success than a monofollicular response, and 97% of the pregnancies were obtained in the first four treatment cycles. The results indicate that clomiphene citrate/HMG/IUI is a useful and cost-effective treatment option in women < 40 years of age with infertility duration < or = 6 years, who do not suffer from endometriosis. (+info)
Anovulations in an ovary during two menstrual cycles enhance the pregnancy potential of oocytes matured in that ovary during the following third cycle. (6/317)The aim of this study was to test whether ovulation from an ovary affects the health of oocytes from dominant follicles in that ovary two cycles later. A total of 80 women each with two intact ovaries underwent 270 treatment cycles (155 natural cycles and 115 clomiphene citrate cycles) all showing unilateral ovulation. The results from the in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment were grouped according to whether ovulation (O) or anovulation (A) (no ovulation) was observed in the ovary with dominant follicle during the treatment cycle in the previous two cycles: O-O, A-O, O-A and A-A (previous second cycle-previous first cycle). The rate of pre-embryo formation in A-A was significantly higher than that of O-A. The pregnancy rate in A-A (29%) was also higher than those of O-A (13%), A-O (9%) and O-O (5%). These rates increased from O-O to A-A as the number of previous ovulations in an ovary decreased. The presence of a corpus luteum and/or a dominant follicle is likely to exert local negative effects on the health of the oocyte contained in the follicle selected to ovulate up to two cycles later. Anovulations in an ovary for two menstrual cycles may therefore provide improved conditions for the development of a healthier oocyte with an increased pregnancy potential. (+info)
The effect of smoking on oocyte quality and hormonal parameters of patients undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer. (7/317)PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of smoking on different parameters such as oocyte count, embryo score, and basal hormone values within the scope of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET). METHODS: Eight hundred thirty-four women undergoing IVF-ET treatment were classified as smokers or nonsmokers on the basis of questionnaires. Additionally, we divided them into three groups according to their stimulation protocol--"combined stimulation" [I; clomiphene citrate plus human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG)], "ultrashort" [II; gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) plus hMG or follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)], and "long downregulation protocol" (III)--and further classified again as smokers or nonsmokers within the groups. RESULTS: In general, smoking patients were significantly (P = 0.0195) younger than nonsmokers and showed a significantly (P = 0.0379) lower embryo score and a tendency (P = 0.0931) to produce fewer oocytes. There was no significant difference concerning the number of normally or pathologically fertilized and transferred oocytes and embryos suitable for cryopreservation. Women who smoked had significantly (P = 0.0112) higher basal 17-beta-estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone (LH) (P = 0.0001), and dehydroepian-drosteronesulfate (DHEAS) (P = 0.0039) levels, but their basal human prolactin (HPRL) levels were significantly (P = 0.0033) lower than those of nonsmokers. According to the stimulation protocol used, we found the following results. Smoking patients in group I showed a significantly (P = 0.023) lower embryo score and produced fewer oocytes (P = 0.0113), with fewer of them being fertilized (P = 0.0072) and transferred (P = 0.0067). Women who smoked had significantly (P = 0.0002) higher basal LH levels, but their HPRL levels were significantly (P = 0.031) lower than those of nonsmokers. Furthermore, they had a thinner endometrium on the day of embryo transfer (P = 0.0366). In group II we measured significantly elevated basal E2 levels (P = 0.0089) and higher LH values (P = 0.0092) in smokers. Group III showed a trend (P = 0.0565) toward lower HPRL values in smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Although the fertilization rate of oocytes and the pregnancy rate were not significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers, we found significantly alterated hormonal parameters and negatively influenced oocyte parameters, particularly after clomiphene stimulation. So we might consider using only GnRHa protocols for smoking patients. Additionally, we advise our patients to stop smoking before an IVF-ET treatment because of the complex effects of smoking on the reproductive and hormonal system. (+info)
Hormone and fertility drug use and the risk of neuroblastoma: a report from the Children's Cancer Group and the Pediatric Oncology Group. (8/317)Previous epidemiologic studies have suggested an association between maternal sex hormone use during pregnancy, including infertility medication, and an increased risk of neuroblastoma in the offspring. The authors conducted a case-control interview study from 1992 to 1996 that included 504 children less than 19 years of age whose newly diagnosed neuroblastoma was identified by two national collaborative clinical trials groups in the United States and Canada, the Children's Cancer Group and the Pediatric Oncology Group. Controls, matched to cases on age, were identified by random digit dialing. No association was found for use of oral contraceptives before or during pregnancy (first trimester odds ratio (OR) = 1.0, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.5, 2.1). The odds ratio was slightly elevated for history of infertility (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 0.9, 2.1) and ever use of any infertility medication (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 0.7, 2.2). Specifically, ever use of clomiphene was associated with a 1.6-fold increased risk (95% CI: 0.8, 3.0) but not periconceptionally or during the index pregnancy. A suggestive pattern was found for gender of the offspring, with an increased risk for males but not for females after exposure to oral contraceptives or clomiphene. This study did not find consistent and large increased risks for maternal use of hormones, but the suggestion of an association for male offspring requires further consideration. (+info)
1. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): This is the most common cause of anovulation, affecting up to 75% of women with PCOS.
2. Hypothalamic dysfunction: The hypothalamus regulates hormonal signals that stimulate ovulation. Disruptions in these signals can lead to anovulation.
3. Thyroid disorders: Both hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) and hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) can disrupt hormone levels and lead to anovulation.
4. Premature ovarian failure (POF): This condition is characterized by the premature loss of ovarian function before age 40.
5. Ovarian insufficiency: This occurs when the ovaries lose their ability to produce eggs, often due to aging or medical treatment.
6. Chronic diseases: Certain conditions like diabetes, hypertension, and obesity can increase the risk of anovulation.
7. Luteal phase defect: This occurs when the uterine lining does not properly thicken during the second half of the menstrual cycle, making it difficult for a fertilized egg to implant.
8. Ovulatory disorders: Disorders such as ovarian cysts, endometriosis, and pelvic inflammatory disease can interfere with ovulation.
9. Genetic factors: Some genetic mutations can affect ovulation, such as those associated with Turner syndrome or other rare genetic conditions.
10. Medications: Certain medications, such as hormonal contraceptives and antidepressants, can disrupt ovulation.
Anovulation is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests, including hormone levels and imaging studies. Treatment options for anovulation depend on the underlying cause and may include:
1. Hormonal medications to stimulate ovulation
2. Intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) to increase the chances of conception
3. Lifestyle modifications, such as weight loss and stress management
4. Surgery to correct anatomical abnormalities or remove any blockages in the reproductive tract
5. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART), such as IVF with egg donation or surrogacy.
It's important for women experiencing irregular periods or anovulation to seek medical attention, as timely diagnosis and treatment can improve their chances of conceiving and reduce the risk of complications during pregnancy.
Causes of Female Infertility
There are several potential causes of female infertility, including:
1. Hormonal imbalances: Disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid dysfunction, and premature ovarian failure can affect hormone levels and ovulation.
2. Ovulatory disorders: Problems with ovulation, such as anovulation or oligoovulation, can make it difficult to conceive.
3. Tubal damage: Damage to the fallopian tubes due to pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, or surgery can prevent the egg from traveling through the tube and being fertilized.
4. Endometriosis: This condition occurs when tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside of the uterus, causing inflammation and scarring that can lead to infertility.
5. Fibroids: Noncancerous growths in the uterus can interfere with implantation of a fertilized egg or disrupt ovulation.
6. Pelvic adhesions: Scar tissue in the pelvis can cause fallopian tubes to become damaged or blocked, making it difficult for an egg to travel through the tube and be fertilized.
7. Uterine or cervical abnormalities: Abnormalities such as a bicornuate uterus or a narrow cervix can make it difficult for a fertilized egg to implant in the uterus.
8. Age: A woman's age can affect her fertility, as the quality and quantity of her eggs decline with age.
9. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and being overweight or underweight can affect fertility.
10. Stress: Chronic stress can disrupt hormone levels and ovulation, making it more difficult to conceive.
It's important to note that many of these factors can be treated with medical assistance, such as medication, surgery, or assisted reproductive technology (ART) like in vitro fertilization (IVF). If you are experiencing difficulty getting pregnant, it is recommended that you speak with a healthcare provider to determine the cause of your infertility and discuss potential treatment options.
1. Irregular menstrual cycles, or amenorrhea (the absence of periods).
2. Cysts on the ovaries, which are fluid-filled sacs that can be detected by ultrasound.
3. Elevated levels of androgens (male hormones) in the body, which can cause a range of symptoms including acne, excessive hair growth, and male pattern baldness.
4. Insulin resistance, which is a condition in which the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin, leading to high blood sugar levels.
PCOS is a complex disorder, and there is no single cause. However, genetics, hormonal imbalances, and insulin resistance are thought to play a role in its development. It is estimated that 5-10% of women of childbearing age have PCOS, making it one of the most common endocrine disorders affecting women.
There are several symptoms of PCOS, including:
1. Irregular menstrual cycles or amenorrhea
2. Weight gain or obesity
4. Excessive hair growth on the face, chest, and back
5. Male pattern baldness
6. Infertility or difficulty getting pregnant
7. Mood changes, such as depression and anxiety
8. Sleep apnea
PCOS can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, including:
1. Pelvic exam: A doctor will examine the ovaries and uterus to look for cysts or other abnormalities.
2. Ultrasound: An ultrasound can be used to detect cysts on the ovaries and to evaluate the thickness of the uterine lining.
3. Hormone testing: Blood tests can be used to measure levels of androgens, estrogen, and progesterone.
4. Glucose tolerance test: This test is used to check for insulin resistance, which is a common finding in women with PCOS.
5. Laparoscopy: A small camera inserted through a small incision in the abdomen can be used to visualize the ovaries and uterus and to diagnose PCOS.
There is no cure for PCOS, but it can be managed with lifestyle changes and medication. Treatment options include:
1. Weight loss: Losing weight can improve insulin sensitivity and reduce androgen levels.
2. Hormonal birth control: Birth control pills or other hormonal contraceptives can help regulate menstrual cycles and reduce androgen levels.
3. Fertility medications: Clomiphene citrate and letrozole are commonly used to stimulate ovulation in women with PCOS.
4. Injectable fertility medications: Gonadotropins, such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), can be used to stimulate ovulation.
5. Surgery: Laparoscopic ovarian drilling or laser surgery can improve ovulation and fertility in women with PCOS.
6. Assisted reproductive technology (ART): In vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) can be used to help women with PCOS conceive.
7. Alternative therapies: Some complementary and alternative therapies, such as acupuncture and herbal supplements, may be helpful in managing symptoms of PCOS.
It is important for women with PCOS to work closely with their healthcare provider to develop a treatment plan that meets their individual needs and goals. With appropriate treatment, many women with PCOS can improve their menstrual regularity, fertility, and overall health.
There are several possible causes of amenorrhea, including:
1. Hormonal Imbalance: Imbalance of hormones can prevent the uterus from preparing for menstruation.
2. Pregnancy: Pregnancy is one of the most common causes of amenorrhea.
3. Menopause: Women going through menopause may experience amenorrhea due to the decreased levels of estrogen and progesterone.
4. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): PCOS is a hormonal disorder that can cause irregular periods or amenorrhea.
5. Thyroid Disorders: Both hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) and hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) can cause amenorrhea.
6. Obesity: Women who are significantly overweight may experience amenorrhea due to the hormonal imbalance caused by excess body fat.
7. Stress: Chronic stress can disrupt hormone levels and cause amenorrhea.
8. Surgery or Trauma: Certain surgeries, such as hysterectomy or removal of the ovaries, can cause amenorrhea. Trauma, such as a severe injury or infection, can also cause amenorrhea.
9. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and chemotherapy drugs, can cause amenorrhea as a side effect.
10. Endocrine Disorders: Disorders such as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hyperprolactinemia, and hypothyroidism can cause amenorrhea.
Amenorrhea can cause a range of symptoms, including:
1. No menstrual period
2. Difficulty getting pregnant (infertility)
3. Abnormal vaginal bleeding or spotting
4. Painful intercourse
5. Weight gain or loss
6. Mood changes, such as anxiety or depression
10. Hot flashes
Amenorrhea is typically diagnosed based on a patient's medical history and physical examination. Additional tests may be ordered to determine the underlying cause of amenorrhea, such as:
1. Blood tests to measure hormone levels, including estrogen, progesterone, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
2. Imaging tests, such as ultrasound or MRI, to evaluate the ovaries and uterus
3. Laparoscopy, a minimally invasive procedure that allows the doctor to visually examine the ovaries and fallopian tubes
4. Hysteroscopy, a procedure that allows the doctor to examine the inside of the uterus
The treatment of amenorrhea depends on the underlying cause. Some common treatments include:
1. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to restore hormone balance and promote menstruation
2. Medications to stimulate ovulation, such as clomiphene citrate or letrozole
3. Surgery to remove fibroids, cysts, or other structural abnormalities that may be contributing to amenorrhea
4. Infertility treatments, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), if the patient is experiencing difficulty getting pregnant
5. Lifestyle changes, such as weight loss or exercise, to improve overall health and promote menstruation
There is no specific way to prevent amenorrhea, but maintaining a healthy lifestyle and managing any underlying medical conditions can help reduce the risk of developing the condition. Some tips for prevention include:
1. Eating a balanced diet that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein sources
2. Exercising regularly to maintain a healthy weight and improve overall health
3. Managing stress through relaxation techniques, such as yoga or meditation
4. Getting enough sleep each night
5. Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and smoking
6. Maintaining a healthy body mass index (BMI) to reduce the risk of developing hormonal imbalances
7. Managing any underlying medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, or adrenal gland disorders
8. Avoiding exposure to harmful chemicals and toxins that can disrupt hormone balance.
Infertility can be classified into two main categories:
1. Primary infertility: This type of infertility occurs when a couple has not been able to conceive a child after one year of regular sexual intercourse, and there is no known cause for the infertility.
2. Secondary infertility: This type of infertility occurs when a couple has been able to conceive at least once before but is now experiencing difficulty in conceiving again.
There are several factors that can contribute to infertility, including:
1. Age: Women's fertility declines with age, especially after the age of 35.
2. Hormonal imbalances: Imbalances of hormones such as progesterone, estrogen, and thyroid hormones can affect ovulation and fertility.
3. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): A common condition that affects ovulation and can cause infertility.
4. Endometriosis: A condition in which the tissue lining the uterus grows outside the uterus, causing inflammation and scarring that can lead to infertility.
5. Male factor infertility: Low sperm count, poor sperm quality, and blockages in the reproductive tract can all contribute to infertility.
6. Lifestyle factors: Smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, being overweight or underweight, and stress can all affect fertility.
7. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, and thyroid disorders can affect fertility.
8. Uterine or cervical abnormalities: Abnormalities in the shape or structure of the uterus or cervix can make it difficult for a fertilized egg to implant in the uterus.
9. Previous surgeries: Surgeries such as hysterectomy, tubal ligation, and cesarean section can affect fertility.
10. Age: Both male and female age can impact fertility, with a decline in fertility beginning in the mid-30s and a significant decline after age 40.
It's important to note that many of these factors can be treated with medical interventions or lifestyle changes, so it's important to speak with a healthcare provider if you are experiencing difficulty getting pregnant.
Treatment for oligomenorrhea depends on the underlying cause, but may include hormone replacement therapy, birth control pills, or other medications to regulate menstrual cycles. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct anatomical abnormalities or remove cysts that are interfering with normal menstruation.
Oligomenorrhea can have significant impacts on women's lives, including difficulty becoming pregnant due to irregular ovulation and increased risk of developing endometrial cancer. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are important to manage the condition and prevent potential complications.
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- Clomiphene citrate tablets, USP is an orally administered, nonsteroidal, ovulatory stimulant designated chemically as 2-[p-(2chloro-1,2-diphenylvinyl)phenoxy] triethylamine citrate (1:1). (nih.gov)
- Clomiphene citrate is a white to pale yellow, essentially odorless, crystalline powder. (nih.gov)
- Clomiphene citrate is a mixture of two geometric isomers [cis (zuclomiphene) and trans (enclomiphene)] containing between 30% and 50% of the cis-isomer. (nih.gov)
- Each off-white debossed tablet contains 50 mg clomiphene citrate USP. (nih.gov)
- Clomiphene citrate is a drug of considerable pharmacologic potency. (nih.gov)
- With careful selection and proper management of the patient, clomiphene citrate has been demonstrated to be a useful therapy for the anovulatory patient desiring pregnancy. (nih.gov)
- Clomiphene citrate initiates a series of endocrine events culminating in a preovulatory gonadotropin surge and subsequent follicular rupture. (nih.gov)
- Clomiphene citrate has no apparent progestational, androgenic, or antiandrogenic effects and does not appear to interfere with pituitary-adrenal or pituitary-thyroid function. (nih.gov)
- Although there is no evidence of a "carryover effect" of clomiphene citrate, spontaneous ovulatory menses have been noted in some patients after clomiphene citrate therapy. (nih.gov)
- Based on early studies with 14C-labeled clomiphene citrate, the drug was shown to be readily absorbed orally in humans and excreted principally in the feces. (nih.gov)
- Thus, it is possible that some active drug may remain in the body during early pregnancy in women who conceive in the menstrual cycle during clomiphene citrate therapy. (nih.gov)
- During clinical investigations, 7578 patients received clomiphene citrate, some of whom had impediments to ovulation other than ovulatory dysfunction (see INDICATIONS AND USAGE). (nih.gov)
- After just 7 days of clomiphene citrate administration (100mg daily), mean serum total T and non-SHBG-bound levels in young men increased by a whopping 100% and 304%, respectively, while in older men these values increased by only 32% and 8%, Similar to previous observations, LH and FSH levels showed a significant elevation in response to clomiphene citrate over the response to placebo. (ironmagazine.com)
- 4. Effect of raising endogenous testosterone levels in impotent men with secondary hypogonadism: double blind placebo-controlled trial with clomiphene citrate. (ironmagazine.com)
- 5. An investigation of the visual disturbances experienced by patients on clomiphene citrate. (ironmagazine.com)
- A:** [Clomiphene citrate](/treatment-care/clomiphene), aka "Clomid," is in a class of drugs known as anti-estrogens, meaning it binds to estrogen receptors in the hypothalamus region of the brain responsible for reproduction. (pacificfertilitycenter.com)
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- The benefits of Clomiphene Citrate in a performance sense are rather easy to understand, prevent gynecomastia and promote post cycle recovery through natural testosterone stimulation. (clomiphenecitrate.com)
- Clomid is the commonly referenced brand name for the drug clomiphene citrate. (maiersen-chem.com)
- This is due to the fact that clomiphene citrate shows a pronounced ability to stimulate ovulation. (maiersen-chem.com)
- Clomid is Clomiphene Citrate, or as it may be more commonly known by its brand names, Serophene or Milophene. (sfcc-chemicals.com)
- Clomiphene citrate is used to stimulate the ovaries to produce more than one egg during a menstrual cycle. (sfcc-chemicals.com)
- As powder form, we sell it (Clomiphene citrate). (sfcc-chemicals.com)
- Clomiphene citrate (Clomid) is an FDA-approved fertility drug. (sfcc-chemicals.com)
- One tablet of Clomid contains 50 mg of clomiphene citrate. (sfcc-chemicals.com)
- Clomiphene citrate 50 mg and Coenzyme Q10 50 mg - Winfertility is the most trustworthy and leading company in India that is manufacturing Clomiphene citrate 50 mg and Coenzyme Q10 50 mg . (winfertility.in)
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- Clomiphene citrate is not a steroid, although it is commonly associated with anabolic steroids. (granabolic.is)
- Clomiphene citrate belongs to a class of medications known as Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators or SERM's with attributes that stimulate and increase the production of gonadotropins in the body. (granabolic.is)
- Due to its mode of action Clomiphene citrate was developed for the purpose of ovarian stimulation, however, because it stimulates all gonadotropins its use can and does go far beyond ovarian stimulation and is used by many athletes as part of a post cycle recovery plan. (granabolic.is)
- 7. Short- and long-term effects of clomiphene citrate on the pituitary-testicular axis. (nih.gov)
- 11. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with anosmia (Kallmann's syndrome) unresponsive to clomiphene citrate. (nih.gov)
- Clomiphene is used to induce ovulation (egg production) in women who do not produce ova (eggs) but wish to become pregnant (infertility). (nih.gov)
- Clomiphene is also sometimes used to treat male infertility, menstrual abnormalities, fibrocystic breasts, and persistent breast milk production. (nih.gov)
- Clomiphene is an oral agent used to treat infertility in women desiring pregnancy. (nih.gov)
- Clomiphene + Coenzyme Q10 is a combination of two medicines that only treats female infertility. (winfertility.in)
- Elevated HCG and retroperitoneal adenopathy after clomiphene therapy for infertility. (bvsalud.org)
- For couples with unexplained infertility, ovarian stimulation therapy with clomiphene proved at least as effective as a potential alternative. (nih.gov)
- The findings support continued use of clomiphene as the first-line therapy for couples with unexplained infertility. (nih.gov)
- A 2014 study found that another drug, letrozole, was more effective than clomiphene for achieving live births in certain women with polycystic ovary syndrome, a leading cause of infertility. (nih.gov)
- The conclusion for couples with unexplained infertility is that clomiphene still remains the first-line therapy," concludes first author Dr. Michael P. Diamond of Georgia Regents University. (nih.gov)
- Letrozole, Gonadotropin, or Clomiphene for Unexplained Infertility. (nih.gov)
- Available data suggest that both the estrogenic and antiestrogenic properties of clomiphene may participate in the initiation of ovulation. (nih.gov)
- However, no real benefit may be gained unless the clomiphene induces the ovulation of more than one follicle (or egg). (pacificfertilitycenter.com)
- In these women, a small dose of clomiphene can trigger just enough FSH to accomplish ovulation of a single egg. (pacificfertilitycenter.com)
- Drug can be a first-line therapy drug if ovulation stimulation is necessary in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (in the absence of clomiphene resistance). (buy-generic-clomid.com)
- Clomiphene causes ovulation to occur in 80% of women treated. (nih.gov)
Polycystic ovary sy1
- Other studies have found that letrozole may work better than clomiphene in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. (nih.gov)
- The women, 18 to 40 years of age, were randomly assigned to treatment with letrozole, clomiphene, or gonadotropins. (nih.gov)
- Rates of conception (defined as having a positive pregnancy test) were 47% in the gonadotropin group, 35% in the clomiphene group, and 28% in the letrozole group. (nih.gov)
- Live births occurred in about 32% of the women in the gonadotropin group, 23% of the clomiphene group, and 19% of the letrozole group. (nih.gov)
- Gonadotropin treatment resulted in multiple pregnancies in 13% of pregnancies compared to 1% for clomiphene and 3% for letrozole. (nih.gov)
- About 30% of the multiple pregnancies in the gonadotropin group involved triplets, whereas all the multiple pregnancies in the clomiphene and letrozole groups were twins. (nih.gov)
- The findings show that ovarian stimulation therapy with clomiphene is at least as effective as letrozole, with a lower though not statistically significant difference in the frequency of multiple births. (nih.gov)
- The first endocrine event in response to a course of clomiphene therapy is an increase in the release of pituitary gonadotropins. (nih.gov)
- 2 Health care providers normally prescribe gonadotropins when a woman does not respond to clomiphene or to stimulate follicle growth for assisted reproductive technology (ART). (nih.gov)
- The chance of a multiple birth is higher with gonadotropins than with clomiphene, and 30% of women who conceive a pregnancy with this medication have multiple births. (nih.gov)
- Currently, the treatment of choice for ovarian stimulation is either clomiphene or injectable gonadotropins. (nih.gov)
- Patients take clomiphene in the beginning of the menstrual cycle. (nih.gov)
- If you become pregnant while taking clomiphene, call your doctor immediately. (nih.gov)
- 2 If a woman does not become pregnant after taking clomiphene for six menstrual cycles, a health care provider may prescribe other fertility treatments. (nih.gov)
- Clomiphene and assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are methods used to help subfertile couples become pregnant. (nih.gov)
- As such, clomiphene fools the brain into thinking that there is little or no circulating estrogen in the bloodstream, and so the brain signals the pituitary gland to secrete more follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). (pacificfertilitycenter.com)
- Furthermore, as clomiphene is an anti-estrogen, for some women, it may bind to estrogen receptors in the uterine lining and cause it to be too thin, prohibiting pregnancy. (pacificfertilitycenter.com)
- If a woman does not respond to clomiphene, she may have very low FSH and estrogen levels, a condition known as hypothalamic anovulation. (pacificfertilitycenter.com)
- Clostilbegyt ( clomiphene ) is one of the classes of selective estrogen receptor modulators. (buy-generic-clomid.com)
- Clomiphene prevents estrogen from binding to cells, which causes changes in the pituitary gland that ultimately trigger the release of an egg. (nih.gov)
- you should know that clomiphene increases the chance of multiple pregnancy (twins or more). (nih.gov)
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- Use of clomiphene increases the risk of having a multiple pregnancy. (nih.gov)
- There was no placebo control group, as past studies had already tested gonadotropin and clomiphene against placebo controls, and it was considered inappropriate to do so among couples that had been trying to achieve pregnancy for long periods of time. (nih.gov)
- If she is found to have a low luteal phase progesterone level, she may benefit from clomiphene making higher levels of progesterone to support embryo implantation. (pacificfertilitycenter.com)
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- Clomiphene restores normal testosterone levels and improves sperm motility in most male patients. (ironmagazine.com)
- Best Candidates** Clomiphene is targeted to patients who do not ovulate regularly, especially if they have a condition known as polycystic ovarian syndrome or PCOS. (pacificfertilitycenter.com)
- Clomiphene is a medication patients take by mouth (orally). (nih.gov)
- 2. [The pituitary and testicular response to clomiphene during hepatic cirrhosis]. (nih.gov)
- 3. Basal prolactin and the behaviour of the gonadotrophins, testosterone, androstenedione, estradiol, and the sex-hormone-binding globulin during stimulation with clomiphene in subjects with spermatogenic disorders. (ironmagazine.com)
- To avert this, we perform at least one ultrasound in each clomiphene treatment cycle to check for normal endometrial thickness and hopefully, two or three follicles. (pacificfertilitycenter.com)
- Why Clomid is So Common** Many women are prescribed clomiphene empirically, that is, without a specific cause, in hopes of enhancing fertility. (pacificfertilitycenter.com)
- For most women, this strategy is fine because clomiphene is a safe and inexpensive medication. (pacificfertilitycenter.com)
- While most women with PCOS will respond to clomiphene and ovulate, some will require the addition of an insulin sensitizing medication to enhance response. (pacificfertilitycenter.com)
- Women who experience a thinning of the uterine lining should not be given clomiphene. (pacificfertilitycenter.com)
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- Clomiphene has been linked to a low rate of transient serum aminotransferase elevations during therapy and to rare instances of clinically apparent liver injury, which can be severe and even fatal. (nih.gov)
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- Our findings suggest that relatively little of the clomiphene-NTD association is mediated through the pathway of multiple births, while the ART-NTD association was explained by the multiple-births pathway. (nih.gov)
- Some prescriptions are not transferable and prescriptions cannot be transferred between the United States and Canada clomiphene fertility . (goodiet.it)
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- Long-term use of clomiphene may increase the risk of ovarian cancer. (nih.gov)
- Association of Clomiphene and Assisted Reproductive Technologies With the Risk of Neural Tube Defects. (nih.gov)
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Take by mouth1
- Clomiphene comes as a tablet to take by mouth. (nih.gov)