Clofibric Acid: An antilipemic agent that is the biologically active metabolite of CLOFIBRATE.Ecotoxicology: The study of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION and the toxic effects of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS on the ECOSYSTEM. The term was coined by Truhaut in 1969.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Hydroxyl Radical: The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.Clofibrate: A fibric acid derivative used in the treatment of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III and severe HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIA. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p986)Sanitary Engineering: A branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and maintenance of environmental facilities conducive to public health, such as water supply and waste disposal.Bromates: Negative ions or salts derived from bromic acid, HBrO3.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Radioactive Waste: Liquid, solid, or gaseous waste resulting from mining of radioactive ore, production of reactor fuel materials, reactor operation, processing of irradiated reactor fuels, and related operations, and from use of radioactive materials in research, industry, and medicine. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.1-Acylglycerophosphocholine O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme localized predominantly within the plasma membrane of lymphocytes. It catalyzes the transfer of long-chain fatty acids, preferentially unsaturated fatty acids, to lysophosphatides with the formation of 1,2-diacylglycero-3-phosphocholine and CoA. EC 2.3.1.23.Gemfibrozil: A lipid-regulating agent that lowers elevated serum lipids primarily by decreasing serum triglycerides with a variable reduction in total cholesterol.Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of oleoyl-CoA, A, and water from stearoyl-CoA, AH2, and oxygen where AH2 is an unspecified hydrogen donor.Microbodies: Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.Palmitoyl Coenzyme A: A fatty acid coenzyme derivative which plays a key role in fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Sulfobromophthalein: A phenolphthalein that is used as a diagnostic aid in hepatic function determination.Glucuronides: Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.Glucuronates: Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.Organic Anion Transporters: Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Independent: A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS that do not rely directly or indirectly upon sodium ion gradients for the transport of organic ions.Tolmetin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AGENTS, NON-STEROIDAL) similar in mode of action to INDOMETHACIN.Organic Anion Transport Protein 1: A polyspecific transporter for organic cations found primarily in the kidney. It mediates the coupled exchange of alpha-ketoglutarate with organic ions such as P-AMINOHIPPURIC ACID.Potentiometry: Solution titration in which the end point is read from the electrode-potential variations with the concentrations of potential determining ions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ion-Selective Electrodes: Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.Polyvinyl Chloride: A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Titrimetry: The determination of the concentration of a given component in solution (the analyte) by addition of a liquid reagent of known strength (the titrant) until an equivalence point is reached (when the reactants are present in stoichiometric proportions). Often an indicator is added to make the equivalence point visible (e.g., a change in color).Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).PPAR alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Fenofibrate: An antilipemic agent which reduces both CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Bezafibrate: An antilipemic agent that lowers CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES. It decreases LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and increases HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors: TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that are activated by ligands and heterodimerize with RETINOID X RECEPTORS and bind to peroxisome proliferator response elements in the promoter regions of target genes.Hypolipidemic Agents: Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Thiazolidinediones: THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.Proteobacteria: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Xanthine: A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pentosyltransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Lipid Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Errors in the metabolism of LIPIDS resulting from inborn genetic MUTATIONS that are heritable.Ichthyosiform Erythroderma, Congenital: Designation for several severe forms of ichthyosis, present at birth, that are characterized by hyperkeratotic scaling. Infants may be born encased in a collodion membrane which begins shedding within 24 hours. This is followed in about two weeks by persistent generalized scaling. The forms include bullous (HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC), non-bullous (ICHTHYOSIS, LAMELLAR), wet type, and dry type.1-Acylglycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acyl group transfer of ACYL COA to 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to generate 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. This enzyme has alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subunits.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Lipidoses: Conditions characterized by abnormal lipid deposition due to disturbance in lipid metabolism, such as hereditary diseases involving lysosomal enzymes required for lipid breakdown. They are classified either by the enzyme defect or by the type of lipid involved.Wolman Disease: The severe infantile form of inherited lysosomal lipid storage diseases due to deficiency of acid lipase (STEROL ESTERASE). It is characterized by the accumulation of neutral lipids, particularly CHOLESTEROL ESTERS in leukocytes, fibroblasts, and hepatocytes. It is also known as Wolman's xanthomatosis and is an allelic variant of CHOLESTEROL ESTER STORAGE DISEASE.Fibric Acids: Compounds that either share the structure of fibric acid in their molecular arrangement or are considered variants of the fibric acid structure.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Peroxisome Proliferators: A class of nongenotoxic CARCINOGENS that induce the production of hepatic PEROXISOMES and induce hepatic neoplasms after long-term administration.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins: Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.Myelin P2 Protein: A positively charged protein found in peripheral nervous system MYELIN. Sensitive immunological techniques have demonstrated that P2 is expressed in small amounts of central nervous system myelin sheaths of some species. It is an antigen for experimental allergic neuritis (NEURITIS, EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC), the peripheral nervous system counterpart of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. (From Siegel et al., Basic Neurochemistry, 5th ed, p133)Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Acyl-CoA Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the first and rate-determining steps of peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids. It acts on COENZYME A derivatives of fatty acids with chain lengths from 8 to 18, using FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE as a cofactor.Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Review Literature as Topic: Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.Primary Prevention: Specific practices for the prevention of disease or mental disorders in susceptible individuals or populations. These include HEALTH PROMOTION, including mental health; protective procedures, such as COMMUNICABLE DISEASE CONTROL; and monitoring and regulation of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS. Primary prevention is to be distinguished from SECONDARY PREVENTION and TERTIARY PREVENTION.Lipid Regulating Agents: Substances that alter the metabolism of LIPIDS.Urogenital Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Medical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Angiogenesis Inhibitors: Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.Enterohepatic Circulation: Recycling through liver by excretion in bile, reabsorption from intestines (INTESTINAL REABSORPTION) into portal circulation, passage back into liver, and re-excretion in bile.Ethinyl Estradiol: A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Cholic Acids: The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.Chenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.Technetium Tc 99m Disofenin: A radiopharmaceutical used extensively in cholescintigraphy for the evaluation of hepatobiliary diseases. (From Int Jrnl Rad Appl Inst 1992;43(9):1061-4)Salt-Tolerance: The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.

Effect of cryopreservation on cytochrome P-450 enzyme induction in cultured rat hepatocytes. (1/224)

In the present study, we evaluated the inducibility of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) CYP1A, CYP2B, CYP3A, and CYP4A by beta-naphthoflavone, phenobarbital, dexamethasone, and clofibric acid, respectively, in primary hepatocyte cultures prepared from both fresh and cryopreserved rat hepatocytes. Rat hepatocytes were successfully thawed and cultured after cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen for up to 1 month. Percentage of total recovery, viable cell recovery, and final viability of the cells were 68%, 72%, and 85%, respectively. Regardless of whether they were cryopreserved or not, cultured hepatocytes exhibited near-normal morphology. Treatment of cryopreserved hepatocytes with beta-naphthoflavone caused an 8-fold increase in 7-ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (CYP1A1/2) activity, with an EC50 of 1.5 microM; treatment with phenobarbital caused a 26-fold increase in 7-pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (CYP2B1/2) activity, with an EC50 of 10 microM; treatment with dexamethasone caused a 10-fold increase in testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase (CYP3A1/2) activity, with an EC50 of 1.3 microM, whereas treatment with clofibric acid caused a 3-fold increase in lauric acid 12-hydroxylase (CYP4A1-3) activity, with an EC50 of 170 microM. The induction of CYP1A, CYP2B, CYP3A, and CYP4A enzymes by these inducers was confirmed by Western immunoblotting. The patterns of P-450 induction in cryopreserved rat hepatocytes, in terms of concentration response, reproducibility, magnitude, and specificity of response, were similar to those observed in freshly isolated hepatocytes. Additionally, the magnitude and specificity of induction was similar to that observed in vivo in rats. In conclusion, under the conditions examined, cryopreserved rat hepatocytes appear to be a suitable in vitro system for evaluating xenobiotics as inducers of P-450 enzymes.  (+info)

Insulin differentially affects xenobiotic-enhanced, cytochrome P-450 (CYP)2E1, CYP2B, CYP3A, and CYP4A expression in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. (2/224)

Uncontrolled diabetes results in enhanced expression of cytochrome P-450 (CYP)2E1, CYP2B, CYP3A, and CYP4A. Because of the simultaneous and confounding metabolic and hormonal changes that occur in vivo as a consequence of diabetes, primary cultured rat hepatocytes provide an excellent model system for examination of the effects of insulin on P-450 expression and on xenobiotic-mediated P-450 expression. In the present study, we examined the effects of insulin on pyridine-, phenobarbital-, and ciprofibrate-mediated expression of CYP2E1, CYP2B, CYP3A, and CYP4A in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Pyridine addition to primary rat hepatocytes cultured in the presence of 1 nM insulin or in the absence of insulin resulted in a 3.5-fold and 3-fold enhancement in CYP2E1 protein expression, respectively, in the absence of any pyridine-mediated increase in mRNA expression. In contrast, hepatocytes cultured in the standard concentration of 1 microM insulin resulted in only a 2-fold increase in protein expression. Thus, the fold-induction of CYP2E1 protein in response to pyridine was 1.5- to 1.8-fold greater in either the absence of insulin or in the presence of 1 nM insulin, respectively, than that monitored in the presence of 1 microM insulin. To examine whether insulin effects on xenobiotic-mediated CYP2E1 expression were selective, insulin effects on xenobiotic-mediated expression of transcriptionally regulated CYP2B, CYP3A, and CYP4A were examined. Pyridine- or phenobarbital-mediated induction of CYP2B mRNA and protein expression in hepatocytes was suppressed by as much as 80% at lower insulin levels (0 and 1 nM), relative to the level monitored in the presence of 1 microM insulin. Omitting insulin from the medium resulted in a 50% decrease in CYP3A mRNA levels in response to phenobarbital treatment and a 30% decrease in CYP4A mRNA levels in response to ciprofibrate treatment, relative to the level obtained in response to these treatments in the presence of 1 microM insulin. The results of this study demonstrate that decreasing the insulin level in the primary hepatocyte culture medium enhanced xenobiotic-mediated CYP2E1 expression, whereas lower insulin levels suppressed xenobiotic-mediated CYP2B, CYP3A, and CYP4A expression in this cell culture system.  (+info)

Fibrates suppress fibrinogen gene expression in rodents via activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha. (3/224)

Plasma fibrinogen levels have been identified as an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Among the few compounds known to lower circulating fibrinogen levels in humans are certain fibrates. We have studied the regulation of fibrinogen gene expression by fibrates in rodents. Treatment of adult male rats with fenofibrate (0.5% [wt/wt] in the diet) for 7 days decreased hepatic Aalpha-, Bbeta-, and gamma-chain mRNA levels to 52% +/- 7%, 46% +/- 8%, and 81% +/- 19% of control values, respectively. In parallel, plasma fibrinogen concentrations were decreased to 63% +/- 7% of controls. The suppression of fibrinogen expression was dose-dependent and was already evident after 1 day at the highest dose of fenofibrate tested (0.5% [wt/wt]). Nuclear run-on experiments showed that the decrease in fibrinogen expression after fenofibrate occurred at the transcriptional level, as exemplified for the gene for the Aalpha-chain. Other fibrates tested showed similar effects on fibrinogen expression and transcription. The effect of fibrates is specific for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) because a high-affinity ligand for PPARgamma, the thiazolidinedione BRL 49653, lowered triglyceride levels, but was unable to suppress fibrinogen expression. Direct evidence for the involvement of PPARalpha in the suppression of fibrinogen by fibrates was obtained using PPARalpha-null (-/-) mice. Compared with (+/+) mice, plasma fibrinogen levels in (-/-) mice were significantly higher (3.20 +/- 0.48 v 2.67 +/- 0.42 g/L). Also, hepatic fibrinogen Aalpha-chain mRNA levels were 25% +/- 11% higher in the (-/-) mice. On treatment with 0.2% (wt/wt) fenofibrate, a significant decrease in plasma fibrinogen to 77% +/- 10% of control levels and in hepatic fibrinogen Aalpha-chain mRNA levels to 65% +/- 12% of control levels was seen in (+/+) mice, but not in (-/-) mice. These studies show that PPARalpha regulates basal levels of plasma fibrinogen and establish that fibrate-suppressed expression of fibrinogen in rodents is mediated through PPARalpha.  (+info)

The effect of peroxisome proliferators on mitochondrial bioenergetics. (4/224)

Peroxisome proliferators are a group of structurally diverse chemicals that cause the proliferation of peroxisomes in rodents. The purpose of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that the shared effect of these compounds on peroxisome proliferation is mediated through a common inhibitory effect on mitochondrial bioenergetics. Freshly isolated rat liver mitochondria were energized with succinate. The effect of the chemicals on mitochondrial bioenergetics was analyzed by monitoring calcium-induced changes in membrane potential and swelling, as well as changes in mitochondrial respiration. Mitochondrial membrane potential was measured with a TPP(+)-sensitive electrode, and swelling was recorded spectrophotometrically. Mitochondrial oxygen uptake was monitored with a Clark-type oxygen electrode. Gemfibrozil and WY-14,643 induced the mitochondrial permeability transition as characterized by calcium-induced swelling and depolarization of membrane potential, both of which were inhibited by cyclosporine A. Fenofibrate, clofibrate, ciprofibrate and diethylhexyl phthalate, on the other hand, caused a direct dose-dependent depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential. However, the mechanism of membrane depolarization varied among the test chemicals. Bezafibrate and trichloroethylene elicited no effect on succinate-supported mitochondrial bioenergetics. The results of this investigation demonstrate that although most, but not all, peroxisome proliferators interfere with mitochondrial bioenergetics, the specific biomolecular mechanism differs among the individual compounds.  (+info)

Absence of spontaneous peroxisome proliferation in enoyl-CoA Hydratase/L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase-deficient mouse liver. Further support for the role of fatty acyl CoA oxidase in PPARalpha ligand metabolism. (5/224)

Peroxisomes contain a classical L-hydroxy-specific peroxisome proliferator-inducible beta-oxidation system and also a second noninducible D-hydroxy-specific beta-oxidation system. We previously generated mice lacking fatty acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX), the first enzyme of the L-hydroxy-specific classical beta-oxidation system; these AOX-/- mice exhibited sustained activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), resulting in profound spontaneous peroxisome proliferation in liver cells. These observations implied that AOX is responsible for the metabolic degradation of PPARalpha ligands. In this study, the function of enoyl-CoA hydratase/L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (L-PBE), the second enzyme of this peroxisomal beta-oxidation system, was investigated by disrupting its gene. Mutant mice (L-PBE-/-) were viable and fertile and exhibited no detectable gross phenotypic defects. L-PBE-/- mice showed no hepatic steatosis and manifested no spontaneous peroxisome proliferation, unlike that encountered in livers of mice deficient in AOX. These results indicate that disruption of classical peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation system distal to AOX step does not interfere with the inactivation of endogenous ligands of PPARalpha, further confirming that the AOX gene is indispensable for the physiological regulation of this receptor. The absence of appreciable changes in lipid metabolism also indicates that enoyl-CoAs, generated in the classical system in L-PBE-/- mice are diverted to D-hydroxy-specific system for metabolism by D-PBE. When challenged with a peroxisome proliferator, L-PBE-/- mice showed increases in the levels of hepatic mRNAs and proteins that are regulated by PPARalpha except for appreciable blunting of peroxisome proliferative response as compared with that observed in hepatocytes of wild type mice similarly treated. This blunting of peroxisome proliferative response is attributed to the absence of L-PBE protein in L-PBE-/- mouse liver, because all other proteins are induced essentially to the same extent in both wild type and L-PBE-/- mice.  (+info)

Hepatic hyperplasia and cancer in rats: alterations in copper metabolism. (6/224)

We previously demonstrated that rats exposed to the peroxisome proliferator (PP) diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) had reduced serum ceruloplasmin (CP) oxidase activity, which suggests tissue copper deposition. Copper is highly toxic in excess, and results in cellular damage and hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). This study addresses changes in expression of copper-related genes and metal accumulation in hyperplastic liver and tumors induced by PP. Male rats were fed diets containing DEHP or clofibrate (CLF) for 3-60 days (hyperplasia) and 4-chloro-6-(2,3 xylidino)-2-pyrimidinyl-thio(N-beta-hydroxyethyl) acetamide for 10 months (HCC). During hyperplasia, an immediate and progressive decrease in serum CP activity was observed (P < 0.05), as were reductions in mRNA levels for both CP and Wilson's disease gene (WD gene, a P-type ATPase) (P < 0.05). Tumor-bearing rats had lower serum CP activity (P < 0.05), and CP and WD gene mRNA levels were reduced in tumors (P < 0.05), and in liver surrounding tumors (SL) (P < 0.05). Metallothionein mRNA showed no consistent changes during hyperplasia. Tumors showed a 2.5-fold induction of metallothionein mRNA (P < 0.05), and a 1.2-fold increase in SL. Temporal increases in liver copper content occurred during hyperplasia, with increases of 2-fold (DEHP) and 3.3-fold (CLF) at 60 days (P < 0.05). Copper content was 2.2-fold higher in tumors (P < 0.05) and 1.7-fold higher in SL; iron did not increase and zinc decreased temporally. Thus, copper accumulation and changes in copper-related gene expression may be contributing factors in liver neoplasia in PP-treated rats. Loss of CP results in decreased free radical scavenger capacity and thus may enhance oxidative damage induced by PPs.  (+info)

Effects of fibrate compounds on expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 by cultured endothelial cells. (7/224)

The consistent positive correlation between triglyceride and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels in plasma and the fact that very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) induces secretion of PAI-1 from cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human hepatoblastoma cells have raised the question of whether fibrate treatment, the main effect of which is a profound lowering of plasma concentrations of VLDL, might improve fibrinolytic function by reducing the plasma levels of PAI-1. However, the findings of controlled clinical trials using various fibrate compounds have been discrepant. ECs express PAI-1 under normal conditions in humans. We therefore examined the effects of several fibrate compounds on PAI-1 expression and secretion by cultured HUVECs and the HUVEC-derived cell line EA.hy926. All fibrate compounds examined had significant effects on PAI-1 gene transcription in the EA.hy926 cells. Low concentrations of clofibric acid and bezafibrate increased PAI-1 transcription and secretion, whereas Wy-14643 increased PAI-1 synthesis in a dose-dependent way. In contrast, both fenofibric acid and gemfibrozil markedly decreased PAI-1 transcription and secretion from HUVECs and EA.hy926 cells. Thus, stimulation of the transcriptional activity of the PAI-1 gene by some fibrates is linked to increased secretion of PAI-1 protein by the cells, whereas the opposite effects occur with other fibrate compounds. Whether the different effects on PAI-1 transcription and secretion by ECs in vitro also reflect differences in treatment effects on the regulation of plasma PAI-1 activity in vivo will have to be determined in larger-scale, controlled clinical trials.  (+info)

Dual role for Hsc70 in the biogenesis and regulation of the heme-regulated kinase of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2. (8/224)

The heme-regulated kinase of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (HRI) is activated in rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL) in response to a number of environmental conditions, including heme deficiency, heat shock, and oxidative stress. Activation of HRI causes an arrest of initiation of protein synthesis. Recently, we have demonstrated that the heat shock cognate protein Hsc70 negatively modulates the activation of HRI in RRL in response to these environmental conditions. Hsc70 is also known to be a critical component of the Hsp90 chaperone machinery in RRL, which plays an obligatory role for HRI to acquire and maintain a conformation that is competent to activate. Using de novo-synthesized HRI in synchronized pulse-chase translations, we have examined the role of Hsc70 in the regulation of HRI biogenesis and activation. Like Hsp90, Hsc70 interacted with nascent HRI and HRI that was matured to a state which was competent to undergo stimulus-induced activation (mature-competent HRI). Interaction of HRI with Hsc70 was required for the transformation of HRI, as the Hsc70 antagonist clofibric acid inhibited the folding of HRI into a mature-competent conformation. Unlike Hsp90, Hsc70 also interacted with transformed HRI. Clofibric acid disrupted the interaction of Hsc70 with transformed HRI that had been matured and transformed in the absence of the drug. Disruption of Hsc70 interaction with transformed HRI in heme-deficient RRL resulted in its hyperactivation. Furthermore, activation of HRI in response to heat shock or denatured proteins also resulted in a similar blockage of Hsc70 interaction with transformed HRI. These results indicate that Hsc70 is required for the folding and transformation of HRI into an active kinase but is subsequently required to negatively attenuate the activation of transformed HRI.  (+info)

*Clofibric acid

... is a metabolite of the cholesterol-lowering pharmaceutical drug clofibrate. Clofibric acid derivatives include ... Clofibric acid is a herbicide with the IUPAC name 2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropanoic acid and molecular formula C10H11ClO3. ...

*Mecoprop

Clofibric acid Fenoprop Merck Index, 11th Edition, 5666. Record of Mecoprop in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute ... Mecoprop, or methylchlorophenoxypropionic acid (MCPP), is a common general use herbicide found in many household weed killers ... propionic acid (mecoprop)". Acta Crystallogr. B. 36 (4): 992-994. doi:10.1107/S0567740880005134. Mecoprop Pesticide Information ...

*List of MeSH codes (D02)

... clofibric acid MeSH D02.241.081.160.225.133 --- bezafibrate MeSH D02.241.081.160.225.187 --- clofenapate MeSH D02.241.081.160. ... edetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.455 --- egtazic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581 --- iodoacetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581.400 ... muramic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562 --- neuraminic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562.668 --- sialic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844. ... quinic acid MeSH D02.241.511.852 --- shikimic acid MeSH D02.241.511.902 --- sugar acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.107 --- ascorbic ...

*List of drugs: Cj-Cl

... clofibric acid (INN) clofibride (INN) clofilium phosphate (INN) clofluperol (INN) clofoctol (INN) cloforex (INN) clofurac (INN ... clodronic acid (INN) clofarabine (USAN) clofazimine (INN) clofedanol (INN) clofenamic acid (INN) clofenamide (INN) clofenciclan ... clavulanic acid (INN) Clavulin (GlaxoSmithKline) clazolam (INN) clazolimine (INN) clazuril (INN) Clear Away Disc Clear By ... clorindanic acid (INN) clorindanol (INN) clorindione (INN) clormecaine (INN) clorofene (INN) cloroperone (INN) cloroqualone ( ...

*Index of pesticide articles

Chlorophacinone Chlorpyrifos Chloropicrin Chlorothalonil Chlortoluron Chromated copper arsenate Cinnamaldehyde Clofibric acid ... 5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid Triclopyr Trifluralin Triazofos Trophobiosis Ultra-low volume Uragan D2 UK Pesticides Campaign ... Davicil DCMU DDT DDT in Australia DDT in New Zealand DDT in the United States Dehydroacetic acid Deltamethrin Diatomaceous ... Cacodylic acid Calcium phosphide Carbendazim Captan Carbaryl Carbofuran Chitosan Chloralose Chloramine-T Chlorbenside ...

*Environmental impact of pharmaceuticals and personal care products

Studies in 1975 and 1977 found clofibric and salicylic acids at trace concentrations in treated water. Widespread concern about ... Pharmaceutical residues that have been conjugated (bound to a bile acid) before being excreted from the patients may undergo de ... the most toxic effect is due to the combustion of polyvinyl chloride since it produces hydrochloric acid (HCl) which is an ... separation of Al and Polymers using the hydrometallurgical method which uses hydrochloric acid (HCl) can be incorporated. Then ...
Pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment is an emerging issue and the risks they pose are mostly unknown. They are used in large amounts throughout the world and can enter the environment, as the active metabolite or unmetabolised, through excretion by people and improper disposal. As these drugs are designed to have specific biological effects in a specific organism (as well as sometimes having other non-specific side effects), their potential to cause effects within the environment is great. Clofibric acid (the major metabolite of the lipid lowering drug, Clofibrate) is non-biodegradable, highly motile, very persistent and frequently detected at μg/I levels in the environment. I studied possible effects of clofibric acid in fish, using different experimental approaches and endpoints. The studies involve two different species, and for one of these species, fish at different stages of development. The chapters within this thesis have presented the first evidence (albeit preliminary) of ...
The degradation of an aqueous solution of clofibric acid was investigated during catalytic and non-catalytic ozonation. The catalyst, TiO(2), enhanced the production of hydroxyl radicals from ozone and raised the fraction or clofibric acid degraded b
Inductions of FABP in hepatic cytosol by administration of tiadenol and clofibric acid were studied in rats, mice and guinea-pigs. In rats and mice, [1-14C]oleic acid-binding capacity of hepatic cytosol was increased, in association with induction of
Our study demonstrates that the antihyperlipidemic clofibrate derivatives, which are structurally different from the known activator, sulfobromophthalein, exert stimulatory effects specifically on AKR 1C4 of human liver 3αHSD isoforms. For the activation by sulfobromophthalein, there has been no direct information about the structurally specific interaction between the molecule and the enzyme, except for its sulfonyl group(s) (Matsuura et al., 1996,1997). Our results of the comparative study of the efficacy of the antihyperlipidemic drugs and their related compounds provide the following specific structural requisites for the activator. 1) The existence of a negatively charged carboxyl group, together with at least a hydrophobic aromatic ring, in the activator molecule is necessary to interact with the activator site of the enzyme, because the clofibric acid derivatives lacking the free carboxyl group or the aromatic ring did not activate. Because the pKa values of the carboxyl group of the ...
34812-33-4 - OOTGVNOBTIPORR-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Acetic acid, 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)-, 2-(hexahydro-1,4-oxazepin-4-yl)ethyl ester - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
The hepatic transport of organic anions has been studied extensively. In rats, sinusoidal uptake of many organic anions is mediated by the oatp proteins (oatp1 and oatp2) whose substrates include bile acids as well as nonbile acid organic anions (Meier et al., 1997; Muller and Jansen, 1998). Additionally, at least three other carrier systems may mediate sinusoidal uptake of nonbile acid organic anions, including another family of multispecific transporters (oat) (Sekine et al., 1998), bilitranslocase and bromosulfophthalein/bilirubin-binding protein (Meier et al., 1997). Sinusoidal efflux of organic anions from the liver also has been shown to be carrier-mediated (De Vries et al., 1985; Evans et al., 1995). In this study, the appearance in perfusate of acetaminophen glucuronide and clofibric acid glucuronide during perfusions with the respective parent aglycones (Fig. 1) demonstrates sinusoidal efflux of hepatically generated ether and acyl glucuronides. Although the identity of the efflux ...
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Reactivity: Human - Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernatant, Plasma. | Order Peroxisome Proliferators Activator beta ELISA Kit (ABIN771143).
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Looking for online definition of fibric acids in the Medical Dictionary? fibric acids explanation free. What is fibric acids? Meaning of fibric acids medical term. What does fibric acids mean?
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Electrokinetic supercharging-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry for separation and on-line preconcentration of hypolipidaemic drugs in water samples
Salmon Oil for dogs, is extremely beneficial. It is full of Omega 3 fatty acids and vitamins, but what are the benefits, the dosage and where can you buy it?
Stinky stinky stinky!! We had a speaker at the cavalier club advise salmon oil for an EFA. I bought some from sitstay and put it on the food tonight. The dogs loved it but, man, Jakes breath stinks big time!! Cathy
TY - JOUR. T1 - A protein histidine kinase induced m rat liver by peroxisome proliferators. In vitro activation by Ras protein and guanine nucleotides. AU - Motojima, Kiyoto. AU - Goto, S.. PY - 1993/3/15. Y1 - 1993/3/15. N2 - A novel protein kinase is induced in rat liver plasma membrane by the administration of peroxisome proliferators. A 36 kDa protein (P36) on the membrane was rapidly phosphorylated in vitro by the kinase and the phosphorylated amino acid was identified as phosphohistidine. Histidine phosphorylation of P36 was activated in vitro by recombinant Ras protein and GTP; both decreased Michaelis constant (Km) for ATP from 1.25 to 0.25 μM. The novel histidine kinase, products of which have been overlooked due to their acid lability, may participate in cellular signaling and peroxisome proliferators may perturb the pathway.. AB - A novel protein kinase is induced in rat liver plasma membrane by the administration of peroxisome proliferators. A 36 kDa protein (P36) on the membrane ...
Singh, Kavita, Ramesh Chander and Narinder K. Kapoor (1997) Guggulsterone, a potent hypolipidaemic, prevents oxidation of low density lipoprotein. [Publication] Full text not available from this repository ...
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Tricor is prescribed medicine to treat high cholesterol and high triglyceride levels. This medicine is also called as Fenofibrate. Tricor is connected with the set of drugs called fibric acid derivatives or cholesterol reducing drugs.
Tricor is prescribed medicine to treat high cholesterol and high triglyceride levels. This medicine is also called as Fenofibrate. Tricor is connected with the set of drugs called fibric acid derivatives or cholesterol reducing drugs.
Four softgels daily of our Salmon Oil 2000 mg. provides 4000 mg of fish oil, yielding 840 mg of Omega-3 fatty acids. Buy it now at Vitamin World!
Bezafibrate(Abeita) generic is a fibrate drug, prescribed for high cholesterol in blood. It works mainly by stimulating the action of two enzymes.
Since their discovery in the early 1990s, the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) have attracted significant attention. This is…
An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of eight pharmaceutical compounds in biosolids from urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) was developed and validated. The compounds evaluated were non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (naproxen, diclofenac, and ibuprofen), lipid regulators (clofibric acid), and antibiotics (sulfathiazole, sulfapyridine, sulfamethazine, and sulfamethoxazole). Ultrasound assisted extraction with a water-methanol solvent mixture (1:1, v:v) was performed and the compounds were then determined by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The design of the method was based on the application of the standard addition calibration methodology to reduce matrix interferences. Validation procedures were conducted with rabbit excrements as blank samples. Recoveries of the target analytes ranged from 76 to 131% in spiked samples at 50, 200 or 1000 ng g−1 dry weight (dw). The relative standard deviations were in the range of 5-15% and the method ...
Disruption of the murine mdr2 gene leads to the complete absence of biliary phospholipids. We tested the hypothesis that the increase in biliary phospholipid output induced by fibrates is mediated via induction of the hepatic mdr2 gene and its encoded product, the P-glycoprotein canalicular flippase. Increased levels of mdr2 mRNA were observed in the liver of mice treated with different fibrates: ciprofibrate, 660±155% (as compared with control group); clofibrate, 611±77%; bezafibrate, 410±47%; fenofibrate, 310±52%; gemfibrozil, 190±25% (P , 0.05 compared with control group). Induction of expression of the mdr gene family was specific to the mdr2 gene. Two- to three-fold increases in P-glycoprotein immunodetection were evident on the canalicular plasma-membrane domain of clofibrate- and ciprofibrate-treated mice. Biliary phospholipid output increased from 4.2±1.2 nmol/min per g of liver in the control group to 8.5±0.6, 7.1±2.9 and 5.8±2.5 in ciprofibrate-, clofibrate- and ...
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Hypertriglyceridemia, a condition in which triglyceride levels are elevated, is a common disorder in the United States (see the following image). It is often caused or exacerbated by uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, obesity, and sedentary habits, all of which are more prevalent in industrialized societies than in developing nations.
Carlson Norwegian Salmon Oil offers substantial amounts of the Omega-3s EPA & DHA in easy-to-swallow softgels. Each softgel contains 1000mg of pure fish oil.
ACE inhibitors, alcohol, and fibrates are among the substances that can negatively interact with Levemir. This eMedTV Web article outlines other medicines that may cause Levemir drug interactions and describes the potential problems that may occur.
Thats exactly correct! They put things like Omega 3 fatty acids and glucosamine/chondroiton in dog foods so that you will say Oh look, it has these supplements, it must be a good food! But the amounts are nowhere near enough to have any efficacy ...
Riva-Fenofibrate Micro: Fenofibrate belongs to the class of medications known as fibrates. It is used in addition to diet and exercise to treat people with abnormal cholesterol levels.
Teva-Fenofibrate Micro: Fenofibrate belongs to the class of medications known as fibrates. It is used in addition to diet and exercise to treat people with abnormal cholesterol levels.
Fenofibrate (isopropyl 4-( p-chlorobenzoyl)phenoxyisobutyrate: Lipanthyl) is a hypolipidaemic agent structurally related to Clofibrate. In view of current concern over the safety-in-use of this class...
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(KudoZ) English to German translation of fibrate class of lipid-regulating agents: XYZ ist die oberste Gruppe von Fibraten der lipidregulierenden Mittel [Medical].
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. bezafibrate ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
... ! Lopid is an effective medication which helps to fight with high levels of serum triglycerides. Lopid acts by reducing the production of triglycerides in the liver. It is fibrates.
AIM To investigate the role of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) in increased susceptibility to endotoxin-induced toxicity in rats with bile duct ligation during endotoxemia. METHODS Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to bile duct ligation (BDL). Sham-operated animals served as controls. DNA binding were determined by polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting analysis, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, respectively. BDL and sham-operated rats received a non-lethal dose of intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection (3 mg/kg, i.p.). Additionally, the potential beneficial effects of the PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone were determined in BDL and sham-operated rats treated with a non-lethal dose of LPS. Survival was assessed in BDL rats treated with a non-lethal dose of LPS and in sham-operated rats treated at a lethal dose of LPS (6 mg/kg, i.p.). RESULTS PPAR-γ activity in rats undergoing BDL was significantly lower than in the sham-controls. Hepatic
What treatments for elevated triglycerides?. , Dietary advice is essential, and these are the first to apply, with the recommendations of lifestyle hygiene (increase in physical activity).. , You should also know that fish oils have a beneficial effect on triglyceride levels. We are no longer at the time of cod liver oil, all this is now in the form of capsules (dietary supplements).. , Medications are very effective. They are usually indicated when dietary recommendations are insufficient. These are fibrates, derivatives of fibric acid. They are lipid-lowering drugs (drugs that lower the level of lipids in the blood). They lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and are prescribed by a doctor.. By reducing the level of triglycerides, fibrates help reduce LDL cholesterol - called bad cholesterol. But in studies, fibrates have not always prevented myocardial infarction ... ...
Fibrates are intended to increase levels of HDL, or good cholesterol, while lowering triglycerides, a potentially harmful type of fat that can accumulate in the arteries. While the Western University of Health Services researchers who are behind the current study say that the class of medication is effective at lowering triglycerides, evidence is lacking in their ability to improve HDL levels ...
This study showed that fenofibrate was very effective in lowering total, LDL, non-HDL cholesterol significantly in female diabetic patients compared to mal
... discussed in this eMedTV article include fibrates like Lofibra and Tricor, statins like Altoprev and Mevacor, and combination medicines. This article also lists factors that can affect which medication you are prescribed.
Unter den systemischen Lipidsenkern nehmen die Fibrate einen hervorragenden Platz ein. Mit Clofibrat als Ausgangssubstanz ist diese Stoffgruppe seit gut 20 Jahren in die Therapie der Hyperlipidämien...
PPAR delta, 0.1 ml. Peroxisome proliferators are non-genotoxic carcinogens which are purported to exert their effect on cells through their interaction with members of the nuclear hormone receptor family, termed peroxisome proliferator activated
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Clofibric AcidClofibric Acid

Chlorofibrinic acid; Chlorophibrinic acid; Clofibrate free acid; Clofibrin; Clofibrinic acid; CPIB; Propionic acid, 2-(p- ... methylpropionic acid; «alpha»-(4-Chlorophenoxy)isobutyric acid; (p-Chlorophenoxy)isobutyric acid; Acetic acid, (p-chlorophenoxy ... isobutyric acid; «alpha»-(p-Chlorophenoxy)isobutyric acid; Propanoic acid, 2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-2-methyl-; «alpha»-(4- ... isobutyric acid; 4-CPIB; Acide (p-chlorophenoxy)-2 methyl-2 propionique; Clofibrinsaeure; Propanoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-(4- ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/inchi/InChI%3D1S/C10H11ClO3/c1-10

Clofibric acid - WikipediaClofibric acid - Wikipedia

Clofibric acid is a metabolite of the cholesterol-lowering pharmaceutical drug clofibrate. Clofibric acid derivatives include ... Clofibric acid is a herbicide with the IUPAC name 2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropanoic acid and molecular formula C10H11ClO3. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clofibric_acid

Identification of intermediates and assessment of ecotoxicity in the oxidation products generated during the ozonation of...Identification of intermediates and assessment of ecotoxicity in the oxidation products generated during the ozonation of...

The catalyst, TiO(2), enhanced the production of hydroxyl radicals from ozone and raised the fraction or clofibric acid ... The degradation of an aqueous solution of clofibric acid was investigated during catalytic and non-catalytic ozonation. ... Clofibric Acid / chemistry*. Ecotoxicology / methods*. Hydrocarbons, Aromatic / analysis, chemistry. Hydroxyl Radical / ... The rate constant for the reaction of clofibric acid and hydroxyl radicals was not affected by the presence of the catalyst. ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Identification-intermediates-assessment-ecotoxicity-in/19709806.html

Brunel University Research Archive: Pharmaceuticals in the environment: The effects of clofibric acid on fishBrunel University Research Archive: Pharmaceuticals in the environment: The effects of clofibric acid on fish

... of clofibric acid having effects on both adult and embryo fish. When fathead minnow embryos were exposed to clofibric acid, the ... Clofibric acid (the major metabolite of the lipid lowering drug, Clofibrate) is non-biodegradable, highly motile, very ... The results from this research show that there are effects of clofibric acid in pathways which were not only unexpected in fish ... These effects indicate that clofibric acid may potentially have an impact on fish fecundity, and even more worryingly, on human ...
more infohttp://bura.brunel.ac.uk/handle/2438/4977

Hepatic Disposition of the Acyl Glucuronide 1-O-Gemfibrozil-β-d-glucuronide: Effects of Clofibric Acid, Acetaminophen, and...Hepatic Disposition of the Acyl Glucuronide 1-O-Gemfibrozil-β-d-glucuronide: Effects of Clofibric Acid, Acetaminophen, and...

Clofibric acid is metabolized to an acyl glucuronide, clofibric acid glucuronide, which is extensively excreted into bile. The ... Approximately 1.6% of the dose was recovered as clofibric acid in bile and may have been due to hydrolysis of clofibric acid ... For binding interaction studies, either clofibric acid (200 μM), clofibric acid glucuronide (15 μM), acetaminophen (200 μM), or ... Clofibric acid and clofibric acid glucuronide were measured by HPLC based on a method for GG (Sallustio and Fairchild, 1995) ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/295/1/44

Aqueous Solutions NMR, UV-Vis and Potentiometric Titrations
of Cd2+ and Hg2+ with Clofibric AcidAqueous Solutions NMR, UV-Vis and Potentiometric Titrations of Cd2+ and Hg2+ with Clofibric Acid

UV-Vis and Potentiometric Titrations of Cd2+ and Hg2+ with Clofibric Acid, Yahia Z Hamada, Khadijah Darboe, Aisha Darboe ... Figure 2:Potentiometric titration of Cd2+ and Clofibric Acid (CA) in 1:1 molar ratio. Cd2+ Concentration is 2.0 Ã Â 10-3 M in ... Figure 2 shows the potentiometric titration plots of Cd2+ and Clofibric Acid (CA) in 1:1 molar ratio. Cd2+ concentration is 2.0 ... Aqueous Solutions NMR, UV-Vis and Potentiometric Titrations of Cd2+ and Hg2+ with Clofibric Acid. Yahia Z Hamada*, Khadijah ...
more infohttp://ejbio.imedpub.com/aqueous-solutions-nmr-uvvis-and-potentiometric-titrationsof-cd2-and-hg2-with-clofibric-acid.php?aid=21466

Clofibric Acid, A Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor
Alpha Agonist, forms a Ternary Complex with the Ferric IronClofibric Acid, A Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha Agonist, forms a Ternary Complex with the Ferric Iron

Clofibric Acid, A Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha Agonist, forms a Ternary Complex with the Ferric Iron, ... was optimized for detection of clofibric acid and its analog ferric clofibric acid. Mass spectrometry data of each compound was ... Scheme 1: Structural formula of clofibric acid (CA), or [2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropanoic acid] (Chemical formula C10H11 ... Clofibric Acid, A Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha Agonist, forms a Ternary Complex with the Ferric Iron. Yahia ...
more infohttp://ejbio.imedpub.com/clofibric-acid-a-peroxisome-proliferatoractivated-receptoralpha-agonist-forms-a-ternary-complex-with-the-ferric-iron.php?aid=18149

Membrane Bioreactor  Articles  on Environmental XPRTMembrane Bioreactor Articles on Environmental XPRT

Clofibric acid and gemfibrozil removal in membrane bioreactors The removal of two blood lipid regulators, clofibric acid (CLA) ...
more infohttps://www.environmental-expert.com/articles/keyword-membrane-bioreactor-8589

Estrogen and Progestin (Vaginal Ring Contraceptives): MedlinePlus Drug InformationEstrogen and Progestin (Vaginal Ring Contraceptives): MedlinePlus Drug Information

... clofibric acid; cyclosporine (Gengraf, Neoral, Sandimmune); medications for HIV or AIDS such as atazanavir (Reyataz), darunavir ... ascorbic acid (vitamin C); atorvastatin (Lipitor); barbiturates; boceprevir (Victrelis; no longer available in U.S.); bosentan ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a604032.html

PPARA Gene - GeneCards | PPARA Protein | PPARA AntibodyPPARA Gene - GeneCards | PPARA Protein | PPARA Antibody

Clofibric Acid. 882-09-7. CP 775146. 702680-17-9. Fenofibrate. 49562-28-9. ... 468 amino acids. Molecular mass:. 52225 Da. Quaternary structure:. *Heterodimer; with RXRA. This heterodimerization is required ... WY-14643 (Pirinixic Acid). PPARα agonist,selective and highly potent. 50892-23-4. ... Regulates the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Functions as transcription activator for the ACOX1 and P450 ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=PPARA&keywords=hsa-mir-6731-5p

Concomitant increase by peroxisome proliferators of fatty acid-binding protein, peroxisomal beta-oxidation and cytosolic acyl...Concomitant increase by peroxisome proliferators of fatty acid-binding protein, peroxisomal beta-oxidation and cytosolic acyl...

In rats and mice, [1-14C]oleic acid-binding capacity of hepatic cytosol was increased, in association with induction of ... Inductions of FABP in hepatic cytosol by administration of tiadenol and clofibric acid were studied in rats, mice and guinea- ... Clofibric Acid / pharmacology*. Cytosol / enzymology. Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins. Fatty Alcohols / pharmacology*. Guinea Pigs ... Inductions of FABP in hepatic cytosol by administration of tiadenol and clofibric acid were studied in rats, mice and guinea- ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Concomitant-increase-by-peroxisome-proliferators/2865776.html

MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1
	MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1

0 (Hypolipidemic Agents); 23TF67G79M (etofibrate); 48A5M73Z4Q (Atorvastatin Calcium); 53PF01Q249 (Clofibric Acid); AGG2FN16EV ( ... Hydroxylation, loss of methyl propionic acid group, and Crig e mechanism were observed as the oxidation mechanisms of BF ... In the present study, among the 20 patients with PBC treated with ursodeoxycholic acid or bezafibrate, 15 patients were classed ... in the cell culture medium of fibroblasts incubated with palmitic acid for 96h in the presence of 0-800 M BEZ using tandem mass ...
more infohttp://bases.bireme.br/cgi-bin/wxislind.exe/iah/online/?IsisScript=iah/iah.xis&nextAction=lnk&base=MEDLINE&lang=p&format=detailed.pft&indexSearch=EX&exprSearch=D02.065.277.067

Yeats4 (YEATS domain containing 4) - Rat Genome DatabaseYeats4 (YEATS domain containing 4) - Rat Genome Database

clofibric acid multiple interactions. ISO. RGD:1305741. 6480464. [Diethylnitrosamine co-treated with Clofibric Acid] affects ... valproic acid decreases expression. ISO. RGD:1353043. 6480464. Valproic Acid results in decreased expression of YEATS4 mRNA. ... Diethylnitrosamine co-treated with Clofibric Acid] affects the expression of YEATS4 mRNA. CTD. PMID:17602206. ... all-trans-retinoic acid decreases expression. ISO. RGD:1353043. 6480464. Tretinoin results in decreased expression of YEATS4 ...
more infohttps://rgd.mcw.edu/rgdweb/report/gene/main.html?id=1551159

Manuel Gesto - DTU AquaManuel Gesto - DTU Aqua

Chronic effects of clofibric acid in zebrafish (Danio rerio): A multigenerational study Coimbra, Ana M. ; Peixoto, Maria Joao ... Peracetic acid - a greener solution for disinfecting aquaculture systems Straus, Dave ; Meinelt, Thomas ; Liu, Dibo ; Pedersen ... Insulin treatment modulates the response of hypothalamic fatty acid sensors in rainbow trout Libran-Perez, M. ; Otero-Rodino, C ... Metabolic response of rainbow trout Brockmann bodies to decreased circulating fatty acid levels Velasco, C. ; Libran-Perez, M ...
more infohttps://www.aqua.dtu.dk/english/service/phonebook/person?fr=1&id=102699&mr=100&qt=dtupublicationquery&tab=2

WAND Product and Services - Organic AcidsWAND Product and Services - Organic Acids

... acetic acid],2-Azetidinecarboxylic Acid,3,3,3-(Trioxo-1,3,5-triazinetriyl)tri(propionic Acid),3,4-Dimethoxyphthalic Acid, ... butyric Acid,(S)-Piperidine-2-carboxylic Acid,1,1-Ferrocenedicarboxylic Acid,1-Amino-4-bromo-9,10-dioxoanthracene-2-sulfonic ... Cassellas Acid F. [Display Results] Chlorogenic Acid. [Display Results] Clofibric Acid. [Display Results] ... WAND Categories > Chemicals, Organic>Organic Acids >. The WAND Organic Chemicals taxonomy includes the set of substances, ...
more infohttps://www.wand.com/core/TypeMenu.aspx?sType=4464204&packid=12&sbreadcrumb=4464204&sInfo=Organic+Acids

Drugs in Drinking Water - What you can doDrugs in Drinking Water - What you can do

Clofibric Acid. Monensin (used on cattle). Carbamazepine. Estrone. Naproxen. Phenytoin. Cotinine. Azithromycin. Roxithromycin. ... The process used to make alkaline water, called electodialysis, divides tap water into alkaline and acid streams. Any acidic ...
more infohttps://www.lifeionizers.com/blog/drugs-in-drinking-water/

PPAR Ligands as Antitumorigenic and Antiangiogenic AgentsPPAR Ligands as Antitumorigenic and Antiangiogenic Agents

Y. Yokoyama, B. Xin, T. Shigeto et al., "Clofibric acid, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor a. ligand, inhibits ... including fatty and phytanic acids [4], as well as the fibric acid derivatives used in medicine for the treatment of ... and catalyze the oxidation of arachidonic acid to four regioisomeric epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) [42, 43]. EETs have been ... Furthermore, several fibric acid derivatives bind to and activate human PPARα with limited or no documented unwanted ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ppar/2008/906542/

Antivascular Therapy for Epithelial Ovarian CancerAntivascular Therapy for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

Y. Yokoyama, B. Xin, T. Shigeto et al., "Clofibric acid, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α. ligand, inhibits ... PGE2 enhances angiogenesis through the induction of VEGF [109]. Clofibric acid is a peroxysome proliferator-activated receptor ... 5, 6-dimethyl-xanthenone-4 acetic acid (DMXAA) is a flavonoid causing DNA damage to endothelial cells that induces apoptosis in ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jo/2010/372547/

TNO Repository search for: subject:Cytochrome P-450 CYP27A1TNO Repository search for: subject:'Cytochrome P-450 CYP27A1'

Clofibric Acid · Cytochrome P-450 CYP27A1 · Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System · Down-Regulation · Hepatocytes · Mice · Mice, ... Cafestol (20 μg/mL) had no effect on lithocholic acid 6β-hydroxylase mRNA, another enzyme involved in bile acid synthesis. LDL- ... Clofibric Acid, 882-09-7; Cyp27a1 protein, mouse, EC 1.14.-; Cytochrome P-450 CYP27A1, EC 1.14.-; Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme ... Bile Acids and Salts · Chenodeoxycholic Acid · Cholates · Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase · Cytochrome P-450 CYP27A1 · ...
more infohttps://repository.tudelft.nl/search/tno/?q=subject%3A%22Cytochrome%20P-450%20CYP27A1%22

Effect of different antilipidemic agents and diets on mortality: a systematic reviewEffect of different antilipidemic agents and diets on mortality: a systematic review

Cardiovascular Diseases /mortality /therapy; Clofibric Acid /therapeutic use; Diet, Fat-Restricted; Fatty Acids, Omega-3 / ... The authors concluded that statins and n-3 fatty acids both reduce cardiac and overall mortality, but that fibrates may ... For n-3 fatty acids, there was insufficient evidence to assess the effects on mortality in primary prevention studies. The ... Of these RCTs, 35 assessed statins, 17 assessed fibrates, 8 assessed resins, 2 assessed niacin, 14 assessed n-3 fatty acids and ...
more infohttp://www.crd.york.ac.uk/crdweb/ShowRecord.asp?LinkFrom=OAI&ID=12005008209

Drugs found in drinking water in Detroit, elsewhere | 						MLive.comDrugs found in drinking water in Detroit, elsewhere | MLive.com

New Orleans: 3 (clofibric acid, estrone and naproxen). • Northern New Jersey: 7 (caffeine, carbamazepine, codeine, cotinine, ...
more infohttp://blog.mlive.com/michigan/2008/03/drugs_found_in_drinking_water.html

Clobuzarit: species differences in the morphological and biochemical response of the liver following chronic administration. -...Clobuzarit: species differences in the morphological and biochemical response of the liver following chronic administration. -...

... and an increase in endoplasmic reticulum fatty acid oxidase. No proliferative effects were observed in the liver of the dog or ... the fatty acid oxidation enzyme systems of peroxisomes and endoplasmic reticulum were markedly induced. The hamster showed no ... Differential induction of peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes by clofibric acid and aspirin in piglet tissues.. *Xin Xiang Yu, ... Effects of clofibric and beclobric acid in rat and monkey hepatocyte primary culture: influence on peroxisomal and ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Clobuzarit%3A-species-differences-in-the-and-response-Orton-Adam/854270b22095548d74dbd228bdfd4d2b80060d3a

Cities that tested positive for pharmaceuticals in drinking water | FierceHealthcareCities that tested positive for pharmaceuticals in drinking water | FierceHealthcare

New Orleans: 3 (clofibric acid, estrone and naproxen). Northern New Jersey: 7 (caffeine, carbamazepine, codeine, cotinine, ...
more infohttps://www.fiercehealthcare.com/healthcare/cities-tested-positive-for-pharmaceuticals-drinking-water
  • Clofibric acid is a metabolite of the cholesterol-lowering pharmaceutical drug clofibrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clofibric acid (the major metabolite of the lipid lowering drug, Clofibrate) is non-biodegradable, highly motile, very persistent and frequently detected at μg/I levels in the environment. (brunel.ac.uk)
  • PPARs are activated by a vast number of compounds including synthetic drugs such as the clofibrate and anti-diabetic thiazoldinediones, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and a number of eicosanoids, including prostaglandins, lipoxygenase products and oxidized low density lipoprotein [ 2 ]. (imedpub.com)
  • These findings along with the fact that high iron status has been implicated in the increased risk of heart disease, and that anemia has been observed in response to treatment with clofibrate, both in humans and experimental animals, have prompted us to investigate if clofibric acid binds to iron (III) and the nature of such interaction Scheme 1 [ 10 ]. (imedpub.com)
  • The NADP + -dependent dehydrogenase activity of a predominant isoenzyme of human liver 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase was activated by antihyperlipidemic drugs, such as bezafibrate and clinofibrate, and by clofibric acid and fenofibric acid (active metabolites of clofibrate and fenofibrate, respectively). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Clofibrate and fenofibrate acted as weak inhibitors, and the clofibric acid derivatives that lack the chloro group, methyl group on the α-carbon or carboxyl group greatly decreased the stimulatory effects. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The degradation of an aqueous solution of clofibric acid was investigated during catalytic and non-catalytic ozonation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Hamada YZ, Darboe K, Darboe A. Aqueous Solutions NMR, UV-Vis and Potentiometric Titrations of Cd 2+ and Hg 2+ with Clofibric Acid. (imedpub.com)
  • Since high iron status has been linked to the increased risk of heart disease, and oxidative stress has been implicated in the etiology of atherosclerosis, this study was undertaken to investigate whether prototypic fibrate, clofibric acid (CA) complexes with ferric iron (Fe3+) and determine the nature of the formed iron complexes. (imedpub.com)
  • Fibrate treatment causes adverse changes in biliary lipid composition and decreases bile acid excretion, leading to an increased incidence of cholesterol gallstones. (tudelft.nl)
  • The evolution of dissolved organic carbon, specific ultraviolet absorption at 254 nm and the concentration of carboxylic acids monitored the degradation process. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Glucuronidation of carboxylic acid compounds results in the formation of electrophilic acyl glucuronides. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The ester or acyl glucuronides, which are formed from compounds possessing a carboxylic acid group, are chemically reactive metabolites due to the susceptibility of the ester linkage to nucleophilic substitution ( Spahn-Langguth and Benet, 1992 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Other researchers from Switzerland, Ireland and Spain in one concerted effort published a detailed paper measuring the stability constants of Cd 2+ with the di-carboxylic acids Malate and Succinate [ 9 ]. (imedpub.com)
  • The results from this research show that there are effects of clofibric acid in pathways which were not only unexpected in fish (for example, steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis and gene expression), but also at concentrations below those previously shown to have any biological effects on fish. (brunel.ac.uk)
  • TAS1R taste receptors and their associated heterotrimeric G protein gustducin are involved in sugar and amino acid sensing in taste cells and in the gastrointestinal tract. (pnas.org)
  • Using mouse models, we show that the genetic absence of both TAS1R3, a component of sweet and amino acid taste receptors, and the gustducin α-subunit GNAT3 leads to male-specific sterility. (pnas.org)
  • A family of three G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) genes, the TAS1Rs, encode type 1 taste receptors that mediate perception of sweet and umami (amino acid) tastes. (pnas.org)
  • Small differences in the primary amino acid sequence of TAS1R receptors among species are responsible for species selectivity toward many sweeteners. (pnas.org)
  • Upon ligand binding, PPARs form heterodimers with the retinoic acid receptor and interact with specific response elements in the promoter region of target genes [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • I studied possible effects of clofibric acid in fish, using different experimental approaches and endpoints. (brunel.ac.uk)
  • The chapters within this thesis have presented the first evidence (albeit preliminary) of clofibric acid having effects on both adult and embryo fish. (brunel.ac.uk)
  • When fathead minnow embryos were exposed to clofibric acid, the effects seen included changes in the eggshell, time to hatch, hatchability, mortality and viability. (brunel.ac.uk)
  • Other results suggested, less pronounced effects of clofibric acid on some other parameters. (brunel.ac.uk)
  • These effects indicate that clofibric acid may potentially have an impact on fish fecundity, and even more worryingly, on human health for those people prescribed it. (brunel.ac.uk)
  • These results suggest that the long-term therapy with the antihyperlipidemic drugs influences the metabolism of steroid hormones, bile acids and several ketone-containing drugs mediated by the enzyme. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These findings have suggested that this enzyme also acts as prostaglandin oxidoreductase, carbonyl reductase, dihydrodiol dehydrogenase and bile acid-binding protein in the tissue. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The results showed that the ozonation was enhanced by the presence of TiO(2,) the clofibric acid being removed completely after 15 min at pH 5. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Dose-dependent decreases of bile acid mass production and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase and sterol 27-hydroxylase activity were found, showing a maximal reduction of -91%, -79%, and -49% respectively, at a concentration of 20 μg/mL cafestol. (tudelft.nl)
  • It has a chemical structure that is characterized by the presence of the 2-phenoxy-2- methylpropanoic acid moiety which has the right ring chelating size to chelate large metal ions such as Cd 2+ and Hg 2+ . (imedpub.com)
  • Structural formula of clofibric acid (CA), or [2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropanoic acid] (Chemical formula C 10 H 11 ClO 3 ). (imedpub.com)
  • Dehydroabietic acid, a diterpene, improves diabetes and hyperlipidemia in obese diabetic KK-Ay mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The optimal pH of the activation by the drugs was about 7.5, and the concentrations giving maximum stimulation (1.8- to 2.4-fold) were 100, 50, 400 and 50 μM for bezafibrate, clinofibrate, clofibric acid and fenofibric acid, respectively. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Identification of intermediates and assessment of ecotoxicity in the oxidation products generated during the ozonation of clofibric acid. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The increase in [1-14C]oleic acid binding capacity was responsible for the increase in the content of FABP in livers. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The decrease in mRNA of both enzymes is regulated transcriptionally and posttranscriptionally, respectively, resulting in a decline in the output of fecal bile acids (-45%) and a 3-fold increase in fecal cholesterol secretion. (tudelft.nl)