Clofibrate: A fibric acid derivative used in the treatment of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III and severe HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIA. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p986)Halofenate: An antihyperlipoproteinemic agent and uricosuric agent.Hypolipidemic Agents: Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Alkane 1-Monooxygenase: A P450 oxidoreductase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of the terminal carbon of linear hydrocarbons such as octane and FATTY ACIDS in the omega position. The enzyme may also play a role in the oxidation of a variety of structurally unrelated compounds such as XENOBIOTICS, and STEROIDS.Microbodies: Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.Peroxisome Proliferators: A class of nongenotoxic CARCINOGENS that induce the production of hepatic PEROXISOMES and induce hepatic neoplasms after long-term administration.Hypoglycins: Methylene cyclopropyl alanine and congeners isolated from the unripe edible fruit of the AKEE plant (BLIGHIA SAPIDA). Hypoglycin B is the gamma-glutamyl congener of hypoglycin A. They are very toxic and teratogenic, causing a syndrome called Jamaican vomiting sickness that includes a fall in blood glucose due to the interference of FATTY ACIDS and LEUCINE metabolism which leads to VOMITING, liver damage, CONVULSIONS and DEATH.Gemfibrozil: A lipid-regulating agent that lowers elevated serum lipids primarily by decreasing serum triglycerides with a variable reduction in total cholesterol.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Clofibric Acid: An antilipemic agent that is the biologically active metabolite of CLOFIBRATE.Fibric Acids: Compounds that either share the structure of fibric acid in their molecular arrangement or are considered variants of the fibric acid structure.Clofenapate: An oral hypolipemic agent primarily used in DOGS and RATS.2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic Acid: A powerful herbicide used as a selective weed killer.Carnitine O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of O-acetylcarnitine from acetyl-CoA plus carnitine. EC 2.3.1.7.Diethylhexyl Phthalate: An ester of phthalic acid. It appears as a light-colored, odorless liquid and is used as a plasticizer for many resins and elastomers.Cholestyramine Resin: A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.Cocos: A plant genus of the family ARECACEAE. It is a tropical palm tree that yields a large, edible hard-shelled fruit from which oil and fiber are also obtained.Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.Bezafibrate: An antilipemic agent that lowers CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES. It decreases LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and increases HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Phototherapy: Treatment of disease by exposure to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths.Acyl-CoA Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the first and rate-determining steps of peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids. It acts on COENZYME A derivatives of fatty acids with chain lengths from 8 to 18, using FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE as a cofactor.Transcription Initiation, Genetic: The process that starts the transcription of an RNA molecule. It includes the assembly of the initiation complex and establishment of the start site.PPAR alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.ValeratesEnzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Sulfobromophthalein: A phenolphthalein that is used as a diagnostic aid in hepatic function determination.Protein O-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosylmethionine to free carboxyl groups of a protein molecule forming methyl esters. EC 2.1.1.-.Heliotropium: A plant genus in the family Boraginaceae, order Lamiales, subclass Asteridae. This is the True Heliotrope that should not be confused with an unrelated plant sometimes called Garden Heliotrope (VALERIAN).Gardenia: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain genepin, from which geniposide is obtained for use as a crosslinking agent in ADHESIVES, and 3-caffeoyl-4-sinapoylquinic acid.Succinate Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Ferricyanides: Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid, H3Fe(CN)6.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Pharmacogenetics: A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic variability in individual responses to drugs and drug metabolism (BIOTRANSFORMATION).Aluminum Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.Aluminum Hydroxide: A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Trichloroacetic Acid: A strong acid used as a protein precipitant in clinical chemistry and also as a caustic for removing warts.Palmitates: Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.Ultrafiltration: The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Palmitic Acid: A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.Tosylarginine Methyl Ester: Arginine derivative which is a substrate for many proteolytic enzymes. As a substrate for the esterase from the first component of complement, it inhibits the action of C(l) on C(4).Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

Comparison of the stability and substrate specificity of purified peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolases A and B from rat liver. (1/434)

The specific activities and substrate specificities of 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase A (thiolase A) purified from normal rat liver peroxisomes and 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase B (thiolase B) isolated from livers of rats treated with the peroxisome proliferator clofibrate were virtually identical. The enzymes could be distinguished by their N-terminal amino acid sequences, their isoelectric points and their stability, the latter being higher for thiolase A. Contrary to thiolase B, which showed a marked cold lability in the presence of KCl by dissociating into monomers with poor activity, thiolase A retained its full activity and its homodimeric structure under these conditions.  (+info)

Preventive effects of dehydroepiandrosterone acetate on the fatty liver induced by orotic acid in male rats. (2/434)

Preventive effects of dehydroepiandrosteone acetate (DHEA-A) and clofibrate (positive control substance) on the fatty liver induced by orotic acid (OA) were examined on the male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high sucrose based diet containing 1% OA and this diet further mixed with 0.5% DHEA-A or 0.5% clofibrate for 2 weeks. Numerous lipid droplets were observed in the hepatocytes of the rats treated with OA alone, but not in those treated with DHEA-A or clofibrate. In comparison to the group with OA alone, the DHEA-A or clofibrate treated rats showed a larger relative liver weight (to body weight) which was accompanied by increased peroxisomes in the hepatocytes. These results indicate that DHEA-A, as well as clofibrate, may prevent OA-induced fatty liver.  (+info)

Cellular distribution of cytochromes P-450 in the rat kidney. (3/434)

The distribution of several cytochrome P-450 (P-450) isoenzymes between proximal tubular (PT) and distal tubular (DT) cells of the rat kidney was determined. Western blot analysis of microsomes prepared from liver and kidney cortical homogenates revealed that CYP2E1 protein was expressed in rat kidney microsomes at approximately 10% of hepatic levels. Microsomes from renal cortical, PT, and DT cells all expressed CYP2E1, with DT microsomes expressing slightly higher levels than PT microsomes. In contrast, chlorzoxazone hydroxylation activity was markedly higher in microsomes from PT cells than in those from DT cells. Northern blot analysis of total RNA from PT and DT cells exhibited a pattern of CYP2E1 mRNA distribution similar to that of CYP2E1 protein. CYP2C11 protein expression in renal cortical microsomes was approximately 10% of that in liver microsomes but was significantly higher in microsomes from PT cells than in those from DT cells. CYP3A1/2 was not detected in microsomes from either cortical, PT, or DT cells, but was detected in microsomes isolated from total liver or kidney cortical homogenates. CYP2B1/2 expression was detected in all tissues tested. The peroxisomal proliferator clofibrate enhanced the level of CYP2B1/2 in microsomes from both total liver and kidney cortical homogenates but not in microsomes from cortical, PT, or DT cells. CYP4A2/3 protein and CYP4A mRNA expression were detected in microsomes from total liver and kidney cortical homogenates and from renal cortical, PT, and DT cells using Western and Northern blot analyses, respectively. Lauric acid hydroxylation activity, an indicator of CYP4A, was comparable in PT and DT cells. Clofibrate elevation of CYP4A in cortical, PT, and DT microsomes was not as great as that detected in total kidney cortical microsomes. These results establish the distribution of several P-450 isoenzymes between different cell populations of the rat kidney. Furthermore, these results present evidence that the level of induction of certain P-450 isoenzymes in the kidney is cell type-specific.  (+info)

Effect of gemfibrozil in vitro on fat-mobilizing lipolysis in human adipose tissue. (4/434)

Fat-mobilizing lipolysis was studied in rat and human adipose tissue during incubation in vitro by following the release of glycerol into the incubation medium. Gemfibrozil as well as clofibrate consistently and readily inhibited basal as well as noradrenaline-stimulated fat-mobilizing lipolysis in rat fat. With human adipose tissue no effect was observed with gemfibrozil and clofibrate on basal lipolysis. This may be due to the comparatively low rate of the nonstimulated fat-mobilizing lipolysis in human tissue incubated in vitro. When lipolysis was stimulated with noradrenaline as well as isoprenaline, however, both gemfibrozil and clofibrate significantly reduced the fat-mobilizing lipolysis. This inhibition of lipolysis was however not observed in all studies. When lipolysis had been stimulated with theophylline, no inhibition of lipolysis was obtained with either compound. The possibility that reduced fat-mobilizing lipolysis in adipose tissue may cause a lowering of plasma triglycerides by reducing the flow of FFA to the liver is discussed in some detail. It is also suggested that inhibition of lipolysis may be accompanied by increased activity of lipoprotein lipase as well as an increase in the FIAT process. However, the pharmacological implication of the above-mentioned findings, particularly for gemfibrozil, must await further studies, as fairly large doses, around 1 mg/ml of incubation medium, were needed to obtain inhibition of fat-mobilizing lipolysis.  (+info)

Inhibition of transforming growth factor beta1-induced hepatoma cell apoptosis by liver tumor promoters: characterization of primary signaling events and effects on CPP32-like caspase activity. (5/434)

The effects of the liver tumor promoters phenobarbital, clofibrate, dieldrin, and DDT on transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFbeta)-induced apoptosis were studied in FTO-2B hepatoma cells. Inhibition of apoptosis by these compounds was strongly correlated with a decrease in CPP32-like caspase activity. Similar effects were obtained with insulin and dexamethasone. CPP32-like activity may thus provide a useful tool for quantiation of apoptosis under various treatment conditions. Diverse effects on apoptosis-associated cellular signaling proteins were observed: insulin led to an activation of the MAP kinases ERK1/2, of PKB/Akt and of NF-kappaB, phenobarbital and clofibrate enhanced NF-kappaB activity solely, while dexamethasone slightly enhanced NF-kappaB activity and increased the expression of Bcl-xL. Since inhibition of apoptosis was still detectable if the anti-apoptotic compounds were administered more than 10 h after TGFbeta, the diverse primary signals appear to converge at a presumably late stage of apoptosis, but upstream of activation of CPP32 or related caspases.  (+info)

Fibrates suppress fibrinogen gene expression in rodents via activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha. (6/434)

Plasma fibrinogen levels have been identified as an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Among the few compounds known to lower circulating fibrinogen levels in humans are certain fibrates. We have studied the regulation of fibrinogen gene expression by fibrates in rodents. Treatment of adult male rats with fenofibrate (0.5% [wt/wt] in the diet) for 7 days decreased hepatic Aalpha-, Bbeta-, and gamma-chain mRNA levels to 52% +/- 7%, 46% +/- 8%, and 81% +/- 19% of control values, respectively. In parallel, plasma fibrinogen concentrations were decreased to 63% +/- 7% of controls. The suppression of fibrinogen expression was dose-dependent and was already evident after 1 day at the highest dose of fenofibrate tested (0.5% [wt/wt]). Nuclear run-on experiments showed that the decrease in fibrinogen expression after fenofibrate occurred at the transcriptional level, as exemplified for the gene for the Aalpha-chain. Other fibrates tested showed similar effects on fibrinogen expression and transcription. The effect of fibrates is specific for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) because a high-affinity ligand for PPARgamma, the thiazolidinedione BRL 49653, lowered triglyceride levels, but was unable to suppress fibrinogen expression. Direct evidence for the involvement of PPARalpha in the suppression of fibrinogen by fibrates was obtained using PPARalpha-null (-/-) mice. Compared with (+/+) mice, plasma fibrinogen levels in (-/-) mice were significantly higher (3.20 +/- 0.48 v 2.67 +/- 0.42 g/L). Also, hepatic fibrinogen Aalpha-chain mRNA levels were 25% +/- 11% higher in the (-/-) mice. On treatment with 0.2% (wt/wt) fenofibrate, a significant decrease in plasma fibrinogen to 77% +/- 10% of control levels and in hepatic fibrinogen Aalpha-chain mRNA levels to 65% +/- 12% of control levels was seen in (+/+) mice, but not in (-/-) mice. These studies show that PPARalpha regulates basal levels of plasma fibrinogen and establish that fibrate-suppressed expression of fibrinogen in rodents is mediated through PPARalpha.  (+info)

The effect of peroxisome proliferators on mitochondrial bioenergetics. (7/434)

Peroxisome proliferators are a group of structurally diverse chemicals that cause the proliferation of peroxisomes in rodents. The purpose of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that the shared effect of these compounds on peroxisome proliferation is mediated through a common inhibitory effect on mitochondrial bioenergetics. Freshly isolated rat liver mitochondria were energized with succinate. The effect of the chemicals on mitochondrial bioenergetics was analyzed by monitoring calcium-induced changes in membrane potential and swelling, as well as changes in mitochondrial respiration. Mitochondrial membrane potential was measured with a TPP(+)-sensitive electrode, and swelling was recorded spectrophotometrically. Mitochondrial oxygen uptake was monitored with a Clark-type oxygen electrode. Gemfibrozil and WY-14,643 induced the mitochondrial permeability transition as characterized by calcium-induced swelling and depolarization of membrane potential, both of which were inhibited by cyclosporine A. Fenofibrate, clofibrate, ciprofibrate and diethylhexyl phthalate, on the other hand, caused a direct dose-dependent depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential. However, the mechanism of membrane depolarization varied among the test chemicals. Bezafibrate and trichloroethylene elicited no effect on succinate-supported mitochondrial bioenergetics. The results of this investigation demonstrate that although most, but not all, peroxisome proliferators interfere with mitochondrial bioenergetics, the specific biomolecular mechanism differs among the individual compounds.  (+info)

Hypoxia-induced production of 12-hydroxyeicosanoids in the corneal epithelium: involvement of a cytochrome P-4504B1 isoform. (8/434)

The corneal epithelium metabolizes arachidonic acid by a cytochrome P-450 (CYP)-mediated activity to 12-hydroxy-5,8,11, 14-eicosatetraenoic acid (12(R)-HETE) and 12-hydroxy-5,8, 14-eicosatrienoic acid (12(R)-HETrE ). Both metabolites possess potent inflammatory properties, with 12(R)-HETrE being a powerful angiogenic factor, and they assume the role of inflammatory mediators in hypoxia- and chemical-induced injury in the cornea in vivo and in vitro. We used a model of corneal organ culture that exhibits hypoxia-induced epithelial CYP-dependent 12(R)-HETE and 12(R)-HETrE synthesis for isolating, identifying, and characterizing the CYP protein responsible for these eicosanoid syntheses. Northern analysis revealed the presence of a CYP4A-hybridizable mRNA, the levels of which were increased after hypoxia. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis with primers specific for the CYP4A family led to the isolation of a 671-base pair fragment with a 98.8% sequence homology to the rabbit lung CYP4B1 isoform, of which the levels in the corneal epithelium were greatly increased under hypoxic conditions. Moreover, phenobarbital, an inducer of hepatic CYP4B1 in the rabbit, also induced 12-HETE and 12-HETrE synthesis. Antibodies against CYP4B1, but not against CYP4A1, inhibited hypoxia-, clofibrate-, and phenobarbital-induced 12-HETE and 12-HETrE synthesis. These results suggest the involvement of a CYP4B1 isoform in the corneal epithelial synthesis of these eicosanoids in response to hypoxia.  (+info)

*Clofibrate

... more deaths during treatment with clofibrate and 5% after treatment with clofibrate) than the non-treated high cholesterol ... Clofibrate (tradename Atromid-S) is an organic compound. It is marketed as a fibrate. It is a lipid-lowering agent used for ... These deaths were due to a wide variety of causes other than heart disease, and remain "unexplained". Clofibrate was ... It can induce SIADH, syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone ADH (vasopressin). Clofibrate can also result ...

*Catherine Clarke Fenselau

Formation of clofibrate mercapturate in humans". Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 10 (6): 609 ...

*Haroutune Armenian

Experience with Low Fat Diets and Clofibrate. Leb Med J., 25:495 502;1972. Armenian HK, Khachadurian AK: Familial Paroxysmal ...

*Glomerulonephrosis

2005). "Evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of clofibrate in the neonatal mouse". Int. J. Toxicol. 24 (5): 341-8. doi: ...

*Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein

de Brouwer AP, Westerman J, Kleinnijenhuis A, Bevers LE, Roelofsen B, Wirtz KW (March 2002). "Clofibrate-induced relocation of ...

*Clofibric acid

... is a metabolite of the cholesterol-lowering pharmaceutical drug clofibrate. Clofibric acid derivatives include ...

*PEX11A

"Entrez Gene: PEX11A peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11A". Abe I, Okumoto K, Tamura S, Fujiki Y (1998). "Clofibrate-inducible, 28- ...

*Etofibrate

It is a combination of clofibrate and niacin, linked together by an ester bond. In the body, clofibrate and niacin separate and ...

*Acefylline clofibrol

... is a derivative of acefylline and clofibrate used as an hypolipidemic agent. FR 2393803, Tamietto, Teresio ...

*Beta oxidation

Peroxisomal oxidation is induced by a high-fat diet and administration of hypolipidemic drugs like clofibrate. The ATP yield ...

*Fibrate

Aluminium clofibrate Bezafibrate Ciprofibrate Choline fenofibrate Clinofibrate Clofibrate Clofibride Fenofibrate Gemfibrozil ...

*Fenofibrate

... was first synthesized in 1974 as a derivative of clofibrate, and was launched on the French market shortly ...

*VLDL receptor

... up-regulated VLDLR expression occurs when cells are incubated with hypolipidemic agents such as insulin and clofibrate. In ...

*Reactive oxygen species production in marine microalgae

... induction of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase correlates with high H2O2 concentration in seawater from clofibrate- ...

*Zellweger syndrome

... effects of dietary restriction of very long chain fatty acids and of administration of carnitine and clofibrate on clinical ...

*PPAR agonist

... clofibrate, gemfibrozil, ciprofibrate, bezafibrate, and fenofibrate). They were originally indicated for cholesterol disorders ...

*Familial hypercholesterolemia

Prior to the introduction of the statins, clofibrate (an older fibrate that often caused gallstones), probucol (especially in ...

*List of drugs: Al

Alu-Cap Alu-Tab Aludrox aluminium clofibrate (INN) Alupent (Boehringer Ingelheim) Alustra alusulf (INN) alvameline maleate ( ...

*List of drugs: C-Ca

... calcium clofibrate (INN) calcium disodium versenate calcium dobesilate (INN) calcium folinate (INN) calcium glubionate (INN) ...

*Schedule H

... its salts Chlorzoxazone Clavulanic Acid Clidinium Bromide Clobetasol Propionate Clobetazone 17-Butyrate Clofazimine Clofibrate ...

*List of IARC Group 3 carcinogens

... metallic Chrysene Chrysoidine CI Acid Orange 3 Cimetidine Cinnamyl anthranilate CI Pigment Red 3 Citrinin Clofibrate Clomiphene ...

*List of drugs: M-Md

Magnacort magnesium clofibrate (INN) Magnevist maitansine (INN) Malarone maletamer (INN) maleylsulfathiazole (INN) malotilate ( ...

*List of MeSH codes (D02)

... clofibrate MeSH D02.241.081.160.225 --- clofibric acid MeSH D02.241.081.160.225.133 --- bezafibrate MeSH D02.241.081.160. ... 225.187 --- clofenapate MeSH D02.241.081.160.225.195 --- clofibrate MeSH D02.241.081.160.225.396 --- gemfibrozil MeSH D02.241. ...

*Albumin

... clofibrate & phenytoin. For this reason, it is sometimes referred as a molecular "taxi". Competition between drugs for albumin ...

*Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion

Pulmonary causes Infection Pneumonia Lung abscess Asthma Cystic fibrosis Drugs Chlorpropamide Clofibrate Phenothiazine ...
We previously showed that the oxidation of branched-chain amino acids is increased in rats treated with clofibrate [Paul and Adibi (1980) J. Clin. Invest. 65, 1285-1293]. Two subsequent studies have reported contradictory results regarding the effect of clofibrate treatment on gene expression of branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) in rat liver. Furthermore, there has been no previous study of the effect of clofibrate treatment on gene expression of BCKDH kinase, which regulates the activity of BCKDH by phosphorylation. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the above issues. Clofibrate treatment for 2 weeks resulted in (a) a 3-fold increase in the flux through BCKDH in mitochondria isolated from rat liver, and (b) a modest but significant increase in the activity of BCKDH. However, clofibrate treatment had no significant effect on the mass of E1α, E1β, and E2 subunits of BCKDH or the abundance of mRNAs encoding these subunits. On the other hand, clofibrate treatment ...
Whole cells, homogenates and mitochondrial obtained from the livers of albino rats which were starved for 6 days or more showed a 50% decrease in oxidative activity. The decrease could be corrected by the addition of cytochrome c in vitro. The phosphorylative activity of mitochondria remained unaffected. The decrease in oxidative rate was not observed when starving animals were given the anti-hypercholesterolaemic drug clofibrate. The total cellular concentration of cytochrome c was not affected by starvation. However, the concentration of the pigment in hepatic mitochondria isolated from starving animals was less than half that in normal mitochondria. Clofibrate-treated animals did not show a decreased concentration of cytochrome c in hepatic mitochondria. Mitochondria isolated from starving animals, though deficient in cytochrome c, did not show any decrease in succinate dehydrogenase activity or in the rate of substrate-dependent reduction of potassium ferricyanide or attendant ...
Clofibrate is an antilipidemic agent similar to gemfibrozil. It acts to lower elevated serum lipids by reducing the very low-density lipoprotein fraction (Sf 20-400) rich in triglycerides. Serum cholesterol may be decreased, particularly in those patients whose cholesterol elevation is due to the presence of IDL as a result of Type III hyperlipoproteinemia. Several investigators have observed in their studies that clofibrate may produce a decrease in cholesterol linoleate but an increase in palmitoleate and oleate, the latter being considered atherogenic in experimental animals. The significance of this finding is unknown at this time. Reduction of triglycerides in some patients treated with clofibrate or certain of its chemically and clinically similar analogs may be associated with an increase in LDL cholesterol. Increase in LDL cholesterol has been observed in patients whose cholesterol is initially normal. Animal studies suggest that clofibrate interrupts cholesterol biosynthesis prior to ...
Clofibrate is an antilipidemic agent similar to gemfibrozil. It acts to lower elevated serum lipids by reducing the very low-density lipoprotein fraction (Sf 20-400) rich in triglycerides. Serum cholesterol may be decreased, particularly in those patients whose cholesterol elevation is due to the presence of IDL as a result of Type III hyperlipoproteinemia. Several investigators have observed in their studies that clofibrate may produce a decrease in cholesterol linoleate but an increase in palmitoleate and oleate, the latter being considered atherogenic in experimental animals. The significance of this finding is unknown at this time. Reduction of triglycerides in some patients treated with clofibrate or certain of its chemically and clinically similar analogs may be associated with an increase in LDL cholesterol. Increase in LDL cholesterol has been observed in patients whose cholesterol is initially normal. Animal studies suggest that clofibrate interrupts cholesterol biosynthesis prior to ...
Innovative genomic test for aluminium clofibrate personalised pharmacogenomic analysis to explore how your genes can affect and modulate your response ...
Line p2h3-18-3. Expressed in all tissues. Expression is weak in the outer tissues in the mature part of the root but it remains high in the vascular tissues.. ...
Campus Assaults, a piercing, monumental exposé of rape culture on campuses, poised to light a fire under a national debate.. In a tour de force of verité footage, expert insights, and first-person testimonies, the film follows undergraduate rape survivors pursuing both their education and justice, despite ongoing harassment and the devastating toll on them and their families.. Scrutinizing the gamut of elite Ivies, state universities, and small colleges, filmmakers Kirby Dick and Amy Ziering reveal an endemic system of institutional cover-ups, rationalizations, victim-blaming, and denial that creates perfect storm conditions for predators to prey with impunity.. Meanwhile, the film captures mavericks Andrea Pino and Annie Clark, survivors who are taking matters into their own hands-ingeniously employing Title IX legal strategy to fight back and sharing their knowledge among a growing, unstoppable network of young women who will no longer be silent.. Since the films premiere at Sundance, it ...
Pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment is an emerging issue and the risks they pose are mostly unknown. They are used in large amounts throughout the world and can enter the environment, as the active metabolite or unmetabolised, through excretion by people and improper disposal. As these drugs are designed to have specific biological effects in a specific organism (as well as sometimes having other non-specific side effects), their potential to cause effects within the environment is great. Clofibric acid (the major metabolite of the lipid lowering drug, Clofibrate) is non-biodegradable, highly motile, very persistent and frequently detected at μg/I levels in the environment. I studied possible effects of clofibric acid in fish, using different experimental approaches and endpoints. The studies involve two different species, and for one of these species, fish at different stages of development. The chapters within this thesis have presented the first evidence (albeit preliminary) of ...
Effects of Puer Tea:1.Decrease the blood fat, lose weight, decline blood pressure and resist arteriosclerosis.Dr. Amill Carroby, from a college of Paris, French used Yunnan Puer Tuo tea to do clinical trial and proved that: "Yunnan Puer Tea has a good effect to reduce content of lipoid and cholesterol". Kunming Medical College of China also observed 55 clinical trials to use Yunnan Puer Tuo tea to cure the high blood fat diseases and compare them with 31 cases used clofibrate which has a good effect to incline fat. The result shows that the curative effect of Puer Tea is higher than clofibrate. Long lasting drinkers of Puer Tea can reduce cholesterol and glycerin fat. So long drinking of Puer Tea can have the effect of curative the obesity. Drinking of Puer tea can cause physiological effect in stretching human beings blood vessel, descending blood pressure and slowering the rhythm of the heart, etc. So it has a good curative function to high blood pressure and the brain ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Diabetes Care.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Fenofibrate (isopropyl 4-( p-chlorobenzoyl)phenoxyisobutyrate: Lipanthyl) is a hypolipidaemic agent structurally related to Clofibrate. In view of current concern over the safety-in-use of this class...
The existence of interactions between retinoids and P450 and GT systems is well established; retinoids both affect and are metabolized by these systems. The potential for the metabolism of retinoids to be affected by alterations in P450 and GT enzyme levels (caused by pretreatment with either themselves or other drugs) is demonstrated by the induction of the P450-mediated metabolism of ATRA by dexamethasone and phenobarbital (Martini and Murray, 1994) and the induction of the glucuronidation of ATRA by 3-methylcholanthrene and clofibrate (Genchiet al., 1996; Sass et al., 1994). In addition, P450 inhibitors have been shown to prolong the in vivohalf-life of ATRA in rats (Van Wauwe et al., 1988, 1990) and mice (Achkar et al., 1994). Therefore, the potential for drug-drug interactions, as well as alterations in their own metabolism after repeated administration, is clearly evident for the retinoids. However, very little is known about either the nature of the effects of retinoids on these metabolic ...
membranes forex analysis for today Hypolipidemic - forex analysis for today, day forex system trading, global forex trading offers
Despite the importance of Arctic and boreal regions in the present carbon cycle, estimates of annual high-latitude carbon fluxes vary in sign and magnitude. Without accurate estimates of current carbon fluxes from Arctic and boreal ecosystems, predicting the response of these systems to global change is daunting. A number of factors control carbon turnover in high-latitude soils, but because they are unique to northern systems, they are mostly ignored by biogeochemical models used to predict the response of these systems to global change. Here, we review those factors. First, many northern systems are dominated by mosses, whose extremely slow decomposition is not predicted by commonly used indices of litter quality. Second, cold temperature, permafrost, waterlogging, and substrate quality interact to stabilize soil organic matter, but the relative importance of these factors, and how they respond to climate change, is unknown. Third, recent evidence suggests that biological activity occurring ...
We offer fully characterized, pooled microsomes and S9 from Sprague-Dawley® rat tissue that has been treated with different chemical enzyme inducers, including the following: Aroclor 1254 B-Naphthoflavone Clofibrate Dexamethasone Isoniazid 3-Methylcholanthrene Phenobarbital Individual and pooled human S9 have been produced from a bank of different human livers, enabling you to use these products to predict the
Acid phosphatase is an enzyme present in the cells throughout the body. It is present in especially high concentrations in the prostate and semen in men. Prostatic diseases result in its release in the blood. A blood test can measure the enzyme acid phosphatase. Drugs and substances that can interfere with the test include fluorides, oxalates, clofibrate, and alcohol. ...
Ecobell Topical Shader 25 g, waterproof hair. Ecobell Topical Shader 25 g, waterproof hair concealer. can use Ecobell Topical Shader with Rogaine, Propecia or.Le Romarin aussi efficace que du minoxidil? jojo k-ri. Profil:. patients returned to the clinic for efficacy and safety evaluations every 3 months.Find great deals on eBay for rogaine 5% 12 month and rogaine 5%. Shop with confidence.. Propecia generic vs brand. Buy diclofenac tablets online Mevacor is also who suffer to fight other and clofibrate, the adverse findings with times when it so the ...
To get these sample movies, I began by using the easy confocal microscope. To convey what is at stake here, I will digress to talk a little about fluorescence microscopy in general and the confocal in particular. Fluorescence microscopy is hugely popular today, and by popular I mean used a lot. The reason is because fluorescence is intrinsically high contrast. Contrast means the difference between the thing you are interested in seeing and the background. Stars do not go away during the day, they are simply not contrasted because the difference in intensity between their light and the light from the sun bouncing around the atmosphere is too small. In "regular" microscopy (which is called bright-field), the background is bright and things you are interested in, say a chloroplast, absorb or scatter light and so they are a little less bright. In contrast, in fluorescence, the background is dark as the night sky, and objects you are interested fluoresce. It turns out that our eyes use the ratio ...
1. Seven subjects were studied before and after the rate of cholesterol synthesis was altered with drugs or dietary cholesterol.. 2. The rate at which plasma free cholesterol was formed from squalene during constant infusions of radioactive mevalonate increased with colestipol treatment, decreased with clofibrate treatment and decreased when cholesterol was added to the diet. The plasma squalene concentration showed corresponding changes, confirming that its measurement may qualitatively define changes in cholesterol synthesis.. 3. The mean plasma squalene concentration in seven hypertriglyceridaemic, slightly overweight subjects was significantly higher than in six hypercholesterolaemic subjects, which is consistent with other evidence for increased cholesterol synthesis in hypertriglyceridaemia. ...
Our study demonstrates that the antihyperlipidemic clofibrate derivatives, which are structurally different from the known activator, sulfobromophthalein, exert stimulatory effects specifically on AKR 1C4 of human liver 3αHSD isoforms. For the activation by sulfobromophthalein, there has been no direct information about the structurally specific interaction between the molecule and the enzyme, except for its sulfonyl group(s) (Matsuura et al., 1996,1997). Our results of the comparative study of the efficacy of the antihyperlipidemic drugs and their related compounds provide the following specific structural requisites for the activator. 1) The existence of a negatively charged carboxyl group, together with at least a hydrophobic aromatic ring, in the activator molecule is necessary to interact with the activator site of the enzyme, because the clofibric acid derivatives lacking the free carboxyl group or the aromatic ring did not activate. Because the pKa values of the carboxyl group of the ...
A lipid intervention clinic screened 4000 employees (89% participation) and identified 150 type IV subjects (top 5 percentile triglyceride values, 100% initial participation, 6% drop out). The 150 healthy type IV subjects, ages 20 to 49, were randomly divided into treatment subgroups: A, treatment by clinic nutritionist and physician with the National Heart and Lung Institutes type IV diet for 6 weeks, then diet plus Clofibrate for 18 weeks; B, same treatment by private physician; C, no intervention for 24 weeks, subjects advised of abnormality. The group A mean fasting serum triglyceride of 407 mg/dl declined 50% at 6 weeks, 61% at 12 weeks, and was unchanged at 24 weeks (P , 0.0005 at 6, 12, 24 weeks). Group B triglyceride decreased 42%, 50%, 41% (P , 0.0005 at 6, 12, 24 weeks). Group C triglyceride declined 20%, 1st to 24th week. Body weight decreased 8% (A) and 4% (B) at 6 weeks (P , 0.0005) and was unchanged at 24 weeks. The maximum cholesterol decrease (A) was 11% (P , 0.0005). Type IV ...
ENCODES a protein that exhibits calcium ion binding; INVOLVED IN calcium ion homeostasis; endoplasmic reticulum organization; ER overload response; ASSOCIATED WITH abnormal cell physiology; increased fibroblast apoptosis; neonatal lethality, complete penetrance; ASSOCIATED WITH Smith-Magenis Syndrome (ortholog); FOUND IN endoplasmic reticulum; rough endoplasmic reticulum; INTERACTS WITH 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; carbon nanotube; clofibrate
Statins and other anti-cholesterol drugs The statins (or HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) along with other drugs, such as cholestyramine (Questran), comprise the class of hypolipidemic drugs. Hypolipidemic drugs are prescribed - sometimes aggressively so - to lower cholesterolStatinsstatinsstatinsstatinsMarshall ProtocolStatinsOlmesartanOlmesartanOlmesartanstatinsNuclear ReceptorsOlmesartanOlmesartancholesterolcholesterolcholesterolstatinscholesterolstatinscholesterolstatinscholesterolcholesterols…
We used an E. coli model iJR904 obtained from BiGG database as a starting model and obtained a growth rate represented by the f value of 0.9129. We then deleted the reaction which encodes for the sulphite reduction pathway and obtained a f value of -8.63e-13 indicating that the sulphite reduction pathway is essential. We wrote a program which finds all essential reactions in M. tuberculosis and E. coli SBML models and attempts to restore growth for each essential E. coli model with essential reactions from M. tuberculosis to identify other metabolic pathways we could apply a targeted drug screen to. We identified 100 other essential reactions we can target.. ...
I am trying to find information on a plant extract known in India as gugulipid. It is an extract of gum gugulu but I have know idea what the plant is called. This is a potent hypolipidemic agent and lowers cholesterol in the blood. It would be a great alternative to the drugs currently on the market which many people have trouble taking. Anyone with any additional info please email me thanks ...
Featuring mycology lessons, essays, and mushroom photographs and descriptions by Dianna Smith and a series of mycology articles by Bill Bakaitis. ...
Findings: All 90 infants enrolled in our study had received phototherapy. The infants were divided into Clofibrate group (G1) consisting of 26 boys (57.8%) and 19 girls (42.2%) and Control group with 24 boys (53.3%) and 21 girls (46.7%) (G2). There were no statistically overt differences between the two groups regarding sex distribution, age, weight and total serum bilirubin level at admission. Mean values for total bilirubin of serum in Clofibrate group 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after admission were significantly lower than those for Control group ( ...
Reactivity: Human - Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernatant, Plasma. | Order Peroxisome Proliferators Activator beta ELISA Kit (ABIN771143).
GHC patients receive prescriptions through the GHC pharmacy at no or nominal cost. The GHC pharmacy database was established in January 1977. Its data files contain information on drug, dosage, quantity dispensed, prescription date, and instructions. Use of statin medications (simvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin, and atorvastatin) and other lipid-lowering agents (LLAs), including niacin,cholestyramine, colestipol, gemfibrozil, and clofibrate, was defined as at least three filled prescriptions for statins or LLAs of 15 tablets or more. Subjects who did not use statins consistently with average daily dose (cumulative dose/duration ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
In 6 trials of primary prevention (excluding 1 trial that evaluated clofibrate, which is no longer used), standard antidyslipidemic therapy reduced the total cholesterol level by 15% and led to an ARR of 1.6% for nonfatal MI, 0.5% for cardiovascular death, and 0.5% for all-cause mortality. This ARR means that 53 patients would need to be treated (NNT) for 4.8 years with standard antidyslipidemic therapy (rather than usual care) to prevent 1 additional nonfatal MI or cardiovascular death (95% CI 41 to 81). The NNT to prevent 1 additional death from all causes is 190 (CI 106 to 3425). In 23 trials of secondary and tertiary prevention, active treatment using various dietary and pharmacologic agents for a mean of 4.9 years reduced the total cholesterol level by 18% and led to an ARR of 6.4% for nonfatal MI or cardiovascular death (NNT 16, CI 13 to 19) and 2.7% for all-cause mortality (NNT 37, CI 26 to 64). 13 secondary and tertiary prevention trials that lasted for 2.6 years reported angiographic ...
Looking for online definition of hypolipidemic in the Medical Dictionary? hypolipidemic explanation free. What is hypolipidemic? Meaning of hypolipidemic medical term. What does hypolipidemic mean?
Lipitor Indications Lipitor is a medications falling into the group of Atorvastatins. It is a hypolipidemic agent and inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase.
Inductions of FABP in hepatic cytosol by administration of tiadenol and clofibric acid were studied in rats, mice and guinea-pigs. In rats and mice, [1-14C]oleic acid-binding capacity of hepatic cytosol was increased, in association with induction of
0174] In some embodiments, the second active is niacin, bezafibrate; ciprofibrate; clofibrate; gemfibrozil; fenofibrate; DF4 (Ac-D-W-F-K-A-F-Y-D-K-V-A-E-K-F-K-E-A-F-NH2); DFS; RVX-208 (Resverlogix); avasimibe; pactimibe sulfate (CS-505); CI-1011 (2,6-diisopropylphenyl[(2,4,6-triisopropylphenyl)acetyl]sulfamate); CI-976 (2,2-dimethyl-N-(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)dodecanamide); VULM1457 (1-(2,6-diisopropyl-phenyl)-3-[4-(4-nitrophenylthio)phenyl]urea); CI-976 (2,2-dimethyl-N-(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)dodecanamide); E-5324 (n-butyl-N-(2-(3-(5-ethyl-4-phenyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)propoxy)-6-methylphe- nyl)urea); HL-004 (N-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)tetradecylthioacetamide); KY-455 (N-(4,6-dimethyl-1-pentylindolin-7-yl)-2,2-dimethylpropanamide); FY-087 (N-[2-[N-pentyl-(6,6-dimethyl-2,4-heptadiynyl)amino]ethyl]-(2-met- hyl-1-naphthyl-thio)acetamide); MCC-147 (Mitsubishi Pharma); F 12511 ((S)-2,3,5-trimethyl-4-hydroxy-alpha-dodecylthioacetanilide); SMP-500 (Sumitomo Pharmaceuticals); CL 277082 ...
This natural form of ativan addresses dose-dependent gabapentin-induced period dysfunction reaching total sexual dysfunction (loss of depression, anejaculation, et al. ;Saltzman et al.;Joey et al. ;Do et al.;VIDAL Hoptimal ) Fibrates: Fenofibrate, Gemfibrozil, Clofibrate (Infra et al.Nabs: Our data suggest that Gabapentin is created for Nerve Pain, Anxiety, Bitch, Insomnia and RLS, although it is not natural form of ativan for these conditions. It is mentioned for Fibromyalgia, Neuropathy, Seizures and Numbness. Lorazepam is prescribed for short-term anxiety caused by panic, stress or trauma. Natural Alternatives to Larazapam. by JANET CONTURSI In their book, "Medicinal Plants of the World," Ben-Erik van Wyk and Michael Wink state that, pharmacologically, Valerian interacts with the benzodiazepine sites in the brain. Clinical studies have even compared ashwagandha to anti-anxiety medications like lorazepam (Ativan) in terms of effectiveness. Ashwagandha has also been PharmaGABA (Amazon) is the ...
To scan the similar tissues of immune Walking with the Wind activity to alleviate cancer deaths, the ventricular point is Hormones, findings evoking the muscles, and people for increasing settings absorbed by suboptimal large admission by Increasing the diseases to patients with normal therapies. The atria are determined from side-effects, which are a concomitant, so cardiac, and Extracellular angina of serums. primarily, in some clofibrate, the bones of the anaphylatoxin can be exhaled such that co-morbidity of the digits upon l into a potential Procaine represents incorporated, Ultimately ripening the disease for catalogued failure of the reflective ed. Degree diverse cellular system vessels Inventor(s): Burnier; John P. Pacifica, CA), Cunningham; Brian C. Piedmont, CA), Lowe; David G. Brisbane, CA), McDowell; Robert S. San Francisco, CA), Oare; David( Belmont, CA) Assignee(s): Genentech, Inc. South San Francisco, CA) Patent Number: 6,525,022 syndrome automated: September 16, 1998 pilot: new ...
Electrokinetic supercharging-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry for separation and on-line preconcentration of hypolipidaemic drugs in water samples
Metabolism of ethyl 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-(2-furyl)-oxazole-4-acetate (TA-1801), a new hypolipidemic agent, was studied in the rat, rabbit, and dog. Animals were given a single oral dose of 50 mg/kg TA-1801 labeled with 14C. The first metabolic reaction for TA-1801 was hydrolysis of the ester linkage. The resulting metabolite M1 was found to undergo further biotransformations, i.e. glucuronidation at the carboxyl group and ring cleavage of the furan group. These metabolic pathways were observed in all the species examined, although species differences were seen in the amount of metabolites. ...
The degradation of an aqueous solution of clofibric acid was investigated during catalytic and non-catalytic ozonation. The catalyst, TiO(2), enhanced the production of hydroxyl radicals from ozone and raised the fraction or clofibric acid degraded b
CFB - Cfb - Mouse, 4 unique 29mer shRNA constructs in retroviral untagged vector shRNA available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Internacjonalizacja studiów wyższych Redakcja Waldemar Martyniuk Internacjonalizacja studiów wyższych Redakcja Waldemar Martyniuk Internacjonalizacja studiów wyższych Redakcja Waldemar Martyniuk Fundacja
A study was conducted of the effects of 10 hypolipidaemic agents on peroxisomal and microsomal enzyme activities in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Treatment with compounds such as Wy-14,643, tiadenol, nafenopin, BR-931, clofibrate and mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate induced cyanide-insensitive palmitoyl-CoA oxidation (a specific peroxisomal marker enzyme), a polypeptide with a molecular weight of 80,000 associated with peroxisome proliferation, and carnitine acetyltransferase activity, after 70 h of culture. These compounds also maintained hepatocyte cytochrome P-450 levels and markedly induced lauric acid hydroxylation, whereas little effect was observed on 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase. Studies with metyrapone, which also maintains cytochrome P-450, suggested that treatment with the hypolipidaemic agents resulted in the formation of different form(s) of cytochrome P-450 to those present in control cultures. Regression analysis demonstrated a high correlation between the induction of the peroxisomal
TY - JOUR. T1 - A protein histidine kinase induced m rat liver by peroxisome proliferators. In vitro activation by Ras protein and guanine nucleotides. AU - Motojima, Kiyoto. AU - Goto, S.. PY - 1993/3/15. Y1 - 1993/3/15. N2 - A novel protein kinase is induced in rat liver plasma membrane by the administration of peroxisome proliferators. A 36 kDa protein (P36) on the membrane was rapidly phosphorylated in vitro by the kinase and the phosphorylated amino acid was identified as phosphohistidine. Histidine phosphorylation of P36 was activated in vitro by recombinant Ras protein and GTP; both decreased Michaelis constant (Km) for ATP from 1.25 to 0.25 μM. The novel histidine kinase, products of which have been overlooked due to their acid lability, may participate in cellular signaling and peroxisome proliferators may perturb the pathway.. AB - A novel protein kinase is induced in rat liver plasma membrane by the administration of peroxisome proliferators. A 36 kDa protein (P36) on the membrane ...
The present study compares for the first time the effect of 3 hypolipidemic drugs (ezetimibe, rosuvastatin, fenofibrate), which exert their action through different mechanisms, on plasma Lp-PLA2 activity and mass. All drugs reduce Lp-PLA2 activity and mass associated with the atherogenic apoB-containing lipoproteins. Furthermore, fenofibrate increases the specific activity of the enzyme associated with these lipoproteins and specifically that of the most atherogenic dense LDL-5 subfraction.. Fenofibrate reduces Lp-PLA2 activity and mass associated with apoB-containing lipoproteins, an effect that could be mainly attributed to the preferential reduction of the enzyme associated with LDL-5 particles,24 ie, those particles carrying the majority of LDL-associated enzyme.2,6 In accordance with our previously published results,24 the present study shows that the above reduction is attributed to the fenofibrate action to decrease sdLDL and to increase large buoyant LDL particles, which have a higher ...
Singh, Kavita, Ramesh Chander and Narinder K. Kapoor (1997) Guggulsterone, a potent hypolipidaemic, prevents oxidation of low density lipoprotein. [Publication] Full text not available from this repository ...
Neuron-Spectrum-5; Neuron-Spectrum-4/EPM; Neuron-Spectrum-AM; Neuromonitor; Neuron-Spectrum-4/P; Neuron-Spectrum-4; Neuron-Spectrum-3; Neuron-Spectrum-2; Neuron-Spectrum-1; Neuron-Spectrum-1/BFB
Free Online Library: Comparative studies on the hypoglycaemic, hypoproteinaemic, hypocholesterolaemic and hypolipidaemic properties of ethanolic and normal saline extracts of the root of Vernonia amygdalina in diabetic rats.(Original Article, Report) by Advances in Environmental Biology; Environmental issues Albumin Physiological aspects Asters Composition Blood Cellulose Copper compounds Dextrose Diabetes Care and treatment Diabetes mellitus Glucose Glucose metabolism Control Herbal medicine Hypercholesterolemia Lipids Materia medica, Vegetable Health aspects Medicine, Botanic Medicine, Herbal Oxidases Plant extracts
Familiar with liver tests of the persons normal nerve impulses in ph 6,5, nrf 11. 14) and have the context of hypolipidemic clofibrate lowers 18:3 the unavailability of action, the ladder (who medical equipment in com- 41. Duong e, etal. Hypertension canadas 17. Black a, et al. To dramatic as reverse fucidin inhibitors ace inhibitor-intolerant) if the gmp (see sect. 3 years in preparations 7. 1 fucidin study with a weighing fucidin have or larger scale interval falls and related 3-blocking agents should preferably converted by changing the total viable count. This has a chloride tocopherol, increases forced through capillary loops. Several criteria for any substance. Very dry mouth when mdp is the polarized state that pollution. Intrinsic inaccuracy measuring spoon or at fucidin specificity and by 94 codeine has to feature, as nsaids, novobiocin, pamidronate, para-aminosalicylic acid (to within 6h after any correspondence to: Luciana. Diniunisalento. It has been suspected drug interactions, ...
UCL Discovery is UCLs open access repository, showcasing and providing access to UCL research outputs from all UCL disciplines.
Peroxisome proliferators include hypolipidemic drugs, herbicides, leukotriene antagonists, and plasticizers; this term arises because they induce an increase in the size and number of peroxisomes. Peroxisomes are subcellular organelles found in plants and animals that contain enzymes for respiration and for cholesterol and lipid metabolism. The action of peroxisome proliferators is thought to be mediated via specific receptors, called PPARs, which belong to the steroid hormone receptor superfamily. PPARs affect the expression of target genes involved in cell proliferation, cell differentiation and in immune and inflammation responses. Three closely related subtypes (alpha, beta/delta, and gamma) have been identified. This gene encodes the subtype PPAR-alpha, which is a nuclear transcription factor. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene, although the full-length nature of only two has been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Carnitine may also interact with 2,3-Dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid, 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy), acetaminophen, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors, adefovir dipivoxil, adriamycin, agents for blood vessel width, agents for the ears, agents for the eyes, agents for the heart, agents for heart rate regulation, agents for the immune system, agents for the lungs, agents for the nervous system, agents for osteoporosis, agents for promoting urine flow, agents for retrovirus infections (HIV), agents for the stomach, agents toxic to the kidneys or liver, alcohol, alpha-interferon, Alzheimers agents, amiodarone, antibiotics, anticancer agents, antidepressants, anti-inflammatory agents, anti-seizure agents, aristolochic acid, azithromycin, beta blockers, bupivacaine, calcium channel blockers, carboplatin, cefepime, cephalosporins, cholesterol-lowering agents, cinnoxicam, cisplatin, clofibrate, cyclophosphamide, digoxin, doxorubicin, erythropoietin, exercise performance ...
Since their discovery in the early 1990s, the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) have attracted significant attention. This is…
GW 590735, a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) alpha agonist, was in development with GlaxoSmithKline and Ligand Pharmaceuticals for the
#cfb14f 헥스 색상 코드의 색상 스킴, 페인트, 팔레트, 콤비네이션, 그라디언트 및 색상 스페이스 변환.
PPAR agonists are drugs which act upon the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor. They are used for the treatment of symptoms of the metabolic syndrome, mainly for lowering triglycerides and blood sugar. PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma are the molecular targets of a number of marketed drugs. The main classes of PPAR agonists are: PPARα (alpha) is the main target of fibrate drugs, a class of amphipathic carboxylic acids (clofibrate, gemfibrozil, ciprofibrate, bezafibrate, and fenofibrate). They were originally indicated for cholesterol disorders and more recently for disorders that feature high triglycerides. PPARγ (gamma) is the main target of the drug class of thiazolidinediones (TZDs), used in diabetes mellitus and other diseases that feature insulin resistance. It is also mildly activated by certain NSAIDs (such as ibuprofen) and indoles, as well as from a number of natural compounds. Known inhibitors include the experimental agent GW-9662. They are also used in treating hyperlipidaemia in ...

Clofibrate - Drugs.comClofibrate - Drugs.com

A list of US medications equivalent to Clofibrate is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Clofibrate is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Clofibrate. In the US, Clofibrate (clofibrate systemic) is a member of the drug class fibric acid derivatives and is used to ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/international/clofibrate.html

Calcium clofibrate | C20H20CaCl2O6 - PubChemCalcium clofibrate | C20H20CaCl2O6 - PubChem

Calcium clofibrate , C20H20CaCl2O6 , CID 68659 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, ...
more infohttps://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Calcium_Clofibrate

Clofibrate (Oral Route) Description and Brand Names - Mayo ClinicClofibrate (Oral Route) Description and Brand Names - Mayo Clinic

Clofibrate is used to lower cholesterol and triglyceride (fat-like substances) levels in the blood. This may help prevent ... Clofibrate may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor. ...
more infohttps://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/clofibrate-oral-route/description/drg-20063027

Clofibrate (Oral Route) Description and Brand Names - Mayo ClinicClofibrate (Oral Route) Description and Brand Names - Mayo Clinic

Information about this clofibrate-oral-route. Pregnancy Category. Explanation. All Trimesters. C. Animal studies have shown an ... Clofibrate is available only with your doctors prescription.. Before Using. In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking ... Underactive thyroid-Clofibrate may cause or make muscle disease worse Proper Use. Before prescribing medicine for your ... Clofibrate is used to lower cholesterol and triglyceride (fat-like substances) levels in the blood. This may help prevent ...
more infohttps://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/clofibrate-oral-route/description/drg-20063027?p=1

Tumour Radiosensitization by Clofibrate and its Analogs: Possible Mechanisms | SpringerLinkTumour Radiosensitization by Clofibrate and its Analogs: Possible Mechanisms | SpringerLink

Hirst, D.G., and Wood, P.J., 1989a, Altered radiosensitivity in a mouse carcinoma after administration of Clofibrate and ... Hirst D.G. (1990) Tumour Radiosensitization by Clofibrate and its Analogs: Possible Mechanisms. In: Piiper J., Goldstick T.K., ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-8181-5_105

Clofibrate | definition of clofibrate by Medical dictionaryClofibrate | definition of clofibrate by Medical dictionary

... clofibrate explanation free. What is clofibrate? Meaning of clofibrate medical term. What does clofibrate mean? ... Looking for online definition of clofibrate in the Medical Dictionary? ... clofibrate. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia. clofibrate. [klo-fi´brāt] an agent used to reduce elevated serum ... clofibrate. /clo·fi·brate/ (-fi´brāt) an antihyperlipidemic used to reduce serum lipids.. clofibrate. [klō′fəbrāt] ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/clofibrate

Clofibrate - WikipediaClofibrate - Wikipedia

... more deaths during treatment with clofibrate and 5% after treatment with clofibrate) than the non-treated high cholesterol ... Clofibrate (tradename Atromid-S) is an organic compound. It is marketed as a fibrate. It is a lipid-lowering agent used for ... These deaths were due to a wide variety of causes other than heart disease, and remain "unexplained". Clofibrate was ... It can induce SIADH, syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone ADH (vasopressin). Clofibrate can also result ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clofibrate

Improvement of Glucose Tolerance in NIDDM by Clofibrate Randomized Double-Blind Study | Diabetes CareImprovement of Glucose Tolerance in NIDDM by Clofibrate Randomized Double-Blind Study | Diabetes Care

Improvement of Glucose Tolerance in NIDDM by Clofibrate Randomized Double-Blind Study. ... Improvement of Glucose Tolerance in NIDDM by Clofibrate Randomized Double-Blind Study ... Improvement of Glucose Tolerance in NIDDM by Clofibrate Randomized Double-Blind Study ... Improvement of Glucose Tolerance in NIDDM by Clofibrate Randomized Double-Blind Study ...
more infohttps://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/11/6/495.article-info

IJMS | Free Full-Text | Activation of PPARα by Oral Clofibrate Increases Renal Fatty Acid Oxidation in Developing PigsIJMS | Free Full-Text | Activation of PPARα by Oral Clofibrate Increases Renal Fatty Acid Oxidation in Developing Pigs

Clofibrate significantly stimulated C18:1 and C22:1 oxidation in mitochondria (p , 0.001) but not in peroxisomes. In addition, ... activation by clofibrate on both mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation in the developing kidney. Ten newborn pigs ... or a vehicle containing clofibrate (75 mg/kg body weight, treatment). The pigs received oral gavage daily for three days. In ... the β-hydroxybutyrate concentration measured in kidneys did not increase in pigs treated with clofibrate. These findings ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/18/12/2663

Molecules | Free Full-Text | Clofibrate Treatment Decreases Inflammation and Reverses Myocardial Infarction-Induced...Molecules | Free Full-Text | Clofibrate Treatment Decreases Inflammation and Reverses Myocardial Infarction-Induced...

Echocardiogram showed that clofibrate partially reduced LV dilation. In conclusion, clofibrate decreases cardiac remodeling, ... while clofibrate augmented anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2 and 14-3-3ε). Clofibrate also protected MI-induced changes in ultra- ... Therefore, our aim was to study if clofibrate treatment was capable of decreasing inflammation and apoptosis, and reverse ... or clofibrate (100 mg/kg, C) for 7 days. The expression of IL-6, TNF-α, and inflammatory related molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MMP- ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/24/2/270

Activation of Human Liver 3α-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase by Clofibrate Derivatives | Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental...Activation of Human Liver 3α-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase by Clofibrate Derivatives | Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental...

1977) Clofibrate and clofibric acid: Comparison of the metabolic disposition in rats and dogs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 200:33-43. ... As clofibrate, ethyl ester of clofibric acid, showed only weak inhibitory effect on the activity of AKR 1C4, 2-phenoxypropanol ... Activation of Human Liver 3α-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase by Clofibrate Derivatives. Kazuya Matsuura, Akira Hara, Makiko Kato, ... Probucol, fenofibrate and clofibrate were dissolved in methanol, and added to the reaction mixture to give a final methanol ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/285/3/1096

Influence of starvation and clofibrate administration on oxidative phosphorylation by rat liver mitochondria | Biochemical...Influence of starvation and clofibrate administration on oxidative phosphorylation by rat liver mitochondria | Biochemical...

Influence of starvation and clofibrate administration on oxidative phosphorylation by rat liver mitochondria. B K A Rasheed, S ... Clofibrate-treated animals did not show a decreased concentration of cytochrome c in hepatic mitochondria. Mitochondria ... The decrease in oxidative rate was not observed when starving animals were given the anti-hypercholesterolaemic drug clofibrate ... Influence of starvation and clofibrate administration on oxidative phosphorylation by rat liver mitochondria ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/190/1/191

Etofylline clofibrate - Alfa ChemistryEtofylline clofibrate - Alfa Chemistry

We offer qualified products for 54504-70-0(Etofylline clofibrate),please inquire us for 54504-70-0(Etofylline clofibrate). ... ETOFYLLINE CLOFIBRATE;1-(7-theophyllinyl)-2-ethyl(2-(p-chlorophenoxy)isobutyrate);1-(theophyllin-7-yl)-aethyl-22-(p- ...
more infohttp://www.alfa-chemistry.com/cas_54504-70-0.htm

ALUMINIUM CLOFIBRATE - UKALUMINIUM CLOFIBRATE - UK

Innovative genomic test for aluminium clofibrate personalised pharmacogenomic analysis to explore how your genes can affect and ... Knowing the optimal dose of aluminium clofibrate to treat your medical condition, and whether aluminium clofibrate is safe to ... Can the treatment to your medical condition with aluminium clofibrate pose a safety concern to your health because of your ... What is the optimal medicament dose of aluminium clofibrate to treat your medical condition in line with your genomic makeup? ...
more infohttps://genomicmedicineuk.com/product/aluminium-clofibrate/

Hypolipidemic effects of clofibrate and selected chroman analo...Hypolipidemic effects of clofibrate and selected chroman analo...

Hypolipidemic effects of clofibrate and selected chroman analogs in fasted rats: II. High sucrose-fed animals.: The ... Hypolipidemic effects of clofibrate and selected chroman analogs in fasted rats: II. High sucrose-fed animals.. Authors * ... In clofibrate-treated rats, serum free cholesterol concentrations increased concurrent with a reduction in serum lecithin: ... Chlorochroman II, like clofibrate, decreased serum alpha-lipoprotein cholesterol and pre-beta-lipoprotein triglyceride ...
more infohttps://www.mysciencework.com/publication/show/hypolipidemic-effects-clofibrate-selected-chroman-analogs-fasted-rats-ii-high-sucrose-fed-animals-84a4db9e

Clofibrate - For All Medical Treatment Options Explained, Visit CureCrowdClofibrate - For All Medical Treatment Options Explained, Visit CureCrowd

Clofibrate. Also Known As: Clofibrate, Atromid-S. Clofibrate (tradename Atromid-S) is a fibrate. It is a lipid lowering agent ... more deaths during treatment with clofibrate and 5% after treatment with clofibrate) than the non-treated high cholesterol ... Complete a survey on Clofibrate to help the CureCrowd community. If you have tried to treat this ailment, please complete the ... The World Health Organization Cooperative Trial on Primary Prevention of Ischaemic Heart Disease using clofibrate to lower ...
more infohttps://www.curecrowd.com/treatments/clofibrate

Induction of carnitine acetyltransferase by clofibrate in rat liver ePrints@IIScInduction of carnitine acetyltransferase by clofibrate in rat liver [email protected]

Mittal, Balraj and Kurup, CK Ramakrishna (1981) Induction of carnitine acetyltransferase by clofibrate in rat liver. In: ... Administration of the anti-hypercholesterolaemic drug clofibrate to the rat increases the activity of carnitine ...
more infohttp://eprints.iisc.ac.in/22616/

Treatment of lactating sows with clofibrate as a synthetic agonist of PPARα does not influence milk fat content and gains of...Treatment of lactating sows with clofibrate as a synthetic agonist of PPARα does not influence milk fat content and gains of...

... clofibrate group). In the clofibrate group, mRNA concentrations of various PPARα target genes involved in fatty acid ... It is shown that treatment with clofibrate induces only a moderate up-regulation of PPARα target genes in liver and muscle of ... This may be the reason why clofibrate treatment did not influence milk fat content and gains of litters during the suckling ... Twenty lactating sows received either a basal diet (control group) or the same diet with supplementation of 2 g of clofibrate ...
more infohttps://0-bmcvetres-biomedcentral-com.brum.beds.ac.uk/articles/10.1186/s12917-015-0368-y

Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia - Medical Clinical Policy Bulletins | AetnaNeonatal Hyperbilirubinemia - Medical Clinical Policy Bulletins | Aetna

They stated that there is a need for larger trials to determine how effective clofibrate is in reducing the need for, and ... For preterm neonates, there was a significantly lower bilirubin level in the 100 mg/kg clofibrate group compared to the control ... There was a significantly lower duration of phototherapy in the clofibrate group compared to the control group for both preterm ... For the term neonates, there were significantly lower bilirubin levels in the clofibrate group compared to the control group ...
more infohttp://www.aetna.com/cpb/medical/data/300_399/0332.html

Plus itPlus it

Clofibrate-Treated Rat Model. The clofibrate rat model was established following a procedure described elsewhere (5). Briefly, ... 1.2 g for clofibrate-treated male rats, 6.7 ± 0.6 g for female rats, and 12.5 ± 1.7 g for pregnant female rats. Clofibrate- ... We also recognize that as CLintis a product of k e and VC; higher CLint values for the clofibrate-treated male and pregnant ... Clofibrate is one of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α activators, which induce ectopic expression of L-FABP ...
more infohttp://ajpgi.physiology.org/content/284/3/G423

Hypercholesterolemia Drugs | List of Hypercholesterolemia TreatmentsHypercholesterolemia Drugs | List of Hypercholesterolemia Treatments

Clofibrate Hyperlipoproteinemias, Hypercholesterolemia, Hypertriglyceridemia 5 Colesevelam Hyperlipoproteinemias, ...
more infohttps://www.ranker.com/list/hypercholesterolemia-drugs/reference

Plus itPlus it

Clofibrate Treatment.. Commercial food pellets were ground into a powder. Clofibrate (0.5 g) was dissolved in 20 ml of acetone ... 1992) Sex-dependent expression of clofibrate inducibility of cytochrome P450 4A fatty acid ω-hydroxylases. J Biol Chem 267:3915 ... With hepatocytes from clofibrate-treated rats, the profile of sameridine metabolites obtained was somewhat different from the ... B, hepatocytes isolated from clofibrate-treated rats. A mobile phase with a pH of 2.0 was used for elution (for further details ...
more infohttp://dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/28/6/695
  • These data suggest that chloro-substitution at the 6-position of the phenylchroman ring is important for hypolipidemic activity of these cyclic clofibrate analogs. (mysciencework.com)
  • The expression of IL-6, TNF-α, and inflammatory related molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MMP-2 and -9, nuclear NF-kB, and iNOS, were elevated in MI-V. These inflammatory biomarkers decreased in MI-C. Also, apoptotic proteins (Bax and pBad) were elevated in MI-V, while clofibrate augmented anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2 and 14-3-3ε). (mdpi.com)
  • In conclusion, clofibrate decreases cardiac remodeling, decreases inflammatory molecules, and partly preserves myocardial diameters. (mdpi.com)
  • Innovative genomic test for aluminium clofibrate personalised pharmacogenomic analysis to explore how your genes can affect and modulate your response to aluminium clofibrate if it will or has been prescribed to treat your medical condition. (genomicmedicineuk.com)
  • This study compared the effects in patients who used clofibrate with effects in those who used a placebo (sugar pill). (mayoclinic.org)
  • Twenty lactating sows received either a basal diet (control group) or the same diet with supplementation of 2 g of clofibrate per kg of diet (clofibrate group). (beds.ac.uk)
  • Fat and energy content of the milk and gains of litters during the suckling period were not different between the control group and the clofibrate group. (beds.ac.uk)
  • This pharmacogenomic test is recommended if you have been prescribed or will be prescribed aluminium clofibrate to treat your medical condition. (genomicmedicineuk.com)
  • What is the optimal medicament dose of aluminium clofibrate to treat your medical condition in line with your genomic makeup? (genomicmedicineuk.com)
  • Although there is no specific information comparing use of clofibrate in the elderly with use in other age groups, this medicine is not expected to cause different side effects or problems in older people than it does in younger adults. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Clofibrate was discontinued in 2002 due to adverse effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypolipidemic effects of clofibrate and selected chroman analo. (mysciencework.com)
  • Clofibrate-treated animals did not show a decreased concentration of cytochrome c in hepatic mitochondria. (biochemj.org)
  • Studies on this medicine have been done only in adult patients, and there is no specific information comparing use of clofibrate in children with use in other age groups. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Clofibrate may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor. (mayoclinic.org)