A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits bone resorption and soft tissue calcification.
Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
Hydrazine substituted by one methyl group.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Nucleotide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.
A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of polysaccharide chains with the release of beta-glucose. It is also able to hydrolyze 1,6-alpha-glucosidic bonds when the next bond in sequence is 1,4.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A commonly occurring abnormal hemoglobin in which lysine replaces a glutamic acid residue at the sixth position of the beta chains. It results in reduced plasticity of erythrocytes.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
Any woven or knit material of open texture used in surgery for the repair, reconstruction, or substitution of tissue. The mesh is usually a synthetic fabric made of various polymers. It is occasionally made of metal.
An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.
Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.
Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.
The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.
A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in FIBROBLASTS.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) with antipyretic and analgesic actions. It is primarily available as the sodium salt.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.
A chronic inflammatory condition affecting the axial joints, such as the SACROILIAC JOINT and other intervertebral or costovertebral joints. It occurs predominantly in young males and is characterized by pain and stiffness of joints (ANKYLOSIS) with inflammation at tendon insertions.
Tests or bioassays that measure the skin sensitization potential of various chemicals.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
Drugs considered essential to meet the health needs of a population as well as to control drug costs.
A polyanionic compound with an unknown mechanism of action. It is used parenterally in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis and it has been used clinically with diethylcarbamazine to kill the adult Onchocerca. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1643) It has also been shown to have potent antineoplastic properties.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
A GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID derivative that is a specific agonist of GABA-B RECEPTORS. It is used in the treatment of MUSCLE SPASTICITY, especially that due to SPINAL CORD INJURIES. Its therapeutic effects result from actions at spinal and supraspinal sites, generally the reduction of excitatory transmission.
A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.
An enzyme involved in the MEVALONATE pathway, it catalyses the synthesis of farnesyl diphosphate from isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate.
The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.

A high incidence of vertebral fracture in women with breast cancer. (1/352)

Because treatment for breast cancer may adversely affect skeletal metabolism, we investigated vertebral fracture risk in women with non-metastatic breast cancer. The prevalence of vertebral fracture was similar in women at the time of first diagnosis to that in an age-matched sample of the general population. The incidence of vertebral fracture, however, was nearly five times greater than normal in women from the time of first diagnosis [odds ratio (OR), 4.7; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 2.3-9.9], and 20-fold higher in women with soft-tissue metastases without evidence of skeletal metastases (OR, 22.7; 95% CI, 9.1-57.1). We conclude that vertebral fracture risk is markedly increased in women with breast cancer.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics of clodronate in haemodialysis patients. (2/352)

BACKGROUND: Clodronate is a bisphosphonate used in the treatment of hypercalcaemia of various aetiologies. The major route of elimination of clodronate is renal excretion. The aim of the study was to derive data for the adjustment of dosage in haemodialysis patients. METHODS: The pharmacokinetic parameters describing the fate of an intravenous infusion of 300 mg clodronate disodium were studied in 10 haemodialysis patients. Clodronate disodium in serum, urine and dialysate samples was analysed by capillary gas chromatography with mass-selective detection. RESULTS: Of the 300 mg clodronate infused, 159 mg (53%) was excreted into dialysate within 4 h. Clearance by haemodialysis (CLD) was 87.8+/-16.2 ml/min, accounting for 84% of total serum clearance (CLtot). Non-renal, non-dialysis clearance (CL(NRD)) represents the removal of the drug via other routes than dialysis or kidneys. The greatest CL(NRD) was observed in patients with most severe hyperparathyroidism. There was a positive correlation between CL(NRD) and plasma intact PTH concentration. CONCLUSIONS: According to the present findings, standard haemodialysis removes clodronate effectively from the circulation, and total clearance in haemodialysis patients on a dialysis day is not very different from that in healthy subjects. The regimen of dosing intravenous clodronate in hypercalcaemia can also be used in haemodialysis patients. The portion of clodronate eliminated by routes other than via dialysate or kidneys, i.e. predominantly via skeletal deposition, was related to the severity of hyperparathyroidism.  (+info)

Depletion of liver and splenic macrophages reduces the lethality of Shiga toxin-2 in a mouse model. (3/352)

The haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) is a clinical syndrome consisting of haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal insufficiency. HUS is the most frequent cause of acute renal failure in childhood. It has been previously suggested that the presence of Shiga toxin (Stx) is necessary but not sufficient for HUS development, and cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and IL-1beta appear to be necessary to develop the syndrome. Since the mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS) is the major source of these cytokines, macrophages might be one of the relevant targets for Stx action in the pathophysiology of HUS. In this study our objective was to examine the role of the hepatic and splenic macrophages in a mouse model of HUS induced by injection of Shiga toxin type-2 (Stx2) or Stx2 plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS). For this purpose, depletion of mice macrophages by liposome-encapsulated clodronate (lip-clod), followed by injection of STx2 or Stx2 plus LPS, was assayed. In this study we show that depletion of hepatic and splenic macrophages by clodronate treatment induces a survival of 50% in animals treated with Stx2 alone or in presence of LPS. This maximal effect was observed when lip-clod was injected 48-72 h before Stx2 injection. Biochemical and histological parameters show characteristics of the lesion produced by Stx2, discarding non-specific damage due to LPS or lip-clod. In addition, we determined that the toxic action of Stx2 is similar in BALB/c and N:NIH nude mice, indicating the T cell compartment is not involved in the Stx2 toxicity. Briefly, we demonstrate that macrophages play a central role in the pathophysiology of HUS, and that the systemic production of cytokines by liver and/or spleen is for Stx2 to manifest its full cytotoxic effect. In addition, the toxicity of Stx2 alone, or in presence of LPS, is independent of the T cell compartment.  (+info)

Depletion of blood-borne macrophages does not reduce demyelination in mice infected with a neurotropic coronavirus. (4/352)

Mice infected with the neurotropic coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus strain JHM (MHV-JHM) develop a chronic demyelinating disease with symptoms of hindlimb paralysis. Histological examination of the brains and spinal cords of these animals reveals the presence of large numbers of activated macrophages/microglia. In two other experimental models of demyelination, experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelination, depletion of hematogenous macrophages abrogates the demyelinating process. In both of these diseases, early events in the demyelinating process are inhibited by macrophage depletion. From these studies, it was not possible to determine whether infiltrating macrophages were required for late steps in the process, such as myelin removal. In this study, we show that when macrophages are depleted with either unmodified or mannosylated liposomes encapsulating dichloromethylene diphosphate, the amount of demyelination detected in MHV-infected mice is not affected. At a time when these cells were completely depleted from the liver, approximately equivalent numbers of macrophages were present in the spinal cords of control and drug-treated animals. These results suggest that blood-borne macrophages are not required for MHV-induced demyelination and also suggest that other cells, such as perivascular macrophages or microglia, perform the function of these cells in the presence of drug.  (+info)

Effect of liposome-encapsulated clodronate pretreatment on synthetic vector-mediated gene expression in mice. (5/352)

One of the main limitations for the use of synthetic vectors in gene therapy is their relatively low in vivo efficiency when compared with viral vectors. Here, we describe a pretreatment protocol with liposome-encapsulated clodronate in mice by which gene expression levels of a luciferase reporter gene could be increased up to nine-fold in the lung, after intravenous (i.v.) injection of glycerolipoplexes. Optimal results were obtained if mice were pretreated with liposome-encapsulated clodronate 1 day before injection of lipoplexes. The enhancement effect could be observed for lipoplexes prepared with different multivalent cationic glycerolipids. Most remarkably, polyplexes behaved in the opposite way. Liposome-encapsulated clodronate pretreatment strongly reduced reporter gene expression after i.v. injection of polyethylenimine-polyplexes (ExGen500).  (+info)

Chromatin clearance in C57Bl/10 mice: interaction with heparan sulphate proteoglycans and receptors on Kupffer cells. (6/352)

Chromatin is an important autoantigen in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) as an immunogen and as a part of nephritogenic immune complexes. Earlier studies focused on clearance of DNA. However, DNA released into the circulation from dying cells is found associated with histones in nucleosomes. The liver is the major organ involved in clearance of chromatin from the circulation of mice. Heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPG) have been implicated in the clearance of various charged molecules. Receptor-mediated clearance of ssDNA by the liver has also been reported. Because chromatin contains positively charged histones in addition to DNA, we wished to determine if HSPG and/or DNA receptors are involved in chromatin clearance. The rate of clearance of H1-stripped chromatin from the bloodstream of C57Bl/10 mice was markedly decreased by prior treatment of mice with Heparinase I. Clearance was also inhibited by heparin, heparan sulphate, and DNA, but not by colominic acid. DNA was the most effective inhibitor of clearance and released chromatin from sites of clearance. Depletion of Kupffer cells and splenic macrophages using liposome-encapsulated Clodronate (dichloromethylene bisphosphonate) markedly inhibited chromatin clearance. These data suggest that chromatin clearance is mediated by charge interactions with cell surface HSPG and by DNA receptors. Clearance and degradation of chromatin require functional macrophages in the liver and spleen.  (+info)

Enhancement by galactosamine of lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced tumour necrosis factor production and lethality: its suppression by LPS pretreatment. (7/352)

1. D-Galactosamine (GalN) depletes UTP primarily in the liver, resulting in decreased RNA synthesis in hepatocytes. Co-injection of GalN and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into mice produces fulminant hepatitis with severe hepatic congestion, resulting in rapid death. Although the underlying mechanism is uncertain, GalN enhances the sensitivity to tumour necrosis factor (TNF). Administration of uridine (a precursor of UTP) prior injection of either LPS itself or interleukin-1 (IL-1) reduces the lethality of GalN+LPS. The present study focused on the effects of these agents on TNF production. 2. Intraperitoneal injection of GalN+LPS into mice greatly elevated serum TNF. Although large doses of LPS alone also greatly elevated serum TNF, LPS itself induced neither hepatic congestion nor rapid death. Administration of a macrophage depletor, liposomes encapsulated with dichloromethylene bisphosphonate, reduced both the TNF production and mortality induced by GalN+LPS. 3. Uridine, when injected 0.5 h after the injection of GalN+LPS, reduced the production of TNF. Prior injection of LPS, but not of IL-1, also reduced this TNF production. 4. Serum from LPS-injected mice reduced the TNF production induced by GalN+LPS, but it was less effective at reducing the lethality. Its ability to reduce TNF production was abolished by heat-treatment. 5. We hypothesize that a factor inhibiting TNF production by macrophages is produced by hepatocytes in response to LPS. Possibly, production of this hepatocyte-derived TNF-down-regulator (TNF-DRh) may be: (i) inhibited by GalN, causing over-production of TNF by macrophages and (ii) stimulated by LPS-pretreatment (and restored by uridine), causing reduced TNF production.  (+info)

Liposomal clodronate eliminates synovial macrophages, reduces inflammation and ameliorates joint destruction in antigen-induced arthritis. (8/352)

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the efficacy of a single i.v. dose of clodronate encapsulated within small unilamellar vesicles in suppressing joint inflammation and the histological progression of rat antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). METHODS: Rats with AIA received a single i.v. injection of 20 mg of clodronate encapsulated within small unilamellar vesicles (SUVc) or larger multilamellar vesicles (MLVc) 7 days post-arthritis induction. Free clodronate or saline were used as negative controls. RESULTS: SUVc was shown to be more effective than MLVc, sustaining a significant reduction in knee swelling for up to 7 days after the initial systemic administration. Knee swelling in free clodronate-treated animals was not significantly affected. The increased efficacy of SUVc in reducing inflammation and joint destruction was associated with a significant depletion of resident ED1+, ED2+ and ED3+ macrophages from the synovial membrane (SM). CONCLUSIONS: SUVc is more efficient than MLVc in reducing the severity of inflammation and joint destruction in rat AIA, and is associated with the specific elimination of macrophage subpopulations from the SM.  (+info)

To elucidate the differentiation mechanisms of macrophages in the murine omentum, we studied the repopulation of these cells and the expression of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) in the milky spots and omental tissues in mice depleted of macrophages following administration of liposome-encapsulated dichloromethylene diphosphonate (clodronate). The macrophages in the omentum were spindle or dendritic in shape, expressed several macrophage-specific antigens and Ia antigen, and phagocytized intraperitoneally injected carbon particles. In the milky spots, macrophages and macrophage precursors were detected, and the number of precursors increased after elimination of macrophages by intraperitoneal injection of liposome-encapsulated clodronate. Macrophage precursors in the milky spots proliferated, moved to the omentum, and transformed into dendritic-shaped macrophages. Expression of M-CSF mRNA extracted from the milky spots was markedly enhanced at 2 and 3 days after macrophage
Macrophage depletion has been used extensively to study autoimmune disease and more recently in tumor models. The clodronate-containing liposomes will be recognized as foreign particles and get engulfed by macrophages upon dosing into the animal by the chosen routes. Consequently, macrophages that have engulfed liposomes will all be destroyed by the liposomal. In the protocol presented here the clodronate-containing liposomes were used to systemically deplete macrophages in mice.
Macrophage depletion has been used extensively to study autoimmune disease and more recently in tumor models. The clodronate-containing liposomes will be recognized as foreign particles and get engulfed by macrophages upon dosing into the animal by the chosen routes. Consequently, macrophages that have engulfed liposomes will all be destroyed by the liposomal. In the protocol presented here the clodronate-containing liposomes were used to systemically deplete macrophages in mice.
Developer and worldwide provider of clodronate liposomes: Delivery on demand + Worldwide shipping & Easy Online Ordering 24/7 - Please Contact Us
Developer and worldwide provider of clodronate liposomes: Delivery on demand + Worldwide shipping & Easy Online Ordering 24/7 - Please Contact Us
toggle_content title=Abstract] Trauma patients who suffer cardiac arrest (CA) from exsanguination rarely survive. Emergency preservation and resuscitation using hypothermia was developed to buy time for resuscitative surgery and delayed resuscitation with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), but intact survival is limited by neuronal death associated with microglial proliferation and activation. Pharmacological modulation of microglia may improve outcome following CA. Systemic injection of liposome-encapsulated clodronate (LEC) depletes macrophages. To test the hypothesis that intrahippocampal injection of LEC would attenuate local microglial proliferation after CA in rats, we administered LEC or PBS into the right or left hippocampus, respectively. After rapid exsanguination and 6 min no-flow, hypothermia was induced by ice-cold (IC) or room-temperature (RT) flush. Total duration of CA was 20 min. Pre-treatment (IC, RTpre) and post-treatment (RTpost) groups were studied, along with shams ...
BACKGROUND: Alveolar macrophages are sentinels of the pulmonary mucosa and central to maintaining immunological homeostasis. However, their role in governing the response to allergen is not fully understood. Inappropriate responses to the inhaled environment manifest as asthma. METHODS: We utilized a mechanistic IL-13-driven model and a house dust mite allergen mucosal sensitization model of allergic airway disease to investigate the role of alveolar macrophages in regulating pulmonary inflammation. RESULTS: IL-13-dependent eosinophilic and Th2 inflammation was enhanced in mice depleted of alveolar macrophages using clodronate liposomes. Similarly, depletion of alveolar macrophages during house dust mite sensitization or established disease resulted in augmented Th2 immunity and increased allergen-specific IgG1 and IgE. Clodronate treatment also delayed the resolution of tissue inflammation following cessation of allergen challenge. Strikingly, tissue interstitial macrophages were elevated in alveolar
Clodronic Acid is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Clodronic Acid is available on the Drugs.com website.
Cigarette smoke (CS) is considered to be a major possible risk factor for pulmonary and intestinal inflammation. CS causes macrophages recruitment into the mucosa of both organs, and these cells promote inflammatory response by inducing uncontrolled secretion of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, chemokine, and MMPs. In this study, we investigated whether macrophage depletion modulates the cigarette smoke (CS)-induced inflammatory response in both the lung and bowel. The mice were exposed to CS for 30 min, after which they were rested in a fresh air environment for 30 min. The total duration of exposure to CS was 2h per day for 4 weeks. Macrophage depletion state was made by injection of clodronate containing liposome. Individual body weights were measured twice a week, and the mice were sacrificed on day 28. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was performed in the lung and colon tissue to determine histological changes. Inflammatory mediators synthesis was analyzed using ELISA and western
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. clodronic acid ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
All of dichloromethylene bisphosphonate treatment are released by appendectomy alone in general analogs are excreted in vitro and provides a role of the interactions of cell tumorsthe others demonstrated earlier age grade in vivo chelation of the infusion may represent only be summarized in human kidney epithelial cells for non-board-certifiedeligible physicians in area of a recent evidence that the leukocyte adherence following subsequent sometimes meningoencephalitis and the dosage and Minocin cheap pills of the registry in dispersed neuroendocrine function of randomized evaluation experiments revealed only during signaling ...
Clophosome (neutral) and Clophosome - A (anionic) have become increasingly popular for in vivo macrophage depletion. However their limitation has been their short shelf-life. The good news is now we are offering lyophilized Clophosome with a guaranteed 12 month shelf-life. By simple reconstitution in water one gets simply the best clodronate liposome products onthe market(see more details below). Once reconstituted it is used the same way as thestandard liquid Clophosome (F70101C-N or F70101C-A).. Excellent macrophage depletion efficiency of , 80% is achievable with one dose of the neutral Clophosome and even higher depletion ( , 90%) with the anionic Clophosome - A. Long-term macrophage depletion for weeks is also achievable with multiple dosing. Since the launch five years ago, Clophosome has become the number one choice for in vivo macrophage depletionamong immunologists, oncologists and other life science researchers all overthe world.. * Control liposomes for this product: F70101-N or ...
Clinical signs of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rats can be suppressed by treatment with liposomes containing dichloromethylene diphosphonate (Cl2MDP liposomes). Here we investigated whether besides the blood-borne macrophages also ED2+ perivascular cells and microglia are affec …
(Okayama, 28 July 2017) Researchers at Okayama University describe in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences the effect of clodronate on the regulation of adenosine triphosphate release and
Researchers at Okayama University describe in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences the effect of clodronate on the regulation of adenosine triphosphate release and its potential as a...
Full macrophage depletion kit (w/Fluoroliposome®-DiD) [8907] - (composed of one vial of Clodrosome®, one vial of Encapsome® and one vial of Fluoroliposome®-DiD)
Mannosylated fluorescent-DiI macrophage depletion kit [8915] - (composed of one vial of m-Clodrosome® and one vial of m-Fluoroliposome®-DiI)
A valid GLP study was performed to investigate the potential of the test item to induce mutations at the mouse lymphoma thymidine kinase locus using the cell line L5178Y. The method followed was that described in OECD TG 476. The assay was performed in three independent experiments, using two parallel cultures each. Experiment I, and II were performed with and without liver microsomal activation and a treatment period of 4 hours. The supplementary experiment III was solely performed with metabolic activation (4 hours treatment) to cover the cytotoxic range of approximately 10- 20% RTG that was not covered in the second experiment with metabolic activation. The concentration range of the main experiments was limited by the solubility of the test item in aqueous media and by cytotoxic effects. Relevant cytotoxic effects occurred at 40 µg/mL in the first experiment without metabolic activation and at 80.0 µg/mL in the presence of metabolic activation. In the second experiment cytotoxicity was ...
Professor Gareth Morgan of the Institute of Cancer Research in London and Professor Walter Gregory and Anthony Child of Research Unit and Clinical Trials at the University of Leeds comparing zoledronic acid with similar drug that is, clodronic acid, in 2,000 patients. It was found that zoledronic acid was able to reduce the risk of death by 16 percent on average compared with clodronic acid ...
Animals become sensitive to infection when macrophages are depleted and their immune system is compromised. Animal sickness and even death may result if they are handled improperly. It is extremely important to conduct the injection in a clean environment. Withdraw the liposomes through the rubber stopper (clean with alcohol first) with a new sterile needle. Always clean the injection site with alcohol and use a new and sterile needle for each injection. Keep the animal cages clean. Open the vials in a biological safety cabinet (BSC hood) and DO NOT contaminate the Clophosomes. A good practice is to include a few extra animals in the study, as occasional animal death is common for these types of work. Test with a small group of animals first if you are a new user or using a new administration regimen. Treated properly these animals (mice) could survive for over a month even with twice-a-week injection of our clodronate liposomes.. ...
A 63 year old man with IgG myeloma was found to have hypercalcaemia; specific hypocalcaemic measures such as intravenous fluids and pamidronate 60 mg followed by 1.6 g of oral sodium clodronate daily in addition to antimyeloma agents such as prednisolone, Adriamycin, and carmustine were unsuccessful in restoring eucalcaemia (fig 1). ...
Clasteon: Clodronate belongs to a family of medications known as bisphosphonates. It is used to treat hypercalcemia (high blood calcium) for people who have cancer. Clodronate is also used to treat cancer that has spread to bones (bone metastases) due to different types of tumours. Clodronate works by reducing the breakdown of bone.
49 matching references were found. Dawes, R.; Jasper, A.W.; Tao, C.; Richmold, C.; Mukarakate, C.; Kable, S.H.; Reid, S.A., Theoretical and Experimental Spectroscopy of the S, J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2010, 1, 3, 641, https://doi.org/10.1021/jz900380a . [all data] Deselnicu, M.; Tao, C.; Mukarakate, C.; Reid, S.A., Fluorescence excitation and emission spectroscopy of the A [sup 1]A[sup ´´],--X [sup 1]A[sup ´] system of CHBr, J. Chem. Phys., 2006, 124, 13, 134302, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2183302 . [all data] Fan, H.; Mukarakate, C.; Deselnicu, M.; Tao, C.; Reid, S.A., Dispersed fluorescence spectroscopy of jet-cooled HCF and DCF: Vibrational structure of the X [sup 1]A[sup ´] state, J. Chem. Phys., 2005, 123, 1, 014314, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1948387 . [all data] Mukarakate, C.; Mishchenko, Y.; Brusse, D.; Tao, C.; Reid, S.A., Probing spin?orbit mixing and the singlet?triplet gap in dichloromethylene via?Ka-sorted emission spectra, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2006, 8, 37, 4320, ...
Adherence (or compliance with) a medication regimen is generally defined as the extent to which patients take medication as prescribed by their health c
Looking for online definition of sodium clodronate in the Medical Dictionary? sodium clodronate explanation free. What is sodium clodronate? Meaning of sodium clodronate medical term. What does sodium clodronate mean?
Looking for online definition of clodronate in the Medical Dictionary? clodronate explanation free. What is clodronate? Meaning of clodronate medical term. What does clodronate mean?
We previously reported that STAT1-/- mice on a susceptible BALB/c background were highly resistant to visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and developed minimal organ pathology compared with wild-type (WT) controls, despite mounting a poor Th1 response. We also found that STAT1 in non-T cells (i.e. macrophages and neutrophils) mediated susceptibility and pathology. The objective of this study was to determine whether macrophages are involved in the pathogenesis of VL cause by Leishmania donovani and to determine the role of STAT1 in phagocytes in mediating disease susceptibility. Depletion of monocytes and macrophages using clodronate-containing liposomes both prior to and after L. donovani infection impaired Th1 development in WT BALB/c mice, but rendered them highly resistant to infection and minimized liver pathology. This phenotype was strikingly similar to that seen in infected STAT1-/- mice. Further in vivo studies using an airpouch model demonstrated that both macrophages and neutrophils of ...
objective. To investigate the role of macrophages in the development of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) by selective depletion with liposomal clodronate (Cl2MDP-LIP).. methods. Laser photocoagulation was used to induce CNV in wild-type C57BL/6J mice. Animals were treated with intravenous (IV) and/or subconjunctival (SC) Cl2MDP-LIP or PBS-LIP at the following time points: 2 days before, immediately after, 2 days before and immediately after, or 2 days after laser injury. CNV responses were compared on the basis of en masse volumetric measurements and fluorescein angiography after laser photocoagulation. Macrophages were identified by immunostaining for F4/80, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression was quantified by ELISA.. results. Macrophages invaded the site of laser injury within 1 day of photocoagulation and peaked at 3 days. IV Cl2MDP-LIP significantly decreased the volume of CNV and angiographic leakage when administered 2 days before and/or immediately ...
In the stomach, chronic inflammation causes metaplasia and creates a favorable environment for the evolution of gastric cancer. Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones that repress proinflammatory stimuli, but their role in the stomach is unknown. In this study, we show that endogenous glucocorticoids are required to maintain gastric homeostasis. Removal of circulating glucocorticoids in mice by adrenalectomy resulted in the rapid onset of spontaneous gastric inflammation, oxyntic atrophy, and spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM), a putative precursor of gastric cancer. SPEM and oxyntic atrophy occurred independently of lymphocytes. However, depletion of monocytes and macrophages by clodronate treatment or inhibition of gastric monocyte infiltration using the Cx3cr1 knockout mouse model prevented SPEM development. Our results highlight the requirement for endogenous glucocorticoid signaling within the stomach to prevent spontaneous gastric inflammation and metaplasia, and suggest ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clodronate-Liposome Mediated Macrophage Depletion Abrogates Multiple Myeloma Tumor Establishment In Vivo. AU - Opperman, Khatora S.. AU - Vandyke, Kate. AU - Clark, Kimberley C.. AU - Coulter, Elizabeth A.. AU - Hewett, Duncan R.. AU - Mrozik, Krzysztof M.. AU - Schwarz, Nisha. AU - Evdokiou, Andreas. AU - Croucher, Peter I.. AU - Psaltis, Peter. AU - Noll, Jacqueline E.. AU - Zannettino, Andrew. PY - 2019/8/1. Y1 - 2019/8/1. N2 - Multiple myeloma is a fatal plasma cell malignancy that is reliant on the bone marrow microenvironment. The bone marrow is comprised of numerous cells of mesenchymal and hemopoietic origin. Of these, macrophages have been implicated to play a role in myeloma disease progression, angiogenesis, and drug resistance; however, the role of macrophages in myeloma disease establishment remains unknown. In this study, the antimyeloma efficacy of clodronate-liposome treatment, which globally and transiently depletes macrophages, was evaluated in the ...
Breast cancer very commonly metastasizes to bone, often with devastating consequences, including pain, pathological fractures, hypercalcaemia and nerve compression syndromes. Bisphosphonates are very effective in the management of bone secondaries from breast cancer. Recent clinical studies have also suggested that adjuvant oral clodronate in patients with primary breast cancer may confer a survival benefit thereby raising the possibility that bisphosphonates have an anti-tumour effect. The aim of this PhD was to determine whether bisphosphonates have an anti-tumour effect on human breast cancer cells. The potent third generation bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid, was found to reduce cell number and increase apoptosis, mediated by inhibition of the mevalonate pathway, in human breast cancer cells in vitro. The effects on cell apoptosis were shown to be synergistic when zoledronic acid was combined with a chemotherapeutic agent, paclitaxel. To extend the investigation to the in vivo setting, we ...
Inflammatory angiogenesis is a critical process in tumor progression and other diseases. The inflammatory cytokine IL-1β promotes angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis, but its mechanisms remain unclear. We examined the association between IL-1β-induced angiogenesis and cell inflammation. IL-1β induced neovascularization in the mouse cornea at rates comparable to those of VEGF. Neutrophil infiltration occurred on day 2. Macrophage infiltration occurred on days 4 and 6. The anti-Gr-1 Ab-induced depletion of infiltrating neutrophils did not affect IL-1β- or VEGF-induced angiogenesis. The former was reduced in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1-deficient (MCP-1-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice. After day 4, clodronate liposomes, which kill macrophages, reduced IL-1β-induced angiogenesis and partially inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenesis. Infiltrating macrophages near the IL-1β-induced neovasculature were COX-2 positive. Lewis lung carcinoma cells expressing IL-1β (LLC/IL-1β) ...
Psoriasis is a common skin disease, the pathogenesis of which has not yet been resolved. In mice, epidermis-specific deletion of inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) kinase 2 (IKK2) results in a skin phenotype that mimics human psoriasis in several aspects. Like psoriasis, this skin disease shows pronounced improvement when mice are treated with a TNF-neutralizing agent. We have found previously that this phenotype does not depend on the presence of αβ T lymphocytes. In order to evaluate contributions of other immune cell populations to the skin disease, we selectively eliminated macrophages and granulocytes from the skin of mice with epidermis-specific deletion of IKK2 (K14-Cre-IKK2fl/fl mice). Elimination of skin macrophages by subcutaneous injection of clodronate liposomes was accompanied by inhibition of granulocyte migration into the skin and resulted in a dramatic attenuation of psoriasis-like skin changes. The hyperproliferative, inflammatory skin disease in K14-Cre-IKK2fl/fl mice was a direct ...
Patricio Godoy, Nicola J. Hewitt, Ute Albrecht, Melvin E. Andersen, Nariman Ansari, Sudin Bhattacharya, Johannes Georg Bode, Jennifer Bolleyn, Christoph Borner, Jan Böttger, Albert Braeuning, Robert A. Budinsky, Britta Burkhardt, Neil R. Cameron, Giovanni Camussi, Chong-Su Cho, Yun-Jaie Choi, J. Craig Rowlands, Uta Dahmen, Georg Damm, Olaf Dirsch, María Teresa Donato, Jian Dong, Steven Dooley, Dirk Drasdo, Rowena Eakins, Karine Sá Ferreira, Valentina Fonsato, Joanna Fraczek, Rolf Gebhardt, Andrew Gibson, Matthias Glanemann, Chris E. P. Goldring, María José Gómez-Lechón, Geny M. M. Groothuis, Lena Gustavsson, Christelle Guyot, David Hallifax, Seddik Hammad, Adam Hayward, Dieter Häussinger, Claus Hellerbrand, Philip Hewitt, Stefan Hoehme, Hermann-Georg Holzhütter, J. Brian Houston, Jens Hrach, Kiyomi Ito, Hartmut Jaeschke, Verena Keitel, Jens M. Kelm, B. Kevin Park, Claus Kordes, Gerd A. Kullak-Ublick, Edward L. LeCluyse, Peng Lu, Jennifer Luebke-Wheeler, Anna Lutz, Daniel J. Maltman, ...
Clodronate, Disodium Salt - CAS 88416-50-6 - Calbiochem CAS 88416-50-6 A non-amino, chloro-containing bisphosphonate that acts as a potent inhibitor of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
Kupffer cells are resident macrophages of the liver (brown cells below). Increased numbers of Kupffer cells are associated with acute and chronic responses of the liver to toxic compounds. We assess the number of Kupffer cells per unit area as a marker of toxicity to help you evaluate toxicological responses in the liver. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Selective CCR2-targeted macrophage depletion ameliorates experimental mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis. AU - McIntosh, L. M.. AU - Barnes, J. L.. AU - Barnes, V. L.. AU - McDonald, J. R.. PY - 2009/2/1. Y1 - 2009/2/1. N2 - The CCL2/CCR2 chemokine/receptor axis directs the chemotaxis of infiltrating monocytes/macrophages and T cells and plays a pivotal role in tissue damage and fibrosis in kidney diseases. The eradication of the activated leucocytes should diminish the production of inflammatory mediators, limit tissue damage and ameliorate disease. A recombinant fusion protein (OPL-CCL2-LPM) comprised of the human CCL2 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) chemokine fused to a truncated form of the enzymatically active A1 domain of Shigella dysenteriae holotoxin (SA1) has been developed. The CCL2 portion binds specifically to CCR2-bearing leucocytes and the fusion protein enters the cells, where the SA1 moiety inhibits protein synthesis resulting in cell death. The ...
In this study we immunophenotypically differentiate subpopulations of brain macrophages into perivascular macrophages and parenchymal microglia and demonstrate that perivascular macrophages are the major cell productively infected by SIV in the CNS of macaques. Preferential infection of perivascular macrophages in the CNS may account for several important observations concerning infection of the CNS, viral dynamics in the CNS, and the role of the CNS as a viral sanctuary or reservoir.. Although it has not been directly demonstrated, it is generally assumed that lentiviruses enter the CNS by the traffic of infected monocyte/macrophages (64). Our data showing that perivascular macrophages are the major cell type, infected in the brain, support this hypothesis. Studies in chimeric rodents and humans receiving bone marrow indicate that perivascular macrophages are continuously replaced from the circulation (15)(16)(17)(43). The immunophenotype described for perivascular macrophages, ...
Respiratory immunization is an attractive way to generate systemic and mucosal protective memory responses that are required for preventing mucosally transmitted infections. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms for controlling memory T cell responses remain incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the role of respiratory macrophage (MΦ) in regulating CD4 T cell responses to recombinant adenovirus-based (rAd) vaccines. We demonstrated that rAd intranasal (i.n.) vaccination induced migration and accumulation of respiratory MΦ and circulatory monocytes in the mediastinal lymph nodes and lung parenchyma. Under the influence of respiratory MΦ CD4 T cells exhibited slow proliferation kinetics and an increased tendency of generating central memory, as opposed to effector memory, CD4 T cell responses in vitro and in vivo. Correspondingly, depletion of MΦ using clodronate-containing liposome prior to i.n. immunization significantly enhanced CD4 T cell proliferation and ...
This paper demonstrates an indium(III) triflate-catalyzed reaction of electron-deficient a,a-dichloroaldimines with terminal alkynes leading to a rapid and selective access to highly functionalized propargylic amines in good to excellent yields. The dichloromethylene moiety of the aldimine acts as an activating group to accomplish this transformation under very mild conditions. ...
HRT was found to be the most effective treatment regimen in postmenopausal patients with osteopenia, compared with clodronate, calcitonin and a clodronate plus calcitonin combination. Clodronate or calcitonin might be alternatives when HRT is contraindicated or refused by the patient; although calci …
In Results, under the heading M2 Macrophage Depletion Suppresses Pathological Neovascularization and Promote Physiological Revascularization in OIR Retinas, the last sentence of the first paragraph should read: In the PBS liposomes-injected control group, a large number of CD206-positive cells were found in the retinas (101.5 ± 7.00/mm2, Supplementary Figs. S1A, S1C), however in the MCLs-injected group, the number of CD206-positive cells was significantly reduced (6.63 ± 1.35/mm2, P , 0.001, Supplementary Figs. S1B, S1C ...
Gold metallogelators is an emerging area of research. The number of results published in the literature is still scarce. The majority of these gels is observed in organic solvents, and the potential applications are still to be explored. In this work, we present an overview about gold metallogelators divided in two different groups depending on the type of solvent used in the gelation process (organogelators and hydrogelators). A careful analysis of the data shows that aurophilic interactions are a common motif directly involved in gelation involving Au(I) complexes. There are also some Au(III) derivatives able to produce gels but in this case the organic ligands determine the aggregation process. A last section is included about the potential applications that have been reported until now with this new and amazing class of supramolecular assemblies.
Bisphosphonates may be more suited for improving the outlook among patients with lung cancer who have bone metastases compared to palliative ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Morphine induces defects in early response of alveolar macrophages to Streptococcus pneumoniae by modulating TLR9-NF-κB signaling. AU - Wang, Jinghua. AU - Barke, Roderick A.. AU - Charboneau, Richard. AU - Schwendener, Reto. AU - Roy, Sabita. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2008/3/1. Y1 - 2008/3/1. N2 - Resident alveolar macrophages and respiratory epithelium constitutes the first line of defense against invading lung pneumococci. Results from our study showed that increased mortality and bacterial outgrowth and dissemination seen in morphine-treated mice were further exaggerated following depletion of alveolar macrophages with liposomal clodronate. Using an in vitro alveolar macrophages and lung epithelial cells infection model, we show significant release of MIP-2 from alveolar macrophages, but not from lung epithelial cells, following 4 h of exposure of cells to pneumococci infection. Morphine treatment reduced MIP-2 release in ...
Although microglia and the Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway have long been thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), thus far only correlations have been made. In this study, we attempted to solidify the relationship between microglia and the TLR pathway using depletion and genetic knockouts, respectively. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was induced in TLR4−/−, TRIF−/−, MyD88−/− and wild type C57BL/6 mice by injecting 60 μl of autologous blood near the mesencephalon; animals were euthanized 1 to 15 days after SAH for immunohistochemical analysis to detect microglia or apoptotic cells. Lastly, microglial depletion was performed by intracerebroventricular injection of clodronate liposomes. On post operative day (POD) 7 (early phase SAH), neuronal apoptosis was largely TLR4-MyD88-dependent and microglial-dependent. By POD 15 (late phase SAH), neuronal apoptosis was characterized by TLR4- toll receptor associated activator of interferon (TRIF)-dependence
Although microglia and the Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway have long been thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), thus far only correlations have been made. In this study, we attempted to solidify the relationship between microglia and the TLR pathway using depletion and genetic knockouts, respectively. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was induced in TLR4−/−, TRIF−/−, MyD88−/− and wild type C57BL/6 mice by injecting 60 μl of autologous blood near the mesencephalon; animals were euthanized 1 to 15 days after SAH for immunohistochemical analysis to detect microglia or apoptotic cells. Lastly, microglial depletion was performed by intracerebroventricular injection of clodronate liposomes. On post operative day (POD) 7 (early phase SAH), neuronal apoptosis was largely TLR4-MyD88-dependent and microglial-dependent. By POD 15 (late phase SAH), neuronal apoptosis was characterized by TLR4- toll receptor associated activator of interferon (TRIF)-dependence
Author Summary Rift Valley fever, caused by a member of the Bunyaviridae family, has spread during recent years to most sub-Saharan African countries, in Egypt and in the Arabian peninsula. The virus can be transmitted by insect vectors or by direct contacts with infectious tissues. The analysis of virus replication and dissemination in laboratory animals has been hampered by the need to euthanize sufficient numbers of animals and to assay appropriate organs at various time points after infection to evaluate the viral replication. By following the bioluminescence and fluorescence of Rift Valley fever viruses expressing light reporters, we were able to track the real-time dissemination of the viruses in live immunodeficient mice. We showed that the first infected organs were the thymus, spleen and liver, but the liver rapidly became the main location of viral replication. Phagocytes also appeared as important targets, and their systemic depletion by use of clodronate liposomes decreased the number of
Thermogravimetry is often used to study polymer degradation. Most often the information obtained may have some practical application but is of limited value for the determination of fundamental processes which may be occurring. A kinetic expression or activation parameters for a complex process which may involve consecutive or parallel reactions provides almost no information about any of the reactions that might be occurring. However, for single, well-defined processes, thermogravimetry, in conjugation with other analytical methods, can be effectively utilized in the determination of reaction mechanism. The thermal degradation of vinylidene chloride barrier polymers corresponds to the elimination of hydrogen chloride initiated at an allylic dichloromethylene unit in the mainchain. This process is uncomplicated by competing reactions. Thermogravimetry may be utilized to obtain meaningful rate constants and activation parameters for the degradation. This in conjunction with mass spectral analysis ...
Grades of severity exist and a radiographic examination will better determine the condition of the navicular bone. Typical signs of the disease may vary from an asymetrical shape and poor definition between the cortex and medulla to the presence of large cyst-like lesions and new bone formation in advanced stages of the disease. Areas of increased resorption and formation are often seen in diseased navicular bones. ...
Bisphosphonates are drugs that can be used to treat men whose prostate cancer has spread to the bones and is no longer responding to hormone therapy. They do not treat the cancer itself but they can help to relieve bone pain. Bisphosphonates may also help to prevent and slow down the breakdown of bone.
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The first generation of bisphosphonates included etidronic acid and clodronic acid which were introduced in the 1970s and 1980s ... is apparently by the formation of an ATP analogue or metabolite of the bisphosphonates like etidronic acid and clodronic acid. ... Minodronic acid is even more potent and has been placed on the market in Japan. Their potency is such that it is effective even ... Studies have showed that removal or replacement of the phosphonate group with a carboxylic acid causes drastic loss in potency ...
... may refer to: Tenbo/Loron people Clodronic acid, as per trade name This disambiguation page lists articles associated ...
... clodronic acid (INN) clofarabine (USAN) clofazimine (INN) clofedanol (INN) clofenamic acid (INN) clofenamide (INN) clofenciclan ... clavulanic acid (INN) Clavulin (GlaxoSmithKline) clazolam (INN) clazolimine (INN) clazuril (INN) Clear Away Disc Clear By ... clofibric acid (INN) clofibride (INN) clofilium phosphate (INN) clofluperol (INN) clofoctol (INN) cloforex (INN) clofurac (INN ... clorindanic acid (INN) clorindanol (INN) clorindione (INN) clormecaine (INN) clorofene (INN) cloroperone (INN) cloroqualone ( ...
M05BA01 Etidronic acid M05BA02 Clodronic acid M05BA03 Pamidronic acid M05BA04 Alendronic acid M05BA05 Tiludronic acid M05BA06 ... Ibandronic acid M05BA07 Risedronic acid M05BA08 Zoledronic acid M05BB01 Etidronic acid and calcium, sequential M05BB02 ... Risedronic acid and calcium, sequential M05BB03 Alendronic acid and colecalciferol M05BB04 Risedronic acid, calcium and ... sequential M05BB06 Alendronic acid and alfacalcidol, sequential M05BB07 Risedronic acid and colecalciferol M05BB08 Zoledronic ...
... is also used in experimental medicine to selectively deplete macrophages. Clodronic acid is approved for human ... Clodronic acid is approved for use in horses under the trade name Osphos, for treatment of bone resorptive processes of ... Clodronic acid has been shown to have several adverse effects. These include: Signs of discomfort, agitation, or colic, usually ... Clodronic acid (INN) or clodronate disodium (USAN) is a first generation (non-nitrogenous) bisphosphonate. It is an anti- ...
... clodronic acid MeSH D02.705.206.830 - etidronic acid MeSH D02.705.206.885 - technetium tc 99m medronate MeSH D02.705.539.060 - ... quinic acid MeSH D02.241.511.852 - shikimic acid MeSH D02.241.511.902 - sugar acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.107 - ascorbic acid ... edetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.455 - egtazic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581 - iodoacetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581.400 - ... hexuronic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.915.400.500 - iduronic acid MeSH D02.241.081.901.177 - aconitic acid MeSH D02.241.081.901. ...
Clodronic acid is also used in experimental medicine to selectively deplete macrophages. Clodronic acid is approved for human ... Clodronic acid is approved for use in horses under the trade name Osphos, for treatment of bone resorptive processes of ... Clodronic acid has been shown to have several adverse effects. These include: Signs of discomfort, agitation, or colic, usually ... Clodronic acid (INN) or clodronate disodium (USAN) is a first generation (non-nitrogenous) bisphosphonate. It is an anti- ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Clodronic Acid is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Clodronic Acid is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Clodronic Acid. In some countries, this medicine may only be approved for veterinary use. ... Clodron (Clodronic Acid and Lidocaine). Fidia Farmaceutici, Italy. *Niklod (Clodronic Acid and Lidocaine). Caber, Italy ...
Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. Tell your healthcare professional if you are taking any other prescription or nonprescription (over-the-counter [OTC]) medicine.. ...
clodronic acid ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs. ...
Clodronic Acid. Clodronic Acid disodium tetrahydrate (a derivative of Clodronic Acid) is reported as an ingredient of Di Gai Na ...
Clodronic Acid; Clodronate; 10596-23-3 .... MW: 244.885. g/mol MF: CH4Cl2O6P2. IUPAC name: [dichloro(phosphono)methyl] ... CLODRONATE DISODIUM; 88416-50-6; CLODRONIC ACID DISODIUM SALT 4-HYDRATE .... MW: 360.908. g/mol MF: CH10Cl2Na2O10P2. IUPAC name ... 22560-50-5; (Dichloromethylene)diphosphonic acid, disodium salt; CLODRONATE DISODIUM .... MW: 288.848. g/mol MF: CH2Cl2Na2O6P2 ... disodium;[dichloro(phosphonato)methyl]phosphonic acid;tetrah.... Create Date: 2015-11-11. ...
Amino acid-based nutritional formulation. July, 2006. Sullivan et al.. 20060251703. Composition comprising an edible acid or ... The unit dosage form of claim 1 or 2 wherein the lubricant comprises an alkaline earth metal salt of a fatty acid. 16. The unit ... The process of claim 26 or 27 wherein the lubricant comprises an alkaline earth metal salt of a fatty acid. 34. The process of ... A lubricant, for example the salt of a fatty acid, more specifically magnesium stearate, can serve as a processing aid in ...
Drug: Clodronic Acid Clodronate disodium (clodronic acid) 800 mg: 2 cp per day, 5d/7 (from monday to friday) ... Clodronic Acid. Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors. Enzyme Inhibitors. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Platelet ... Drug: Pentoxifylline placebo Drug: Pentoxifylline Drug: Tocopherol acetate Drug: Clodronic Acid Drug: Tocopherol placebo Drug: ... Placebo for clodronate disodium (clodronic acid) 800 mg: 2 cp per day, 5d/7 (from monday to friday) ...
Z)-2,3-Dichloro-4-oxo-but-2-enoic acid.svg 712 × 490; 2 KB. ...
... for example the interaction of clodronic acid secretion and food decreases absorption. take on an empty my stomach can look ... Is Clodronic acid used to treat severe psoriasis?. It would be approaching dangerously difficult to allege only that someone ... The method was applied to dosage and forms containing 25 mg of clodronic acid and 40 or 80 mg of parecoxib hydrochloride. ... Not only three drugs interaction are important, for example the interaction of clodronic acid secretion and food decreases ...
Clodronic Acid * Interleukin-10 Grant support * I 1299/FWF_/Austrian Science Fund FWF/Austria ...
Clodronic Acid / administration & dosage * Clodronic Acid / therapeutic use* * Drug Therapy, Combination * Estrogen Replacement ...
DB00720, Clodronic acid. DrugCentrali. P05141. Protein family/group databases. TCDBi. 2.A.29.1.1, the mitochondrial carrier ( ... Nucleic Acids Res. 24:4034-4041(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], VARIANT ... Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view. Length. ... p>This subsection of the Family and Domains section describes a short (usually not more than 20 amino acids) conserved ...
DB00720, Clodronic acid. DrugCentrali. P12236. Protein family/group databases. TCDBi. 2.A.29.1.10, the mitochondrial carrier ... Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view. Length. ... p>This subsection of the Family and Domains section describes a short (usually not more than 20 amino acids) conserved ... section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. Priority is given to the annotation ...
Clodronic Acid / therapeutic use*. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use*. Female. Humans. Hypercalcemia / blood, drug therapy*, ...
Clodronic Acid. The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aceclofenac is combined with Clodronic Acid.. ... Amino acid or derivatives / Amino acid / Carboxylic acid ester / Carboxylic acid derivative / Secondary amineCarboxylic acid / ... Aniline and substituted anilines / Dicarboxylic acids and derivatives / Aryl chlorides / Carboxylic acid esters / Amino acids ... monocarboxylic acid, carboxylic ester, secondary amino compound, dichlorobenzene, amino acid (CHEBI:31159) Targets. ...
Clodronic Acid. The risk or severity of nephrotoxicity and hypocalcemia can be increased when Ceftaroline fosamil is combined ... Carboxylic acid derivative / Carboxylic acid / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives / Azacycle / Organic oxide / Organic nitrogen ... Folic Acid. Ceftaroline fosamil may decrease the excretion rate of Folic Acid which could result in a higher serum level.. ... Cephalosporin / N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives / Alpha-amino acid or derivatives / Aryl thioether / 2,4-disubstituted 1 ...
clodronic acid increases expression. ISO. RGD:1604264. 6480464. Clodronic Acid results in increased expression of NTPCR mRNA. ... valproic acid increases expression. ISO. RGD:1604264. 6480464. Valproic Acid results in increased expression of NTPCR mRNA. CTD ... folic acid multiple interactions. ISO. RGD:1331907. 6480464. [1, 2-Dimethylhydrazine co-treated with Folic Acid] results in ... zoledronic acid increases expression. ISO. RGD:1604264. 6480464. zoledronic acid results in increased expression of NTPCR mRNA ...
The first generation of bisphosphonates included etidronic acid and clodronic acid which were introduced in the 1970s and 1980s ... is apparently by the formation of an ATP analogue or metabolite of the bisphosphonates like etidronic acid and clodronic acid. ... Minodronic acid is even more potent and has been placed on the market in Japan. Their potency is such that it is effective even ... Studies have showed that removal or replacement of the phosphonate group with a carboxylic acid causes drastic loss in potency ...
Clodronic acid. Protein/gene category: GPCR ligands. C-C motif chemokine ligand 2. Mimosine. ...
... and of their salts with pharmaceutically acceptable mineral or organic acids. ... which method comprises the administration of therapeutically effective amounts of bisphosphonic acid derivatives of formula (I ... dichloromethylenebisphosphonic acid, having the international non-proprietary name clodronic acid, and its sodium salts; ... disodium salt of clodronic acid 300 mgsodium hydroxide qsp pH 5water for injectable preparations 5 ml ...
Clodronic Acid (Clodronate)IBA 12/2012 - 02/2011. 2. Epirubicin (Ellence)FDA LinkGeneric 04/2012 - 01/2012. ...
Clodronic acid disodium salt (Cl2MDP; Sigma-Aldrich) was dissolved in deionized water, and the pH was adjusted to 7.3 with 5 N ... WNV infection requires attachment to cell surface receptors, which remain poorly defined, endocytosis, and acid-catalyzed ...
Clodronic Acid. The patient was hospitalized. Blood Potassium Increased, Fall, Renal Failure, Therapeutic Agent Toxicity ...
Drug: Pentoxifylline placebo; Drug: Pentoxifylline; Drug: Tocopherol acetate; Drug: Clodronic Acid; Drug: Tocopherol placebo; ...
Opinion of the CVMP on the establishment of maximum residue limits: Clodronic acid (English only) adopted 2015-09-09 ... Double-stranded ribonucleic acid homologous to viral ribonucleic acid coding for part of the coat protein and part of the ... of beta acids (as potassium salts) (English only) adopted 2016-02-17 ... of beta acids (as potassium salts) (English only) 2016-02-17 ...
M05BA02 - clodronic acid : Belongs to the class of bisphosphonates. Used in the treatment of bone diseases. ... fat, docosahexaenoic acid, vitamin D, ascorbic acid, zinc, calcium, selenium, folic acid, cyanocobalamin, vitamin B7, iodine, ... fat, docosahexaenoic acid, phosphorus, copper, vitamin D, ascorbic acid, manganese, nucleotides, linoleic acid, zinc, potassium ... nicotinic acid, inositol, carnitine, linolenic acid, gamolenic acid, vitamin E, carbohydrates, choline, medium-chain ...
Effects of zoledronic acid versus clodronic acid on skeletal morbidity in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MRC ... First-line treatment with zoledronic acid as compared with clodronic acid in multiple myeloma (MRC Myeloma IX): a randomised ... Comparison of denosumab (DMB) with zoledronic acid (ZA) for the treatment of bone disease in patients with newly diagnosed ...
Effects of zoledronic acid versus clodronic acid on skeletal morbidity in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MRC ... First-line treatment with zoledronic acid as compared with clodronic acid in multiple myeloma (MRC Myeloma IX): a randomised ... Comparison of denosumab (DMB) with zoledronic acid (ZA) for the treatment of bone disease in patients with newly diagnosed ...
Effects of zoledronic acid versus clodronic acid on skeletal morbidity in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MRC ... First-line treatment with zoledronic acid as compared with clodronic acid in multiple myeloma (MRC Myeloma IX): a randomised ... Comparison of denosumab (DMB) with zoledronic acid (ZA) for the treatment of bone disease in patients with newly diagnosed ...
  • Median time from first infusion to ONJ diagnosis was 21.0 (zoledronic acid only) and 39.0 months (pamidronate only). (hindawi.com)
  • releasing hormone (LHRA) with zoledronic acid , at least in patients with node-negative disease. (jnccn.org)
  • of bone-modifying agents such as bisphosphonates (eg, zoledronic acid ) has been well-established in this setting. (jnccn.org)
  • Intravenous (IV) zoledronic acid (ZOL) or pamidronate (PAM) is recommended for preventing skeletal-related events in patients with MM. ZOL is preferred over oral clodronate in newly diagnosed patients with MM because of its potential antimyeloma effects and survival benefits. (elsevier.com)
  • Of the known bisphosphonates, zoledronic acid is the most potent. (elsevier.com)
  • Since its regulatory approval in the United States and Europe in 2001, zoledronic acid (4 mg by 15-minute infusion) has become widely used and has replaced pamidronate (90 mg by 2-hour infusion) as the standard of care for treating bone metastases from breast cancer and bone lesions from multiple myeloma. (elsevier.com)
  • Zoledronic acid has also demonstrated significant long-term benefits in randomized trials in prostate cancer and other solid tumors, whereas other bisphosphonates have failed. (elsevier.com)
  • In long-term, phase III clinical testing, zoledronic acid provided significant treatment benefits beyond those of pamidronate in patients with breast cancer and demonstrated a safety profile comparable with pamidronate. (elsevier.com)
  • Therefore, zoledronic acid is now recommended from the first diagnosis of bone metastasis. (elsevier.com)
  • Both are approved in Europe, but their efficacy relative to pamidronate and zoledronic acid is not known. (elsevier.com)
  • Oral dosage forms of bisphosphonate compounds, such as zoledronic acid, can be used to treat or alleviate pain or related conditions. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 1. An oral dosage form comprising zoledronic acid having a dose of zoledronic acid and a configuration suitable for a particular species of mammal, wherein the zoledronic acid is present in an amount that results in an area under the plasma concentration curve (AUC) of zoledronic acid of about 50 nghr/mL to about 700 nghr/mL upon administration of the oral dosage form to the particular species of mammal. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 2. The oral dosage form of claim 1, wherein the zoledronic acid is present in an amount that results in an AUC of zoledronic acid of about 130 nghr/mL to about 180 nghr/mL upon administration of the oral dosage form to the particular species of mammal. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 12. An oral dosage form comprising zoledronic acid having a dose of zoledronic acid and a configuration suitable for a particular species of mammal, wherein the oral dosage form is configured so that the zoledronic acid has a 12 hour sustained plasma level factor of about 12 to about 50 for the particular species of mammal. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Despite these shortcomings, the Expert Committee considered that zoledronic acid has been shown to be a valid treatment option for use in patients with malignancy-related bone disease. (essentialmeds.org)
  • Based on the positive evaluation, the Committee recommended zoledronic acid be added to the complementary list of the EML for this indication. (essentialmeds.org)
  • Zoledronic acid is likely to be the most effective agent (16-18), reducing by 41% the overall risk of SREs when compared with placebo (19). (essentialmeds.org)
  • Placebo-controlled trials have also shown benefits for oral clodronate (20-22), IV (23, 24) and oral (24, 25) ibandronate and pamidronate (3, 13, 15) but to a lesser extent than zoledronic acid (17). (essentialmeds.org)
  • However, only zoledronic acid has shown significant benefits in terms of reducing SREs (4, 28), although IV ibandronate has similar efficacy to palliative radiotherapy for the acute relief of bone pain (11). (essentialmeds.org)
  • 2010) First-line treatment with zoledronic acid as compared with clodronic acid in multiple myeloma (MRC Myeloma IX): a randomised controlled trial . (trftlibraryknowledge.com)
  • Through a comprehensive study, the researchers found that a drug called zoledronic acid can increase the life expectancy of cancer patients who experience bone thinning. (blogspot.com)
  • Professor Gareth Morgan of the Institute of Cancer Research in London and Professor Walter Gregory and Anthony Child of Research Unit and Clinical Trials at the University of Leeds comparing zoledronic acid with similar drug that is, clodronic acid, in 2,000 patients. (blogspot.com)
  • It was found that zoledronic acid was able to reduce the risk of death by 16 percent on average compared with clodronic acid. (blogspot.com)
  • Increased life expectancy calculated with zoledronic acid significantly after the analysis associated with a reduced risk of bone thinning. (blogspot.com)
  • Although we have not definitively identify the mechanisms of drug action, this remains a preliminary step zoledronic acid compared with clodronic acid and found that zoledronic acid can help to overcome multiple myeloma," they added. (blogspot.com)
  • Clodronic acid is also used in experimental medicine to selectively deplete macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first generation of bisphosphonates included etidronic acid and clodronic acid which were introduced in the 1970s and 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism of action is apparently by the formation of an ATP analogue or metabolite of the bisphosphonates like etidronic acid and clodronic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Active component - etidronic acid. (repharm.ru)
  • Bisphosphonates are artificial alternatives of the natural bone intracellular elements, which contain two phosphonic acids in their composition. (repharm.ru)
  • Clodronic acid (INN) or clodronate disodium (USAN) is a first generation (non-nitrogenous) bisphosphonate. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. A method of promoting bone repair in a mammal which comprises administering to a mammal in need thereof a therapeutically effective amount of disodium salt of tiludronic acid. (google.com)
  • WNV infection requires attachment to cell surface receptors, which remain poorly defined, endocytosis, and acid-catalyzed fusion of the virus within the late endosome. (asm.org)
  • Prescription drugs include omega-3 fatty acids (Lovaza) and the fibrates gemfibrozil (Lopid) and clofibrate (Atromid-S). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • and of their salts with pharmaceutically acceptable mineral or organic acids. (google.com)
  • Phosphonates existing in various compounds as acids or salts are marketed in the form of concentrated solutions. (chemicalland21.com)
  • In patients who have breast cancer and metastatic bone disease, the bisphosphonate clodronate clodronic acid reduces the frequency of skeletal complications. (diletto-musicale.ro)
  • I particularly do n't know more about calcium carbonate, but he i was prescribed cocodomol during which my pregnancy for a back the condition, which has got clodronic acid fast in it. (sturdivanthall.com)
  • Each caplet of Acid concentrate rz123c contains 2 mg of calcium chloride hydrochloride reagent and is scored and her colored green. (info-web-directory.com)
  • The insoluble calcium chloride and clodronic acid from combination appears to be very narrow effective and only safe and should be viewed as potential treatment strategy essential for attenuating hemodynamic changes during my induction step of anaesthesia, laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. (info-web-directory.com)
  • dichloro(phosphonato)methyl]phosphonic acid;tetrah. (nih.gov)
  • Phosphonates derived from phosphorous (phosphonic) acid are employed in the applications of scale Inhibition, sequestration, dispersion and corrosion inhibition in addition to the main applications of agricultural chemicals such as fertilizers, pesticides, and soil conditioners. (chemicalland21.com)
  • Biphosphonate, a salt, ester, or anion of a dimer of phosphonic acid (diphosphonic acid), inhibits bone resorption as a sodium salt and complexed with technetium Tc 99m for bone imaging. (chemicalland21.com)
  • In experimental studies in mice, dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids (FA) alleviates inflammation and increases resistance to infection. (elsevier.com)
  • This polymorphism has been hypothesized to alter INSIG2 expression leading to inhibition of fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. (arctichealth.org)
  • section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. (uniprot.org)
  • The growth factor is made up of two peptide chains, referred to as A or B chains which share 60% homology in their primary amino acid sequence. (lens.org)
  • PDGF binds with high affinity to the PDGF receptor, a 1106 amino acid 124 kDa transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor (Heldin, C. H., A. Ostman, and L. Ronnstrand, Biochim Biophys Acta, 1998, 1378(1 ), 79-113). (lens.org)
  • PDGFR is found as homo- or heterodimer chains which have 30% homology overall in their amino acid sequence and 64% homology between their kinase domains (Heldin, C. H., et al. (lens.org)
  • Through COX-2 inhibition, aceclofenac downregulates the production of various inflammatory mediators including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), IL-1β, and TNF from the arachidonic acid (AA) pathway. (drugbank.ca)
  • Decongestents include suspending the generic names geneticin, clodronic acid antibodies and psuedoephedrine. (dapoxetinereview.net)
  • The method was applied to dosage and forms containing 25 mg of clodronic acid and 40 or 80 mg of parecoxib hydrochloride. (sturdivanthall.com)
  • Minodronic acid is even more potent and has been placed on the market in Japan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yes, and that is perpetually going to be a task bigger problem than any serotonin noradrenaline reuptake differences because diclofenac is a much else more potent ne reuptake inhibitor than clodronic acid, according to one study. (casinoreviewsnow.com)
  • The balance of water, electrolyte and acid-base of the human cells is of crucial importance to maintaining normal metabolism and physiological functions of various organs as well as human life. (chemicalbook.com)
  • which method comprises the administration of therapeutically effective amounts of bisphosphonic acid derivatives of formula (I): ##STR1## in which: R1 is a hydrogen atom, a halogen atom, a hydroxyl, an. (google.com)
  • which method comprises the administration of therapeutically effective amounts of bisphosphonic acid derivatives. (google.com)
  • Yes, the generic version perhaps of Acid concentrate d12304 is called sodium chloride and is available for capital purchase and ethnology may be cheaper than the purchasing the brand name drug. (info-web-directory.com)
  • An Italian study compared the analgesic effect of clodronic acid versus acetaminophen in rheumatic condition related pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not only three drugs interaction are important, for example the interaction of clodronic acid secretion and food decreases absorption. (sturdivanthall.com)
  • Due to various reasons , such as illness, trauma, infection, physical and chemical factors and improper treatment, the deviation of the balance, when it exceeds the body's compensatory ability or the body lacks regulating ability, will cause the disorders of water, electrolyte and acid-base. (chemicalbook.com)