CLOCK Proteins: Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that contain intrinsic HISTONE ACETYLTRANSFERASE activity and play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. Clock proteins combine with Arntl proteins to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation. This transcriptional activation also sets into motion a time-dependent feedback loop which in turn down-regulates the expression of clock proteins.Circadian Clocks: Biological mechanism that controls CIRCADIAN RHYTHM. Circadian clocks exist in the simplest form in cyanobacteria and as more complex systems in fungi, plants, and animals. In humans the system includes photoresponsive RETINAL GANGLION CELLS and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS that acts as the central oscillator.Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins: A broad category of proteins that regulate the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM of an organism. Included here are proteins that transmit intracellular and intercellular signals in a chronological manner along with proteins that sense light and time-dependent changes in the environment such as the PHOTOPERIOD.Period Circadian Proteins: Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.Biological Clocks: The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.ARNTL Transcription Factors: Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. They combine with CLOCK PROTEINS to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation.Cryptochromes: Flavoproteins that function as circadian rhythm signaling proteins in ANIMALS and as blue-light photoreceptors in PLANTS. They are structurally-related to DNA PHOTOLYASES and it is believed that both classes of proteins may have originated from an earlier protein that played a role in protecting primitive organisms from the cyclical exposure to UV LIGHT.Casein Kinase Iepsilon: A casein kinase I isoenzyme with specificity for proteins involved the regulation of the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.FlavoproteinsPhotoperiod: The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.Suprachiasmatic Nucleus: An ovoid densely packed collection of small cells of the anterior hypothalamus lying close to the midline in a shallow impression of the OPTIC CHIASM.E-Box Elements: DNA locations with the consensus sequence CANNTG. ENHANCER ELEMENTS may contain multiple copies of this element. E-boxes play a regulatory role in the control of transcription. They bind with basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) type TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. Binding specificity is determined by the specific bHLH heterodimer or homodimer combination and by the specific nucleotides at the 3rd and 4th position of the E-box sequence.Cyanobacteria: A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.Casein Kinase Idelta: A casein kinase I isoenzyme that plays a regulatory role in a variety of cellular functions including vesicular transport, CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION; CYTOKINESIS, developmental processes, and the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Synechococcus: A form-genus of spherical to rod-shaped CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. They contain THYLAKOIDS and are found in a wide range of habitats.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Neurospora: A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Photoreceptor Cells, Invertebrate: Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Feedback, Physiological: A mechanism of communication with a physiological system for homeostasis, adaptation, etc. Physiological feedback is mediated through extensive feedback mechanisms that use physiological cues as feedback loop signals to control other systems.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Neurospora crassa: A species of ascomycetous fungi of the family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, much used in biochemical, genetic, and physiologic studies.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group D, Member 1: A DNA-binding orphan nuclear receptor that negatively regulates expression of ARNTL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and plays a role as a regulatory component of the circadian clock system. The Nr1d1 nuclear receptor expression is cyclically-regulated by a feedback loop involving its positive regulation by CLOCK PROTEIN; BMAL1 PROTEIN heterodimers and its negative regulation by CRYPTOCHROME and PERIOD PROTEINS.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Darkness: The absence of light.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Mice, Inbred C57BLRNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Chronobiology Disorders: Disruptions of the rhythmic cycle of bodily functions or activities.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.

PER and TIM inhibit the DNA binding activity of a Drosophila CLOCK-CYC/dBMAL1 heterodimer without disrupting formation of the heterodimer: a basis for circadian transcription. (1/580)

The Drosophila CLOCK (dCLOCK) and CYCLE (CYC) (also referred to as dBMAL1) proteins are members of the basic helix-loop-helix PAS (PER-ARNT-SIM) superfamily of transcription factors and are required for high-level expression of the circadian clock genes period (per) and timeless (tim). Several lines of evidence indicate that PER, TIM, or a PER-TIM heterodimer somehow inhibit the transcriptional activity of a putative dCLOCK-CYC complex, generating a negative-feedback loop that is a core element of the Drosophila circadian oscillator. In this report we show that PER and/or TIM inhibits the binding of a dCLOCK-CYC heterodimer to an E-box-containing DNA fragment that is present in the 5' nontranscribed region of per and acts as a circadian enhancer element. Surprisingly, inhibition of this DNA binding activity by PER, TIM, or both is not accompanied by disruption of the association between dCLOCK and CYC. The results suggest that the interaction of PER, TIM, or both with the dCLOCK-CYC heterodimer induces a conformational change or masks protein regions in the heterodimer, leading to a reduction in DNA binding activity. Together with other findings, our results strongly suggest that daily cycles in the association of PER and TIM with the dCLOCK-CYC complex probably contribute to rhythmic expression of per and tim.  (+info)

mCRY1 and mCRY2 are essential components of the negative limb of the circadian clock feedback loop. (2/580)

We determined that two mouse cryptochrome genes, mCry1 and mCry2, act in the negative limb of the clock feedback loop. In cell lines, mPER proteins (alone or in combination) have modest effects on their cellular location and ability to inhibit CLOCK:BMAL1 -mediated transcription. This suggested cryptochrome involvement in the negative limb of the feedback loop. Indeed, mCry1 and mCry2 RNA levels are reduced in the central and peripheral clocks of Clock/Clock mutant mice. mCRY1 and mCRY2 are nuclear proteins that interact with each of the mPER proteins, translocate each mPER protein from cytoplasm to nucleus, and are rhythmically expressed in the suprachiasmatic circadian clock. Luciferase reporter gene assays show that mCRY1 or mCRY2 alone abrogates CLOCK:BMAL1-E box-mediated transcription. The mPER and mCRY proteins appear to inhibit the transcriptional complex differentially.  (+info)

Requirement of circadian genes for cocaine sensitization in Drosophila. (3/580)

The circadian clock consists of a feedback loop in which clock genes are rhythmically expressed, giving rise to cycling levels of RNA and proteins. Four of the five circadian genes identified to date influence responsiveness to freebase cocaine in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Sensitization to repeated cocaine exposures, a phenomenon also seen in humans and animal models and associated with enhanced drug craving, is eliminated in flies mutant for period, clock, cycle, and doubletime, but not in flies lacking the gene timeless. Flies that do not sensitize owing to lack of these genes do not show the induction of tyrosine decarboxylase normally seen after cocaine exposure. These findings indicate unexpected roles for these genes in regulating cocaine sensitization and indicate that they function as regulators of tyrosine decarboxylase.  (+info)

Interlocked feedback loops within the Drosophila circadian oscillator. (4/580)

Drosophila Clock (dClk) is rhythmically expressed, with peaks in mRNA and protein (dCLK) abundance early in the morning. dClk mRNA cycling is shown here to be regulated by PERIOD-TIMELESS (PER-TIM)-mediated release of dCLK- and CYCLE (CYC)-dependent repression. Lack of both PER-TIM derepression and dCLK-CYC repression results in high levels of dClk mRNA, which implies that a separate dClk activator is present. These results demonstrate that the Drosophila circadian feedback loop is composed of two interlocked negative feedback loops: a per-tim loop, which is activated by dCLK-CYC and repressed by PER-TIM, and a dClk loop, which is repressed by dCLK-CYC and derepressed by PER-TIM.  (+info)

Light-independent role of CRY1 and CRY2 in the mammalian circadian clock. (5/580)

Cryptochrome (CRY), a photoreceptor for the circadian clock in Drosophila, binds to the clock component TIM in a light-dependent fashion and blocks its function. In mammals, genetic evidence suggests a role for CRYs within the clock, distinct from hypothetical photoreceptor functions. Mammalian CRY1 and CRY2 are here shown to act as light-independent inhibitors of CLOCK-BMAL1, the activator driving Per1 transcription. CRY1 or CRY2 (or both) showed light-independent interactions with CLOCK and BMAL1, as well as with PER1, PER2, and TIM. Thus, mammalian CRYs act as light-independent components of the circadian clock and probably regulate Per1 transcriptional cycling by contacting both the activator and its feedback inhibitors.  (+info)

Cycling vrille expression is required for a functional Drosophila clock. (6/580)

We identified a novel regulatory loop within Drosophila's circadian clock. A screen for clock-controlled genes recovered vrille (vri), a transcription factor essential for embryonic development. vri is expressed in circadian pacemaker cells in larval and adult brains. vri RNA levels oscillate with a circadian rhythm. Cycling is directly regulated by the transcription factors dCLOCK and CYCLE, which are also required for oscillations of period and timeless RNA. Eliminating the normal vri cycle suppresses period and timeless expression and causes long-period behavioral rhythms and arrhythmicity, indicating that cycling vri is required for a functional Drosophila clock. We also show that dCLOCK and VRI independently regulate levels of a neuropeptide, pigment dispersing factor, which appears to regulate overt behavior.  (+info)

Phosphorylation of the Neurospora clock protein FREQUENCY determines its degradation rate and strongly influences the period length of the circadian clock. (7/580)

Under free running conditions, FREQUENCY (FRQ) protein, a central component of the Neurospora circadian clock, is progressively phosphorylated, becoming highly phosphorylated before its degradation late in the circadian day. To understand the biological function of FRQ phosphorylation, kinase inhibitors were used to block FRQ phosphorylation in vivo and the effects on FRQ and the clock observed. 6-dimethylaminopurine (a general kinase inhibitor) is able to block FRQ phosphorylation in vivo, reducing the rate of phosphorylation and the degradation of FRQ and lengthening the period of the clock in a dose-dependent manner. To confirm the role of FRQ phosphorylation in this clock effect, phosphorylation sites in FRQ were identified by systematic mutagenesis of the FRQ ORF. The mutation of one phosphorylation site at Ser-513 leads to a dramatic reduction of the rate of FRQ degradation and a very long period (>30 hr) of the clock. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that FRQ phosphorylation triggers its degradation, and the degradation rate of FRQ is a major determining factor for the period length of the Neurospora circadian clock.  (+info)

dCLOCK is present in limiting amounts and likely mediates daily interactions between the dCLOCK-CYC transcription factor and the PER-TIM complex. (8/580)

In Drosophila melanogaster four circadian clock proteins termed PERIOD (PER), TIMELESS (TIM), dCLOCK (dCLK), and CYCLE (CYC/dBMAL1) function in a transcriptional feedback loop that is a core element of the oscillator mechanism. dCLK and CYC are members of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)/PAS (PER-ARNT-SIM) superfamily of transcription factors and are required for high-level expression of per and tim and repression of dClk, whereas PER and TIM inhibit dCLK-CYC-mediated transcription and lead to the activation of dClk. To understand further the dynamic regulation within the circadian oscillator mechanism, we biochemically characterized in vivo-produced CYC, determined the interactions of the four clock proteins, and calculated their absolute levels as a function of time. Our results indicate that throughout a daily cycle the majority of the dCLK present in adult heads stably interacts with CYC, indicating that CYC is the primary in vivo partner of dCLK. dCLK-CYC dimers are bound by PER and TIM during the late evening and early morning, suggesting the formation of a tetrameric complex with impaired transcriptional activity. Although dCLK is present in limiting amounts and CYC is by far the most abundant of the four clock proteins that have been examined, PER and TIM appear to interact preferentially with dCLK. Our results suggest that dCLK is the main component regulating the daily abundance of transcriptionally active dCLK-CYC complexes.  (+info)

Read full article from Synchronicity Pharma. San Francisco August 27, 2019 - Synchronicity Pharma ("Synchronicity"), a clinical-stage company focused on therapeutic translation of circadian clock biology, today announced the publication of new preclinical research demonstrating that the modulation of circadian clock components may provide a novel therapeutic approach for treating glioblastoma, the most common form of brain cancer. The paper, which highlighted research led by scientific co-founder, Steve Kay, Ph.D. and collaborator, Jeremy Rich, M.D., was published in the latest edition of Cancer Discovery, a leading peer-reviewed oncology journal.. The results demonstrate that glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) have a specific dependence on core clock proteins for their growth and survival. A similar reliance on these core clock proteins was not seen in non-malignant cells nor mature glioblastoma cells. Researchers showed that the clock transcription factors, BMAL1 and CLOCK, were guided by ...
A programmable clock generator circuit receives control signals and a global clock and generates a pulsed data clock and a scan clock in response to gating signals. The clock generator has data clock and scan clock feed-forward paths and a single feedback path. Delay control signals program delay elements in the feedback path and logic gates reshape and generate a feedback clock signal. The global clock and the feedback clock signal are combined to generates a pulsed local clock signal. A scan clock feed-forward circuit receives the local clock and generates the scan clock. A data clock feed-forward circuit receives the local clock and generates the data clock with a logic controlled delay relative to the local clock signal. The feedback clock is generated with controlled delay thereby modifying the pulse width of the data and scan clocks independent of the controlled delay of the data clock feed-forward path.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Attenuating effect of clock mutation on triglyceride contents in the ICR mouse liver under a high-fat diet. AU - Kudo, Takashi. AU - Tamagawa, Toru. AU - Kawashima, Mihoko. AU - Mito, Natsuko. AU - Shibata, Shigenobu. PY - 2007/8. Y1 - 2007/8. N2 - Energy homeostasis is subjected to a circadian control that synchronizes energy intake and expenditure. The transcription factor CLOCK, a key component of the molecular circadian clock, controls many kinds of rhythms, such as those for locomotor activity, body temperature, and metabolic functions. The purpose of the present study is to understand the function of the Clock gene during lipid metabolism in the liver using Clock-mutant mice. Clock-mutant mice with an ICR background were fed a high-fat diet for 13 weeks, and liver triglyceride, serum triglyceride, and serum free fatty acid levels were examined. Triglyceride content in the liver was significantly less increased in Clock-mutant mice on a high-fat diet compared to wild-type ...
Transcriptional activator which forms a core component of the circadian clock. The circadian clock, an internal time-keeping system, regulates various physiological processes through the generation of approximately 24 hour circadian rhythms in gene expression, which are translated into rhythms in metabolism and behavior. It is derived from the Latin roots circa (about) and diem (day) and acts as an important regulator of a wide array of physiological functions including metabolism, sleep, body temperature, blood pressure, endocrine, immune, cardiovascular, and renal function. Consists of two major components: the central clock, residing in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the brain, and the peripheral clocks that are present in nearly every tissue and organ system. Both the central and peripheral clocks can be reset by environmental cues, also known as Zeitgebers (German for timegivers). The predominant Zeitgeber for the central clock is light, which is sensed by retina and signals directly to
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with impaired conditioned fear extinction learning, a ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)-dependent process. PTSD is also associated with dysregulation of vmPFC, circadian, and glucocorticoid hormone function. Rats have rhythmic clock gene expression in the vmPFC that requires appropriate diurnal circulatory patterns of corticosterone (CORT), suggesting the presence of CORT-entrained intrinsic circadian clock function within the PFC. We examined the role of vmPFC clock gene expression and its interaction with CORT profiles in regulation of auditory conditioned fear extinction learning. Extinction learning and recall were examined in male rats trained and tested either in the night (active phase) or in the day (inactive phase). Using a viral vector strategy, Per1 and Per2 clock gene expression were selectively knocked down within the vmPFC. Circulating CORT profiles were manipulated via adrenalectomy (ADX) ± diurnal and acute CORT ...
Circadian rhythms are generated by well-conserved interlocked transcriptional feedback loops in animals. In Drosophila, the dimeric transcription factor CLOCK/CYCLE (CLK/CYC) promotes period (per), timeless (tim), vrille (vri), and PAR-domain protein 1 (Pdp1) transcription. PER and TIM negatively feed back on CLK/CYC transcriptional activity, whereas VRI and PDP1 negatively and positively regulate Clk transcription, respectively. Here, we show that the ? isoform of the Drosophila FOS homolog KAYAK (KAY) is required for normal circadian behavior. KAY-? downregulation in circadian pacemaker neurons increases period length by 1.5 h. This behavioral phenotype is correlated with decreased expression of several circadian proteins. The strongest effects are on CLK and the neuropeptide PIGMENT DISPERSING FACTOR, which are both under VRI and PDP1 control. Consistently, KAY-? can bind to VRI and inhibit its interaction with the Clk promoter. Interestingly, KAY-? can also repress CLK activity. Hence, in ...
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Purpose: : Circadian rhythms are driven by a central clock (suprachiasmatic nucleus, SCN) and peripheral clocks (tissues) and determined by expression of "clock genes". Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is associated with endothelial precursor cell (EPC) dysfunction. We asked whether DR is associated with changes in clock genes expression within the retina, bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood EPCs and whether this could influence EPC release from the BM and thus the ability of EPC to repair the vasodegenerative phase of DR. Methods: : Type 2 diabetic (n=3) rats with 4 months duration of disease and age matched controls (n=5) were placed in standard LD conditions for two weeks prior to sacrifice. With a 24-hr period divided into a 12-hr activity phase and a 12-hr rest phase. In nocturnal animals, such as rats, Zeitgeber time (ZT) 12 is at the beginning of the activity phase (dark) and ZT 0 (light) is at the start of the rest phase. At peak release of EPC at (ZT) 4, animals were sacrificed and their ...
Apparatus and method support the synchronization and calibration of a plurality of clocks in a medical device system that may provide treatment to a patient with a nervous system disorder. The plurality of clocks, which may be located at different components of the medical device system, comprises a first clock and a second clock. The second clock may be synchronized to a first clock by disabling a run mode operation and setting the second clock to a selected time. When a reference time of the first clock approximately equals the selected time, the second clock enables the run mode operation. Additionally, a drift time that is indicative of a time difference between the first clock and the second clock is determined. If the drift time is greater than a predetermined amount, an indication to resynchronize the first and second clocks is provided.
A method for routing clock signals in an integrated circuit provides a hierarchical routing scheme in which the lowest level clock buffers are first placed row by row in preallocated locations and routed to the input pins of standard cells receiving the output clock signals of these clock buffers. Under the method, the number of clock buffers to be placed in each row is computed according to estimates of their load capacitances and expected wiring lengths within a window. The output buffers of the same clock signal are gridded or strapped together to minimize clock skew. A second level of clock buffers are then assigned to drive the lowest level buffers. The hierarchy can be extended to any number of higher levels, until clock signals are routed for the entire integrated circuit. The higher level clock signals can also be strapped or gridded to minimize clock skew.
By Renee Twombly. Researchers at The Scripps Research Institute say they have taken a leap forward in their quest to understand the proteins that control the human circadian clock - the 24-hour wake-sleep cycle that, when interrupted, can lead to jet lag and other sleep disturbances. In an Early Edition issue of The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) on April 9, 2009, the researchers report that they have been able to determine the molecular structure of a plant photolyase protein that is surprisingly similar to two cryptochrome proteins that control the master clock in humans and other mammals. They have also been able to test how structural changes affect the function of these proteins.. The plant photolyase structure provides a much better model to use to study how the cryptochrome proteins in the human clock function than we have ever had before, says the studys lead investigator, Kenichi Hitomi, a postdoctoral research fellow at Scripps Research. Its like knowing ...
Purpose: CLOCK and NPAS2, homologous circadian clock proteins, are expressed in the mammalian retina. However, their specific roles in retinal gene regulation or function have not been elucidated. This study was conducted to determine whether NPAS2 and CLOCK are co-expressed in retinal neurons and their effects on retinal gene expression and function.. Methods: Studies were performed using C57BL/6 wildtype (WT), Clock-/-, and Npas2-/- mice. Laser capture microdissection and quantitative real-time PCR were performed to isolate the ganglion cell layers (GCL) at five time points for transcription expression analyses for Npas2, Clock, and Adcy1. Luciferase reporter assay in NG108-15 cells was conducted to determine whether CLOCK/BMAL1 and/or NPAS2/BMAL1 heterodimers could activate the Adcy1 promoter. Contrast sensitivity was measured using optokinetic tracking at mid-day and mid-night time points, and scotopic and photopic electroretinograms (ERG) were recorded to measure retinal responses to ...
Our possessions should tell people who we are. Let the items that sit on your desk let people who come into your office know what youre about. If you want a clock that lets everyone know youre a science super geek, then the Model AWK-105 Analog Voltmeter Clock is for you.. This clock looks like an analog voltmeter. Its right there in the name. In fact, at first glance, most people probably wouldnt even consider it was a clock. A clock it is though! It reads hours and minutes but on two separate faces. The hours are on the left side and the minutes are on the right side. From there on, its just like a normal clock.. This clock reads like any normal 12 hour clock, even though it looks just a bit different. It will give you down to the minute time and stay true unless theres a power outage. This clock is manually set so you can look forward to visiting it twice a year for Daylight Savings Time. The Model AWK-105 Analog Voltmeter Clock is $139.. ...
A 2/N mode dock generator that generates bus clock signals through the use of bus clock enable signals selecting bus clock pulses that are in phase and out of phase with a core clock signal. The clock generator maintains synchronization between the bus clock signal and the core clock signal so that they are always in a predetermined phase relationship.
SR9011 Description:. SR9011 is a trifunctional methacrylate monomer that provides exceptional adhesion to metal substrates.. SR9011 is recommended for use in peroxide cured coatings, sealants, and PVC-based plastisols. Usage levels of 5% to 10% by weight are recommended.. SR9011 is a potent and specific synthetic REV-ERB. It also has good in vivo plasma/brain exposure. The nuclear receptors REV-ERB-α and REV-ERB-β play an integral role in regulating the expression of core clock proteins, driving rhythms in activity and metabolism. Administration of SR9011 alters circadian behavior and the circadian pattern of core clock gene expression in the hypothalami of mice. The circadian expression pattern of an array of metabolic genes in the liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue was also altered, resulting in increased energy expenditure. Treatment of diet-induced obese mice with SR9011 decreased obesity by reducing fat mass and markedly improved dyslipidaemia and hyperglycaemia. These results ...
The 527-02 Clock Slicer is the most flexible way to generate a CMOS output clock from a PECL input clock with zero skew. The user can easily configure the device to produce nearly any output clock that is multiplied or divided from the input clock. The part supports non-integer multiplications and divisions. A SYNC pulse indicates when the rising clock edges are aligned with zero skew. Using Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) techniques, the device accepts an input clock up to 200 MHz and produces an output clock up to 160 MHz. The 527-02 aligns rising edges on PECLIN with FBIN at a ratio determined by the reference and feedback dividers. For a PECL input and output clock with zero delay, use the 527-04. For a CMOS input and PECL output with zero delay, use the 527-03. ...
The 527-01 Clock Slicer is the most flexible way to generate an output clock from an input clock with zero skew. The user can easily configure the device to produce nearly any output clock that is multiplied or divided from the input clock. The part supports non-integer multiplications and divisions. A SYNC pulse indicates when the rising clock edges are aligned with zero skew. Using Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) techniques, the device accepts an input clock up to 200 MHz and produces an output clock up to 160 MHz. The 527-01 aligns rising edges on ICLK and FBIN at a ratio determined by the reference and feedback dividers. For configurable clocks that do not require zero delay, use the 525.. ...
A method of calibrating a first clock signal using a second clock signal and a plurality of calibration periods may include generating incremented counter values at a counter responsive to edges of the second clock signal. For at least two of the plurality of calibration periods, an initial incremented counter value from the counter may be stored in memory at an initial edge of the first clock signal for the respective calibration period, a final incremented counter value may be stored in memory at a final edge of the clock signal for the respective calibration period, and the at least two of the plurality of calibration periods may be overlapping with different initial and final edges of the first clock signal. For each of the plurality of calibration periods, a number of edges of the second clock signal occurring during the respective calibration period may be determined using the initial and final incremented counter values stored in memory. A relationship between the first and second clock signals
During the 15th and 16th centuries, clockmaking flourished, particularly in the metalworking towns of Nuremberg and Augsburg, and in Blois, France. Some of the more basic table clocks have only one time-keeping hand, with the dial between the hour markers being divided into four equal parts making the clocks readable to the nearest 15 minutes. Other clocks were exhibitions of craftsmanship and skill, incorporating astronomical indicators and musical movements. The cross-beat escapement was invented in 1584 by Jost Bürgi, who also developed the remontoire. Bürgis clocks were a great improvement in accuracy as they were correct to within a minute a day.[35][36] These clocks helped the 16th-century astronomer Tycho Brahe to observe astronomical events with much greater precision than before.[citation needed][how?] ...
The circadian genetic machinery is so well conserved in the evolution that the study of Drosophila provides a cheap alternative to knockout experiments in rodents. Orthologs have been identified in mammals for most of the Drosophila circadian clock genes. In insects though, unlike in mammals, CRY1 function is light-dependent. Even cyanobacteria have a circadian genetic clock that can be reconstituted in vitro for detailed quantitative analysis and comparative simulations. One of the conclusions coming from studying cyanobacteria is that the TTFL clock may actually be a slave to a master biochemical oscillator called the PTO (post-translational oscillator) (Qin et al. 2010[1]). The initial suggestion on the role of biochemical oscillators came from the persistence of the circadian rhythm in conditions of inhibited transcription and translation (Iwasaki et al. 2005[2]). Beyond their circadian roles, the genes are also involved in other functions. Interestingly, cryptochromes have been shown to be ...
Wall clocks in hospitals large and small, as well as in colleges and universities, along with all major businesses, have a continuing need for wall clocks. It can be especially important to have clocks that keep good time and do not break down, so that hospital workers and office individuals are not disagreeing about whether the quitting time has actually arrived or not.. Even hospital purchasing organizations, procurement divisions of government, businesses and other organizations are always seeking to maintain and improve the systems in place to track time, and wall clocks, not surprisingly, are the clock of choice.. When it comes to accuracy, radio controlled or atomic clocks have gained much favor and general acceptance by major institutions. Many purchase just a few to test them out to ensure they will work well for them. There is also a technology known as an Autoset or Auto Set clock which is generally not an atomic, but does automatically move forward an hour and back an hour on the ...
2. Time Clock Manager Pro 2.1 An employee time clock and a management tool. Its allows user to clock in/clock out. It works with touch screen monitors. Also has reports to show clocked in and clock out times. The application has integrated security and can work with networks... Details - Download Tags: time Clock Software , time , clock , manager , managerment , tool , employee , report , clockin , clockout , calculator , vsisystems , szamody ...
A video sub-system features reduced power consumption by periodically disabling the video controller clocks used for transferring pixel data to a screen. The video clocks are pulsed only when pixel data is being transferred to the screen, during the time that a horizontal line of pixels is being scanned on the screen. The video clocks are not pulsed during the horizontal and vertical blanking periods, when the electron beam in a cathode-ray-tube is being re-traced. The video clocks are also not pulsed during a recovery period for a flat-panel screen. A video memory contains pixel information for the entire screen and is controlled by a memory controller. The memory controller uses a memory clock to transfer all or part of a horizontal line of pixels to a video buffer. The pixel data is then read out of the video buffer to the screen in a serial fashion, synchronized to the video clock. Host data may be written to a host buffer using a bus clock from the host, and then written to the video memory using
It s always amazing to see something that looks so simple and see it transform into something well thought out and complex. That s exactly what s happening here with the Clock Clock. This is a huge what looks to be four-paneled clock that is actually made up of twenty-four small ones. Each panel is made up of 6 smaller clocks that have very basic faces, which adds a very interesting aesthetic.. Once the time changes, the hands on the panel in which a number is changing will all spin until all the hands meet to make the illusion of a large number. If you ve ever had the problem of needing to know what time it is and can t seem to find a clock, this may solve your problems as it s 51 x 18 . If you re late for anything you can t say you weren t paying attention to the time. This is actually at a gallery currently, but if you really want one, I m sure there are some fun tutorials online.. ...
Update Reason: Tender issue. The use of high accurate clocks within Ground Sensor Stations and also on-board of Satellites (GNSS, LEO) provides the potential todevelop new concepts for the precise orbit determination. High accurate clocks allow a better characterisation and therefore an improved modelling of the clock parameters. This feature has an direct impact on the satellite precise orbit determination capability. Recent results from a TRP study indicated that clock modelling improves the quality of kinematic orbits significantly. The high accurate clocks allow a new approach for the processing of the GNSS data and the related precise orbit determination algorithms. Especially the option to constrain the clock parameters will allow the potential reduction of the number of ground sensor stations used forthe orbit determination. This could also have an impact not only for global networks, but also on the usability of regional sensor station networks (e.g. Galileo, EGNOS). Further, high ...
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Circadian clock gene expression in in vitro cultured CD4+ T cells and PER2::Luciferase CD4+ reporter T cells. Blood was sampled from 3 nutritious younger males
By default, all articles on GreenMedInfo.com are sorted based on the content type which best reflects the data which most users are searching for. For instance, people viewing substances are generally most interested in viewing diseases that these substances have shown to have positive influences. This section is for allowing more advanced sorting methods. Currently, these advanced sorting methods are available for members only. If you are already a member, you can sign in by clicking here. If you do not currently have a user account, and would like to create one/become a member, click here to begin the singup process ...
Mouse polyclonal antibody raised against a full-length human CLOCK protein. CLOCK (ABZ92219.1, 1 a.a. ~ 846 a.a) full-length human protein. (H00009575-B01P) - Products - Abnova
Clocks are synchronized using a reference clock in two possible ways. One method uses two-way communication between a reference clock and a moving clock. The other method uses one-way communication from the moving clock.
An improved NRZ clock and data recovery system lends itself to integration, includes a NRZ phase detector, an NRZ frequency detector and a lock detector, and provides automatic centering of the clock edge within the bit interval in a manner that is independent of analog delays and process and temperature variations. NRZ data is applied to one side of an exclusive-OR gate and a twice delayed version of the NRZ data is applied to the other side. The output of the XOR gate, a blivet signal, is applied to a NRZ phase detector comprising two AND gates, one of which has as its other input a recovered clock signal output of a VCO and the other of which has as its other input an inverted version of the recovered clock signal. The up and down outputs of the AND gates indicate which direction a frequency control signal should change the VCO frequency. A data holding flip-flop whose input is a once delayed version of the NRZ data is clocked with the recovered clock signal. The NRZ frequency detector
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How do I disable clock buffer (BUFG) insertion? By default, Synplify inserts global clock buffers on the clock signals with the highest fanout. The rules for insertion are defined internally in Synplify, but typically, Synplify assigns a BUFG to any input signal that directly drives a clock.
Caption: A caesium fountain clock that keeps the United Kingdoms atomic time is now the most accurate long-term timekeeper in the world, according to a new evaluation of the clock that will be published in the October 2011 issue of the international scientific journal Metrologia by a team of physicists at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in the United Kingdom and Penn State University in the United States. This image shows the clock, NPL-CsF2, which is located at the National Physical Laboratory in Teddington, U.K. The whole device is approximately 8.2 feet (2.5 m) high. Atoms are tossed up 3.2 feet (1 m), approximately 12 inches (30 cm) above the cavity that is contained inside a vacuum vessel. The large external cylinder screens the atoms inside the clock from the relatively large and unstable external magnetic field ...
Scissors The first thing you need to do is take apart your clock. Mine was easy to do…..unscrewed 4 screws on the back, and then the whole thing came apart in a snap. Now that youve got your clock torn apart, remove the clock hands and set them aside. Its not necessary to do anything with the clock face, since youll be covering it up. ...
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Transcriptional repressor which binds to the consensus sequence 5-GGTGTG-3. Plays a role in the regulation of the circadian clock; binds to the GC box sequence in the promoter of the core clock component ARTNL/BMAL1 and represses its transcriptional activity. Regulates the circadian expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and glycolysis in the liver. Represses the expression of PCK2, a rate-limiting step enzyme of gluconeogenesis (By similarity). May play a role in the cell cycle regulation.
The CDCM1802 clock driver distributes one pair of differential clock input to one LVPECL differential clock output pair, Y0 and Y0, and one single-ended LVCMOS output, Y1.
PHILADELPHIA - While scientists have known for several years that our bodys internal clock helps regulate many biological processes, researchers have found that the reverse is also true: Many common biological processes - including insulin metabolism - regulate the clock, according to a new study by investigators at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, the Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation, and the University of California at San Diego.. The new data, published online in Cell this week, suggest that someday physicians may be able to use small molecules that inhibit or stimulate these biological processes in order to influence a persons clock when it gets out of sync due to jetlag or shift work. Researchers may also be able to find new ways to treat metabolic disorders that are intimately tied to the bodys daily cycles.. Using a genome-wide screen, the investigators found that reducing expression of any one of hundreds of genes could substantially alter the ...
New research shows that the womb has a body clock that needs to synchronize with the mothers body clock to ensure optimal conditions for fetal growth.
Alarm Clock Design - The Barisieur alarm clock design is a creative way to get your butt out of bed every morning. While you enjoy the last few minutes of your slumber,...
Thermochromic Clock - Forget clocks that tell you what time it is using LCDs, LEDs or mechanical hands; the Thermochromic Clock uses changes in temperature to tell time....
Type: Wall ClocksCombination: SeparatesStyle: EuropePattern: ScenicFeature: Antique StyleDisplay Type: NeedleMotivity Type: DigitalModel Number: Creative Wall ClockApplicable Placement: Living RoomForm: Single FaceWeight: 185Diameter: 12Shape: circularWidth: 16Length: 31.5Wall Clock Type: clock diameter 12cmBody Materi
I have an EDK design as a sub-module in a PlanAhead project. I would like to prevent XPS from inserting a clock buffer in the clock generator block for the XPS design. How can I do this?
Just like a piece of art, a wall clock should be chosen carefully. Its best to choose a piece that complements your existing décor. That is, you may like an old world cuckoo clock but if your room has a modern look, this clock will look very out of the place.
Free download Happy Clock Screensaver. Do you like clock screensavers? If yes, this is your screensaver. You will get all features of the clock screensaver: ana ... [114500]
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The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
CONCLUSION. Now we arrive at the obligatory moment where I feebly attempt to tie together life and running so as to impart some pithy little lesson upon the poor reader. Well, as cliched as it may sound, running has really given me the fortitude to take this big step, to trust that I am up to the challenges ahead, and to know that each and every obstacle along the way teaches valuable lessons. Our paths then take us squarely into the den of those obstacles again in the future, when we arrive ready to conquer them, or they deviate so that we find a better way to get to our destination.. No more than any other can I escape from the restrictions of time, but I can choose to be less of a slave to the clock which sometimes ticks so loudly that it drowns out the sounds of our lives. I want to hear the literal and figurative sounds and rhythms of my heart more often, so the running watch and the billing timer will need to lay quietly in the background while I do.. -ESG/Ron. ...
Shift work raises the risk of breast cancer, and now a gene associated with the body clock seems to makes its spread more likely in mice
The Laser Etched Recycled Circuit Board Clock is made from a recycled circuit board, and it features a clock face with no numbers, instead they have been replaced by a variety of schematic and logic symbols.
A method and apparatus for redriving a data signal adjusts a sampling clock signal responsive to the data signal. An embodiment of an I/O cell may include a receiver to receive and redrive a data sign
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Hi friends, The arm advanced-HS std cell library we are using does not have clock buffers or clock inverters at all. Can I use the normal buffers and inverters with high drive strength for CTS? Will the chip work? Please help me.
Definition of Put the clock forward with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
This very simple, very loud talking clock is nothing but button, making it extremely easy to find & to use. The round clock base measures 4 & 1/2 inches wide.
I think on the higher end cards the 2d/3d is supose to be greyed out and the Setting for "Same Clock Settings For All Devices" is the way you clock2d/3d , if you want just 3d then leave box unselected , if you want 2d to be the same as 3d then check the setting ...
Neophytus writes An interesting story on the BBC reports on how a new type of atomic clock is near completion that would only loose about a second in every 100 million years. Within ten years they hope to have a clock with billion year accuracy which would potentially bring advances in disease rese...
This is the Wake-Up Vibe, a $70 in-the-panty alarm clock for women that wakes you up with PLEASURE SENSATIONS. Its not the first time weve seen a vibrator alarm clock because I remember posting this one back in 2011...
Heres some unique alarm clocks to possibly brighten up, or wake you up for the day! Do not smash these alarm clocks as they are not the one at fault here.
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One of the remarkable things about these trees is that the branches have similar lengths. Beginning at the base of the tree, the distance to plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria is about the same. It differs by a factor of two, at most, for any species. This is evidence of a molecular clock-a roughly constant rate of evolutionary change for every lineage over a period of hundreds of millions of years. (Cytochrome c is not the ideal sequence for showing this since its pretty small as far as proteins go. Substitutions of only a few amino acids can make a big difference to branch lengths. Larger proteins show more regular molecular clocks ...
Rather than having a master clock, most human brains individual circuits can learn to tell time, giving us an uncanny ability to predict the passage of time.
The Lorentz Transformation (LT), which is the mathematical basis of Special Relativity (SR), tells us only what an observer in one inertial frame of reference (IFR-1) will observe as to the three spatial dimensions and the one temporal dimension of another inertial frame of reference (IFR-2). The LT does not mean or even imply that the dimensions of another IFR factually and physically change as a result of its velocity/speed relative to us (as observers). It does not tell us anything about the observers own IFR. A clock in IFR-1 measures time at an exactly fixed rate, regardless of how fast IFR-2 may be moving to IFR-1. Similarly, a clock in IFR-2 measures time at an exactly fixed rate, regardless of how fast IFR-1 may be moving relative to IFR-2. If the two clocks are identical, perfect clocks that measure time at exactly the same rate when their relative velocity is zero, they will continue to measure time at exactly the same rate, regardless of how great their relative velocity may become. ...
View Notes - PSYCH-C113 reading summaries pg90-166 from ANTHRO 2/AC at Berkeley. P g 93-100 The Mammalian Ci rcadian Clock in the S uprachiasmatic Nuclei Is Reset in v itro b y cAMP ( Prosser a nd
an analog clock can serve as a visual Reference for twelfths. at 1 o clock the hands mark off 1/12 of a circle at 2 o clock the hands mark off 2/12 of a circle and so on. how many twelfths are in each of these fractions of a circle? 1/2, 1/4, 1/3, 1/6 Math ...
Research shows that we can regulate our weight and protect ourselves from metabolic diseases even when genes affecting our eating habits are malfunctioning.
My 20 month old has always been an early riser but for a few months went through until 6 which I was thrilled about. Last few weeks have been 5.20 is
TheTribune: WASHINGTON: Cancer cells alter the body clock to boost tumour growth and survive conditions that would kill normal cells, a study has found.
Enhanced Labs ALL DAY SHRED so that you can burn fat around the clock. ECA SHRED increases energy and initiates fat loss during the early part of the day, a
Scientists have identified a gene in the cerebral cortex that apparently controls the developmental clock of embryonic nerve cells, a finding that could open another door to tissue replacement therapy in the central nervous system.
It it claimed as the first 12.5 Gb/s mux and demux solution to integrate both clock recovery and multiplication functions. The devices operate on a single 3.3V power supply and dissipate less than 3.5W of power for the total chipset. The chips are available in a modified 90-ball, BGA package built on a copper heat spreader for high-thermal cycling reliability. Samples are available with production slated for early Q3 of this year. Pricing is $695 each/100.. ...
This is an ingeneous and excellent add-on that is basically a really neat total waste of time :-) When you download the library to your calculator it will put a ticking clock at the bottom of the HOME view. It displays both the date and the time (once youve set them) and uses both 12hr and 24hr time format and both US and European date format ...
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Childrens alarm clock from a set of furniture for the nursery Heart.Bears two color options - blue and pink. Found in TSR Category Miscellaneous
The UTL882 kitchen clock and timer with magnet, pocket clip and stand has a countdown capacity of 24 Hours. The memory timer allows you to store a p
Every second counts! An exciting and practical accent in any room, this unique high quality Wall Clock serves as a statement piece, creating a personalized environment. .: Wooden frame.: Plexiglass face.: Pre-installed backside hook.: For indoor use.: Requires one AA battery (NOT included)
Moving the clocks forward by one extra hour all year in the UK could lead to children getting more exercise every day, say researchers, reports BBC News. In the UK...
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(Phys.org)-A team of researchers with Harvard University and the University of Cambridge has successfully improved the accuracy of a synthetic clock known as a repressilator. In their paper published in the journal Nature, ...
The best atomic clock will only be out of sync 3.5 times in every 10 quintillion ticks. It could help test general relativity and hunt for gravitational waves
Theyll always know it is chow time when they consult this cool aqua clock!! Stylish lozenge shape and bold trim make this and eye-catching timepiec
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my clocks have not gone anywhere, yet moved the hands as suggested. tick happily round the house, chiming out of time. unlike most things in the house, they need a flat surface. radio and telephone are correct, other things here are not. three years to mend the mantleclock in porthmadog. sbm.
Poodwaddles World Clock flash application offers anyone a fascinating glimpse into the continuously updated stats of global health. Poodwaddle, however, h
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Doctor Who: The Eternity Clock will immerse gamers in the universe of Doctor Who, allowing them to take on the role of the Doctor and River Song as they travel across time and space to save the Earth.
Many of the bodys tissues can tell time, and these peripheral clocks can be influenced by environmental cues, such as the timing of food consumption.. 0 Comments. ...
The Clock Generator PLL is designed to multiply an input clock by an integer between 1 and 4096. It does not provide any deskew functionality. It contains a 1-64 divider at the reference clock input, a 1-4096 divider in the internal feedback path, and a 1-8 divider at the output. The outputs are 50% duty cycle for all output divider values.. ...
The Clock Generator PLL is designed to multiply an input clock by an integer between 1 and 4096. It does not provide any deskew functionality. It contains a 1-64 divider at the reference clock input, a 1-4096 divider in the internal feedback path, and a 1-8 divider at the output. The outputs are 50% duty cycle for all output divider values.. ...
"Proteins that reprogram cells can turn back mice's aging clock". Retrieved 19 December 2016.. ... Oxidative Protein Damage and Expression of Heat Shock Proteins, Inflammatory Factors, and Mitochondrial Complexes in Arctica ... mTOR, a protein that inhibits autophagy, has been linked to ageing through the insulin signalling pathway. mTOR functions ... For example, a waste product called lipofuscin is formed by a complex reaction in cells that binds fat to proteins. This waste ...
Wang, I. N.; Smith, D. L.; Young, R. (2000-01-01). "Holins: the protein clocks of bacteriophage infections". Annual Review of ... this protein has not been functionally characterized.[2] Holin Lysin Transporter Classification Database Reddy, Bhaskara L.; ...
"Role of the CLOCK Protein in the Mammalian Circadian Mechanism". Science. 280 (5369): 1564-1569. doi:10.1126/science.280.5369. ... Hall, CLOCK ve Cycle (CYC) proteinlerinin PAS domaini yoluyla bir heterodimer oluşturduğunu keşfetti. Dimer oluştururken, per ... July 1999). "mCRY1 and mCRY2 Are Essential Components of the Negative Limb of the Circadian Clock Feedback Loop". Cell. 98: 193 ... "Pigment dispersing factor protein"inin (PDF), hücrelerdeki bu genlerin sirkadiyen ritimleri ve sırayla lokomotor aktivitesini ...
link) Tina Hesman Saey (15 December 2013). "Proteins that reprogram cells can turn back mice's aging clock". Retrieved 19 ... Oxidative Protein Damage and Expression of Heat Shock Proteins, Inflammatory Factors, and Mitochondrial Complexes in Arctica ... mTOR, a protein that inhibits autophagy, has been linked to ageing through the insulin signalling pathway. mTOR functions ... Dietary protein restriction not only inhibits mTOR activity but also IGF-1, two mechanisms implicated in ageing. Specifically, ...
Wang, I. N.; Smith, D. L.; Young, R. (2000-01-01). "Holins: the protein clocks of bacteriophage infections". Annual Review of ... However, these proteins were retrieved when functionally characterized holins from the T-A Hol family (TC# 1.E.43) were BLASTED ... Most BAH proteins are between 125 and 140 amino acyl residues (aas) in length and exhibit 4 transmembrane segments (TMSs), ... A representative list of proteins belonging to the BAH family can be found in the Transporter Classification Database. Holin ...
Holin Lysin Transporter Classification Database Wang, I. N.; Smith, D. L.; Young, R. (2000-01-01). "Holins: the protein clocks ... PH-2 family proteins are of 130 to 210 amino acyl residues (aas) in length and may exhibit 1 or 2 transmembrane segments (TMSs ... A representative list of proteins belonging to the PH-2 family can be found in the Transporter Classification Database. ...
Wang IN, Smith DL, Young R (2000). "Holins: the protein clocks of bacteriophage infections". Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 54: 799-825 ... Here, RNAI encodes a toxic protein Fst while RNAII is the regulatory sRNA. In E. coli strain K-12 there are four long direct ... It is a type I system because the toxin is neutralised by a complementary RNA, rather than a partnered protein (type II toxin- ... The hok gene codes for a 52 amino acid toxic protein which causes cell death by depolarization of the cell membrane. It works ...
Wang, I. N.; Smith, D. L.; Young, R. (2000). "Holins: the protein clocks of bacteriophage infections". Annual Review of ... This protein is functionally uncharacterized and does not appear to be homologous to other holins. It does, however, show 31% ...
Wang, I. N.; Smith, D. L.; Young, R. (2000-01-01). "Holins: the protein clocks of bacteriophage infections". Annual Review of ...
Wang IN, Smith DL, Young R (2000). "Holins: the protein clocks of bacteriophage infections". Annual Review of Microbiology. 54 ... The prototypical holin is the lambda phage S protein, which assists the lambda phage R protein (lysin). All holins embed ... Unlike most antibiotics, proteins are prone to antibody recognition and binding, which means that lysins could be ineffective ... In order to solve such a problem, phage viruses synthesize another protein called holin which binds to the cell membrane and ...
Wang, I. N.; Smith, D. L.; Young, R. (2000-01-01). "Holins: the protein clocks of bacteriophage infections". Annual Review of ... While many of the proteins belonging to this family are annotated in holins, they remain functionally uncharacterized. Holin ... A representative list of the proteins belonging to this family can be found in the Transporter Classification Database. ...
Wang, I. N.; Smith, D. L.; Young, R. (2000-01-01). "Holins: the protein clocks of bacteriophage infections". Annual Review of ... While annotated as holins, these proteins remain functionally uncharacterized. A representative list of proteins belonging to ... The Putative Listeria Phage Holin (LP-Hol) Family (TC# 1.E.51) consists of several small proteins of 41 amino acyl residues ( ...
Wang, I. N.; Smith, D. L.; Young, R. (2000-01-01). "Holins: the protein clocks of bacteriophage infections". Annual Review of ... although BP-Hol proteins remain functionally uncharacterized. A representative list of the proteins belonging to the BP-Hol ... These proteins are of 60 to 110 amino acyl residues (aas) in length and exhibit 1 or 2 transmembrane segments (TMSs). Some are ... protein".www.uniprot.org. Retrieved 2016-03-29. Gründling, Angelika; Manson, Michael D.; Young, Ry (2001-07-31). "Holins kill ...
Wang, I. N.; Smith, D. L.; Young, R. (2000-01-01). "Holins: the protein clocks of bacteriophage infections". Annual Review of ... This protein brings up other glycosyltransferases in a NCBI BLAST search. The adjacent gene encodes a small protein of 132 aas ... This protein has the UniProt accession number of S2E3C4. Paralogues are found in this same organism (Candidatus Nitrosoarchaeum ... The "toxin" gene encodes a soluble protein of 325 aas stated as belonging to the "Glycosyltransferase GBT-type Superfamily". ...
Wang, I. N.; Smith, D. L.; Young, R. (2000-01-01). "Holins: the protein clocks of bacteriophage infections". Annual Review of ... The Putative Treponema 4 TMS Holin (Tre4Hol) Family (TC# 1.E.49) consists of several proteins from Treponema species. They ...
Wang, I. N.; Smith, D. L.; Young, R. (2000-01-01). "Holins: the protein clocks of bacteriophage infections". Annual Review of ... The putative holin-like toxin (Hol-Tox) family (TC# 1.E.42) consists of many small proteins, between 34 and 48 amino acyl ... A representative list of proteins belonging to the Hol-Tox family can be found in the Transporter Classification Database. ... "Functional characterization of a new holin-like antibacterial protein coding gene tmp1 from goat skin surface metagenome". ...
Wang, I. N.; Smith, D. L.; Young, R. (2000-01-01). "Holins: the protein clocks of bacteriophage infections". Annual Review of ... Phage-like transmembrane protein', 'YeaQ protein', etc. in the NCBI protein database. As of early 2016, they remain ... These proteins are related to the RDD family (TC# 9.B.45) in the conserved domain database. A representative list of proteins ... Homologues include thousands of diverse phage and bacterial proteins between 80 and 140 amino acyl residues (aas) in length ...
Variations in the C-terminal region of each of their proteins suggest functional divergence between the Kai clock proteins, ... Kai proteins regulate genome-wide gene expression. Protein KaiA enhances the phosphorylation of protein KaiC by binding to the ... Egli, Martin (2014-08-01). "Intricate Protein-Protein Interactions in the Cyanobacterial Circadian Clock". The Journal of ... Egli, Martin (2014-08-01). "Intricate Protein-Protein Interactions in the Cyanobacterial Circadian Clock". Journal of ...
Wang, I. N.; Smith, D. L.; Young, R. (2000-01-01). "Holins: the protein clocks of bacteriophage infections". Annual Review of ... these proteins are not yet functionally characterized. A representative list of proteins belonging to the 2/3 Holin family can ... The 2 or 3 TMS Putative Holin (2/3 Holin) Family (TC# 1.E.33) consists of many proteobacterial proteins ranging in size from ...
Holin Lysin Transporter Classification Database Wang, I. N.; Smith, D. L.; Young, R. (2000-01-01). "Holins: the protein clocks ... Although annotated as phage proteins or holins, NP-Holin proteins are not yet functionally characterized, thus more research is ... The Neisserial Phage-associated Holin (NP-Holin) Family (TC# 1.E.22) is a family of small proteins, between 47 - 53 amino acyl ... A representative list of proteins belonging to the NP-Holin family can be found in the Transporter Classification Database. ...
Wang, Ing-Nang; Smith, David L.; Young, Ry (October 2000). "Holins: The Protein Clocks of Bacteriophage Infections". Annual ... The ArpQ Holin (ArpQ Holin) Family (TC# 1.E.15) consists of a single holin-like protein 58 amino acyl residues (aas) in length ... with 2 transmembrane segments (TMSs). This protein is encoded by the arpQ gene in Enterococcus hirae. While annotated as a ...
Wang, I. N.; Smith, D. L.; Young, R. (2000-01-01). "Holins: the protein clocks of bacteriophage infections". Annual Review of ... A representative list of proteins belonging to this family can be found in the Transporter Classification Database. Holin Lysin ...
Wang, I. N.; Smith, D. L.; Young, R. (2000). "Holins: the protein clocks of bacteriophage infections". Annual Review of ... "Phosphate concentration and the putative sensor kinase protein CckA modulate cell lysis and release of the Rhodobacter ...
Wang, I. N.; Smith, D. L.; Young, R. (2000-01-01). "Holins: the protein clocks of bacteriophage infections". Annual Review of ... The T4 Holin Family (TC# 1.E.8) is a group of putative pore-forming proteins that does not belong to one of the seven holin ... The protein is highly hydrophilic with 49 acidic and basic residues distributed along its length and a single putative ... The phage T4 T-holin (lysis protein) is identical to the holin from phage K3 and nearly identical to that from phage ARI. ...
Wang, I. N.; Smith, D. L.; Young, R. (2000-01-01). "Holins: the protein clocks of bacteriophage infections". Annual Review of ... The Mycobacterial Phage PBI1 Gp36 Holin (Gp36 Hol) Family (TC# 1.E.39) consists of a single protein, Gp36 of Mycobacterial ... this protein has not been functionally characterized. Holin Lysin Transporter Classification Database Reddy, Bhaskara L.; Saier ...
Homeobox protein Hox-D8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOXD8 gene.[5][6][7] ... 1989). "Complementary homeo protein gradients in developing limb buds". Genes Dev. 3 (5): 641-50. doi:10.1101/gad.3.5.641. PMID ... HOXD8+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... "The thyroid transcription factor-1 gene is a candidate target for regulation by Hox proteins". EMBO J. 13 (14): 3339-47. PMC ...
... have a specific dependence on core clock proteins for their growth and survival. A similar reliance on these core clock ... Synchronicity Pharma Highlights New Research Demonstrating Beneficial Effects of Modulating Core Clock Proteins in Glioblastoma ... Researchers showed that the clock transcription factors, BMAL1 and CLOCK, were guided by epigenetic mechanisms to bind to ... When BMAL1 and CLOCK activity was inhibited through a number of different methods, including the use of a small molecule ...
Inhibition of protein kinase A phase delays the mammalian circadian clock. Jennifer M. Lee, Kathryn M. Schak, Mary E. ... Inhibition of protein kinase A phase delays the mammalian circadian clock. / Lee, Jennifer M.; Schak, Kathryn M.; Harrington, ... Lee, J. M., Schak, K. M., & Harrington, M. E. (1999). Inhibition of protein kinase A phase delays the mammalian circadian clock ... Lee, JM, Schak, KM & Harrington, ME 1999, Inhibition of protein kinase A phase delays the mammalian circadian clock, Brain ...
From WT strain, clock proteins were coimmunoprecipitated with KaiA, whereas KaiA failed to form a protein complex with KaiB, ... Although the nonphosphorylatable mutant KaiC was able to form a hexamer in vitro, it failed to form a clock protein complex ... Effects of KaiC phosphorylation on the clock protein complex formation. The kaiA gene was mutagenized to introduce a FLAG- ... Phosphorylation state of KaiC protein mutated at autophosphorylation sites. WT and mutant KaiC proteins containing S431A, T432A ...
Codon usage affects the structure and function of the Drosophila circadian clock protein PERIOD. In: Genes and Development. ... Codon usage affects the structure and function of the Drosophila circadian clock protein PERIOD. Genes and Development. 2016 ... keywords = "Circadian clock, Codon usage, Drosophila, Period, Protein structure",. author = "Jingjing Fu and Murphy, {Katherine ... Codon usage affects the structure and function of the Drosophila circadian clock protein PERIOD. / Fu, Jingjing; Murphy, ...
  • Conversely, downregulation of Ras activity by blocking its function with an antibody in oscillating cell cultures reduced protein levels and increased phosphorylation of GSK3β and lengthened the period of BMAL1 promoter-driven luciferase activity. (nih.gov)
  • The activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1,2) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)-mediated transcription play a critical role in this photoentrainment. (nih.gov)
  • Application of a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor onto the SCN at Zeitgeber time (ZT) 10 on the first day in vitro phase delayed the rhythm of firing rate expressed by SCN neurons on the subsequent day in vitro. (elsevier.com)
  • In the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC are essential proteins for the generation of a circadian rhythm. (nih.gov)
  • Although the nonphosphorylatable mutant KaiC was able to form a hexamer in vitro, it failed to form a clock protein complex with KaiA, KaiB, and SasA in the Synechococcus cells. (nih.gov)
  • A ) Proteins were extracted from the WT and mutant cells collected at the indicated time and subjected to SDS/PAGE and immunoblotting analysis by using anti-KaiA, anti-KaiB, anti-KaiC, and anti-SasA antisera. (nih.gov)
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