A broad category of proteins that regulate the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM of an organism. Included here are proteins that transmit intracellular and intercellular signals in a chronological manner along with proteins that sense light and time-dependent changes in the environment such as the PHOTOPERIOD.
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that contain intrinsic HISTONE ACETYLTRANSFERASE activity and play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. Clock proteins combine with Arntl proteins to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation. This transcriptional activation also sets into motion a time-dependent feedback loop which in turn down-regulates the expression of clock proteins.
Biological mechanism that controls CIRCADIAN RHYTHM. Circadian clocks exist in the simplest form in cyanobacteria and as more complex systems in fungi, plants, and animals. In humans the system includes photoresponsive RETINAL GANGLION CELLS and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS that acts as the central oscillator.
A form-genus of spherical to rod-shaped CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. They contain THYLAKOIDS and are found in a wide range of habitats.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. They combine with CLOCK PROTEINS to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation.
A United States organization of distinguished scientists and engineers established for the purpose of investigating and reporting upon any subject of art or science as requested by any department of government. The National Research Council organized by NAS serves as the principal operating agency to stimulate and support research.
Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.
Flavoproteins that function as circadian rhythm signaling proteins in ANIMALS and as blue-light photoreceptors in PLANTS. They are structurally-related to DNA PHOTOLYASES and it is believed that both classes of proteins may have originated from an earlier protein that played a role in protecting primitive organisms from the cyclical exposure to UV LIGHT.
A chronobiologic disorder resulting from rapid travel across a number of time zones, characterized by insomnia or hypersomnolence, fatigue, behavioral symptoms, headaches, and gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Cooper, Sleep, 1994, pp593-8)
Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.
The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.
Collections of illustrative plates, charts, etc., usually with explanatory captions.
A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.
Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.
Diseases of the GALLBLADDER. They generally involve the impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, neoplasms, or other diseases.
Inflammation of the GALLBLADDER; generally caused by impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, or other diseases.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.

PER and TIM inhibit the DNA binding activity of a Drosophila CLOCK-CYC/dBMAL1 heterodimer without disrupting formation of the heterodimer: a basis for circadian transcription. (1/580)

The Drosophila CLOCK (dCLOCK) and CYCLE (CYC) (also referred to as dBMAL1) proteins are members of the basic helix-loop-helix PAS (PER-ARNT-SIM) superfamily of transcription factors and are required for high-level expression of the circadian clock genes period (per) and timeless (tim). Several lines of evidence indicate that PER, TIM, or a PER-TIM heterodimer somehow inhibit the transcriptional activity of a putative dCLOCK-CYC complex, generating a negative-feedback loop that is a core element of the Drosophila circadian oscillator. In this report we show that PER and/or TIM inhibits the binding of a dCLOCK-CYC heterodimer to an E-box-containing DNA fragment that is present in the 5' nontranscribed region of per and acts as a circadian enhancer element. Surprisingly, inhibition of this DNA binding activity by PER, TIM, or both is not accompanied by disruption of the association between dCLOCK and CYC. The results suggest that the interaction of PER, TIM, or both with the dCLOCK-CYC heterodimer induces a conformational change or masks protein regions in the heterodimer, leading to a reduction in DNA binding activity. Together with other findings, our results strongly suggest that daily cycles in the association of PER and TIM with the dCLOCK-CYC complex probably contribute to rhythmic expression of per and tim.  (+info)

mCRY1 and mCRY2 are essential components of the negative limb of the circadian clock feedback loop. (2/580)

We determined that two mouse cryptochrome genes, mCry1 and mCry2, act in the negative limb of the clock feedback loop. In cell lines, mPER proteins (alone or in combination) have modest effects on their cellular location and ability to inhibit CLOCK:BMAL1 -mediated transcription. This suggested cryptochrome involvement in the negative limb of the feedback loop. Indeed, mCry1 and mCry2 RNA levels are reduced in the central and peripheral clocks of Clock/Clock mutant mice. mCRY1 and mCRY2 are nuclear proteins that interact with each of the mPER proteins, translocate each mPER protein from cytoplasm to nucleus, and are rhythmically expressed in the suprachiasmatic circadian clock. Luciferase reporter gene assays show that mCRY1 or mCRY2 alone abrogates CLOCK:BMAL1-E box-mediated transcription. The mPER and mCRY proteins appear to inhibit the transcriptional complex differentially.  (+info)

Requirement of circadian genes for cocaine sensitization in Drosophila. (3/580)

The circadian clock consists of a feedback loop in which clock genes are rhythmically expressed, giving rise to cycling levels of RNA and proteins. Four of the five circadian genes identified to date influence responsiveness to freebase cocaine in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Sensitization to repeated cocaine exposures, a phenomenon also seen in humans and animal models and associated with enhanced drug craving, is eliminated in flies mutant for period, clock, cycle, and doubletime, but not in flies lacking the gene timeless. Flies that do not sensitize owing to lack of these genes do not show the induction of tyrosine decarboxylase normally seen after cocaine exposure. These findings indicate unexpected roles for these genes in regulating cocaine sensitization and indicate that they function as regulators of tyrosine decarboxylase.  (+info)

Interlocked feedback loops within the Drosophila circadian oscillator. (4/580)

Drosophila Clock (dClk) is rhythmically expressed, with peaks in mRNA and protein (dCLK) abundance early in the morning. dClk mRNA cycling is shown here to be regulated by PERIOD-TIMELESS (PER-TIM)-mediated release of dCLK- and CYCLE (CYC)-dependent repression. Lack of both PER-TIM derepression and dCLK-CYC repression results in high levels of dClk mRNA, which implies that a separate dClk activator is present. These results demonstrate that the Drosophila circadian feedback loop is composed of two interlocked negative feedback loops: a per-tim loop, which is activated by dCLK-CYC and repressed by PER-TIM, and a dClk loop, which is repressed by dCLK-CYC and derepressed by PER-TIM.  (+info)

Light-independent role of CRY1 and CRY2 in the mammalian circadian clock. (5/580)

Cryptochrome (CRY), a photoreceptor for the circadian clock in Drosophila, binds to the clock component TIM in a light-dependent fashion and blocks its function. In mammals, genetic evidence suggests a role for CRYs within the clock, distinct from hypothetical photoreceptor functions. Mammalian CRY1 and CRY2 are here shown to act as light-independent inhibitors of CLOCK-BMAL1, the activator driving Per1 transcription. CRY1 or CRY2 (or both) showed light-independent interactions with CLOCK and BMAL1, as well as with PER1, PER2, and TIM. Thus, mammalian CRYs act as light-independent components of the circadian clock and probably regulate Per1 transcriptional cycling by contacting both the activator and its feedback inhibitors.  (+info)

Cycling vrille expression is required for a functional Drosophila clock. (6/580)

We identified a novel regulatory loop within Drosophila's circadian clock. A screen for clock-controlled genes recovered vrille (vri), a transcription factor essential for embryonic development. vri is expressed in circadian pacemaker cells in larval and adult brains. vri RNA levels oscillate with a circadian rhythm. Cycling is directly regulated by the transcription factors dCLOCK and CYCLE, which are also required for oscillations of period and timeless RNA. Eliminating the normal vri cycle suppresses period and timeless expression and causes long-period behavioral rhythms and arrhythmicity, indicating that cycling vri is required for a functional Drosophila clock. We also show that dCLOCK and VRI independently regulate levels of a neuropeptide, pigment dispersing factor, which appears to regulate overt behavior.  (+info)

Phosphorylation of the Neurospora clock protein FREQUENCY determines its degradation rate and strongly influences the period length of the circadian clock. (7/580)

Under free running conditions, FREQUENCY (FRQ) protein, a central component of the Neurospora circadian clock, is progressively phosphorylated, becoming highly phosphorylated before its degradation late in the circadian day. To understand the biological function of FRQ phosphorylation, kinase inhibitors were used to block FRQ phosphorylation in vivo and the effects on FRQ and the clock observed. 6-dimethylaminopurine (a general kinase inhibitor) is able to block FRQ phosphorylation in vivo, reducing the rate of phosphorylation and the degradation of FRQ and lengthening the period of the clock in a dose-dependent manner. To confirm the role of FRQ phosphorylation in this clock effect, phosphorylation sites in FRQ were identified by systematic mutagenesis of the FRQ ORF. The mutation of one phosphorylation site at Ser-513 leads to a dramatic reduction of the rate of FRQ degradation and a very long period (>30 hr) of the clock. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that FRQ phosphorylation triggers its degradation, and the degradation rate of FRQ is a major determining factor for the period length of the Neurospora circadian clock.  (+info)

dCLOCK is present in limiting amounts and likely mediates daily interactions between the dCLOCK-CYC transcription factor and the PER-TIM complex. (8/580)

In Drosophila melanogaster four circadian clock proteins termed PERIOD (PER), TIMELESS (TIM), dCLOCK (dCLK), and CYCLE (CYC/dBMAL1) function in a transcriptional feedback loop that is a core element of the oscillator mechanism. dCLK and CYC are members of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)/PAS (PER-ARNT-SIM) superfamily of transcription factors and are required for high-level expression of per and tim and repression of dClk, whereas PER and TIM inhibit dCLK-CYC-mediated transcription and lead to the activation of dClk. To understand further the dynamic regulation within the circadian oscillator mechanism, we biochemically characterized in vivo-produced CYC, determined the interactions of the four clock proteins, and calculated their absolute levels as a function of time. Our results indicate that throughout a daily cycle the majority of the dCLK present in adult heads stably interacts with CYC, indicating that CYC is the primary in vivo partner of dCLK. dCLK-CYC dimers are bound by PER and TIM during the late evening and early morning, suggesting the formation of a tetrameric complex with impaired transcriptional activity. Although dCLK is present in limiting amounts and CYC is by far the most abundant of the four clock proteins that have been examined, PER and TIM appear to interact preferentially with dCLK. Our results suggest that dCLK is the main component regulating the daily abundance of transcriptionally active dCLK-CYC complexes.  (+info)

Read full article from Synchronicity Pharma. San Francisco August 27, 2019 - Synchronicity Pharma (Synchronicity), a clinical-stage company focused on therapeutic translation of circadian clock biology, today announced the publication of new preclinical research demonstrating that the modulation of circadian clock components may provide a novel therapeutic approach for treating glioblastoma, the most common form of brain cancer. The paper, which highlighted research led by scientific co-founder, Steve Kay, Ph.D. and collaborator, Jeremy Rich, M.D., was published in the latest edition of Cancer Discovery, a leading peer-reviewed oncology journal.. The results demonstrate that glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) have a specific dependence on core clock proteins for their growth and survival. A similar reliance on these core clock proteins was not seen in non-malignant cells nor mature glioblastoma cells. Researchers showed that the clock transcription factors, BMAL1 and CLOCK, were guided by ...
A programmable clock generator circuit receives control signals and a global clock and generates a pulsed data clock and a scan clock in response to gating signals. The clock generator has data clock and scan clock feed-forward paths and a single feedback path. Delay control signals program delay elements in the feedback path and logic gates reshape and generate a feedback clock signal. The global clock and the feedback clock signal are combined to generates a pulsed local clock signal. A scan clock feed-forward circuit receives the local clock and generates the scan clock. A data clock feed-forward circuit receives the local clock and generates the data clock with a logic controlled delay relative to the local clock signal. The feedback clock is generated with controlled delay thereby modifying the pulse width of the data and scan clocks independent of the controlled delay of the data clock feed-forward path.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Attenuating effect of clock mutation on triglyceride contents in the ICR mouse liver under a high-fat diet. AU - Kudo, Takashi. AU - Tamagawa, Toru. AU - Kawashima, Mihoko. AU - Mito, Natsuko. AU - Shibata, Shigenobu. PY - 2007/8. Y1 - 2007/8. N2 - Energy homeostasis is subjected to a circadian control that synchronizes energy intake and expenditure. The transcription factor CLOCK, a key component of the molecular circadian clock, controls many kinds of rhythms, such as those for locomotor activity, body temperature, and metabolic functions. The purpose of the present study is to understand the function of the Clock gene during lipid metabolism in the liver using Clock-mutant mice. Clock-mutant mice with an ICR background were fed a high-fat diet for 13 weeks, and liver triglyceride, serum triglyceride, and serum free fatty acid levels were examined. Triglyceride content in the liver was significantly less increased in Clock-mutant mice on a high-fat diet compared to wild-type ...
Transcriptional activator which forms a core component of the circadian clock. The circadian clock, an internal time-keeping system, regulates various physiological processes through the generation of approximately 24 hour circadian rhythms in gene expression, which are translated into rhythms in metabolism and behavior. It is derived from the Latin roots circa (about) and diem (day) and acts as an important regulator of a wide array of physiological functions including metabolism, sleep, body temperature, blood pressure, endocrine, immune, cardiovascular, and renal function. Consists of two major components: the central clock, residing in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the brain, and the peripheral clocks that are present in nearly every tissue and organ system. Both the central and peripheral clocks can be reset by environmental cues, also known as Zeitgebers (German for timegivers). The predominant Zeitgeber for the central clock is light, which is sensed by retina and signals directly to
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with impaired conditioned fear extinction learning, a ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)-dependent process. PTSD is also associated with dysregulation of vmPFC, circadian, and glucocorticoid hormone function. Rats have rhythmic clock gene expression in the vmPFC that requires appropriate diurnal circulatory patterns of corticosterone (CORT), suggesting the presence of CORT-entrained intrinsic circadian clock function within the PFC. We examined the role of vmPFC clock gene expression and its interaction with CORT profiles in regulation of auditory conditioned fear extinction learning. Extinction learning and recall were examined in male rats trained and tested either in the night (active phase) or in the day (inactive phase). Using a viral vector strategy, Per1 and Per2 clock gene expression were selectively knocked down within the vmPFC. Circulating CORT profiles were manipulated via adrenalectomy (ADX) ± diurnal and acute CORT ...
Circadian rhythms are generated by well-conserved interlocked transcriptional feedback loops in animals. In Drosophila, the dimeric transcription factor CLOCK/CYCLE (CLK/CYC) promotes period (per), timeless (tim), vrille (vri), and PAR-domain protein 1 (Pdp1) transcription. PER and TIM negatively feed back on CLK/CYC transcriptional activity, whereas VRI and PDP1 negatively and positively regulate Clk transcription, respectively. Here, we show that the ? isoform of the Drosophila FOS homolog KAYAK (KAY) is required for normal circadian behavior. KAY-? downregulation in circadian pacemaker neurons increases period length by 1.5 h. This behavioral phenotype is correlated with decreased expression of several circadian proteins. The strongest effects are on CLK and the neuropeptide PIGMENT DISPERSING FACTOR, which are both under VRI and PDP1 control. Consistently, KAY-? can bind to VRI and inhibit its interaction with the Clk promoter. Interestingly, KAY-? can also repress CLK activity. Hence, in ...
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Purpose: : Circadian rhythms are driven by a central clock (suprachiasmatic nucleus, SCN) and peripheral clocks (tissues) and determined by expression of clock genes. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is associated with endothelial precursor cell (EPC) dysfunction. We asked whether DR is associated with changes in clock genes expression within the retina, bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood EPCs and whether this could influence EPC release from the BM and thus the ability of EPC to repair the vasodegenerative phase of DR. Methods: : Type 2 diabetic (n=3) rats with 4 months duration of disease and age matched controls (n=5) were placed in standard LD conditions for two weeks prior to sacrifice. With a 24-hr period divided into a 12-hr activity phase and a 12-hr rest phase. In nocturnal animals, such as rats, Zeitgeber time (ZT) 12 is at the beginning of the activity phase (dark) and ZT 0 (light) is at the start of the rest phase. At peak release of EPC at (ZT) 4, animals were sacrificed and their ...
Apparatus and method support the synchronization and calibration of a plurality of clocks in a medical device system that may provide treatment to a patient with a nervous system disorder. The plurality of clocks, which may be located at different components of the medical device system, comprises a first clock and a second clock. The second clock may be synchronized to a first clock by disabling a run mode operation and setting the second clock to a selected time. When a reference time of the first clock approximately equals the selected time, the second clock enables the run mode operation. Additionally, a drift time that is indicative of a time difference between the first clock and the second clock is determined. If the drift time is greater than a predetermined amount, an indication to resynchronize the first and second clocks is provided.
A method for routing clock signals in an integrated circuit provides a hierarchical routing scheme in which the lowest level clock buffers are first placed row by row in preallocated locations and routed to the input pins of standard cells receiving the output clock signals of these clock buffers. Under the method, the number of clock buffers to be placed in each row is computed according to estimates of their load capacitances and expected wiring lengths within a window. The output buffers of the same clock signal are gridded or strapped together to minimize clock skew. A second level of clock buffers are then assigned to drive the lowest level buffers. The hierarchy can be extended to any number of higher levels, until clock signals are routed for the entire integrated circuit. The higher level clock signals can also be strapped or gridded to minimize clock skew.
By Renee Twombly. Researchers at The Scripps Research Institute say they have taken a leap forward in their quest to understand the proteins that control the human circadian clock - the 24-hour wake-sleep cycle that, when interrupted, can lead to jet lag and other sleep disturbances. In an Early Edition issue of The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) on April 9, 2009, the researchers report that they have been able to determine the molecular structure of a plant photolyase protein that is surprisingly similar to two cryptochrome proteins that control the master clock in humans and other mammals. They have also been able to test how structural changes affect the function of these proteins.. The plant photolyase structure provides a much better model to use to study how the cryptochrome proteins in the human clock function than we have ever had before, says the studys lead investigator, Kenichi Hitomi, a postdoctoral research fellow at Scripps Research. Its like knowing ...
Purpose: CLOCK and NPAS2, homologous circadian clock proteins, are expressed in the mammalian retina. However, their specific roles in retinal gene regulation or function have not been elucidated. This study was conducted to determine whether NPAS2 and CLOCK are co-expressed in retinal neurons and their effects on retinal gene expression and function.. Methods: Studies were performed using C57BL/6 wildtype (WT), Clock-/-, and Npas2-/- mice. Laser capture microdissection and quantitative real-time PCR were performed to isolate the ganglion cell layers (GCL) at five time points for transcription expression analyses for Npas2, Clock, and Adcy1. Luciferase reporter assay in NG108-15 cells was conducted to determine whether CLOCK/BMAL1 and/or NPAS2/BMAL1 heterodimers could activate the Adcy1 promoter. Contrast sensitivity was measured using optokinetic tracking at mid-day and mid-night time points, and scotopic and photopic electroretinograms (ERG) were recorded to measure retinal responses to ...
Our possessions should tell people who we are. Let the items that sit on your desk let people who come into your office know what youre about. If you want a clock that lets everyone know youre a science super geek, then the Model AWK-105 Analog Voltmeter Clock is for you.. This clock looks like an analog voltmeter. Its right there in the name. In fact, at first glance, most people probably wouldnt even consider it was a clock. A clock it is though! It reads hours and minutes but on two separate faces. The hours are on the left side and the minutes are on the right side. From there on, its just like a normal clock.. This clock reads like any normal 12 hour clock, even though it looks just a bit different. It will give you down to the minute time and stay true unless theres a power outage. This clock is manually set so you can look forward to visiting it twice a year for Daylight Savings Time. The Model AWK-105 Analog Voltmeter Clock is $139.. ...
A 2/N mode dock generator that generates bus clock signals through the use of bus clock enable signals selecting bus clock pulses that are in phase and out of phase with a core clock signal. The clock generator maintains synchronization between the bus clock signal and the core clock signal so that they are always in a predetermined phase relationship.
SR9011 Description:. SR9011 is a trifunctional methacrylate monomer that provides exceptional adhesion to metal substrates.. SR9011 is recommended for use in peroxide cured coatings, sealants, and PVC-based plastisols. Usage levels of 5% to 10% by weight are recommended.. SR9011 is a potent and specific synthetic REV-ERB. It also has good in vivo plasma/brain exposure. The nuclear receptors REV-ERB-α and REV-ERB-β play an integral role in regulating the expression of core clock proteins, driving rhythms in activity and metabolism. Administration of SR9011 alters circadian behavior and the circadian pattern of core clock gene expression in the hypothalami of mice. The circadian expression pattern of an array of metabolic genes in the liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue was also altered, resulting in increased energy expenditure. Treatment of diet-induced obese mice with SR9011 decreased obesity by reducing fat mass and markedly improved dyslipidaemia and hyperglycaemia. These results ...
Their protein products act as modifiers - they may add or remove phosphate groups on core clock genes, inhibit or stimulate expression of some of the core clock genes, degrade the core clock proteins either spontaneusly or upon receiving a signal that the retinae have perceived light, etc ...
The 527-02 Clock Slicer is the most flexible way to generate a CMOS output clock from a PECL input clock with zero skew. The user can easily configure the device to produce nearly any output clock that is multiplied or divided from the input clock. The part supports non-integer multiplications and divisions. A SYNC pulse indicates when the rising clock edges are aligned with zero skew. Using Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) techniques, the device accepts an input clock up to 200 MHz and produces an output clock up to 160 MHz. The 527-02 aligns rising edges on PECLIN with FBIN at a ratio determined by the reference and feedback dividers. For a PECL input and output clock with zero delay, use the 527-04. For a CMOS input and PECL output with zero delay, use the 527-03. ...
The 527-01 Clock Slicer is the most flexible way to generate an output clock from an input clock with zero skew. The user can easily configure the device to produce nearly any output clock that is multiplied or divided from the input clock. The part supports non-integer multiplications and divisions. A SYNC pulse indicates when the rising clock edges are aligned with zero skew. Using Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) techniques, the device accepts an input clock up to 200 MHz and produces an output clock up to 160 MHz. The 527-01 aligns rising edges on ICLK and FBIN at a ratio determined by the reference and feedback dividers. For configurable clocks that do not require zero delay, use the 525.. ...
A method of calibrating a first clock signal using a second clock signal and a plurality of calibration periods may include generating incremented counter values at a counter responsive to edges of the second clock signal. For at least two of the plurality of calibration periods, an initial incremented counter value from the counter may be stored in memory at an initial edge of the first clock signal for the respective calibration period, a final incremented counter value may be stored in memory at a final edge of the clock signal for the respective calibration period, and the at least two of the plurality of calibration periods may be overlapping with different initial and final edges of the first clock signal. For each of the plurality of calibration periods, a number of edges of the second clock signal occurring during the respective calibration period may be determined using the initial and final incremented counter values stored in memory. A relationship between the first and second clock signals
During the 15th and 16th centuries, clockmaking flourished, particularly in the metalworking towns of Nuremberg and Augsburg, and in Blois, France. Some of the more basic table clocks have only one time-keeping hand, with the dial between the hour markers being divided into four equal parts making the clocks readable to the nearest 15 minutes. Other clocks were exhibitions of craftsmanship and skill, incorporating astronomical indicators and musical movements. The cross-beat escapement was invented in 1584 by Jost Bürgi, who also developed the remontoire. Bürgis clocks were a great improvement in accuracy as they were correct to within a minute a day.[35][36] These clocks helped the 16th-century astronomer Tycho Brahe to observe astronomical events with much greater precision than before.[citation needed][how?] ...
The circadian genetic machinery is so well conserved in the evolution that the study of Drosophila provides a cheap alternative to knockout experiments in rodents. Orthologs have been identified in mammals for most of the Drosophila circadian clock genes. In insects though, unlike in mammals, CRY1 function is light-dependent. Even cyanobacteria have a circadian genetic clock that can be reconstituted in vitro for detailed quantitative analysis and comparative simulations. One of the conclusions coming from studying cyanobacteria is that the TTFL clock may actually be a slave to a master biochemical oscillator called the PTO (post-translational oscillator) (Qin et al. 2010[1]). The initial suggestion on the role of biochemical oscillators came from the persistence of the circadian rhythm in conditions of inhibited transcription and translation (Iwasaki et al. 2005[2]). Beyond their circadian roles, the genes are also involved in other functions. Interestingly, cryptochromes have been shown to be ...
Wall clocks in hospitals large and small, as well as in colleges and universities, along with all major businesses, have a continuing need for wall clocks. It can be especially important to have clocks that keep good time and do not break down, so that hospital workers and office individuals are not disagreeing about whether the quitting time has actually arrived or not.. Even hospital purchasing organizations, procurement divisions of government, businesses and other organizations are always seeking to maintain and improve the systems in place to track time, and wall clocks, not surprisingly, are the clock of choice.. When it comes to accuracy, radio controlled or atomic clocks have gained much favor and general acceptance by major institutions. Many purchase just a few to test them out to ensure they will work well for them. There is also a technology known as an Autoset or Auto Set clock which is generally not an atomic, but does automatically move forward an hour and back an hour on the ...
2. Time Clock Manager Pro 2.1 An employee time clock and a management tool. Its allows user to clock in/clock out. It works with touch screen monitors. Also has reports to show clocked in and clock out times. The application has integrated security and can work with networks... Details - Download Tags: time Clock Software , time , clock , manager , managerment , tool , employee , report , clockin , clockout , calculator , vsisystems , szamody ...
A video sub-system features reduced power consumption by periodically disabling the video controller clocks used for transferring pixel data to a screen. The video clocks are pulsed only when pixel data is being transferred to the screen, during the time that a horizontal line of pixels is being scanned on the screen. The video clocks are not pulsed during the horizontal and vertical blanking periods, when the electron beam in a cathode-ray-tube is being re-traced. The video clocks are also not pulsed during a recovery period for a flat-panel screen. A video memory contains pixel information for the entire screen and is controlled by a memory controller. The memory controller uses a memory clock to transfer all or part of a horizontal line of pixels to a video buffer. The pixel data is then read out of the video buffer to the screen in a serial fashion, synchronized to the video clock. Host data may be written to a host buffer using a bus clock from the host, and then written to the video memory using
It s always amazing to see something that looks so simple and see it transform into something well thought out and complex. That s exactly what s happening here with the Clock Clock. This is a huge what looks to be four-paneled clock that is actually made up of twenty-four small ones. Each panel is made up of 6 smaller clocks that have very basic faces, which adds a very interesting aesthetic.. Once the time changes, the hands on the panel in which a number is changing will all spin until all the hands meet to make the illusion of a large number. If you ve ever had the problem of needing to know what time it is and can t seem to find a clock, this may solve your problems as it s 51 x 18 . If you re late for anything you can t say you weren t paying attention to the time. This is actually at a gallery currently, but if you really want one, I m sure there are some fun tutorials online.. ...
PATCH v8 20/22] clk: tegra: Remove tegra_pmc_clk_init along with clk ids 2020-01-14 7:24 [PATCH v8 00/22] Move PMC clocks into Tegra PMC driver Sowjanya Komatineni ` (18 preceding siblings ...) 2020-01-14 7:24 ` [PATCH v8 19/22] ASoC: tegra: Enable audio mclk during tegra_asoc_utils_init Sowjanya Komatineni @ 2020-01-14 7:24 ` Sowjanya Komatineni 2020-02-17 9:55 ` Thierry Reding 2020-01-14 7:24 ` [PATCH v8 21/22] dt-bindings: clock: tegra: Remove pmc clock ids from clock dt-bindings Sowjanya Komatineni ` (4 subsequent siblings) 24 siblings, 1 reply; 47+ messages in thread From: Sowjanya Komatineni @ 2020-01-14 7:24 UTC (permalink / raw) To: skomatineni, thierry.reding, jonathanh, broonie, lgirdwood, perex, tiwai, digetx, mperttunen, gregkh, sboyd, robh+dt, mark.rutland Cc: pdeschrijver, pgaikwad, spujar, josephl, daniel.lezcano, mmaddireddy, markz, devicetree, linux-clk, linux-tegra, linux-kernel Current Tegra clock driver registers PMC clocks clk_out_1, clk_out_2, clk_out_3 and 32KHz blink ...
Plasma is all about Clocks. Its an old joke, but it contains a kernel of truth. The clock is the one element of the desktop most people depend on, and it can be a valuable conduit for information they need. This page will co-ordinate all the resources around the Plasma Clock and plans for its future. == Resources == [http://userbase.kde.org/Plasma/Clocks UserBase Page] [https://bugs.kde.org/buglist.cgi?order=Importance&query_format=advanced&bug_status=UNCONFIRMED&bug_status=NEW&bug_status=ASSIGNED&bug_status=REOPENED&component=widget-clock&product=plasma KDE Bugzilla all open Plasma Clock bugs] [http://community.kde.org/Plasma/Tasks#Calendar.2FClock_Plasmoids Plasma Tasks List for Clocks] == Current Implementation == The current implementation can be found in the following locations. [https://projects.kde.org/projects/kde/kde-workspace/repository/revisions/master/show/plasma/generic/dataengines/time Time DataEngine] - Provides current Time ...
Update Reason: Tender issue. The use of high accurate clocks within Ground Sensor Stations and also on-board of Satellites (GNSS, LEO) provides the potential todevelop new concepts for the precise orbit determination. High accurate clocks allow a better characterisation and therefore an improved modelling of the clock parameters. This feature has an direct impact on the satellite precise orbit determination capability. Recent results from a TRP study indicated that clock modelling improves the quality of kinematic orbits significantly. The high accurate clocks allow a new approach for the processing of the GNSS data and the related precise orbit determination algorithms. Especially the option to constrain the clock parameters will allow the potential reduction of the number of ground sensor stations used forthe orbit determination. This could also have an impact not only for global networks, but also on the usability of regional sensor station networks (e.g. Galileo, EGNOS). Further, high ...
Buy Ticking Clock Loops Pack by ShahruhAudio on AudioJungle. 4 various ticking clock loops Durations: ticking clock1 0:04 ticking clock2 0:08 ticking clock3 0:08 ticking clock4 0...
Circadian clock gene expression in in vitro cultured CD4+ T cells and PER2::Luciferase CD4+ reporter T cells. Blood was sampled from 3 nutritious younger males
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Mouse polyclonal antibody raised against a full-length human CLOCK protein. CLOCK (ABZ92219.1, 1 a.a. ~ 846 a.a) full-length human protein. (H00009575-B01P) - Products - Abnova
Clocks are synchronized using a reference clock in two possible ways. One method uses two-way communication between a reference clock and a moving clock. The other method uses one-way communication from the moving clock.
An improved NRZ clock and data recovery system lends itself to integration, includes a NRZ phase detector, an NRZ frequency detector and a lock detector, and provides automatic centering of the clock edge within the bit interval in a manner that is independent of analog delays and process and temperature variations. NRZ data is applied to one side of an exclusive-OR gate and a twice delayed version of the NRZ data is applied to the other side. The output of the XOR gate, a blivet signal, is applied to a NRZ phase detector comprising two AND gates, one of which has as its other input a recovered clock signal output of a VCO and the other of which has as its other input an inverted version of the recovered clock signal. The up and down outputs of the AND gates indicate which direction a frequency control signal should change the VCO frequency. A data holding flip-flop whose input is a once delayed version of the NRZ data is clocked with the recovered clock signal. The NRZ frequency detector
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Circadian clocks provide an adaptive advantage by allowing organisms to anticipate daily and seasonal environmental changes [1, 2]. Eukaryotic oscillators rely on complex hierarchical networks composed of transcriptional and posttranslational regulatory circuits [3]. In Arabidopsis, current represen …
Time clock hours converter and calculator. Data can be 24 or 12 hour formats. Both daily and weekly overtime limits can be set. High and low warning levels can be set for each clock in/out period. Prints results. Time Clock hours converter and calculator. Data can be 24 or 12 hour formats. Both daily and weekly overtime limits can be set. High and low warning levels can be set for each Clock in/out period. Input times can be set to either hours and minutes or decimal hours. Daily and weekly regular and overtime hours are displayed as data is entered. Three weeks of data entry..... Category: Home & Education / ...
Analogue Alarm Clock is an exceptional quality advanced alarm clock for your Windows desktop. It offers multiple ways of integration with desktop and comes with eight beautiful on-board clock skins.
How do I disable clock buffer (BUFG) insertion? By default, Synplify inserts global clock buffers on the clock signals with the highest fanout. The rules for insertion are defined internally in Synplify, but typically, Synplify assigns a BUFG to any input signal that directly drives a clock.
Caption: A caesium fountain clock that keeps the United Kingdoms atomic time is now the most accurate long-term timekeeper in the world, according to a new evaluation of the clock that will be published in the October 2011 issue of the international scientific journal Metrologia by a team of physicists at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in the United Kingdom and Penn State University in the United States. This image shows the clock, NPL-CsF2, which is located at the National Physical Laboratory in Teddington, U.K. The whole device is approximately 8.2 feet (2.5 m) high. Atoms are tossed up 3.2 feet (1 m), approximately 12 inches (30 cm) above the cavity that is contained inside a vacuum vessel. The large external cylinder screens the atoms inside the clock from the relatively large and unstable external magnetic field ...
Scissors The first thing you need to do is take apart your clock. Mine was easy to do…..unscrewed 4 screws on the back, and then the whole thing came apart in a snap. Now that youve got your clock torn apart, remove the clock hands and set them aside. Its not necessary to do anything with the clock face, since youll be covering it up. ...
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Transcriptional repressor which binds to the consensus sequence 5-GGTGTG-3. Plays a role in the regulation of the circadian clock; binds to the GC box sequence in the promoter of the core clock component ARTNL/BMAL1 and represses its transcriptional activity. Regulates the circadian expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and glycolysis in the liver. Represses the expression of PCK2, a rate-limiting step enzyme of gluconeogenesis (By similarity). May play a role in the cell cycle regulation.
The CDCM1802 clock driver distributes one pair of differential clock input to one LVPECL differential clock output pair, Y0 and Y0, and one single-ended LVCMOS output, Y1.
PHILADELPHIA - While scientists have known for several years that our bodys internal clock helps regulate many biological processes, researchers have found that the reverse is also true: Many common biological processes - including insulin metabolism - regulate the clock, according to a new study by investigators at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, the Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation, and the University of California at San Diego.. The new data, published online in Cell this week, suggest that someday physicians may be able to use small molecules that inhibit or stimulate these biological processes in order to influence a persons clock when it gets out of sync due to jetlag or shift work. Researchers may also be able to find new ways to treat metabolic disorders that are intimately tied to the bodys daily cycles.. Using a genome-wide screen, the investigators found that reducing expression of any one of hundreds of genes could substantially alter the ...
The identification of circadian clocks in endocrine tissues has added considerable depth and complexity to our understanding of their physiology. A growing body of research reveals circadian clock gene expression in the uterus of non-pregnant and pregnant mammals. A key study to draw attention to the potential role of the circadian clock and pregnancy was that of Miller et al (2004), who reported that pregnant mice lacking the functional Clock gene (ClockΔ19) had prolonged and non-productive parturition, suggestive of a role for circadian clocks in the parturition event. Nakamura et al. (2010) showed changes in Per2::LUC rhythmic phase and amplitude in uterine explants treated with estrogen and progesterone. These results are consistent with the idea that ovarian steroid levels during the estrous cycle have a modulating influence of clock gene expression in the uterus. Ratajczak et al. (2010) examined expression of circadian clock genes in the mouse uterus in late pregnancy and
1. Shi M, Zheng X. Interactions between the circadian clock and metabolism: there are good times and bad times. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2013;45: 61-69. doi: 10.1093/abbs/gms110 23257295. 2. Rosbash M. The Implications of Multiple Circadian Clock Origins. Young Michael, editor. PLoS Biol. 2009;7: e1000062. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000062 19296723. 3. Young MW, Kay SA. Time zones: a comparative genetics of circadian clocks. Nat Rev Genet. 2001;2: 702-715. doi: 10.1038/35088576 11533719. 4. Taylor JS, Raes J. Duplication and divergence: the evolution of new genes and old ideas. Annu Rev Genet. 2004;38: 615-43. doi: 10.1146/annurev.genet.38.072902.092831 15568988. 5. Ohno S. Evolution by Gene Duplication. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg; 1970. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-86659-3. 6. van der Horst GTJ, Muijtjens M, Kobayashi K, Takano R, Kanno S, Takao M, et al. Mammalian Cry1 and Cry2 are essential for maintenance of circadian rhythms. Nature. 1999;398: 627-630. doi: ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adrenergic regulation of clock gene expression in mouse liver. AU - Terazono, Hideyuki. AU - Mutoh, Tatsushi. AU - Yamaguchi, Shun. AU - Kobayashi, Masaki. AU - Akiyama, Masashi. AU - Udo, Rhyuta. AU - Ohdo, Shigehiro. AU - Okamura, Hitoshi. AU - Shibata, Shigenobu. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2003/5/27. Y1 - 2003/5/27. N2 - A main oscillator in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) conveys circadian information to the peripheral clock systems for the regulation of fundamental physiological functions. Although polysynaptic autonomic neural pathways between the SCN and the liver were observed in rats, whether activation of the sympathetic nervous system entrains clock gene expression in the liver has yet to be understood. To assess sympathetic innervation from the SCN to liver tissue, we investigated whether injection of adrenaline/ noradrenaline (epinephrine/norepinephrine) or sympathetic nerve stimulation could induce mPer gene expression ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The relationships between clinical characteristics, alcohol and psychotropic exposure, and circadian gene expression in human postmortem samples of affective disorder and control subjects. AU - Gonzalez, Robert. AU - Bernardo, Carmina. AU - Cruz, Dianne. AU - Walss-Bass, Consuelo. AU - Thompson, Peter M.. PY - 2014/8/30. Y1 - 2014/8/30. N2 - Circadian abnormalities may be related to mood disorders. Circadian gene expression was measured in postmortem brain tissue from individuals with affective disorders and controls. Relationships between circadian gene expression, clinical characteristics, and alcohol and psychotropic medication use were noted. Further study is warranted to characterize these relationships.. AB - Circadian abnormalities may be related to mood disorders. Circadian gene expression was measured in postmortem brain tissue from individuals with affective disorders and controls. Relationships between circadian gene expression, clinical characteristics, and alcohol ...
Our results herein suggest that the circadian gene CLOCK is associated with comorbid depression and AUD, but not with AUD only. The haplotype TTGC formed by SNPs rs3805151, rs2412648, rs11240, rs2412646 was suggestively associated with increased risk for the comorbidity, with the odds ratio of 1.65. The SNPs of importance for this suggestive association were rs11240 and rs2412646, indicating location of the functional variation downstream of rs2412648. No indication of association with CLOCK was found when comparing AUD with healthy controls. Accordingly, the suggestive association to CLOCK was seen when comparing comorbid cases with combined group of healthy controls and persons diagnosed with AUD. This CLOCK variation may be a vulnerability factor for depression given the alcohol exposure in AUD but not considerably increasing the risk for depression without AUD. This view is supported by the findings from other studies of the Finnish general population through the Health 2000 Study. They ...
article{3062551, abstract = {Previously, we identified HISTONE MONOUBIQUITINATION1 (HUB1) as an unconventional ubiquitin E3 ligase that is not involved in protein degradation but in the histone H2B modification that is implicated in transcriptional activation in plants. HUB1-mediated regulation of gene expression played a role in periodic and inducible processes such as the cell cycle, dormancy, flowering time and defense responses. Here, we determined the effects of the hub1-1 mutation on expression of a set of diurnally induced circadian clock genes identified from a comparative microarray analysis between the hub1-1 mutant and an HUB1 over-expression line. The hub1-1 mutation reduced the amplitudes of a number of induced clock gene expression peaks, as well as the HUB1-mediated histone H2BUb and H3K4Me3 marks associated with the coding regions, suggesting a role for HUB1 in facilitating transcriptional elongation in plants. Furthermore, double mutants between hub1-1 and elongata (elo) showed ...
Marked circadian rhythms in myocardial metabolism are mediated by as yet unidentified mechanism(s). Virtually every mammalian cell possesses an intrinsic circadian clock, a transcriptionally-based molecular mechanism capable of regulating multiple cellular functions. Recent studies suggest that the transcriptional co-activator, PGC1α, is an integral component of the mammalian circadian clock, which links this molecular mechanism to oxidative metabolism. To test the hypothesis that the circadian clock directly influences myocardial metabolism, a cardiomyocyte-specific circadian clock mutant (CCM) mouse was generated. Wild-type (WT) and CCM hearts were isolated and perfused in the working mode, for simultaneous assessment of myocardial contractile function and metabolism. Compared to WT, CCM hearts exhibited decreased cardiac efficiency independent of the time of day (13% lower; p,0.05), with greatest differences observed during the middle of the dark (awake) phase (29% lower; p,0.01). ...
Disruption of circadian homeostasis is frequently observed in tumour cells. In a comprehensive study of circadian clock genes in 21 cancer types that takes into account genomic, transcriptomic and phenotypic (clinical prognosis) data, we demonstrated that clock genes were substantially altered by somatically acquired deletions and amplifications. Recurrent deletions or amplifications that were accompanied by altered transcript expression in tumours could represent novel loss- or gain-of-function phenotypes. To exploit these circadian targets in a clinical setting, we analysed survival outcomes using the ClockLoss and ClockGain and confirmed the utility of both gene sets as prognostic tools in 2914 and 2784 patients involving seven diverse cancer cohorts.. Depending on cellular context, the circadian clock can exert both tumour-promoting or tumour-inhibiting properties. We observed that core clock genes, PERs, CRY2, CLOCK, NR1D2, RORA and RORB exhibited global patterns of somatic loss and ...
The majority of cells in the body have an internal clock which controls cell cycle factors. However, the internal clock of cancer cells is often non-functioning or malfunctioning.. In the study, the team compared the growth and cell cycle events of B16 melanoma cells and tumors with either a functional or dysfunctional clock. The team demonstrated that clock genes are suppressed in B16 melanoma cells and B16 tumors.. The team then went on to successfully adjust the internal clocks of melanoma B16 cells and human colon carcinoma cells, as to make them function normally. The repair, carried out in tissue cultures and mice, slowed the growth of tumor tissue; a week post-treatment, the treated tumor was two thirds smaller compared to the control tumor.. There were indications suggesting that the malfunctioning clock contributed to rapid tumor growth, but this had never been demonstrated. Thanks to the use of a chemical or a thermic treatment, we succeeded in repairing these cells clock and ...
The tick-tock of your biological clock may have just gotten a little louder.. Researchers at the University of Georgia report that the number of genes under control of in living things than suspected only a few years ago. The biological clock in a much-studied model organism is dramatically higher than previously reported. The new study implies that the clock may be much more important. This new finding may help to explain why the clock is so far-reaching in its effects on the organism, said Jonathan Arnold, a professor in the UGA department of genetics and director of the research project. We found that some 25 percent of the genes in our model organism appear to be under clock control. I wasnt suspecting anything remotely like that.. The new research, just published in the Public Library of Science One, also shows how Arnolds team used a new methodology called Computing Life to yield these new discoveries about biological clocks. And this tool of systems biology was the key to showing ...
Circadian clocks regulate daily patterns of behavior, metabolism, and immune system function. At the core of the clock are transcriptional and translational feedback loops that generate periodic, oscillating changes in the abundance of clock components. One of these loops involves the action of the transcription factors CLOCK and BMAL1, heterodimers of which stimulate the expression of genes encoding the transcription factors Period 1 and Period 2 (PER1 and PER2). PER1 and PER2 accumulate in the cytoplasm, translocate into the nucleus, and inhibit transcription of Clock and Bmal1. The timing of transcription and translation of clock components is important for determining the clocks periodicity, and Chen et al. report that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a key role in this timing mechanism. Because the circadian clock is essential for early development, the authors used mice harboring a conditional knockout of Dicer, which encodes a critical component of the miRNA processing machinery, to assess the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mutagenesis and mapping of a mouse gene, clock, essential for circadian behavior. AU - Vitaterna, Martha Hotz. AU - King, David P.. AU - Chang, Anne Marie. AU - Kernhauser, Jon M.. AU - Lowrey, Phillip L.. AU - McDonald, J. David. AU - Dove, William F.. AU - Pinto, Lawrence H.. AU - Turek, Fred W.. AU - Takahashi, Joseph S.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2018 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1994/4/29. Y1 - 1994/4/29. N2 - In a search for genes that regulate circadian rhythms in mammals, the progeny of mice treated with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) were screened for circadian clock mutations. A semidominant mutation, Clock, that lengthens circadian period and abolishes persistence of rhythmicity was identified. Clock segregated as a single gene that mapped to the midportion of mouse chromosome 5, a region syntenic to human chromosome 4. The power of ENU mutagenesis combined with the ability to clone murine genes by map position provides a generally applicable approach to ...
Organisms possess endogenous clocks that enable them to synchronize to diurnal environmental cycles and anticipate time of day. In several model systems, it is known that the circadian molecular clock consists of transcriptional/translational autoregulatory feedback loops in which clock proteins translocate to the nucleus and regulate clock gene transcription (Reppert and Weaver, 2002; Dunlap and Loros, 2005; Hardin, 2005). In Drosophila, the molecular oscillator is composed of three feedback loops which are interlocked by virtue of the CLK control of per and tim gene transcription. The first loop results in rhythmic PERIOD (PER) and TIMELESS (TIM) clock protein production, the second generates rhythms in the CLOCK (CLK) transcription factor and the third (Clockwork Orange) modulates the expression of several clock genes known to be regulated by the CLK transcription factor by binding to the E-box regulatory element (Glossop et al., 1999; Cyran et al., 2003; Glossop et al., 2003; Yu et al., ...
The body clock, also known as the circadian rhythm, refers to innate bodily functions that follow an unseen schedule. Your body clock is led by the master clock inside your brain. This is a group of 20,000 neurons called suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) in the hypothalamus. These neurons control the regulation of hormonal levels, digestion and other processes. The production of cortisol (which helps wake you up) and melatonin (which prepares you for sleep) are some of the bodily processes affected.. Your body clock is affected by internal and external factors. Inside your body, cells have their biological clocks coordinated by the SCN. Outside your body, the circadian rhythm is mostly affected by three factors: exposure to light, consumption of food or drinks and decisions of the person (e.g. pulling an all-nighter). (Related: Evaluating how human rhythms are affected by light, darkness, and the clock.). When your body clock is not functioning well, it drastically affects your sleep cycle. Without ...
Video articles in JoVE about circadian rhythm include In Vitro Bioluminescence Assay to Characterize Circadian Rhythm in Mammary Epithelial Cells, Design and Analysis of Temperature Preference Behavior and its Circadian Rhythm in Drosophila, Parallel Measurement of Circadian Clock Gene Expression and Hormone Secretion in Human Primary Cell Cultures, Recording and Analysis of Circadian Rhythms in Running-wheel Activity in Rodents, Monitoring Cell-autonomous Circadian Clock Rhythms of Gene Expression Using Luciferase Bioluminescence Reporters, The FlyBar: Administering Alcohol to Flies, Blue-hazard-free Candlelight OLED, Assaying Locomotor Activity to Study Circadian Rhythms and Sleep Parameters in Drosophila, Slice Preparation, Organotypic Tissue Culturing and Luciferase Recording of Clock Gene Activity in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus, Measuring Circadian and Acute Light Responses in Mice using Wheel Running Activity, Analysis of Circadian Photoresponses in Drosophila Using Locomotor
Structural biologists have made important progress towards better understanding the functioning of the circadian clock. The circadian or inner clock coordinates the sleep-wake rhythm and many other body processes that regulate, ...
This summer, Connecticut began dipping into a $750,000 allotment from the state bonding commission to start cleaning up the 80-year-old mess. The DEP is sharing clean-up responsibility with the Lower Valley Council of Governments (COG) a regional cooperative organization. The plan is to start with Enterprise Apartments in Waterbury, the only residential space in the massive factory complex. Officials found low-level radiation in two apartments and relocated the tenants.. Even though apartments are vacant, the city wanted to get those addressed as quickly as possible, Arthur Boland, a consultant on the radium project.. Next, other Waterbury Clock occupants like Ville Swiss Automatics and M.Aron/Belco will get scrubbed clean. Crews then will move on to the old Lux Clock site (the 15-foot clock on the Green was designed by Paul Lux), now occupied by Anchor Advanced Products, as well as to the Sessions Clock site in Bristol, the New Haven Clock site, and the Seth Thomas Clock site in ...
Another type of analog clock is the sundial, which tracks the sun continuously, registering the time by the shadow position of its gnomon. Because the sun does not adjust to daylight saving time, users must add an hour during that time. Corrections must also be made for the equation of time, and for the difference between the longitudes of the sundial and of the central meridian of the time zone that is being used (i.e. 15 degrees east of the prime meridian for each hour that the time zone is ahead of GMT). Sundials use some or part of the 24 hour analog dial. There also exist clocks which use a digital display despite having an analog mechanism-these are commonly referred to as flip clocks. Alternative systems have been proposed. For example, the Twelv clock indicates the current hour using one of twelve colors, and indicates the minute by showing a proportion of a circular disk, similar to a moon phase.[74] ...
BMAL1 can form heterodimers with either CLOCK or NPAS2, which act redundantly but show different tissue specificity. The BMAL1:CLOCK and BMAL1:NPAS2 heterodimers activate a set of genes that possess E-box elements (consensus CACGTG) in their promoters. This confers circadian expression on the genes. The PER genes (PER1, PER2, PER3) and CRY genes (CRY1, CRY2) are among those activated by BMAL1:CLOCK and BMAL1:NPAS2. PER and CRY mRNA accumulates during the morning and the proteins accumulate during the afternoon. PER and CRY proteins form complexes in the cytosol and these are bound by either CSNK1D or CSNK1E kinases which phosphorylate PER and CRY. The phosphorylated PER:CRY:kinase complex is translocated into the nucleus due to the nuclear localization signal of PER and CRY. Within the nucleus the PER:CRY complexes bind BMAL1:CLOCK and BMAL1:NPAS2, inhibiting their transactivation activity and their phosphorylation. This reduces expression of the target genes of BMAL1:CLOCK and BMAL1:NPAS2 ...
In the classical view of circadian clock organization, the daily rhythms of most organisms were thought to be regulated by a central, master pacemaker, usually located within neural structures of the animal. However, with the results of experiments performed in zebrafish, mammalian cell lines and, more recently, mammalian tissues, this view has changed to one where clock organization is now seen as being highly decentralized. It is clear that clocks exist in the peripheral tissues of animals as diverse as Drosophila, zebrafish and mammals. In the case of Drosophila and zebrafish, these tissues are also directly light-responsive. This light sensitivity and direct clock entrainability is also true for zebrafish cell lines and early-stage embryos. Using luminescent reporter cell lines containing clock gene promoters driving the expression of luciferase and single-cell imaging techniques, we have been able to show how each cell responds rapidly to a single light pulse by being shifted to a common ...
This is the first study to show that RICTOR/mTORC2 acts as a regulator for coordinated diurnal expression of clock genes in PVAT, but not in the SCN. At the whole body level, RICTOR/mTORC2 in adipose and brain tissue contributes to the diurnal regulation of blood pressure and locomotor activity. The presented data demonstrate the importance of the mTORC2 signaling pathway in the brain to adipocyte axis for daily fluctuations of physiological processes.. We and others have recently shown that mTORC2 activity controls inflammatory molecule expression using tissue-specific Rictor knockout mouse models.7,20 We showed that vascular contractility in RictoraP2KO mice is increased because of enhanced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in PVAT.7 Ablation of Rictor strongly reduced AKTSer473 phosphorylation, resulting in impaired mTORC2 signaling.5-7 Consequently, we assign the observed changes in RictoraP2KO mice to the impaired mTORC2 downstream signaling.. In this study, we explored these findings ...
It is unclear whether these behavioral changes are related to perturbation in the circadian oscillator itself or some other area of the brain. CLOCK, for example, is highly expressed in the hippocampus, as is SCOP. It could be that CLOCK has an independent function that is unrelated to its role in the SCN, but it could also be that CLOCK is having an effect in dopamine cells, said McClung. One thing that we and others have found is that basically all the components of the dopamine system are circadian. Dopamine levels, receptors, the enzymes involved in dopamine synthesis all have a circadian rhythm, so maybe its normal function is to control the rhythm in dopamine firing and dopamine transmission.. The researchers tested this idea by introducing functional CLOCK into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the brain, a region that plays a key role in the brains reward pathways and is laden with dopaminergic cells. McClung and colleagues used viral vectors to transfect the VTA of CLOCK mutant ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Dysfunction of the circadian transcriptional factor CLOCK in mice resists chemical carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Looking for clock tick? Find out information about clock tick. One increment, or pulse, of the CPU clock. See clock speed and clock Explanation of clock tick
CLOCK and BMAL1 are bHLH-PAS-containing transcription factors that bind to E-box elements and are indispensable for expression of core circadian clock components such as the Per and Cry genes. A key step in expression is the heterodimerization of CLOCK and BMAL1 and their accumulation in the nucleus …
In the present study, it was demonstrated that icariin promoted osteogenic differentiation by upregulating BMAL1 expression through BMP signaling in BMSCs. These findings suggested that BMAL1 plays a critical role in icariin-mediated osteogenic differentiation.. In fact, a circadian clock exists in every cell of the human body. The central players in these are BMAL1 encoded by the gene ARNTL and clock circadian regulator (CLOCK) by the gene CLOCK (19). BMSCs are stem cells with the ability to differentiate in vitro into adipocytes, osteoblasts and cartilage-forming chondroblasts (20). Regardless of its exact developmental origin, the function of the circadian clock gene is related to the behavior of various stem cells involved in homeostasis and repair of bone and adipose tissue (21). A recent report revealed impairment of osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs from BMAL1−/− mice (5). This finding was in line with our present study as well as an observational study that showed that the numbers ...
Circadian rhythms are mechanisms that measure time on a scale of about 24 h and that adjusts our body to external environmental signals. Core circadian clock genes are defined as genes whose protein products are necessary components for the generation and regulation of circadian rhythms. Circadian proteins also regulate genes involved in either cell division or death; and a perturbation of the balance among these processes leads to cancer development and progression.. A key aspect of cancer research is identifying new regulatory pathways involved in proliferation and differentiation of cell. Disruption of circadian rhythm has recently emerged as a new potential risk factor in the development of cancer, pointing to the core gene period 2 (per2) as a tumor suppressor. However, it remains unclear how the circadian network regulates tumor suppression, nor which, if any, of its components is either the ultimate effector that influences the fate of the cell.. Initial experiments were devoted to ...
Disruption of two genes that control circadian rhythms can lead to diabetes, a researcher at UT Southwestern Medical Center has found in an animal study.. Mice with defective copies of the genes, called CLOCK and BMAL1, develop abnormalities in pancreatic cells that eventually render the cells unable to release sufficient amounts of insulin.. These results indicate that disruption of the daily clock may contribute to diabetes by impairing the pancreas ability to deliver insulin, said Dr. Joseph Takahashi, an investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute at UT Southwestern and co-senior author of the study, which appeared in the journal Nature. Dr. Takahashi, who recently joined UT Southwestern as chairman of neuroscience, performed the research with colleagues when he was at Northwestern University.. Circadian rhythms are cyclical patterns in biological activities, such as sleeping, eating, body temperature and hormone production.. The mammalian CLOCK gene, which Dr. Takahashi ...
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Synchronization of circadian oscillators with the outside world is achieved by the acute effects of light on the levels of one or more clock components. In mammals the PAS transcription factors Clock, NPAS2, and BMAL1 regulate gene expression as a function of the day-night cycle. Both PAS domains of NPAS2 were found to bind heme as a prosthetic group, form a gas-regulated sensor, and exert heme-status control of DNA binding in vitro. In a microarray analysis comparing overall changes in brain transcript levels between mice subjected to light pulses during the dark phase with animals maintained in darkness, we traced consistent changes in more than 200 different transcripts. Of these, 20 are associated with heme and iron biosynthesis and catabolism. A model for the pathway of induction of heme and iron homeostasis-related transcripts resulting from light pulses suggests that light signals (as stressors) induce transcription of heme oxygenase 2 (Hmox2) and cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (Por), ...
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Circadian rhythms are the daily biological and physiological processes that cycle with a period of about 24 hours. In recent years, the circadian field has progressed significantly from the discovery of many genes involved in the core circadian function. The first mammalian circadian gene that was cloned, Clock, was shown to be a transcription factor that is critical for the proper functioning of the circadian system in mammals. Many studies have been conducted with the Clock Δ19 mutation and how ubiquitous perturbations in Clock gene function affect the circadian system at both the behavioral and molecular levels. However, the tissue specific role of the Clock gene in controlling circadian rhythms has not been addressed. In addition, circadian studies have not been conducted with a mouse model that contains a loss of expression of the Clock gene. In this study, we have attempted to address these two issues using a variety of different methods. First, we utilized the tetracycline transactivator ...
Organisms and even single cells have endogenous biological clocks that allow them to tell the time of day. Research in our laboratory is directed towards understanding the cellular and molecular bases of these fascinating timing mechanisms in a variety of organisms: cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), plants, and animals. To analyze the molecular nature of the clock in the prokaryotic cyanobacteria, we have developed a bioluminescent reporter strain that expresses a daily rhythm of light emission. Using this bioluminescence rhythm as a marker, clock mutants have been identified. We found that the essential clock gene, KaiC, is rhythmically expressed and forms ATP-dependent hexamers. In collaboration with the laboratory of Dr. Martin Egli, we have crystallized KaiC to determine its three-dimensional structure and discover its phosphorylation sites. The three key bacterial clock proteins (KaiA + KaiB + KaiC) will show circadian oscillations in a test tube! In collaboration with the laboratories ...
Circadian Keynote: Circadian Clock Mechanisms in Mammals and Their Relevance to Aging and Longevity. Dr. Takahashi is Chair of the Department of Neuroscience at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. The Takahashi Lab is interested in understanding the genetic and molecular basis of circadian rhythms as well as other complex behaviors.. Circadian rhythms are key to maintaining homeostasis and their disruption has been associated with neurological and metabolic changes in humans and other mammals, such as sleeping disruption, bipolar disorder, and aging. Takahashi and his team use the mouse as a model organism to discover genes associated with the regulation of circadian behaviors and the team applies techniques from genomics, biochemistry and structural biology to investigate the genes functions in the molecular mechanisms underlying the circadian clock.. In 2004, Dr. Takahashi developed the Per2:luc mouse, PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE real-time reporting of circadian dynamics reveals ...
As a matter of fact, the notion of an internal clock as the sole timing element does not reflect the complexity of the real circumstances. The daily behaviour of living organisms is a combination of immediate responses to changes in the environment and processes controlled by the circadian clock, says Helfrich-Förster. These two protagonists interact to help organisms adjust to their environment in an optimal way. For example, an animal whose eyes are not adapted to darkness will stop its movements after nightfall. And ideally its circadian clock will make the animal stop its activities before it is dark the next day.. The researchers studied the mechanisms and protagonists involved in these complex processes and the way they interact using the example of the fruit fly. The study looked at healthy flies, clockless flies, eyeless flies and flies lacking other timing-related switches. During the laboratory experiments they were exposed to different light conditions: simulated dusk, almost ...
The number of studies on the association between clock genes polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility has increased over the last years but the results are often conflicting and no comprehensive overview and quantitative summary of the evidence in this field is available. RESULTS: Literature search identified 27 eligible studies comprising 96756 subjects (cases: 38231) and investigating 687 polymorphisms involving 14 clock genes. Overall, 1025 primary and subgroup meta-analyses on 366 gene variants were performed. Study distribution by tumor was as follows: breast cancer (n=15), prostate cancer (n=3), pancreatic cancer (n=2), non-Hodgkins lymphoma (n=2), glioma (n=1), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (n=1), colorectal cancer (n=1), non-small cell lung cancer (n=1) and ovarian cancer (n=1).We identified 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with cancer risk: NPAS2 rs10165970 (mixed and breast cancer shiftworkers), rs895520 (mixed), rs17024869 (breast) and rs7581886 ...
King DP, Zhao Y, Sangoram AM, Wilsbacher LD, Tanaka M, Antoch MP, Steeves TD, Vitaterna MH, Kornhauser JM, Lowrey PL, Turek FW, Takahashi JS. Cell. 1997;89(4):641-53. Genetic mapping and sequencing in mice confirmed the identification of the mammalian gene, clock, involved in the circadian system. A comparison of the nucleotide sequence of the wildtype gene with…
Everything about Clock Movements and Motors. Clock movements as well as electric motors are the actual digestive tracts of watches. Clock movements and also electric motors run mechanically or electronically, establishing anytime in time the angle subtended by each individual hand. These interesting gadgets are our focus in this post.. Clock motors as well as motions are compatible terms that describe the very same point, one term maybe preferred by laypersons and the other by tradespersons. The earliest ones operated purely mechanically, turning a flywheel based on the force coming from a hanging weight or securely wound springtime. A pendulum, in tandem with an escapement, worked as the regulator for the fundamental period of timing (typically the second).. The modern clock activity is digital instead of mechanical. Its heart is a quartz crystal that vibrates (reverberates) at a specific regularity originated from the crystal geometry. A set of mathematical registers partitions the natural ...
ARM] 4550/1: sched_clock on PXA should cope with run time clock rate selection The previous implementation was relying on compile time optimizations based on a constant clock rate. However, support for different PXA flavors in the same kernel binary requires that the clock be selected at run time, so here it is. Lets move this code to a more appropriate location while at it. Signed-off-by: Nicolas Pitre ,[EMAIL PROTECTED], Signed-off-by: Russell King ,[EMAIL PROTECTED], --- arch/arm/mach-pxa/generic.c , 62 ------------------------------------------- arch/arm/mach-pxa/time.c , 39 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 2 files changed, 39 insertions(+), 62 deletions(-) diff --git a/arch/arm/mach-pxa/generic.c b/arch/arm/mach-pxa/generic.c index 5510f6f..9d6a2c0 100644 --- a/arch/arm/mach-pxa/generic.c +++ b/arch/arm/mach-pxa/generic.c @@ -25,10 +25,6 @@ #include ,linux/pm.h, #include ,linux/string.h, -#include ,linux/sched.h, -#include ,asm/cnt32_to_63.h, -#include ,asm/div64.h, - #include ,asm/hardware.h, ...
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A clock object is provides, which includes a clock time and a monotonic time that are readable by the electronic device. The monotonic time is incremented every read of the monotonic time from the clock object. The clock object can also include an indication of a level of trust of the clock time.
mwooten at ducvax.auburn.edu had several questions concerning using fossils to calibrate the molecular clock. This is a response to those questions and comments. I am not for sure what Mike Wooten is arguing. The divergence time estimate for Mus and Rattus is based on the fossil record, and the age of fossils has nothing to do with the phenotype and the environment. In fact, I dont even know what this has to do with calibration of the molecular clock. The best estimate for divergence between Mus and Rattus is based on the earliest fossils and is between approximately 11 and 12 million years. The controversy as to this divergence comes from arguments presented by Vincent Sarich based on an albumin clock. Here, Sarich estimated a 35 million year divergence. This estimate has nothing to do with the fossil record. To the contrary, it is based on an assumption that the albumin clock for rodents should be similar to other mammals. Given this assumption, the amount of divergence seen in terms of AID ...
Robin Harper MSP, who is President of the Royal Scottish Society of Arts, said: Thomas Reid was perhaps the finest clock-maker that Scotland has produced.. The RSSA is delighted to present this significant regulator clock to join one of the Museums most important collections.. Dr Gordon Rintoul, Director, National Museums Scotland, added: I am grateful to the Royal Scottish Society of Arts for giving us this rare clock, which showcases Scotlands achievements in horology and is now on permanent display in our Industry and Empire Gallery.. Thomas Reid was one of the most eminent clock-makers of his time, the regulator clock being the master clock from his shop.. The Royal Scottish Society of Arts was established in 1821 and is still active in Edinburgh, concerned with improvements and progress in science, medicine and technology and presents a series of evening lectures throughout the year. ...
The laboratory is interested in the molecular basis of behavior. One major emphasis is on the mechanisms underlying circadian rhythms of behavior and physiology. Our accomplishments in this area have largely used a Drosophila model and include the isolation of the timeless clock gene, the finding that timeless (tim) functions in an autoregulatory loop that lies at the core of the endogenous clock, elucidating the mechanisms that synchronize the clock to light and discovering mechanisms that transmit signals from the clock and produce overt rest:activity rhythms. Ongoing work is addressing the mechanisms that generate a circadian period in the molecular clock, identifying the neural circuits that drive rhythms of rest:activity, and mapping the specific molecules/peptides that function in these circuits. We are also investigating circadian control of other physiological processes in Drosophila as well as mammals ...
The laboratory is interested in the molecular basis of behavior. One major emphasis is on the mechanisms underlying circadian rhythms of behavior and physiology. Our accomplishments in this area have largely used a Drosophila model and include the isolation of the timeless clock gene, the finding that timeless (tim) functions in an autoregulatory loop that lies at the core of the endogenous clock, elucidating the mechanisms that synchronize the clock to light and discovering mechanisms that transmit signals from the clock and produce overt rest:activity rhythms. Ongoing work is addressing the mechanisms that generate a circadian period in the molecular clock, identifying the neural circuits that drive rhythms of rest:activity, and mapping the specific molecules/peptides that function in these circuits. We are also investigating circadian control of other physiological processes in Drosophila as well as mammals ...
A digital clock and calendar powered by food! this unique clock and calender combines micro-electronic technology with the natural electrical potential of a fresh fruit or vegetable. The Fruit Clock uses the original scientific principles on which all modern electrical storage batteries are based. Just add a fresh orange, apple, lemon, lime, pear, banana, or any another convenient fruit or vegetable to the supplied components in this kit and you have the perfect synthesis of natures own electrical power resource and the accuracy of a digital clock.. ...
Another essential component of this circadian clock mechanism is that the PER protein contains a PAS domain, which has been ... "JRKL - Jerky protein homolog-like - Homo sapiens (Human) - JRKL gene & protein". www.uniprot.org. Retrieved 2019-04-11. ... The Jrk mutation deletes much of the gene that encodes for the glutamine (Q)-rich C terminus of the protein. This region is ... "Clk Clock [Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly)] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2019-04-11. "FlyBase Allele ...
Variations in the C-terminal region of each of their proteins suggest functional divergence between the Kai clock proteins, ... Egli M (August 2014). "Intricate protein-protein interactions in the cyanobacterial circadian clock". The Journal of Biological ... Egli M (August 2014). "Intricate protein-protein interactions in the cyanobacterial circadian clock". The Journal of Biological ... Kai proteins regulate genome-wide gene expression. Protein KaiA enhances the phosphorylation of protein KaiC by binding to the ...
"Protein BLAST: search protein databases using a protein query". blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2018-05-05. EMBL-EBI. "EBI ... C9orf43 divergence is moderate based on the molecular clock hypothesis. C9orf43 is seen to diverge more quickly than cytochrome ... The protein does not contain signal peptides or mitochondrial targeting signals indicating the protein is not predicted to be ... Isoform X1 protein abundance is predicted to be normal with normal expression. Composition analysis of C9orf43 showed an above ...
Molecular evolution Molecular clock UPGMA Jukes TH, Cantor CR (1969). Evolution of Protein Molecules. New York: Academic Press ... Hasegawa M, Kishino H, Yano T (1985). "Dating of the human-ape splitting by a molecular clock of mitochondrial DNA". Journal of ... a codon is three bases and codes for one amino acid in a protein). There are 4 3 = 64 {\displaystyle 4^{3}=64} codons, but the ... amino acids that make up proteins), one would find there are 209 parameters. However, when studying coding regions of the ...
Wang, I. N.; Smith, D. L.; Young, R. (2000-01-01). "Holins: the protein clocks of bacteriophage infections". Annual Review of ... However, these proteins were retrieved when functionally characterized holins from the T-A Hol family (TC# 1.E.43) were BLASTED ... Most BAH proteins are between 125 and 140 amino acyl residues (aas) in length and exhibit 4 transmembrane segments (TMSs), ... A representative list of proteins belonging to the BAH family can be found in the Transporter Classification Database. Holin ...
Holin Lysin Transporter Classification Database Wang, I. N.; Smith, D. L.; Young, R. (2000-01-01). "Holins: the protein clocks ... PH-2 family proteins are of 130 to 210 amino acyl residues (aas) in length and may exhibit 1 or 2 transmembrane segments (TMSs ... A representative list of proteins belonging to the PH-2 family can be found in the Transporter Classification Database. ...
Wang, I. N.; Smith, D. L.; Young, R. (2000-01-01). "Holins: the protein clocks of bacteriophage infections". Annual Review of ... While many of the proteins belonging to this family are annotated in holins, they remain functionally uncharacterized. Holin ... A representative list of the proteins belonging to this family can be found in the Transporter Classification Database. ...
Wang, I. N.; Smith, D. L.; Young, R. (2000-01-01). "Holins: the protein clocks of bacteriophage infections". Annual Review of ... While annotated as holins, these proteins remain functionally uncharacterized. A representative list of proteins belonging to ... The Putative Listeria Phage Holin (LP-Hol) Family (TC# 1.E.51) consists of several small proteins of 41 amino acyl residues ( ...
Wang, I. N.; Smith, D. L.; Young, R. (2000-01-01). "Holins: the protein clocks of bacteriophage infections". Annual Review of ... although BP-Hol proteins remain functionally uncharacterized. A representative list of the proteins belonging to the BP-Hol ... These proteins are of 60 to 110 amino acyl residues (aas) in length and exhibit 1 or 2 transmembrane segments (TMSs). Some are ... protein".www.uniprot.org. Retrieved 2016-03-29. Gründling, Angelika; Manson, Michael D.; Young, Ry (2001-07-31). "Holins kill ...
Wang, I. N.; Smith, D. L.; Young, R. (2000-01-01). "Holins: the protein clocks of bacteriophage infections". Annual Review of ... This protein brings up other glycosyltransferases in a NCBI BLAST search. The adjacent gene encodes a small protein of 132 aas ... This protein has the UniProt accession number of S2E3C4. Paralogues are found in this same organism (Candidatus Nitrosoarchaeum ... The "toxin" gene encodes a soluble protein of 325 aas stated as belonging to the "Glycosyltransferase GBT-type Superfamily". ...
Wang, I. N.; Smith, D. L.; Young, R. (2000-01-01). "Holins: the protein clocks of bacteriophage infections". Annual Review of ... The Putative Treponema 4 TMS Holin (Tre4Hol) Family (TC# 1.E.49) consists of several proteins from Treponema species. They ...
Wang, I. N.; Smith, D. L.; Young, R. (2000). "Holins: the protein clocks of bacteriophage infections". Annual Review of ... The putative holin-like toxin (Hol-Tox) family (TC# 1.E.42) consists of many small proteins, between 34 and 48 amino acyl ... A representative list of proteins belonging to the Hol-Tox family can be found in the Transporter Classification Database. ... "Functional characterization of a new holin-like antibacterial protein coding gene tmp1 from goat skin surface metagenome". ...
Holin Lysin Transporter Classification Database Wang, I. N.; Smith, D. L.; Young, R. (2000). "Holins: the protein clocks of ... Although annotated as phage proteins or holins, NP-Holin proteins are not yet functionally characterized, thus more research is ... The Neisserial Phage-associated Holin (NP-Holin) Family (TC# 1.E.22) is a family of small proteins, between 47 - 53 amino acyl ... A representative list of proteins belonging to the NP-Holin family can be found in the Transporter Classification Database. ...
Wang, Ing-Nang; Smith, David L.; Young, Ry (October 2000). "Holins: The Protein Clocks of Bacteriophage Infections". Annual ... The ArpQ Holin (ArpQ Holin) Family (TC# 1.E.15) consists of a single holin-like protein 58 amino acyl residues (aas) in length ... with 2 transmembrane segments (TMSs). This protein is encoded by the arpQ gene in Enterococcus hirae. While annotated as a ...
Wang, I. N.; Smith, D. L.; Young, R. (2000). "Holins: the protein clocks of bacteriophage infections". Annual Review of ... "Phosphate concentration and the putative sensor kinase protein CckA modulate cell lysis and release of the Rhodobacter ...
Wang I, Smith DL, Young R (2000). "Holins: The Protein Clocks of Bacteriophage Infections". Annual Review of Microbiology. 54 ( ... The T4 Holin Family (TC# 1.E.8) is a group of putative pore-forming proteins that does not belong to one of the seven holin ... The protein is highly hydrophilic with 49 acidic and basic residues distributed along its length and a single putative ... The phage T4 T-holin (lysis protein) is identical to the holin from phage K3 and nearly identical to that from phage ARI. ...
Wang, IN; Smith, DL; Young, R (2000). "Holins: the protein clocks of bacteriophage infections". Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 54: 799- ... The Mycobacterial Phage PBI1 Gp36 Holin (Gp36 Hol) Family (TC# 1.E.39) consists of a single protein, Gp36 of Mycobacterial ... this protein has not been functionally characterized. Holin Lysin Transporter Classification Database Reddy, BL; Saier, MH ( ...
Wang, I. N.; Smith, D. L.; Young, R. (2000-01-01). "Holins: the protein clocks of bacteriophage infections". Annual Review of ... and a homologous uncharacterized protein (TC# 1.E.59.1.2; 75 aas and 2 TMSs). These proteins are of particular interest because ...
Wang, I. N.; Smith, D. L.; Young, R. (2000). "Holins: the protein clocks of bacteriophage infections". Annual Review of ... this protein does not show appreciable sequence similarity to any other proteins in the NCBI protein database. Holin Lysin ... It is a putative uncharacterized protein from Xanthomonas phage Xp15. This protein corresponds to sequence 68 from patent US ... The Xanthomonas Phage Holin (XanPHol) Family (TC# 1.E.45) consists of a single protein (Putative holin; TC# 1.E.45.1.1) of 64 ...
Wang, I. N.; Smith, D. L.; Young, R. (2000-01-01). "Holins: the protein clocks of bacteriophage infections". Annual Review of ... As of March 2016, these proteins have not been functionally characterized. A representative list of proteins belonging to the ... The Enterobacterial Holin (EBHol) Family (TC# 1.E.48) consists of many closely related proteins of 100 to 120 amino acyl ...
Wang, I. N.; Smith, D. L.; Young, R. (2000-01-01). "Holins: the protein clocks of bacteriophage infections". Annual Review of ... The SPP1 Holin (SPP1 Holin) Family (TC# 1.E.31) consists of proteins of between 90 and 160 amino acyl residues (aas) in length ... A representative list of proteins belonging to the SPP1 Holin family can be found in Transporter Classification Database. Holin ... Durmaz, Evelyn; Klaenhammer, Todd R. (2007-02-01). "Abortive phage resistance mechanism AbiZ speeds the lysis clock to cause ...
Curtis, Anne M.; Bellet, Marina M.; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo; O'Neill, Luke A.J., "Circadian clock proteins and immunity", Immunity ... Here she became aware of body clocks and found out how the clock controls cardiovascular function. Curtis was recruited to ... "BMAL1 and CLOCK, two essential components of the circadian clock, are involved in glucose homeostasis", PLoS Biology 2004; 11: ... She studies how the power of the body clock can be harnessed to control inflammatory diseases. Curtis completed a B.A in ...
The double-time protein is a kinase that phosphorylates PER protein that regulates the molecularly-driven, biological clock ... The DBT protein may play a noncatalytic role in attracting kinases that phosphorylate CLOCK (CLK), an activator of ... Therefore, kinases like dbt and CKIε might play even more important roles within circadian clocks than just targeting proteins ... The DBT protein is composed of 440 amino acids. The protein has an ATP binding site, a serine/threoine kinase catalytic domains ...
The mammalian molecular clock has homologs to the proteins found in Drosophila. A homolog of CLOCK plays the same role in the ... PER1+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) PER2+protein,+human at the US ... dimerizes via its PAS domain with one of two cryptochrome proteins (CRY1 and CRY2) to form a negative element of the clock. ... lowering the protein levels. However, because PER protein cannot directly bind to DNA, it does not directly influence its own ...
Rutila, J. E.; Suri, V.; Le, M.; So, W. V.; Rosbash, M. (1998). "CYCLE Is a Second bHLH-PAS Clock Protein Essential for ... These cells do not express known "clock genes" including per and tim. Introduction of PER and TIM proteins into the cells does ... Saez, Lino; Young, Michael W. (1996-11-01). "Regulation of Nuclear Entry of the Drosophila Clock Proteins Period and Timeless ... Saez, Lino; Young, Michael W (November 1996). "Regulation of Nuclear Entry of the Drosophila Clock Proteins Period and Timeless ...
Saez, Lino; Michael Young (1996). "Regulation of nuclear entry of the Drosophila clock proteins period and timeless". Neuron. ... "The Drosophila Clock Gene double-time Encodes a Protein Closely Related to Human Casein Kinase Iε". Cell. 94 (1): 97-107. doi: ... "double-time Is a Novel Drosophila Clock Gene that Regulates PERIOD Protein Accumulation". Cell. 94 (1): 83-95. doi:10.1016/ ... Later Young and others found that TIM proteins did not accumulate in nuclei in per mutants. They concluded that PER and TIM ...
Vrille mRNA and protein product (VRI) oscillate predictably on a 24-hour timescale and interact with other circadian clock ... Ohno T, Onishi Y, Ishida N (March 2007). "The negative transcription factor E4BP4 is associated with circadian clock protein ... Lastly, PDP1 protein, a bZIP transcription factor, serves as an activator of clk transcription and peaks 3-6 hours after the ... One loop consists of per, tim, clk, cyc, and their mRNA and protein products. In this loop, the PER/TIM heterodimer is a ...
Larrondo, L. F; Olivares-Yanez, C; Baker, C. L; Loros, J. J; Dunlap, J. C (2015). "Decoupling circadian clock protein turnover ... O'Neill, John S; Reddy, Akhilesh B (2011). "Circadian clocks in human red blood cells". Nature. 469 (7331): 498-503. doi: ... Dunlap, Jay C (1999). "Molecular Bases for Circadian Clocks". Cell. 96 (2): 271-90. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80566-8. PMID ... Rosbash, Michael (2009). "The Implications of Multiple Circadian Clock Origins". PLoS Biology. 7 (3): e62. doi:10.1371/journal. ...
Phosphorylation of the PER proteins also leaves them unable to enter the nucleus, where they suppress transcription of clock ... Slimb is a component of the Skp1/Cullin/F-box protein (SCF) ubiquitin ligase complex, which marks proteins for proteosomal ... Since then, double-time's protein product DBT has been well characterized for its role in phosphorylating PER, the protein ... Hanks SK, Hunter T (May 1995). "Protein kinases 6. The eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily: kinase (catalytic) domain ...
2016-06-14). "Mass spectrometry-based absolute quantification reveals rhythmic variation of mouse circadian clock proteins". ... He is known for his studies on the circadian clock. Hiroki R. Ueda was born in Fukuoka, Japan, in 1975. He graduated from the ... He has an expertise in systems biology and focus on chronobiology by investigating mammalian circadian clocks and sleep/wake ... He determined a basic structure of a transcriptional circuit of mammalian circadian clocks and identified multiple delayed ...
Homeobox protein Hox-D8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOXD8 gene.[5][6][7] ... 1989). "Complementary homeo protein gradients in developing limb buds". Genes Dev. 3 (5): 641-50. doi:10.1101/gad.3.5.641. PMID ... HOXD8+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... "The thyroid transcription factor-1 gene is a candidate target for regulation by Hox proteins". EMBO J. 13 (14): 3339-47. PMC ...
Rubidium and caesium are often used in atomic clocks.[205] Caesium atomic clocks are extraordinarily accurate; if a clock had ... The balance between potassium and sodium is maintained by ion transporter proteins in the cell membrane.[231] The cell membrane ... One of the best-known applications of the pure elements is the use of rubidium and caesium in atomic clocks, of which caesium ... atomic clocks form the basis of the second. A common application of the compounds of sodium is the sodium-vapour lamp, which ...
The albumin (9) further protects the embryo and serves as a reservoir for water and protein. The allantois (8) is a sac that ... Lee, Michael SY; Cau, Andrea; Darren, Naish; Gareth J., Dyke (2013). "Morphological Clocks in Paleontology, and a Mid- ... The yolk sac (2) surrounding the yolk (3) contains protein and fat rich nutrients that are absorbed by the embryo via vessels ( ... "Error in Estimation of Rate and Time Inferred from the Early Amniote Fossil Record and Avian Molecular Clocks". Journal of ...
Clock * sw:Clock. Clothing * sw:Clothing. Cloud * sw:Cloud. Coffee * sw:Coffee. Cold War * sw:Cold War. Colonialism * sw: ... Protein * sw:Protein. Protestant Reformation * sw:Protestant Reformation. Protist * sw:Protist. Psychology * sw:Psychology. ...
Won, Hyosig; Renner, Susanne (august 2006). "Dating Dispersal and Radiation in the Gymnosperm Gnetum (Gnetales)-Clock ... of Cycas taitungensis and 56 cp Protein-Coding Genes of Gnetum parvifolium: Insights into cpDNA Evolution and Phylogeny of ...
"The Drosophila Clock Gene double-time Encodes a Protein Closely Related to Human Casein Kinase Iε" (PDF). Cell. 94 (1): 97-107 ... "Regulation of nuclear entry of the Drosophila clock proteins period and timeless" (PDF). Neuron. 17 (5): 808-810. doi:10.1016/ ... "double-time Is a Novel Drosophila Clock Gene that Regulates PERIOD Protein Accumulation" (PDF). Cell. 94 (1): 83-95. doi: ... Young's lab is also attributed with the discovery of the timeless and doubletime genes, which makes proteins that are also ...
Hubby, J. L. Protein Differences in Drosophila. I. Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1963, 48 (6): 871-879. PMC 1210521. PMID ... 90-91; Zuckerkandl, "On the Molecular Evolutionary Clock", p. 34 *^ Dietrich, "Paradox and Persuasion", pp. 90-91; Morgan, " ... De novo origination of a new protein-coding gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2008, 179 (1): 487-496. PMC 2390625. ... Knowles DG, McLysaght A. Recent de novo origin of human protein-coding genes. Genome Res. 2009, 19 (10): 1752-1759. PMC 2765279 ...
Rb · RBL1(英语:Retinoblastoma-like protein 1) · RBL2(英语:Retinoblastoma-like protein 2) ... ATOH1 · AhR · AHRR · ARNT · ASCL1 · BHLHB2 · BMAL(ARNTL、ARNTL2) · CLOCK · EPAS1 · HAND(1、2) · HES(5、6) · HEY(1、2、L) · HES1 · ... protein homodimerization activity. · sequence-specific DNA binding. · metal ion binding. · protein heterodimerization activity ... FOXP2(Forkhead box protein P2 (FOXP2))基因,即叉头框P2基因,是一个与言语功能的发育有关的基因。在人
ATOH1 • AhR • AHRR • ARNT • ASCL1 • BHLHB2 • BMAL (ARNTL, ARNTL2) • CLOCK • EPAS1 • HAND (1, 2) • HES (5, 6) • HEY (1, 2, L) • ... Bernstein PL, Herrick DJ, Prokipcak RD, Ross J (1992). "Control of c-myc mRNA half-life in vitro by a protein capable of ... Blackwood EM, Eisenman RN (1991). "Max: a helix-loop-helix zipper protein that forms a sequence-specific DNA-binding complex ... 1988). "A non-AUG translational initiation in c-myc exon 1 generates an N-terminally distinct protein whose synthesis is ...
They serve as protein and starch storage units serving as a nutrient source for newly developed plants. ... Of considerable interest is how this process appears to reset the aging clock.[16] ...
R. L. Wysong (1976). "5: Origin of Proteins". The Creation-evolution Controversy (implications, Methodology and Survey of ... "molecular clock", which enabled the neutral theory of molecular evolution.[365] ... for their studies of the structures of hemoglobin and globular proteins.[269] ... awarded the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine along with Leland Hartwell and Tim Hunt for their discoveries of protein ...
This method is not very accurate since the composition of proteins varies greatly and proteins with none of these amino acids ... Deep Space Atomic Clock. *Inertial Stellar Compass. *Venetia Burney Student Dust Counter ... The concentration of a protein can be estimated by measuring the OD at 280 nm due to the presence of tryptophan, tyrosine and ... Spectrophotometry is an important technique used in many biochemical experiments that involve DNA, RNA, and protein isolation, ...
Savini I, Rossi A, Pierro C, Avigliano L, Catani MV (April 2008). "SVCT1 and SVCT2: key proteins for vitamin C uptake". Amino ... According to molecular clock dating, these two suborder primate branches parted ways about 63 to 60 million years ago.[143] ... The HIFalpha prolyl hydroxylases, termed PHDs/EGLNs (prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins/EGL nine homologues), bind to a ... which lose SVCT proteins during maturation.[105] In both vitamin C synthesizers (example: rat) and non-synthesizers (example: ...
These "molecular clocks", however, are fallible, and provide only a very approximate timing: for example, they are not ... by comparing sequences of DNA or proteins. The result of a successful analysis is a hierarchy of clades - groups that share a ... "molecular clock".[12] Techniques developed in engineering have been used to analyse how ancient organisms might have worked, ... Although this early study compared proteins from apes and humans, most molecular phylogenetics research is now based on ...
"Protein Spotlight (29). Retrieved 14 September 2006.. *^ Weimann, Anya (4 July 2007) Evolution of platypus venom revealed. ... Molecular clock and fossil dating suggest platypuses split from echidnas around 19-48 million years ago.[71] ... composed largely of defensin-like proteins (DLPs), three of which are unique to the platypus.[30] The DLPs are produced by the ...
Many flowering plants (angiosperms) use a photoreceptor protein, such as phytochrome or cryptochrome,[1] to sense seasonal ... Cryptochromes absorb blue light and UV-A. Cryptochromes entrain the circadian clock to light.[6] It has been found that both ... with the rhythms of the circadian clock that allows plants to measure the length of the night. Other than flowering, ...
The ACTH receptor is a seven-membrane-spanning G protein-coupled receptor.[7] Upon ligand binding, the receptor undergoes ... organization and coordination of central and peripheral clocks". Annual Review of Physiology. 72: 517-49. doi:10.1146/annurev- ... and their associated electron transfer proteins.[8] This effect is observed over several hours.[8] ... and subsequent activation of protein kinase A. ... Protein pages needing a picture. *All articles with unsourced ...
Some migratory birds have adapted to use protein from many parts of their bodies, including protein from the intestines, as ... Birds that use the sun compensate for the changing position of the sun during the day by the use of an internal clock.[62] ... Domesticated birds raised for meat and eggs, called poultry, are the largest source of animal protein eaten by humans; in 2003 ... Lee, Michael SY; Cau, Andrea; Darren, Naish; Gareth J., Dyke (May 2014). "Morphological Clocks in Paleontology, and a Mid- ...
It is likely that they simply did not exist, and that the molecular clock runs fast during major evolutionary radiations.[101] ... "Assessing the Cretaceous superordinal divergence times within birds and placental mammals by using whole mitochondrial protein ...
Carnivorous and vampire bats consume large amounts of protein and can output concentrated urine; their kidneys have a thin ... Jones, K. E.; Bininda-Emonds, O. R. P.; Gittleman, J. L. (2005). "Bats, clocks, and rocks: diversification patterns in ... is due to the upregulation of bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps). During embryonic development, the gene controlling Bmp ...
These deletions and mutations lead to the production of an abnormal or nonfunctional version of the RAI1 protein. RAI1 is a ... such as CLOCK.[8] The groups led by James Lupski (Baylor College of Medicine) and Sarah Elsea (Virginia Commonwealth University ... "Smith-Magenis syndrome results in disruption of CLOCK gene transcription and reveals an integral role for RAI1 in the ...
Many feeds designed for pregnant and lactating mares provide the careful balance required of increased protein, increased ... are still to this day bred to have a combination of explosive speed that exceeds the Thoroughbred on short distances clocked as ...
This venom is derived from b-defensins, proteins that are present in mammals that create holes in viral and bacterial pathogens ... Molecular clock and fossil dating give a wide range of dates for the split between echidnas and platypuses, with one survey ... Monotreme milk contains a highly expressed antibacterial protein not found in other mammals, perhaps to compensate for the more ... a protein necessary for egg shell formation) is shared with birds; the presence of this symplesiomorphy suggests that the ...
This suggests that animals have a biological clock that can serve as a CS. This method has also been used to study timing ... Presynaptic activation of protein kinase A and postsynaptic activation of NMDA receptors and its signal transduction pathway ... An example of conditioned hunger is the "appetizer effect." Any signal that consistently precedes a meal, such as a clock ... CREB is also necessary for conditioning related plasticity, and it may induce downstream synthesis of proteins necessary for ...
In order to replicate, poxviruses produce a variety of specialized proteins not produced by other DNA viruses, the most ... The wide range of dates is due to the different records used to calibrate the molecular clock. One clade was the variola major ... protein and electrolytes beyond the capacity of the body to replace or acquire, and fulminating sepsis.[59] ... The mutation rate of this virus is well modeled by a molecular clock. Diversification of strains only occurred in the 18th and ...
Hepatocyte nuclear factor 3-gamma (HNF-3G), also known as forkhead box protein A3 (FOXA3) or transcription factor 3G (TCF-3G) ... protein domain specific binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. ... HNF-3G is a member of the forkheadclass of DNA-binding proteins. These hepatocyte nuclear factors are transcriptional ... Dintilhac A, Bernués J (2002). "HMGB1 interacts with many apparently unrelated proteins by recognizing short amino acid ...
Macdougall, Doug (2008). Nature's Clocks: How Scientists Measure the Age of Almost Everything. Berkeley, California: University ... Unburnt bone can be tested; it is usual to date it using collagen, the protein fraction that remains after washing away the ... an organic protein found in shell, but it constitutes only 1-2% of shell material.[55] ...
10] Some proteins can become infectious agents. This is the name of those misfolded proteins that are responsible for mad cow ... Match length is determined by either a game clock or the number of questions in a packet.[2][16] In most formats, a game ends ... 10] Name this class of molecules that make up proteins, examples of which include tryptophan, alanine, and lysine.. ANSWER: ...
Working on protein sequences, they eventually (1971) determined that apes were closer to humans than some paleontologists ... Among these researchers, Allan C. Wilson and Vincent Sarich were pioneers in the development of the molecular clock for humans ... because studies have found evidence for a slowing of the molecular clock as apes evolved from a common monkey-like ancestor ... "Variation in the molecular clock of primates". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 113 (38): 10607-10612. doi ...
... one can define a highly accurate biological clock (referred to as epigenetic clock or DNA methylation age) in humans and ... Half of the CpG islands were in promoters of annotated protein coding genes,[20] suggesting that about 867 genes in a colon ...
As the molecular clock may regulate many aspects of our immune system, an understanding of how the clock proteins and immune ... Circadian clock cryptochrome proteins regulate autoimmunity. Qi Cao, Xuan Zhao, Jingwen Bai, Sigal Gery, Haibo Sun, De-Chen Lin ... 2012) Circadian clock protein cryptochrome regulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109: ... A heterodimeric protein complex of "circadian locomotor output cycles kaput" (CLOCK) and "brain and muscle ARNT-like 1" (BMAL1 ...
... the cyanobacterial clock proteins are the main circadian regulator in cyanobacteria. The cyanobacterial clock proteins comprise ... "Structure and function from the circadian clock protein KaiA of Synechococcus elongatus: a potential clock input mechanism". ... 1) Garces RG, Wu N, Gillon W, Pai EF (April 2004). "Anabaena circadian clock proteins KaiA and KaiB reveal a potential common ... Hitomi K, Oyama T, Han S, Arvai AS, Getzoff E (2005). "Tetrameric architecture of the circadian clock protein KaiB. A novel ...
They applied their new method to identify other clock partners that target a multipurpose cell nucleus receptor for disposal. ... Researchers have a new genome screen that has identified partner molecules of cell-waste disposal proteins. ... To validate the screen, the team tagged several of their favorite clock proteins with a short protein tag thats easily ... Cells waste disposal system regulates body clock proteins New way to identify interacting proteins could identify potential ...
PRR proteins of the circadian clock call time on shade avoidance. View ORCID ProfileKeara A. Franklin ... Central clock components modulate plant shade avoidance by directly repressing transcriptional activation activity of PIF ...
... revealing an essential clock role for each residue separately and for KaiC phosphorylation in general. Mass spectrometry ... a central clock protein in cyanobacteria, undergoes circadian oscillations between hypophosphorylated and hyperphosphorylated ...
Protein Coding), Clock Circadian Regulator, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... GeneCards Summary for CLOCK Gene CLOCK (Clock Circadian Regulator) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CLOCK ... View all R&D Systems CLOCK (CLOCK) Products. *View all R&D Systems CLOCK (CLOCK) Primary Antibodies*Human CLOCK Antibody ( ... Protein details for CLOCK Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot). Protein Symbol:. O15516-CLOCK_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Circadian ...
... increasing glucagon and IGF-1 levels by feeding a protein-only diet entrains the liver circadian clock, and that cysteine, an ... production regulates resetting of the liver circadian clock in response to a protein or amino-acid only diet when insulin ... and peripheral clocks in peripheral organs. The circadian clock synchronizes to the external 24-hour environment by the SCN ... However, the liver clock of type-1 diabetes model mice was observed to be entrained by scheduled feeding, suggesting that ...
... with implications for cancer biology and the workings of the clock itself A new study led by UC Santa... ... A protein associated with many kinds of cancer cells was found to suppress the circadian clock, ... Clock genes. A series of experiments in Partchs lab revealed how the protein interacts with the molecular machinery of the ... A protein associated with many kinds of cancer cells was found to suppress the circadian clock, with implications for cancer ...
Component of the KaiABC clock protein complex, which constitutes the main circadian regulator in cyanobacteria. The KaiABC ... IPR011648, Circadian_clock_KaiA. IPR020844, Circadian_clock_KaiA_N. IPR020856, Circadian_clock_protein_KaiA_C. IPR017944, ... IPR011648, Circadian_clock_KaiA. IPR020844, Circadian_clock_KaiA_N. IPR020856, Circadian_clock_protein_KaiA_C. IPR017944, ... Protein-protein interaction databases. Protein interaction database and analysis system. More...IntActi. Q6L8K1, 1 interactor ...
A new twist on clock protein phosphorylation: a conformational change leads to protein degradation.. Menet JS1, Rosbash M. ... Progressive phosphorylation of circadian clock proteins is a hallmark of time-keeping. In this issue of Molecular Cell, ... Circadian conformational change of the Neurospora clock protein FREQUENCY triggered by clustered hyperphosphorylation of a ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Component of the circadian clock oscillator which includes the CRY proteins, CLOCK or NPAS2, ARNTL/BMAL1 or ARNTL2/BMAL2, ... Transcription and translation of core clock components (CLOCK, NPAS2, ARNTL/BMAL1, ARNTL2/BMAL2, PER1, PER2, PER3, CRY1 and ... The central clock entrains the peripheral clocks through neuronal and hormonal signals, body temperature and feeding-related ...
When one of the two cryptochrome clock proteins is deleted, the cycles of the 24-hour body clock lengthen, but when the other ... The plant photolyase structure provides a much better model to use to study how the cryptochrome proteins in the human clock ... "The plant photolyase structure provides a much better model to use to study how the cryptochrome proteins in the human clock ... Humans and mammals, on the other hand, possess a homologous protein known as cryptochrome that modulates the circadian clock. ...
The central clock entrains the peripheral clocks through neuronal and hormonal signals, body temperature and feeding-related ... Transcription and translation of core clock components (CLOCK, NPAS2, ARNTL/BMAL1, ARNTL2/BMAL2, PER1, PER2, PER3, CRY1 and ... and the peripheral clocks that are present in nearly every tissue and organ system. Both the central and peripheral clocks can ... CLOCK specifically binds to the half-site 5-CAC-3, while ARNTL binds to the half-site 5-GTGA-3 (PubMed:23229515). The CLOCK ...
Computer model showing the structure of the circadian clock protein KaiC from Synechococcus elongatus. - Stock Image C035/5644 ... Caption: Circadian clock protein KaiC. Computer model showing the structure of the circadian clock protein KaiC from ... Keywords: art, artwork, biochemical, biochemistry, biological, biology, circadian, clock, compound, cut out, cut outs, cut-out ...
The circadian clock protein Period 1 regulates expression of the renal epithelial sodium channel in mice.. Gumz ML1, Stow LR, ... The circadian clock protein Period 1 regulates expression of the renal epithelial sodium channel in mice ... The circadian clock protein Period 1 regulates expression of the renal epithelial sodium channel in mice ... The circadian clock protein Period 1 regulates expression of the renal epithelial sodium channel in mice ...
The circadian or inner clock coordinates the sleep-wake rhythm and many other body processes that regulate, ... ... Structural biologists have made important progress towards better understanding the functioning of the circadian clock. ... At the heart of the circadian clock More information: I. Schmalen et al., Interaction of Circadian Clock Proteins CRY1 and PER2 ... Together with another clock protein called period they form a complex, the structure of which has just been determined by ...
The clock of cyanobacteria is driven by a three-protein oscillator composed of KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC, which together generate a ... Chang et al. found that another clock component, KaiB, also has slow changes in its protein conformation that help to set the ... The circadian clock in cyanobacteria has the necessary 24-hour period despite its three component proteins having biochemical ... A protein fold switch joins the circadian oscillator to clock output in cyanobacteria ...
Circadian clock dysfunction is a common symptom of aging and neurodegenerative diseases, though its impact on brain health is ... We report that the core clock protein BMAL1 regulates astrogliosis in a synergistic manner via a cell-autonomous mechanism, and ... Our results demonstrate that the core clock protein BMAL1 regulates astrocyte activation and function in vivo, elucidating a ... Cell-Autonomous Regulation of Astrocyte Activation by the Circadian Clock Protein BMAL1. Cell Reports ...
Expression of CLOCK (bHLHe8, KAT13D, KIAA0334) in gallbladder tissue. Antibody staining with HPA001867 and HPA027565 in ... Protein evidence (Ezkurdia et al 2014). Protein evidence (Kim et al 2014). RAS pathway related proteins. Ribosomal proteins. ... Plasma proteins. Potential drug targets. Predicted intracellular proteins. Predicted membrane proteins. Predicted secreted ... Protein expressioni. The protein expression bar, with the units not detected (n), low (l), medium (m) and high (h), is based on ...
... the cerebellum shows oscillations in gene and protein expression. The variety of local circuit rhythms that the cerebellar ... the cerebellum shows oscillations in gene and protein expression. The variety of local circuit rhythms that the cerebellar ... Oscillations of brain proteins in circadian rhythms are important for determining several cellular and physiological processes ... Oscillations of brain proteins in circadian rhythms are important for determining several cellular and physiological processes ...
Protein Links Gut Microbes, Biological Clocks, and Weight Gain. Caption: Lipids (red) inside mouse intestinal cells with and ... Their studies suggest that what gut microbes "say" influences the activity of a key clock-driven protein called NFIL3, which ... The most obvious reason is the odd hours throw a persons 24-hour biological clock-and metabolism-out of sync. But an NIH- ... NFIL3 is a transcription factor, a protein that switches certain genes on and off. Earlier studies had focused on its role in ...
The Circadian Clock als praktischer eBook Download. Jetzt eBook sicher herunterladen und bequem mit dem eBook Reader lesen. ... Protein Reviews: The Circadian Clock (eBook / PDF). Keine Kommentare vorhanden. Jetzt ersten Kommentar schreiben!. Bewerten Sie ... Kommentare zu "Protein Reviews: The Circadian Clock". Keine Kommentare vorhanden. Jetzt ersten Kommentar schreiben!. Bewerten ... Produktinformationen zu „Protein Reviews: The Circadian Clock (eBook / PDF)". With the invitation to edit this volume, I wanted ...
Short-lived Her proteins drive robust synchronized oscillations in the zebrafish segmentation clock ... Short-lived Her proteins drive robust synchronized oscillations in the zebrafish segmentation clock ... Short-lived Her proteins drive robust synchronized oscillations in the zebrafish segmentation clock ... Short-lived Her proteins drive robust synchronized oscillations in the zebrafish segmentation clock ...
RNA-binding protein in Arabidopsis thaliana and shows a circadian variation in steady-state abundance. Constitutive ... The Atgrp7 transcript encodes a clock-regulated, glycine-rich, ... Circadian clock-regulated expression of an RNA-binding protein ... The Atgrp7 transcript encodes a clock-regulated, glycine-rich, RNA-binding protein in Arabidopsis thaliana and shows a ... indicating that both the transcript and the protein are part of a clock-regulated negative feedback circuit. Here we ...
Home » CUL1 regulates TOC1 protein stability in the Arabidopsis circadian clock. CUL1 regulates TOC1 protein stability in the ... Arabidopsis Proteins/metabolism/*physiology, Arabidopsis/enzymology/*physiology, Circadian Rhythm/*physiology, Cullin Proteins ... ZEITLUPE (ZTL) is the F-box protein that associates with the SCF (Skp/Cullin/F-box) E3 ubiquitin ligase that is responsible for ... These results demonstrate that CUL1 is required for TOC1 degradation and further suggest that this protein is the functional ...
... a key subset of clock neurons. The transgenic Gene-Switch system was employed to drive conditional neuronal dFMRP expression in ... a key subset of clock neurons. The transgenic Gene-Switch system was employed to drive conditional neuronal dFMRP expression in ... loss of the highly conserved dFMRP causes circadian arrhythmicity and conspicuous abnormalities in the circadian clock ... role in sculpting synaptic architecture in these neurons that cannot be compensated for by later reintroduction of the protein ...
We identified another CRYs-interacting protein, TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43), an RNA-binding protein. TDP-43 stabilized ... An F-box protein, FBXL3, promotes ubiquitination and degradation of CRYs, while FBXL21, the closest paralog of FBXL3, ... Here, we employed a proteomics strategy to explore regulators for the protein stability of CRYs. We found that ubiquitin- ... underscoring the significance of the stability control process of CRY proteins for period determination in the mammalian ...
2002Structure and function from the circadian clock protein KaiA of Synechococcus elongatus: a potential clock input mechanism ... Mori, T., Saveliev, S.V., Xu, Y., Stafford, W.F., Cox, M.M., Inman, R.B., Johnson, C.H. 2002Circadian clock protein KaiC forms ... Vakonakis, I., LiWang, A.C. 2004Structure of the C-terminal domain of the clock protein KaiA in complex with a KaiC-derived ... Nishiwaki, T., Iwasaki, H., Ishiura, M., Kondo, T. 2000Nucleotide binding and autophosphorylation of the clock protein KaiC as ...
Immunohistochemical analyses were made for clock and clock-related proteins. In addition, the gene-expression levels of 22 ... Expression of circadian clock genes and proteins in urothelial cancer is related to cancer-associated genes. Litlekalsøy, ... or down-regulation and altered cellular distribution of different clock proteins, a reduction of casein kinase1A1 (CSNK1A1) and ... Conclusions The close correlation between altered expression of various clock genes and common tumour markers in urothelial ...
Dissecting the Functions of the Mammalian Clock Protein BMAL1 by Tissue-Specific Rescue in Mice ... Dissecting the Functions of the Mammalian Clock Protein BMAL1 by Tissue-Specific Rescue in Mice ... Dissecting the Functions of the Mammalian Clock Protein BMAL1 by Tissue-Specific Rescue in Mice ... Dissecting the Functions of the Mammalian Clock Protein BMAL1 by Tissue-Specific Rescue in Mice ...
  • In this study, Hitomi set about producing proteins from the Arabidopsis thaliana genes that produce two related photolyase enzymes. (scripps.edu)
  • The Atgrp7 transcript encodes a clock-regulated, glycine-rich, RNA-binding protein in Arabidopsis thaliana and shows a circadian variation in steady-state abundance. (nih.gov)
  • Constitutive overexpression of its product, AtGRP7, in transgenic Arabidopsis plants depresses the oscillations of the endogenous Atgrp7 transcript, indicating that both the transcript and the protein are part of a clock-regulated negative feedback circuit. (nih.gov)
  • Fusion of a 1.5-kb promoter fragment to the beta-glucuronidase (gus) reporter gene leads to circadian oscillations in the level of the gus transcript in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, with highest levels in the evening, indicating that transcription of the Atgrp7 gene is rhythmically activated by the endogenous circadian clock. (nih.gov)
  • Regulation of protein turnover mediated by ZEITLUPE (ZTL) constitutes an important mechanism of the circadian clock in Arabidopsis thaliana . (plantcell.org)
  • Natural selection of variants within the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock can be attributed to adaptation to varying environments. (elifesciences.org)
  • Circadian clocks and adaptation in Arabidopsis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Light-regulated translation mediates gated induction of the Arabidopsis clock protein LHY. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cloning of the Arabidopsis clock gene TOC1, an autoregulatory response regulator homolog. (semanticscholar.org)
  • TCP transcription factors link the regulation of genes encoding mitochondrial proteins with the circadian clock in Arabidopsis thaliana. (semanticscholar.org)
  • PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATORS, PRR9, PRR7 and PRR5, together play essential roles close to the circadian clock of Arabidopsis thaliana. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here, we adapt individual nucleotide resolution crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (iCLIP) genome-wide to determine the binding repertoire of the circadian clock-regulated Arabidopsis thaliana glycine-rich RNA-binding protein At GRP7. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Arabidopsis thaliana harbors 197 proteins with an RNA recognition motif (RRM), the most frequent type of RNA-binding domain [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In a first RIP-seq analysis in Arabidopsis , more than 4000 targets of the serine/arginine rich (SR)-like protein SR45 were identified by RNA immunoprecipitation, followed by high-throughput sequencing [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Arabidopsis circadian clock protein, TOC1, is a DNA-binding transcription factor. (ucsd.edu)
  • The first described feedback loop of the Arabidopsis circadian clock is based on reciprocal regulation between Timing of CAB Expression 1 (TOC1) and Circadian Clock-associated 1 (CCA1)/late elongated hypocotyl (LHY). (ucsd.edu)
  • Furthermore, we use the Gal4/UAS system in Arabidopsis to show that TOC1 acts as a general transcriptional repressor, and that repression activity is in the pseudoreceiver domain of the protein. (ucsd.edu)
  • Comparative proteomic analysis showed that the Arabidopsis RACK1C protein might play roles in regulating plant resistance to salt stress (Shi et al. (springeropen.com)
  • The circadian clock, an internal time-keeping system, regulates various physiological processes through the generation of approximately 24 hour circadian rhythms in gene expression, which are translated into rhythms in metabolism and behavior. (genecards.org)
  • A research team led by Shigenobu Shibata , professor of neurochemistry at Waseda University, discovered that glucagon, a peptide hormone, and/or insulin-like grown factors (IGF-1) production regulates resetting of the liver circadian clock in response to a protein or amino-acid only diet when insulin signaling is disrupted for reasons such as diabetes. (waseda.jp)
  • The circadian clock protein Period 1 regulates expression of the renal epithelial sodium channel in mice. (nih.gov)
  • We report that the core clock protein BMAL1 regulates astrogliosis in a synergistic manner via a cell-autonomous mechanism, and via a lesser non-cell-autonomous signal from neurons. (ssrn.com)
  • Our results demonstrate that the core clock protein BMAL1 regulates astrocyte activation and function in vivo, elucidating a novel mechanism by which the circadian clock could influence many aspects of brain function and neurologic disease. (ssrn.com)
  • To determine how dephosphorylation regulates rhythmic transcription within the Drosophila clock, we used RNAi knockdown to screen all annotated protein phosphatases in Drosophila for defects in locomotor activity rhythms. (g3journal.org)
  • The polarity protein Par-3, a functional component of this complex, directly binds to the PDZ domain-containing protein Par-6 that, in turn, regulates the activity of associated aPKC by engaging the small GTPase Cdc42 (4, 5). (onetownmanyvoices.com)
  • UPF1 regulates the circadian clock by modulating the splicing of the core clock gene frequency ( frq ) through spliceosome and spliceosome-related arginine/serine-rich splicing factors, which partly account for the short periods in the upf1 knockout strain. (genetics.org)
  • A study recently revealed that seizures in epileptic patients correlate with the lack of the "CLOCK" gene, which typically regulates circadian rhythm. (browndailyherald.com)
  • Circadian rhythms allow an organism to achieve temporal homeostasis with its environment at the molecular level by regulating gene expression to create a peak of protein expression once every 24 hours to control when a particular physiological process is most active with respect to the solar day. (genecards.org)
  • The discovery, published in the June 4 issue of Molecular Cell (and online now), adds to a growing body of evidence suggesting a link between cancer and disruption of circadian rhythms, while offering new insights into the molecular mechanisms of the biological clock. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • A master clock in the brain, tuned to the daily cycle of light and dark, sends out signals that synchronize the molecular clocks ticking away in almost every cell and tissue of the body. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • A series of experiments in Partch's lab revealed how the protein interacts with the molecular machinery of the biological clock. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • There are four main clock genes, and the interactions of these genes and the proteins they encode create a feedback loop that drives molecular oscillations on a 24-hour cycle. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Partch's lab is continuing to investigate the biochemical mechanisms involved in the protein's interactions with the molecular clock. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • In another recent paper from Partch's lab, published May 11 in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, researchers at UC Santa Cruz and the University of Memphis worked out important details of the interactions between two of the main clock proteins. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • In molecular biology, the cyanobacterial clock proteins are the main circadian regulator in cyanobacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an Early Edition issue of The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) on April 9, 2009, the researchers report that they have been able to determine the molecular structure of a plant photolyase protein that is surprisingly similar to two cryptochrome proteins that control the 'master clock' in humans and other mammals. (scripps.edu)
  • And when scientists understand that, they can begin to fix the clock when needed, adds senior author Elizabeth Getzoff, professor in the Department of Molecular Biology and member of The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology at Scripps Research. (scripps.edu)
  • A transcription/translation feedback loop (TTFL) forms the core of the molecular circadian clock mechanism. (rcsb.org)
  • A research team led by Professor Eva Wolf, recently appointed Professor of Structural Biology at the Institute of General Botany of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) and Adjunct Director at the Institute of Molecular Biology (IMB), has for the first time identified the molecular structure of a protein complex that plays an important role in regulating the circadian rhythm. (phys.org)
  • The fundamental research conducted in the Wolf group is focused on obtaining insight into the molecular mechanisms of the circadian clock. (phys.org)
  • The molecular basis of the cerebellar oscillator has been demonstrated by "clock gene" expression within cells of the cerebellar layers. (frontiersin.org)
  • At the molecular level, this ability of the SCN consists of a self-sustained autoregulatory feedback mechanism reflected by the rhythmic expression of clock genes, i.e. (frontiersin.org)
  • Molecular circadian regulation engages a transcription-translation feedback loop comprising the activating proteins CLOCK and BMAL1, which induce expression of the negative feedback elements Per and Cry ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Laser irradiation could provide a simple and effective means of controlling the fate of MSCs as a therapeutic strategy and act 'molecular switch' of regulatory proteins by suppressing CRY transcription. (medsci.org)
  • Sleep-activity cycles, as well as physiological and cellular rhythms, which may be important for neuronal homeostasis, are generated by a molecular system known as the circadian clock. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Although a molecular feedback loop required for circadian regulation in Neurospora and animals has been described in detail, the molecular mechanisms of plant circadian clocks remain largely unknown. (plantcell.org)
  • Based on genetic validation and molecular analysis, 15 viable protein phosphatases remain for future studies. (g3journal.org)
  • However, skeletal muscle differentiation requires both Clock and UPR activity, suggesting the molecular link between them is unique in muscle. (nih.gov)
  • The nature of the protein molecular clock, the protein-specific rate of amino acid substitutions, is among the central questions of molecular evolution. (columbia.edu)
  • A 3-year postdoc position in biochemistry/molecular biology is available in my lab for a great project on Protein Kinase signalling in the Circadian Clock. (plantsci.org.uk)
  • Over the last 15-plus years, a team led by the new study's senior author Mitchell A. Lazar, MD, PhD, director of Penn's Institute for Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism, has been teasing out the versatile role of Rev-erb in maintaining daily cycles of the body's molecular clock, metabolism, and even brain health. (healthmedicinet.com)
  • Human physiology works on a 24-hour cycle of gene expression (when the chromosome coding region is translated by RNA and then transcribed to make protein) and is controlled by the body's molecular clock. (healthmedicinet.com)
  • We study the structural chemistry underlying protein molecular recognition, complementarity, and catalysis at the atomic level. (scripps.edu)
  • In these problem-directed studies, we use molecular biology, biochemistry, x-ray crystallography, and spectroscopy together with computational and computer graphics analysis to characterize the structural chemistry and function of proteins. (scripps.edu)
  • An animation of a computationally designed miniprotein from a UW Medicine Institute for Protein Design large-scale study to assess molecular folding and structural stability. (genengnews.com)
  • Freed and his collaborators, Hassane Mchaourab, professor of molecular physiology and biophysics at the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, and Peter Borbat, associate director of ACERT, report on the new method for protein structure determination in JACS , the Journal of the American Chemical Society (May 22, 2002). (innovations-report.com)
  • The new method for seeing the structure of the protein uses ESR (electron spin resonance), a technology for studying the bonds, structures, and molecular mechanisms of chemical and biological materials, such as membranes and proteins. (innovations-report.com)
  • These are molecular subunits, each containing an unpaired electron, inserted at precise sites in the protein. (innovations-report.com)
  • But based on their work, the researchers say NFIL3 seems to be "an essential molecular link" among the circadian clock, microbes, and metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • Andrade RP, Palmeirim I, Bajanca F (2007) Molecular clocks underlying vertebrate embryo segmentation: a 10-year-old hairy-go-round. (springer.com)
  • Using an approach that integrated genomics, gene co-expression networks, comparative genomics and protein structure analyses, we investigated the molecular evolution of CAM as exemplified in Agave . (springer.com)
  • In mammals, circadian rhythmicity is sustained via a transcriptional/translational feedback loop referred to as the canonical molecular circadian clock. (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • To date, it has been impossible to capture a crystal structure of the cryptochrome proteins that control the mammalian circadian clock because they aren't in a sufficiently stable state, Hitomi says. (scripps.edu)
  • Although most c- tributions in this volume focus on mammalian circadian clocks, the historical int- duction and comparative clocks section illustrate the importance of various other organisms in deciphering the mechanisms and principles of circadian biology. (weltbild.ch)
  • To investigate the localization and circadian rhythmic pattern in the mammalian retina, we examined the protein expression of two representative clock genes, per2 and clock in the mouse retina. (arvojournals.org)
  • Addgene: Dual modes of CLOCK:BMAL1 inhibition mediated by Cryptochrome and Period proteins in the mammalian circadian clock. (addgene.org)
  • In the mammalian circadian clockwork, CLOCK and BMAL1 bind to DNA and play an important role in the transcriptional feedback loops. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) contain the mammalian circadian clock whose rhythm of firing rate can be recorded in vitro for several days. (elsevier.com)
  • These results suggest that during approximately 1 h in the late subjective day the presence and activity of PKA plays a role in setting the phase of the mammalian circadian clock. (elsevier.com)
  • embryo, and of polarity defects in and mammalian epithelia and neuroblasts, have revealed that cell polarization relies on the concerted activities of asymmetrically localized protein assemblies (1C3), one of which is the evolutionary conserved Par/atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) complex. (onetownmanyvoices.com)
  • Here, a novel Sholl Analysis was used to quantify over-elaborated synaptic architecture in dfmr1 -null small ventrolateral neurons (sLN v s), a key subset of clock neurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • We conclude that dFMRP plays a developmentally restricted role in sculpting synaptic architecture in these neurons that cannot be compensated for by later reintroduction of the protein at maturity. (frontiersin.org)
  • These critical clock neurons express the neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF) ( Helfrich-Forster, 1995 , 2005 ), which has long been proposed to serve as the clock output mediating coordination of downstream neurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • We show that the increased β-cleavage of endogenous APPL by the β-secretase (dBACE) severely disrupts circadian behavior and leads to reduced expression of clock protein PER in central clock neurons of aging flies. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Application of a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor onto the SCN at Zeitgeber time (ZT) 10 on the first day in vitro phase delayed the rhythm of firing rate expressed by SCN neurons on the subsequent day in vitro. (elsevier.com)
  • slmb mutants are behaviourally arrhythmic, and can be rescued by targeted expression of Slmb in the clock neurons. (harvard.edu)
  • The protein cycles have been visualized in a small subset of neurons within the CNS, termed the lateral and the dorsal neurons. (genetics.org)
  • in the central brain, a very small number of neurons co-express cycling PER and TIM, yet the two proteins remain stubbornly cytoplasmic ( S auman and R eppert 1996 ). (genetics.org)
  • Studying the brains of mice, the team found that these sleep index proteins are mainly found in the brain's synapses, the gaps between neurons through which messages are passed. (newscientist.com)
  • A mechanism through which circadian clocks in neurons encode external daily rhythms of excitability has been identified. (medindia.net)
  • Around half of the neurons in the SCN secrete it, and they also detect it using several receptor proteins. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Normal Clock ∆19/∆19 mice had neurons with smaller apical dendrite trees in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and hippocampus, showed impaired visual-spatial memory, and exhibited lower cerebrovascular myogenic tone, versus wild types (WT). (nature.com)
  • We used pluripotent P19 embryonal carcinoma stem cells to check the biological clock before and after differentiation into neurons using retinoic acid. (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • This is an amazing, and very puzzling, family of proteins, because they do one thing in plants and quite a different thing in mammals, yet these cousins all have the same structure and need the same cofactor, or chemical compound, to become activated,' Getzoff says. (scripps.edu)
  • The postulation that amino acid substitutions occur at a constant rate for a given family of proteins (e.g., cytochromes, hemoglobins) and hence that the degree of divergence between two species in the amino acid sequences of the protein in question can be used to estimate the length of time that has elapsed since their divergence from a common ancestor. (oup.com)
  • The NonO protein belongs to the Drosophila behaviour/human splicing (DBHS) family of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene plays a central role in the regulation of circadian rhythms. (genecards.org)
  • These results suggest a role for Period 1 in the regulation of the renal epithelial sodium channel and more broadly implicate the circadian clock in control of sodium balance. (nih.gov)
  • Results Considerable up- or down-regulation and altered cellular distribution of different clock proteins, a reduction of casein kinase1A1 (CSNK1A1) and increase of casein kinase alpha 1 E (CSNK1E) were found. (bibsys.no)
  • Overexpression of the LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL gene, which has been proposed to function as a clock component, did not abolish circadian regulation of ELF3 transcription, providing further evidence that ELF3 is a circadian clock input pathway component. (plantcell.org)
  • FT appears to function partially downstream of CO . Although the identification of genes that control flowering has begun to reveal a great deal about the regulation of cell fate during plant development, these genes have not revealed how circadian clock function influences the vegetative-to-floral transition. (plantcell.org)
  • Mutations in the EARLY FLOWERING3 ( ELF3 ) locus also result in the loss of both photoperiod sensitivity and circadian regulation, making ELF3 a candidate for linking circadian clock function with the photoperiodic induction of flowering. (plantcell.org)
  • The generation of self-sustaining oscillations depends on posttranslational regulation of clock proteins, which modulates their stability, activity, and/or subcellular localization during the daily cycle. (g3journal.org)
  • Furthermore, we identified JNK as novel protein kinase for phosphorylation of CLOCK-BMAL1 complex, and behavioral analysis of JNK3-KO mice showed that JNK is a key player in the photic regulation of circadian clockwork. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The initial characterization of ZTL suggested a function limited largely to the regulation of the circadian clock. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Diurnal regulation of transcripts encoding proteins located in mitochondria, plastids, and peroxisomes is important for adaptation of organelle biogenesis and metabolism to meet cellular requirements. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We show this regulation is related to diurnal changes in promoter activities and the presence of specific cis-acting regulatory elements in the proximal promoter region [TGGGC(C/T)], previously defined as site II elements, and leads to diurnal changes in organelle protein abundances. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A role for thyroid hormones in the regulation of the rhythmic expression of circadian clock genes is suggested by the finding that surgical removal of the thyroid gland alters circadian behavioral and endocrine rhythms in rodents. (concordia.ca)
  • Virtually nothing is known about the role of thyroid hormones in the regulation of clock genes responsible for the generation of circadian rhythmicity. (concordia.ca)
  • One of the most compelling features of per and tim regulation is that the mRNAs cycle with a peak a few hours in advance of the rhythm in their protein products in the fly's head ( H all 2003 ). (genetics.org)
  • Macrophages don't need to waste time and energy producing more or less GIV protein, they can rapidly dial their response up or down simply by moving it around, and it appears that such regulation happens at the level of gene transcription. (innovations-report.com)
  • CLOCK is a key player in the regulation of our circadian rhythms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The encoded protein forms a heterodimer with ARNTL (BMAL1) that binds E-box enhancer elements upstream of Period (PER1, PER2, PER3) and Cr. (genecards.org)
  • Two proteins, CLOCK and BMAL1, form a complex that turns on the Period and Cryptochrome genes. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • The Period and Cryptochrome proteins then combine to turn off the genes for CLOCK and BMAL1. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Partch and her colleagues found that PASD1 is structurally related to CLOCK and interferes with the function of the CLOCK-BMAL1 complex. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • They found that Cryptochrome interacts with a particular section of BMAL1, and that mutations causing structural changes in that section can alter the timing of the clock, resulting in cycles as short as 19 hours or as long as 26 hours. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Transcription factors, CLOCK or NPAS2 and ARNTL /BMAL1 or ARNTL 2/BMAL2, form the positive limb of the feedback loop, act in the form of a heterodimer and activate the transcription of core clock genes and clock-controlled genes (involved in key metabolic processes), harboring E-box elements (5'-CACGTG-3') within their promoters. (rcsb.org)
  • The preferred binding motif for the CLOCK - ARNTL /BMAL1 heterodimer is 5'-CACGTGA-3', which contains a flanking Ala residue in addition to the canonical 6-nucleotide E-box sequence (PubMed:23229515). (rcsb.org)
  • The CLOCK - ARNTL /BMAL1 heterodimer also recognizes the non-canonical E-box motifs 5'-AACGTGA-3' and 5'-CATGTGA-3' (PubMed:23229515). (rcsb.org)
  • BMAL1 (also known as MOP3) was originally characterized by its high expression in brain and muscle ( 2 , 3 ) and was identified as a heterodimeric binding partner of CLOCK ( 4 , 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Researchers showed that the clock transcription factors, BMAL1 and CLOCK, were guided by epigenetic mechanisms to bind to specific regions of the GSC genome. (baycitycapital.com)
  • When BMAL1 and CLOCK activity was inhibited through a number of different methods, including the use of a small molecule cryptochrome stabilizer provided by Synchronicity, GSC proliferation was reduced in vitro and survival was improved in xenograft models. (baycitycapital.com)
  • CRY1 and CRY2 bind the unphosphorylated BMAL1:CLOCK (ARNTL:CLOCK) heterodimer (and by homology the BMAL1:NPAS2 (ARNTL:NPAS2) heterodimer) and prolong its half-life. (reactome.org)
  • The unphosphorylated BMAL1:CLOCK heterodimer only weakly activates transcription and is therefore believed to competitively reduce transcription by phosphorylated BMAL1:CLOCK heterodimer. (reactome.org)
  • The complex of unphosphorylated BMAL1:CLOCK with CRY may contain additional components and may traffic into the nucleus. (reactome.org)
  • CLOCK/BMAL1-driven transcriptional negative feedback loops were impaired in the microglia from 2-month-old APP-KI mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the post-mortem brain tissue of AD patients, altered synchronization in the rhythms of clock gene expression, including period 1 ( PER1 ), period 2 ( PER2 ), and brain and muscle Arnt-like protein-1 ( BMAL1 ), was noted in different regions of AD patients compared with control subjects [ 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The protein encodes a transcription factor of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family and contains DNA binding histone acetyltransferase activity. (genecards.org)
  • Katayama, M., Kondo, T., Xiong, J., Golden, S.S. 2003 ldpA encodes an iron-sulfur protein involved in light-dependent modulation of the circadian period in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 J. Bacteriol. (springer.com)
  • We have cloned ELF3 by positional methods and found that it encodes a novel 695-amino acid protein that may function as a transcriptional regulator. (plantcell.org)
  • ZTL encodes a novel F-box-containing protein that may be involved in light-dependent proteolysis. (plantcell.org)
  • In the well-characterized Drosophila disease model, loss of the highly conserved dFMRP causes circadian arrhythmicity and conspicuous abnormalities in the circadian clock circuitry. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here we examined whether genetic manipulations of APP-like (APPL) protein cleavage in Drosophila melanogaster affect rest-activity rhythms and core circadian clock function in this model organism. (oregonstate.edu)
  • A well-characterized example of such a transcriptional feedback loop is in Drosophila , where CLOCK-CYCLE (CLK-CYC) complexes activate transcription of period ( per ) and timeless ( tim ) genes, rising levels of PER-TIM complexes feed-back to repress CLK-CYC activity, and degradation of PER and TIM permits the next cycle of CLK-CYC transcription. (g3journal.org)
  • To identify phosphatases that play a role in the clock, we screened clock cell-specific RNA interference (RNAi) knockdowns of all annotated protein phosphatases and protein phosphatase regulators in Drosophila for altered activity rhythms. (g3journal.org)
  • As in other animals, the Drosophila core timekeeping loop is activated by two bHLH‐PAS transcription factors, CLOCK and CYCLE (CLK-CYC), and repressed by PERIOD-TIMELESS (PER-TIM) complexes. (g3journal.org)
  • The Drosophila circadian clock is driven by daily fluctuations of the proteins Period and Timeless, which associate in a complex and negatively regulate the transcription of their own genes. (harvard.edu)
  • Here we show that the product of the slimb (slmb) gene-a member of the F-box/WD40 protein family of the ubiquitin ligase SCF complex that targets phosphorylated proteins for degradation-is an essential component of the Drosophila circadian clock. (harvard.edu)
  • The circadian mechanism appears remarkably conserved between Drosophila and mammals, with basic underlying negative and positive feedback loops, cycling gene products, and temporally regulated nuclear transport involving a few key proteins. (genetics.org)
  • A new study led by UC Santa Cruz researchers has found that a protein associated with cancer cells is a powerful suppressor of the biological clock that drives the daily ('circadian') rhythms of cells throughout the body. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Cancer researchers have been interested in these proteins as markers for cancer and as potential targets for therapeutic cancer vaccines. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • The researchers also studied cancer cell lines that express PASD1 and showed that blocking the protein (using RNA interference techniques) turned the clock cycle back on in those cells. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Researchers at The Scripps Research Institute say they have taken a leap forward in their quest to understand the proteins that control the human circadian clock - the 24-hour wake-sleep cycle that, when interrupted, can lead to jet lag and other sleep disturbances. (scripps.edu)
  • The researchers then produced a variety of mutant proteins in order to test the functional structure of the enzymes. (scripps.edu)
  • Not only do the findings have the potential to form the basis of drugs that can ease jet lag and regulate drug metabolism, they may also go some way to explain some fascinating circadian clock disorders that have been found in mice and man, the researchers say. (scripps.edu)
  • By x-ray analysis of the cryptochrome-period complex structure, the researchers were able to observe atomic details of the interaction between the cryptochrome and period proteins and also discovered that the zinc ion mediates this interaction. (phys.org)
  • Researchers have discovered a chemical clock in the brain that builds up the desire to sleep . (newscientist.com)
  • For decades, researchers have studied protein folding by examining the structures of naturally occurring proteins. (genengnews.com)
  • To encode their designs of short proteins in this project, the researchers used what is called DNA oligo library synthesis technology. (genengnews.com)
  • The new technology reported in the JACS paper, which needs only very small amounts of protein, gives researchers a comprehensive view of a the molecule, "like being able to see the topology of the entire forest," says Mchaourab. (innovations-report.com)
  • Researchers probing the brain tissue of people with severe forms of epilepsy make a surprising breakthrough: a protein involved in circadian rhythms, called CLOCK, may play a role. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • NONO protein was first discovered in 1993 by researchers at Cold Springs Harbor Laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clock is not always disrupted in cancer cells, but studies have shown that disrupting circadian rhythms in mice causes tumors to grow faster, and one of the things the clock does is set restrictions on when cells can divide,' she said. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Oscillations of brain proteins in circadian rhythms are important for determining several cellular and physiological processes in anticipation of daily and seasonal environmental rhythms. (frontiersin.org)
  • With the invitation to edit this volume, I wanted to take the opportunity to assemble reviews on different aspects of circadian clocks and rhythms. (weltbild.ch)
  • Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate invasive and metastatic potential of urothelial cancer by investigating differential expression of various clock genes/proteins participating in the 24 h circadian rhythms and to compare these gene expressions with transcription of other cancer-associated genes. (bibsys.no)
  • The suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) act as pacemakers required for the generation of circadian behavioral rhythms as well as synchronizers of autonomous peripheral tissue clocks ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • A diverse array of organisms use circadian (∼24 hr) clocks to regulate daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism, and behavior. (g3journal.org)
  • These clocks keep time via self-sustained transcriptional feedback loops that are synchronized to daily environmental cycles and drive daily rhythms in gene expression. (g3journal.org)
  • Here, we screened for mutants that show abnormal ROC15 diurnal rhythms, including the light-induced protein degradation at dawn, using a luciferase fusion reporter. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This review explores the circadian clock and breast cancer, and the growing role of epigenetics in breast cancer development and circadian rhythms. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The circadian rhythms in all of the knockout strains of upf1-3 genes, which encode the Up-frameshift proteins, were aberrant. (genetics.org)
  • We also demonstrated that the clock genes including White Collar (WC)-1, WC-2, and FRQ are involved in controlling the diurnal growth rhythm, and UPF1 may affect the growth rhythms by mediating the FRQ protein levels in the daytime. (genetics.org)
  • These findings suggest that the NMD factors play important roles in regulating the circadian clock and diurnal growth rhythms in Neurospora . (genetics.org)
  • The central oscillator generating cyanobacterial circadian rhythms comprises KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • A gene expression oscillator, called the segmentation clock, controls segmentation of precursors of the vertebral column. (biologists.org)
  • In addition, the gene-expression levels of 22 genes (clock genes, casein kinases, oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes and cytokeratins) were analysed by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). (bibsys.no)
  • These results reveal the tissue-specific nature of gene expression responses to chronic alcohol exposure and the ClockΔ19 mutation. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • In this study, the expression of clock genes and inflammatory-related genes was examined in MACS microglia isolated from 2-month-old amyloid precursor protein knock-in (APP-KI) and wild-type (WT) mice using cap analysis gene expression (CAGE) deep sequencing and RT-PCR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The up-and-down daily cycles of a long-studied clock protein called Rev-erb coordinates the ebb and flow of gene expression by tightening and loosening loops in chromosomes, according to new research from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. (healthmedicinet.com)
  • however, how repressor proteins such as Rev-erb regulate their part in turning off gene expression has remained unanswered, until now. (healthmedicinet.com)
  • At night (left), when Rev-erb concentration decreases, gene expression is turned on by protein complexes that loop the chromosome bringing together distant regions (blue and pink). (eurekalert.org)
  • During the day (right), when Rev-erb levels rise, the protein complexes are kicked out, causing the loop to loosen and turn off gene expression. (eurekalert.org)
  • We propose that the accelerated evolution of key proteins together with a diel re-programming of gene expression were required for CAM evolution from C 3 ancestors in Agave . (springer.com)
  • Next, we are now looking at the interactions of the cryptochromes with their protein partners. (scripps.edu)
  • To date, global mapping of in vivo RNA-protein interactions is performed by immunopurification of RNA-binding proteins using antibodies against the native protein or an epitope, and cataloguing the associated RNAs by RNA-seq. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To preserve the physiological RNA-protein interactions, RNA and bound proteins are often crosslinked in vivo. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There is a need for a method of fluorescence that enables the study of the interactions of proteins throughout their lifetimes. (smith.edu)
  • However, natural protein structures are typically large and complex, with thousands of interactions that collectively hold the protein in its folded shape. (genengnews.com)
  • These simpler proteins made it easier to analyze the different types of interactions that hold all proteins in their folded structures. (genengnews.com)
  • Ten µm cryosections were examined by immunohistochemical procedure for per2 and clock proteins. (arvojournals.org)
  • Per2 and clock proteins existed in entire neurosensory retina. (arvojournals.org)
  • Two representative clock genes, per2 and clock proteins existed in the mouse retina and have a circadian rhythmic expression. (arvojournals.org)
  • To study this issue, we assessed in rats the effect of thyroidectomy/parathyrodectomy (TPX) on the expression of the clock protein, PER2, in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master circadian clock, and in a number of key limbic forebrain structures, the oval nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTov), the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA), the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the dentate gyrus (DG). (concordia.ca)
  • We show that the central clock genes ARNTL (Bmal) , Per2 and Per3 , and the peripheral clock genes Rev-erb-α and ROR-α , oscillate before and after differentiation, as does the expression of the neuronal differentiation markers Hes5 , β-3-tubulin (Tubb3) and Stra13 , but not Neurod1 . (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • Seventeen of those genes were already known to encode proteins involved in the uptake of lipids or other aspects of metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, rhythmic degradation of clockwork proteins is also crucial. (eurekalert.org)
  • The RadA/Sms family are probable ATP-dependent proteases involved in both DNA repair and degradation of proteins, peptides, glycopeptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new twist on clock protein phosphorylation: a conformational change leads to protein degradation. (nih.gov)
  • These results demonstrate that CUL1 is required for TOC1 degradation and further suggest that this protein is the functional cullin for the SCF(ZTL) complex. (washington.edu)
  • In a previous report, we suggested that a light-induced degradation of the clock protein ROC15 is a trigger to reset the circadian clock in Chlamydomonas. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In one mutant, ROC15 degradation and phase resetting of the circadian clock by light were impaired. (nii.ac.jp)
  • As an F-box protein, ZEITLUPE (ZTL) is involved in targeting one or more substrates for ubiquitination and degradation via the proteasome. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Circadian phase-specific degradation of the F-box protein ZTL is mediated by the proteasome. (semanticscholar.org)
  • RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) regulate RNA processing steps from synthesis to decay, including pre-mRNA splicing, transport, 3′ end formation, translation, and degradation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, mutational analyses reveal that the helicase function of FRH is not essential for the clock, and a region of FRH distinct from the helicase region is essential for stabilizing FRQ against rapid degradation via a pathway distinct from its typical ubiquitin-mediated turnover. (altmetric.com)
  • In constant darkness, highly phosphorylated forms of the Per and Tim proteins are constitutively present in the mutants, indicating that the control of their cyclic degradation is impaired. (harvard.edu)
  • Because levels of Per and Tim oscillate in slmb mutants maintained in light:dark conditions, light- and clock-controlled degradation of Per and Tim do not rely on the same mechanisms. (harvard.edu)
  • This is the cell compartment that breaks up used proteins into its basic amino acids. (eurekalert.org)
  • In this study, the team analyzed whether feeding mice a protein-only diet or amino-acids that do not cause insulin secretion cold cause entrainment of the liver clock to identify possible additional factors. (waseda.jp)
  • Their findings demonstrated that in place of insulin, increasing glucagon and IGF-1 levels by feeding a protein-only diet entrains the liver circadian clock, and that cysteine, an inexpensive amino acid, has the strongest phase advance via increases in IGF-1 in the liver. (waseda.jp)
  • Nobody has clearly understood what the structural or functional differences are between these two proteins, but we found a single amino acid difference that alters the protein's structure near its active site,' Getzoff says. (scripps.edu)
  • Native proteins have evolved for function, not stability, so "natural" protein space may give a limited view of the connections between amino acid sequences and folded, three-dimensional protein structures. (genengnews.com)
  • The genetic code (nucleotide sequence of a gene) translates into a polypeptide (amino-acid sequence of a protein) in a 3-to-1 fashion. (scienceblogs.com)
  • There are a total of 20 amino-acids used to build all proteins in our bodies. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Translation of the DNA/RNA code into a sequence of amino-acids is just the beginning of the process of protein synthesis. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The exact sequence of amino-acids in a polypeptide chain is the primary structure of the protein. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Transcriptional activator which forms a core component of the circadian clock. (genecards.org)
  • We previously used microarray technology to identify the immediate transcriptional targets of aldosterone in a mouse inner medullary collecting duct cell line and found that the transcript induced to the greatest extent was the circadian clock gene Period 1. (nih.gov)
  • Circadian clocks in eukaryotes keep time via cell-autonomous transcriptional feedback loops. (g3journal.org)
  • Importantly, differentiation is partially contingent upon downregulation of the Hippo pathway transcriptional effector Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB. (nih.gov)
  • An opportunity to link the ultradian ENOX oscillation to downstream activation of clock genes may be provided by responses of transcriptional factors to levels of NADH and especially to NAD + generated by ENOX oscillations. (springer.com)
  • The cyanobacterial clock proteins comprise three proteins: KaiA, KaiB and KaiC. (wikipedia.org)
  • The homologs of two circadian proteins, KaiB and KaiC, form four major subfamilies (K1-K4) and also occur in some other prokaryotes. (springer.com)
  • Small molecules against the ligase, then, could indirectly regulate the amount and therefore activity of the 'undruggable' protein. (eurekalert.org)
  • The circadian or inner clock coordinates the sleep-wake rhythm and many other body processes that regulate, for example, metabolism, blood pressure, and the immune system. (phys.org)
  • NONO has been identified to bind with Rasd1 protein, in resulting dimer Rasd1 may act to modulate the function of NONO to down regulate the expression of the CREB genes, NR4A1 and Nr4A2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also in the KaiC family is RadA/Sms, a highly conserved eubacterial protein that shares sequence similarity with both RecA strand transferase and lon protease. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also tested incubating mutant KaiC protein with KaiA, KaiB, and ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Computer model showing the structure of the circadian clock protein KaiC from Synechococcus elongatus. (sciencephoto.com)
  • focused on the cyanobacterial clock component KaiC, an adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) that can autophosphorylate and autodephosphorylate. (sciencemag.org)
  • Kageyama, H., Kondo Iwasaki, T. H. 2003 Circadian formation of clock protein complexes by KaiA, KaiB, KaiC, and SasA in cyanobacteria J. Biol. (springer.com)
  • KaiB interacts with phosphorylated KaiC in competition with SasA, an output protein harboring a KaiB-homologous domain. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the primary central oscillator, the cerebellum shows oscillations in gene and protein expression. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, to ensure fitness in response to such regular environmental oscillations, many organisms have evolved an internal timing mechanism to predict these cyclic environmental cues, and this is termed the circadian clock. (elifesciences.org)
  • The homodimeric, growth-related and time-keeping constitutive hydroquinone oxidase ENOX1 of the eukaryotic cell surface capable of oxidizing extracellular NAD(P)H and intracellular hydroquinones exhibits properties of the ultradian driver of the biological 24-h circadian clock by exhibiting a complex 2 + 3 set of oscillations with a period length of 24 min (repeats 60 times over 24 h). (springer.com)
  • The oscillations require bound copper, are recapitulated by aqueous solutions of copper salts and appear to derive from 30 to 40 s periodic variations in the ratios of ortho and para nuclear spins of the paired hydrogen atoms of the elongated octahedral structure of the ENOX1 protein-bound copper II hexahydrates. (springer.com)
  • That the oscillations result from physical rather than chemical events accounts for the temperature independence of the period length of clock-related phenomena. (springer.com)
  • The plant photolyase structure provides a much better model to use to study how the cryptochrome proteins in the human clock function than we have ever had before,' says the study's lead investigator, Kenichi Hitomi, a postdoctoral research fellow at Scripps Research. (scripps.edu)
  • SUMMARY: The circadian clock is the endogenous timer that coordinates physiological processes with daily and seasonal environmental changes. (washington.edu)
  • Chronic jet lag is sufficient to disrupt the endogenous adipose clock and also induce central Leptin resistance in wild-type mice. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • ab65033 detects endogenous levels of total KAT13D / CLOCK protein. (abcam.com)
  • Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael Young are, between them, responsible for working out how the endogenous clocks of fruit flies-and, by extension, of other organisms-run what is known as the circadian rhythm. (brianponcelet.com)
  • Each monomer is composed of three functional domains: the N-terminal amplitude-amplifier domain, the central period-adjuster domain and the C-terminal clock-oscillator domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using the likelihood-ratio tests, we studied a rate shift at the functional divergence of the proteins from the different subfamilies. (springer.com)
  • Collectively, we showed that ELF3 protein plays a vital role in defining its light-repressor action in the circadian clock and that its functional abilities are largely dependent on its cellular localization. (elifesciences.org)
  • We showed that accelerated evolution of key functional domains in proteins responsible for primary metabolism and signaling, together with a diel re-programming of the transcription of genes involved in carbon fixation, carbohydrate processing, redox homeostasis, and circadian control is required for the evolution of CAM in Agave . (springer.com)
  • Our findings reveal a new frontier of circadian clock research in stem cells: contrary to what has been published previously, we have shown the clock to be functional and to oscillate, even in undifferentiated stem cells. (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • The ticking of the biological clock drives fluctuations in gene activity and protein levels that give rise to daily cycles in virtually every aspect of physiology in humans and other animals. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge. (uniprot.org)
  • Our results provide a detailed, comparative framework for biological investigations of both of these proteins and their functions. (scripps.edu)
  • The most obvious reason is the odd hours throw a person's 24-hour biological clock-and metabolism-out of sync. (georgetown.edu)
  • Their studies suggest that what gut microbes "say" influences the activity of a key clock-driven protein called NFIL3, which can set intestinal cells up to absorb and store more fat from the diet while operating at hours that might run counter to our fixed biological clocks. (georgetown.edu)
  • It is gratifying that our circadian clock research has led to potentially useful insights into the vulnerabilities of glioblastoma stem cells given their apparent central role in making the disease so resistant to achieving a durable remission," said Dr. Kay, provost professor of neurology, biomedical engineering and biological sciences at the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California. (baycitycapital.com)
  • Protein Drp1, synchronized by an internal biological clock determines the energy needed to be supplied. (medindia.net)
  • Scientists have now investigated exactly how the mitochondrial network interacts with our internal biological clock by using a combination of in vitro models and clock-deficient mice or mice with impaired mitochondrial fission. (medindia.net)
  • Their results show that the mitochondrial fission-fusion cycle is controlled by the fission protein Drp1, which is in turn synchronized by an internal biological clock. (medindia.net)
  • Controlling of the circadian rhythm or biological clock may help reduce the severity of inflammatory diseases - peritoneal inflammation and fulminant hepatitis. (medindia.net)
  • These cycles affect biological activities in a variety of living organisms which are attuned to the circadian clock. (news-medical.net)
  • Fresh insight into how biological clocks adjust to having less sunlight in the winter could help us better understand the impact of jet lag and shift work. (phys.org)
  • We assume that the formation of this cryptochrome-period protein complex provides a mechanism by which the circadian clock interacts with the metabolism, while the zinc ion and the disulfide bond play an important role in regulating the stability of the complex," summarized Wolf. (phys.org)
  • 2013 ). As a scaffolding protein, RACK1 protein interacts with many proteins and is involved in multiple signaling pathways (McCahill et al. (springeropen.com)
  • NONO binds to SFPQ to form a heterodimer that interacts with the MATR3 protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • These recognize specific proteins and direct the addition of a molecule onto waste proteins to dispatch the protein to be recycled to the proteosome. (eurekalert.org)
  • The company's most advanced molecule, SHP-1705, is a cryptochrome stabilizer, which has been shown to be well tolerated and demonstrated active core clock control in clinical testing. (baycitycapital.com)
  • Synchronicity's SHP-1705 represents the first ever clinical-stage molecule capable of modulating the circadian core clock in a targeted manner. (baycitycapital.com)
  • The technique, which determines the structure of a protein by measuring the distances between atoms in the molecule at greater separations than previously possible, is an important development, says Jack Freed, professor of chemistry and chemical biology at Cornell, who is director of the National Biomedical Center for Advanced ESR Technology (ACERT), established at Cornell last year by the National Institutes of Health. (innovations-report.com)
  • Digging deeper into the mechanism at play, Ghosh and team discovered that the GIV protein normally cozies up to a molecule called Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). (innovations-report.com)
  • A gene is a small portion of the genome - a sequence of nucleotides that is expressed together and codes for a single protein (polypeptide) molecule. (scienceblogs.com)
  • They had no specific target molecule in mind, but one clear winner emerged: there was a decrease in the expression of mRNA coding for a protein called circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK). (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • He notes that 30 percent of the proteins encoded by a genome and 50 percent of pharmaceutically important receptors are membrane-embedded proteins "that are not so easily studied by the two main structural techniques, X-ray crystallography and NMR. (innovations-report.com)
  • The results demonstrate that glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) have a specific dependence on core clock proteins for their growth and survival. (baycitycapital.com)
  • A similar reliance on these core clock proteins was not seen in non-malignant cells nor mature glioblastoma cells. (baycitycapital.com)
  • Core clock proteins activate or repress protein complexes that physically loop one part of a chromosome to become adjacent to a distant part of the same chromosome. (healthmedicinet.com)
  • Within this region, a 56-bp clock-responsive element that confers a low-amplitude circadian oscillation (approximately threefold) with peak abundance in the early evening maps between positions -112 and -57. (nih.gov)
  • One such photoresponse is the circadian clock, which can be reset by external light signals to entrain its oscillation to daily environmental cycles. (nii.ac.jp)
  • When one of the two cryptochrome clock proteins is deleted, the cycles of the 24-hour body clock lengthen, but when the other is deleted, the clock cycle shortens. (scripps.edu)
  • Circadian clocks keep organisms in synch with such daily cycles as illumination, activity, and food availability. (sciencemag.org)
  • For many living things, these cycles of activity are driven by an internal body clock that helps the organism to adapt to the daily cycle of light and dark-and similar internal clocks also exist in plants. (elifesciences.org)
  • These internal clocks define daily-or circadian-cycles whereby multiple genes are switched 'on' or 'off' at different time points in every 24-hr period. (elifesciences.org)
  • Source: University of Pennsylvania Summary: According to new research, the up-and-down daily cycles of a long-studied clock protein called Rev-erb coordinates the ebb and flow of. (healthinformative.com)
  • CLOCK is a key component of the circadian mechanism and relative abundance over the 24-hour daily cycles drives the positive and negative arms of the circadian mechanism 35 , 36 . (nature.com)
  • Humans and mammals, on the other hand, possess a homologous protein known as cryptochrome that modulates the circadian clock. (scripps.edu)
  • Heterodimerization of MaTCP proteins modulates the transcription of MaXTH10/11 genes during banana fruit ripening. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Consists of two major components: the central clock, residing in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the brain, and the peripheral clocks that are present in nearly every tissue and organ system. (genecards.org)
  • The circadian clock consists of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus, which acts as the master pacemaker, and peripheral clocks in peripheral organs. (waseda.jp)
  • time-setting light cues (Zeitgebers, ZT) are received by the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. (nature.com)
  • 2017. Adaptation of iCLIP to plants determines the binding landscape of the clock-regulated RNA-binding protein AtGRP7. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Adaptation of iCLIP to plants determines the binding landscape of the clock-regulated RNA-binding protein AtGRP7", Genome Biology , vol. 18, 2017, : 204. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Understanding how PASD1 is regulating the circadian clock could open the door to developing new therapies. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • They also found that a protein called Seven in absentia 2 (Siah2) is a key regulator of the turnover of a well-studied, clock nuclear protein called RevErbα on a 24-hour cycle. (eurekalert.org)
  • The ganglion cell layer and inner nuclear layer showed strong positive immnostaining of clock. (arvojournals.org)
  • Since the timing of nuclear accumulation of clock proteins constitutes an important step in the transcription-translation feedback loop driving the circadian core oscillator, laser irradiation could provide a simple and effective technology for clock protein localization and turnover. (medsci.org)
  • Protein phosphorylation has a central role in this feedback loop, by controlling Per stability in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments as well as Per/Tim nuclear transfer. (harvard.edu)
  • Until now, protein structure has been determined primarily by two widely used methods: X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. (innovations-report.com)
  • As with all proteins of the DBHS familprotein is described as a multifunctional nuclear protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the protein being originally identified as a RNA-binding protein it was named p54nrb for Nuclear RNA-binding protein, 54 kDa. (wikipedia.org)
  • To realize the entire potential of targeted proteins kinase inhibitors for the treating cancer, it's important to handle the introduction of drug level of resistance in treated sufferers. (onetownmanyvoices.com)
  • The circadian clock synchronizes to the external 24-hour environment by the SCN receiving information on the light-dark cycle and by the peripheral clocks, including the liver clock, receiving information from the SCN through multiple pathways such as food intake, which induces strong entrainment due to insulin secretion and intracellular signaling. (waseda.jp)
  • Here, we show that laser irradiation can direct the osteogenesis and adipogenesis of mouse MSCs by altering the intracellular localization of the circadian rhythm protein Cryptochrome 1 (mCRY1). (medsci.org)
  • However, the liver clock of type-1 diabetes model mice was observed to be entrained by scheduled feeding, suggesting that insulin is not necessary for entrainment in the liver clock by feeding. (waseda.jp)
  • The brain's ability to make new neural connections can be restored in mice by blocking a protein that normally acts as a natural brake on neuroplasticity. (the-scientist.com)
  • The effects of clock gene disturbance on neuroinflammation and relevant memory changes were examined in 2-month-old APP-KI and WT mice after injection with SR9009 (a synthetic agonist for REV-ERB). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Comparing these to normal mice, they identified a set of proteins involved in tracking how long an animal has been awake. (newscientist.com)
  • In healthy mice, these proteins gradually accumulate chemical tags - called phosphate groups - during waking hours. (newscientist.com)
  • The more phosphate groups these proteins carried, the deeper and longer mice slept when they drifted off. (newscientist.com)
  • Intriguingly, adaptations to neuron morphology, memory, and cerebrovascular tone occurred in differing magnitude and direction between Clock ∆19/∆19 and WT mice, ultimately converging in HF. (nature.com)
  • Here we investigate the role of the circadian mechanism on normal neurobiology using Clock ∆19/∆19 mice, and how the circadian mechanism contributes to neurobiological adaptations within cognition-relevant brain regions in HF. (nature.com)
  • Today, we continue with the cell - the basic processes of DNA transcription, RNA translation, and protein synthesis. (coturnix.org)
  • We show that the cost of toxic protein misfolding is small compared to other costs associated with protein synthesis. (columbia.edu)
  • We find that in this bacterium other costs associated with protein synthesis are likely to play an important role. (columbia.edu)
  • Details of this work appeared July 14 in the journal Science , in an article entitled "Global Analysis of Protein Folding Using Massively Parallel Design, Synthesis, and Testing. (genengnews.com)
  • We combined computational protein design, next-generation gene synthesis, and a high-throughput protease susceptibility assay to measure folding and stability for more than 15,000 de novo designed miniproteins, 1000 natural proteins, 10,000 point mutants, and 30,000 negative control sequences," wrote the article's authors. (genengnews.com)
  • ZEITLUPE (ZTL) is the F-box protein that associates with the SCF (Skp/Cullin/F-box) E3 ubiquitin ligase that is responsible for marking TOC1 for turnover. (washington.edu)
  • In addition, FKF1 and LKP2 also interacted with TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1 (TOC1) and PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR5 (PRR5), and both proteins were further stabilized in ztl fkf1 and ztl fkf1 lkp2 compared with in ztl . (plantcell.org)
  • Taken together, these results define a biochemical action for the core clock protein TOC1 and refine our perspective on how plant clocks function. (ucsd.edu)
  • And, because light and ambient temperatures also vary with time of the day, many organisms use these external signals as cues to reset their own internal clocks. (elifesciences.org)
  • Protein expression level is the dominant determinant of the clock rate in a number of organisms. (columbia.edu)
  • Although we cannot rule out the possibility that selection against misfolding toxicity significantly affects the protein clock in species other than E. coli, our results suggest that it is unlikely to be the dominant and universal factor determining the clock rate in all organisms. (columbia.edu)
  • They found that the ligase Fbxl3 was a regulator of Cry proteins, critical components of the core clock. (eurekalert.org)
  • CLOCK (Clock Circadian Regulator) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Component of the KaiABC clock protein complex, which constitutes the main circadian regulator in cyanobacteria. (uniprot.org)
  • PHILADELPHIA - Rhythmic expression of key genes is essential for maintaining proper timekeeping of the body's clock. (eurekalert.org)
  • Despite this importance, data about clock gene and protein expression in the cerebellum of diurnal (day-active) species, specifically primates, is currently poorly explored, mainly in regard to cellular identity, as well as the relationship with other molecules also involved in cerebellar functions. (frontiersin.org)
  • The transgenic Gene-Switch system was employed to drive conditional neuronal dFMRP expression in the dfmr1 -null mutant background in order to dissect temporal requirements within the clock circuit. (frontiersin.org)
  • Conclusions The close correlation between altered expression of various clock genes and common tumour markers in urothelial cancer indicates that disturbed function in the cellular clock work may be an important additional mechanism contributing to cancer progression and malignant behaviour. (bibsys.no)
  • The high expression peak of both proteins appeared at 0.5, 1 and 2 hours after light exposure under LD 12:12 and at 2 hours of subjective day under DD. (arvojournals.org)
  • Although LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL ( LHY ) and CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 ( CCA1 ) expression levels are lower in ztl than in the wild type, introducing both fkf1 and lkp2 mutations into the ztl mutant dramatically diminished LHY expression without further affecting CCA1 expression. (plantcell.org)
  • In skeletal muscle-derived UPS, we observed that YAP1 suppresses PERK and ATF6-mediated UPR target expression as well as clock genes. (nih.gov)
  • EGCG may ameliorate diet-induced metabolic misalignment by regulating the rhythmic expression of the circadian clock genes in the liver and fat. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Thus, even in closely related Diptera, there is considerable evolutionary flexibility in the number and spatial organization of clock cells and, indeed, in the expression patterns of clock products in these cells, although the underlying framework is similar. (genetics.org)
  • This project aims to construct a system in S. cerevisiae for the expression of multifluorescent protein tags that vary in fluorescence color over time, enabling the differentiation of proteins expressed at different times. (smith.edu)
  • Orchestrating this 24-hour cycle is a core network of transcription factors called "the circadian clock" that modulate the expression of numerous genes, including Nfil3 , over the course of the day [2]. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, the known clock-modulating compounds ERK, EGFR, Pi3K, p38, DNA methylation and Sirtiun inhibitors, in addition to Rev-erb-α ligands, modulate the expression of central and peripheral clock genes. (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • Interestingly Sirtinol, Sirt1 and Sirt2 inhibitors had the greatest significant effect on the expression of clock genes, and increased Hes5 and Tubb3 expression during neuronal differentiation. (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • Modulating the expression of clock genes using small molecules could affect stem cell differentiation. (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • Previous behavioral screens identified several kinases that control CLK, PER, and TIM levels, subcellular localization, and/or activity, but two phosphatases that function within the clock were identified through the analysis of candidate genes from other pathways or model systems. (g3journal.org)
  • The receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) is a WD40 type protein that is involved in multiple signaling pathways and is conserved from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. (springeropen.com)
  • To investigate this dichotomous response, we performed microarrays and found genes crucial for growth and stress pathways that were altered in Clock ∆19/∆19 mPFC and hippocampus. (nature.com)
  • This technique is potentially very powerful for the investigation of larger protein assemblies and membrane proteins," says Yeon-Kyun Shin, associate professor of biophysics at Iowa State University and a major user of the ACERT facility. (innovations-report.com)
  • PER and CRY proteins heterodimerize and repress their own transcription by interacting in a feedback loop with CLOCK/ARNTL complexes. (genecards.org)
  • Comparative genomics analyses among C 3 , C 4 and CAM species revealed that core metabolic components required for CAM have ancient genomic origins traceable to non-vascular plants while regulatory proteins required for diel re-programming of metabolism have a more recent origin shared among C 3 , C 4 and CAM species. (springer.com)
  • We showed that the core metabolic components required for CAM are shared by non-vascular plants, but regulatory proteins involved in re-reprogramming of carbon fixation and metabolite transportation appeared more recently. (springer.com)
  • However, the lack of a genome-wide view of their in vivo binding targets and binding landscapes represents a gap in understanding the mode of action of plant RNA-binding proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Also, new neuropeptidergic clock homologs have been identified in nematodes, supporting the idea of a broad range of clock-regulated targets. (uantwerpen.be)
  • determined that the KaiABC protein complex was responsible for the circadian negative feedback loop in Synechococcus by mapping 19 clock mutants to the genes for these three proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • While there have been many advances in fluorescence microscopy for single molecules in recent years, there are still limitations to studying protein activity and localization over time through fluorescence. (smith.edu)
  • Our structures revealed a novel protein fold and characterized the roles of the cofactors, and of the l-arginine substrate itself, in the 2 steps of the reaction mechanism. (scripps.edu)
  • Treatment with a peptide that mimics the naturally occurring protein GIV prevents immune overreaction, supports a mechanism critical for survival in mouse models of sepsis and colitis. (innovations-report.com)
  • Setting back the methylation clock means thwarting the body's efforts to rescue itself. (scienceblog.com)
  • Rev-erb kicks out the protein complexes that bridge the distant regions of the chromosome, thereby destabilizing the loop and turning off the gene. (healthmedicinet.com)
  • The CLOCK - ARNTL 2/BMAL2 heterodimer activates the transcription of SERPINE1 /PAI1 and BHLHE40 / DEC1 . (rcsb.org)
  • CLOCK specifically binds to the half-site 5'-CAC-3', while ARNTL binds to the half-site 5'-GTGA-3' (PubMed:23229515). (rcsb.org)

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