Iron Chelating Agents
Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins
Polymorphism in the aerobactin-cloacin DF13 receptor genes from an enteroinvasive strain of Escherichia coli and pColV-K30 is associated only with a decrease in cloacin susceptibility. (1/26)We have cloned chromosomal genes mediating the aerobactin iron transport system from the enteroinvasive strain Escherichia coli 978-77. The physical map of the region spanning the siderophore biosynthesis genes and the upstream portion of the receptor gene in strain 978-77-derived clones was identical to the corresponding regions in pColV-K30, while the downstream portion was different. Recombinant plasmids derived from strain 978-77 encoded a 76-kDa outer membrane protein, in contrast to the 74-kDa polypeptide encoded by similar clones derived from pColV-K30. No differences were found in the uptake of ferric aerobactin mediated by either the 76-kDa- or the 74-kDa-encoding plasmids. In contrast, cells containing the 76-kDa-encoding plasmids showed a 16-fold decrease in susceptibility to cloacin compared with cells harboring the 74-kDa-encoding plasmids. Two classes of chimeric aerobactin receptor genes were constructed by exchanging sequences corresponding to the downstream portion from the aerobactin receptor gene of both systems. The pColV-K30-978-77 chimeric gene encoded a 76-kDa outer membrane protein which mediated a low level of cloacin susceptibility, whereas the 978-77-pColV-K30 type encoded a protein of 74 kDa determining a level of cloacin susceptibility identical to that mediated by pColV-K30. (+info)
Production and excretion of cloacin DF13 by Escherichia coli harboring plasmid CloDF13. (2/26)The production and the mechanism of excretion of cloacin DF13 were investigated in noninduced and mitomycin C-induced cell cultures. A mitomycin C concentration was selected which did not cause lysis of cloacinogenic cells, but at the same time induced a maximal production of cloacin DF13. Native cloacin DF13, possessing killing activity, was first released into the cytoplasm. Shortly thereafter, the bacteriocin was transported through the cytoplasmic membrane and accumulated in the periplasm. Finally, cloacin DF13 was excreted into the culture medium. A small amount of cloacin DF13 remained associated with the cell surface. Producing cells did not become permeable for the cytoplasmic enzyme beta-galactosidase. Apparently the cloacin DF13 leaves the producing cells by an excretion process which is not similar to the mechanism proposed for bacterial secretory proteins. The processes of excretion by producing cells and of uptake by susceptible cells were also not identical because mutant cloacin DF13, which was not transported through the outer membrane into susceptible cells, was excreted like the wild-type cloacin DF13. The composition of the culture medium greatly affected production of cloacin DF13. The presence of sugars known to cause catabolite repression not only inhibited the production but also strongly reduced the excretion of cloacin DF13 into the culture medium. (+info)
Changes in protein synthesis on mitomycin C induction of wild-type and mutant CloDF13 plasmids. (3/26)Mitomycin C treatment of Escherichia coli K-12 cells containing the nonconjugative plasmid CloDF13 resulted in inhibition of host chromosome protein synthesis and a high rate of synthesis of two CloDF13-specified proteins whose molecular weights correspond to cloacin and immunity protein. Five molecules of immunity protein were synthesized for each cloacin DF13 molecule. Mitomycin C-treated cells containing a copy mutant of CloDF13 made three to four times as much of each protein as cells containing wild-type CloDF13. CloDF13 plasmids that contained the transposon Tn1 were isolated. Two did not induce after mitomycin C treatment, failing both to inhibit host cell synthesis and to produce the two new proteins. In minicells, they showed reduced CloDF13-specified protein synthesis and produced three Tn1-specified proteins. (+info)
Uptake of cloacin DF13 by susceptible cells: removal of immunity protein and fragmentation of cloacin molecules. (4/26)Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) directed against different epitopes on the equimolar complex of cloacin and immunity protein (cloacin DF13) were isolated, characterized, and used to study the uptake of cloacin DF13 by susceptible cells. Four MAbs recognized the amino-terminal part, one MAb recognized the central part, and three MAbs recognized the carboxyl-terminal part of the cloacin molecule. Three MAbs reacted with the immunity protein. Five MAbs inhibited the lethal action of cloacin DF13, but none of the MAbs inhibited the binding of cloacin DF13 to its purified outer membrane receptor protein or the in vitro inactivation of ribosomes. Binding of cloacin DF13 to susceptible cells cultured in broth resulted in a specific, time-dependent dissociation of the complex and a fragmentation of the cloacin molecules. Increasing amounts of immunity protein were detected in the culture medium from about 20 min after the addition of cloacin DF13. Cloacin was fragmented into two carboxyl-terminal fragments with relative molecular masses of 50,000 and 10,000. The larger fragment was detected 5 min after the binding of the bacteriocin complex to the cells. The smaller fragment was detected after 10 min. Both fragments were associated with the cells and could not be detected in the culture supernatant fraction. Cells grown in brain heart infusion were much less susceptible to cloacin DF13 than cells grown in broth, although they possessed a similar number of outer membrane receptor molecules. This decreased susceptibility correlated with a decreased translocation, dissociation, and fragmentation of cloacin DF13. (+info)
Methylation-dependent transcription controls plasmid replication of the CloDF13 cop-1(Ts) mutant. (5/26)The CloDF13 cop-1(Ts) mutant expresses a temperature-dependent plasmid copy number. At 42 degrees C the mutant shows a "runaway" behavior, and cells harboring this plasmid are killed. The cop-1(Ts) mutation is a G-to-A transition that disturbs one of the two methylation sites which are located opposite in the stem-loop structure within a region involved in both the initiation of primer synthesis for DNA replication and the termination of the cloacin operon transcript. We demonstrate that the mutation results in an increased primer (RNA II) synthesis resulting from nonconditional enhanced RNA II promoter activity, which at 42 degrees C causes a decrease in the amount of active replication repressor molecules (RNA I) synthesized from the opposite strand. We found that the absence of Dam methylation abolishes the mutant phenotype and that under this condition the high mutant level of RNA II synthesis is reduced, which is accompanied by a restoration of the regulation by RNA I. The role of methylation in the regulation of plasmid replication is discussed. (+info)
Expression in Escherichia coli K-12 of the 76,000-dalton iron-regulated outer membrane protein of Shigella flexneri confers sensitivity to cloacin DF13 in the absence of Shigella O antigen. (6/26)One of the chromosomal segments associated with virulence in Shigella flexneri encodes the production of aerobactin and the synthesis of an iron-regulated 76-kilodalton outer membrane protein believed to be the ferric-aerobactin receptor. However, S. flexneri expressing this putative aerobactin receptor, which is slightly larger than that encoded by pColV, is insensitive to the killing action of cloacin DF13, a bacteriocin which binds to other aerobactin receptor proteins and kills the cells. In this paper we show that the conjugal transfer of DNA encoding the iron-regulated 76-kilodalton protein from S. flexneri to Escherichia coli K-12 conferred cloacin DF13 sensitivity on the recipients. However, E. coli K-12 which had also inherited genes specifying Shigella O-antigen biosynthesis remained cloacin insensitive. The data suggest that it is unwise to use cloacin DF13 sensitivity alone to screen transconjugants or clinical isolates for the expression of aerobactin receptor proteins. (+info)
Novel aerobactin receptor in Klebsiella pneumoniae. (7/26)Several Klebsiella pneumoniae strains which produced enterochelin but not aerobactin were nevertheless sensitive to cloacin DF13. In contrast, a strain of serotype K1:O1 which produced both siderophores was cloacin-resistant. Loss by mutation of the O1 but not K1 antigen rendered this strain cloacin-sensitive, indicating that the O1 antigen prevented access of cloacin to the cloacin/aerobactin receptor. Unlike the K1:O1 strain, the aerobactin-negative strains failed to hybridize in a colony blot assay with an aerobactin receptor gene probe prepared from pColV-K30. However, antisera raised against the 74 kDa pColV-K30 aerobactin receptor cross-reacted with a 76 kDa outer-membrane protein in each K. pneumoniae strain. In addition to the 76 kDa protein, the K1:O1 strain also produced a strongly cross-reacting 74 kDa protein. To determine whether these aerobactin-negative strains could use aerobactin, mutants unable to synthesize siderophores were isolated. Aerobactin promoted the growth of these mutants in iron-deficient media. The evidence presented suggests that some K. pneumoniae strains produce an aerobactin iron-uptake system without apparent production of aerobactin and which is probably based on a 76 kDa receptor, the gene for which does not hybridize with aerobactin receptor gene encoded on pColV-K30. (+info)
pCloDF13-encoded bacteriocin release proteins with shortened carboxyl-terminal segments are lipid modified and processed and function in release of cloacin DF13 and apparent host cell lysis. (8/26)By oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis, stop codon mutations were introduced at various sites in the pCloDF13-derived bacteriocin release protein (BRP) structural gene. The expression, lipid modification (incorporation of [3H]palmitate), and processing (in the presence and absence of globomycin) of the various carboxyl-terminal shortened BRPs were analyzed by a special electrophoresis system and immunoblotting with an antiserum raised against a synthetic BRP peptide, and their functioning with respect to release of cloacin DF13, lethality, and apparent host cell lysis were studied in Sup-, supF, and supP strains of Escherichia coli. All mutant BRPs were stably expressed, lipid modified, and processed by signal peptidase II, albeit with different efficiencies. The BRP signal peptide appeared to be extremely stable and accumulated in induced cells. Full induction of the mutant BRPs, including the shortest containing only 4 amino acid residues of the mature polypeptide, resulted in phospholipase A-dependent and Mg2+-suppressible apparent cell lysis. The extent of this lysis varied with the mutant BRP used. Induction of all mutant BRPs also prevented colony formation, which appeared to be phospholipase A independent. One shortened BRP, containing 20 amino acid residues of the mature polypeptide, was still able to bring about the release of cloacin DF13. The results indicated that the 8-amino-acid carboxyl-terminal segment of the BRP contains a strong antigenic determinant and that a small segment between amino acid residues 17 and 21, located in the carboxyl-terminal half of the BRP, is important for release of cloacin DF13. Either the stable signal peptide or the acylated amino-terminal BRP fragments (or both) are involved in host cell lysis and lethality. (+info)
Cloacin is not a medical term, but rather a bacteriocin (a type of antibacterial protein) produced by some strains of the bacteria *Escherichia coli* (E. coli). Bacteriocins are proteins that can inhibit the growth of other closely related bacterial strains. Cloacin is specifically produced by certain strains of E. coli and targets other E. coli strains that are sensitive to its effects. It works by forming pores in the cell membrane of susceptible bacteria, leading to their death.
It's important to note that while cloacin is a bacteriocin produced by some E. coli strains, it is not a term used to describe a medical condition or disease.
Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria as a defense mechanism against other competing bacterial strains. They primarily target and inhibit the growth of closely related bacterial species, although some have a broader spectrum of activity. Bacteriocins can be classified into different types based on their structural features, molecular masses, and mechanisms of action.
These antimicrobial peptides often interact with the cell membrane of target bacteria, causing pore formation, depolarization, or disrupting cell wall biosynthesis, ultimately leading to bacterial cell death. Bacteriocins have gained interest in recent years as potential alternatives to conventional antibiotics due to their narrow spectrum of activity and reduced likelihood of inducing resistance. They are being explored for use in food preservation, agricultural applications, and as therapeutic agents in the medical field.
Enterobacter is a genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the environment, including in soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. These bacteria are members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and are known to cause a variety of infections in humans, particularly in healthcare settings.
Enterobacter species are capable of causing a range of infections, including urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bacteremia, and wound infections. They are often resistant to multiple antibiotics, which can make treatment challenging. Infections with Enterobacter are typically treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics that are effective against gram-negative bacteria.
It's worth noting that while Enterobacter species can cause infections, they are also a normal part of the microbiota found in the human gut and usually do not cause harm in healthy individuals. However, if the bacterium enters the bloodstream or other sterile sites in the body, it can cause infection and illness.
Mitomycin is an antineoplastic antibiotic derived from Streptomyces caespitosus. It is used in cancer chemotherapy, particularly for the treatment of gastrointestinal tumors, head and neck cancers, and sensitive skin cancers like squamous cell carcinoma. Mitomycin works by forming cross-links in DNA, which prevents DNA replication and transcription, ultimately leading to cell death. It is often administered through intravenous injection or topically during surgery for local treatment of certain cancers. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and potential myelosuppression (decrease in blood cells).
Iron chelating agents are medications that bind to iron in the body, forming a stable complex that can then be excreted from the body. These agents are primarily used to treat iron overload, a condition that can occur due to frequent blood transfusions or certain genetic disorders such as hemochromatosis. By reducing the amount of iron in the body, these medications can help prevent or reduce damage to organs such as the heart and liver. Examples of iron chelating agents include deferoxamine, deferasirox, and deferiprone.
Bacteriocin plasmids are autonomously replicating extrachromosomal genetic elements that carry the genes required for the biosynthesis, immunity, and regulation of bacteriocins. Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria to inhibit the growth of competing or closely related strains. These plasmids play a crucial role in the ecology and evolution of bacterial communities by providing a competitive advantage to the producing strain and promoting genetic diversity through horizontal gene transfer. Bacteriocin plasmids can be conjugative, mobilizable, or non-mobilizable, depending on their ability to self-transfer or require helper plasmids for transfer. They often contain additional genes encoding various functions, such as resistance to heavy metals, antibiotics, or other bacteriocins, which contribute to the fitness and adaptability of the host strain in diverse environments.
'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.
While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.
E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.
Hydroxamic acids are organic compounds containing the functional group -CONHOH. They are derivatives of hydroxylamine, where the hydroxyl group is bound to a carbonyl (C=O) carbon atom. Hydroxamic acids can be found in various natural and synthetic sources and play significant roles in different biological processes.
In medicine and biochemistry, hydroxamic acids are often used as metal-chelating agents or siderophore mimics to treat iron overload disorders like hemochromatosis. They form stable complexes with iron ions, preventing them from participating in harmful reactions that can damage cells and tissues.
Furthermore, hydroxamic acids are also known for their ability to inhibit histone deacetylases (HDACs), enzymes involved in the regulation of gene expression. This property has been exploited in the development of anti-cancer drugs, as HDAC inhibition can lead to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells.
Some examples of hydroxamic acid-based drugs include:
1. Deferasirox (Exjade, Jadenu) - an iron chelator used to treat chronic iron overload in patients with blood disorders like thalassemia and sickle cell disease.
2. Panobinostat (Farydak) - an HDAC inhibitor approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma, a type of blood cancer.
3. Vorinostat (Zolinza) - another HDAC inhibitor used in the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, a rare form of skin cancer.
Bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are a type of protein found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. The outer membrane is a unique characteristic of gram-negative bacteria, and it serves as a barrier that helps protect the bacterium from hostile environments. OMPs play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and selective permeability of the outer membrane. They are involved in various functions such as nutrient uptake, transport, adhesion, and virulence factor secretion.
OMPs are typically composed of beta-barrel structures that span the bacterial outer membrane. These proteins can be classified into several groups based on their size, function, and structure. Some of the well-known OMP families include porins, autotransporters, and two-partner secretion systems.
Porins are the most abundant type of OMPs and form water-filled channels that allow the passive diffusion of small molecules, ions, and nutrients across the outer membrane. Autotransporters are a diverse group of OMPs that play a role in bacterial pathogenesis by secreting virulence factors or acting as adhesins. Two-partner secretion systems involve the cooperation between two proteins to transport effector molecules across the outer membrane.
Understanding the structure and function of bacterial OMPs is essential for developing new antibiotics and therapies that target gram-negative bacteria, which are often resistant to conventional treatments.
Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.
Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:
1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.
Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.
A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.
Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.
Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.
Immunologic receptors are specialized proteins found on the surface of immune cells that recognize and bind to specific molecules, known as antigens, on the surface of pathogens or infected cells. This binding triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that activate the immune cell and initiate an immune response.
There are several types of immunologic receptors, including:
1. T-cell receptors (TCRs): These receptors are found on the surface of T cells and recognize antigens presented in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules.
2. B-cell receptors (BCRs): These receptors are found on the surface of B cells and recognize free antigens in solution.
3. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs): These receptors are found inside immune cells and recognize conserved molecular patterns associated with pathogens, such as lipopolysaccharides and flagellin.
4. Fc receptors: These receptors are found on the surface of various immune cells and bind to the constant region of antibodies, mediating effector functions such as phagocytosis and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC).
Immunologic receptors play a critical role in the recognition and elimination of pathogens and infected cells, and dysregulation of these receptors can lead to immune disorders and diseases.