A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in water, sewage, soil, meat, hospital environments, and on the skin and in the intestinal tract of man and animals as a commensal.
A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.
Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.
Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
The branch of philosophy that treats of first principles, including ontology (the nature of existence or being) and cosmology (the origin and structure of the universe). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A genus of destructive root-parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Pythiaceae, order Peronosporales, commonly found in cultivated soils all over the world. Differentiation of zoospores takes place in a vesicle.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in humans and other animals including MAMMALS; BIRDS; REPTILES; and AMPHIBIANS. It has also been isolated from SOIL and WATER as well as from clinical specimens such as URINE; THROAT; SPUTUM; BLOOD; and wound swabs as an opportunistic pathogen.
Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.
Gram-negative, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature. Both motile and non-motile strains exist. The species is closely related to KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE and is frequently associated with nosocomial infections
Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A group of beta-lactam antibiotics in which the sulfur atom in the thiazolidine ring of the penicillin molecule is replaced by a carbon atom. THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain.
A congenital abnormality characterized by the persistence of the anal membrane, resulting in a thin membrane covering the normal ANAL CANAL. Imperforation is not always complete and is treated by surgery in infancy. This defect is often associated with NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS; MENTAL RETARDATION; and DOWN SYNDROME.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Surgery performed on the urinary tract or its organs and on the male or female genitalia.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Bis(nitrato-O)dioxouranium. A compound used in photography and the porcelain industry. It causes severe renal insufficiency and renal tubular necrosis in mammals and is an effective lymphocyte mitogen.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.
A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic which can be administered intravenously or by suppository. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It has few side effects and is reported to be safe and effective in aged patients and in patients with hematologic disorders.
A fluid-filled VAGINA that is obstructed.
The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A DNA-directed RNA polymerase found in BACTERIA. It is a holoenzyme that consists of multiple subunits including sigma factor 54.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Enzymes which reduce nitro groups (NITRO COMPOUNDS) and other nitrogenous compounds.
Insertion of an endosseous implant with a narrow wedge-shaped infrastructure extending through the oral mucosa into the mouth and bearing openings or vents through which tissue grows to obtain retention.
A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.
Infections with bacteria of the genus SERRATIA.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
A building block of penicillin, devoid of significant antibacterial activity. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A country in northern Africa bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between MOROCCO and TUNISIA. Its capital is Algiers.
Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.

Fluid secretion by the malpighian tubules of the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans: the effects of ouabain, ethacrynic acid and amiloride. (1/251)

The effects of three inhibitors of sodium transport on the secretion of fluid by the Malpighian tubules of Glossina morsitans have been observed. The cardiac glycoside, ouabain, affects neither the rate of secretion nor the sodium concentration of the fluid secreted when isolated tubules are bathed by solutions containing a range of sodium and potassium concentrations. Secretion is inhibited, however, by ethacrynic acid and amiloride. The results confirm that fluid secretion by the Malpighian tubules of this insect is dependent on the active transport of sodium ions and show that Na+/k+ exchange pumps are not involved in this process.  (+info)

Sodefrin: a novel sex pheromone in a newt. (2/251)

The abdominal gland in the male red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster, is the source of a female-attracting pheromone. An attempt was made to isolate and characterize the female-attracting pheromone in the abdominal glands of male newts. The active substance, named sodefrin (from the Japanese 'sodefuri' which means 'soliciting') has been isolated and shown to be a novel decapeptide with the sequence, Ser-Ile-Pro-Ser-Lys-Asp-Ala-Leu-Leu-Lys. Its minimum effective concentration in water is 0.1-1.0 pmol 1-1. Synthetic sodefrin shows a female-attracting activity similar to that of the native peptide, and acts through the olfactory organ of female newts. Electrophysiological studies reveal that sodefrin evokes a marked electroolfactogram response in the vomeronasal epithelium in sexually mature females and in ovariectomized females treated with prolactin and oestrogen. The pheromonal activity of sodefrin appears to be species-specific since it does not attract females of a congeneric species, the sword-tailed newt C. ensicauda. However, C. ensicauda has a variant of sodefrin differing from that in C. pyrrhogaster by substitutions of Leu for Pro at position 3 and Gln for Leu at position 8. The C. ensicauda variant sodefrin does not attract C. pyrrhogaster females. Genes encoding the sodefrin precursor protein have been cloned in both C. pyrrhogaster and C. ensicauda. Immunostaining of the abdominal gland using the antiserum against sodefrin shows that sodefrin occurs in the epithelial cells, predominantly within the secretory granules. Sodefrin content, detected by immunoassay, in C. pyrrhogaster males decreases after castration and hypophysectomy and increases markedly in the castrated and hypophysectomized newts after treatment with androgen and prolactin. This combination of hormones also enhances sodefrin mRNA content in the abdominal gland as assessed by northern blot analysis using sodefrin cDNA.  (+info)

Chick Barx2b, a marker for myogenic cells also expressed in branchial arches and neural structures. (3/251)

We have isolated a new chicken gene, cBarx2b, which is related to mBarx2 in sequence, although the expression patterns of the two genes are quite different from one another. The cBarx2b gene is expressed in craniofacial structures, regions of the neural tube, and muscle groups in the limb, neck and cloaca. Perturbation of anterior muscle pattern by application of Sonic Hedgehog protein results in a posteriorization of cBarx2b expression.  (+info)

Ortho- and paramyxoviruses from migrating feral ducks: characterization of a new group of influenza A viruses. (4/251)

Ortho- and parainfluenza viruses isolated from the cloacas of migrating feral ducks shot on the Mississippi flyway included three strains of influenza. A virus (Hav6 Nav1, Hav6 Nl, Hav7 Neq2) as well as Newcastle disease virus. One influenza virus, A/duck/Memphis/546/74, possessed Hav3 haemagglutinin, but the neuraminidase was not inhibited by any of the known influenza reference antisera. The neuraminidase on this virus was related to the neuraminidases on A/duck/GDR/72 (H2 N?), A/turkey/Ontario/7732/66 (Hav 5 N?), A/duck/Ukraine/1/60 (Hav3 N?) and A/turkey/Wisconsin/68. We therefore propose that the neuraminidase on this group of influenza viruses be designated Nav6. The A/duck/Memphis/546/74 influenza virus caused an ocular discharge in 1 of 5 ducks and was shed in faeces for 10 days; it was stable in faecal samples for up to 3 days at 20 degrees C. These results suggest that ecological studies on influenza in avian species should include attempts to isolate virus from faeces. Faecal-oral transmission is an attractive explanation for the spread of influenza virus from feral birds to other animals.  (+info)

Innervation of NADPH diaphorase-containing neurons correlated with acetylcholinesterase, tyrosine hydroxylase, and neuropeptides in the pigeon cloaca. (5/251)

The motility of the avian cloaca is under neural control, but little is known about the neural network that accomplishes this function. This present study was designed to determine the distribution of nitric oxide-synthesising neurons in the pigeon cloaca by enzyme histochemistry for reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d). NADPH-d-positive staining was seen in the neurons and fibres in the cloaca. The highest density of nerve fibres was noted in the coprodeum and the lowest in the proctodeum. In the coprodeum, NADPH-d neurons were found singly, formed small groups of 2-10 neurons, or were seen in plexuses in the muscle layer, lamina propria, or around the arterioles. Several NADPH-d-positive neurons were also observed in the ganglia of the cloaca. NADPH-d fibres ran in the muscle layer, lamina muscularis mucosae and lamina propria, or surrounded blood vessels. The distribution pattern of acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-stained neurons and fibres in the cloaca was similar to that of NADPH-d. Double staining for NADPH-d and AChE showed colocalisation of the 2 enzymes in many neurons of the cloaca. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive nerve fibres originating outside the cloaca were also noted. In the urodeum and proctodeum, neurons or fibres positive for NADPH-d, AChE or TH were scattered in the lamina propria. Nerve fibres immunoreactive for calcitonin-gene related peptide, galanin, methionine-enkephalin, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide were found sparsely in the cloaca. Our results demonstrate that nitrergic neurons constitute a subpopulation which is closely associated with the cholinergic system in the pigeon cloaca.  (+info)

Anorectal malformations caused by defects in sonic hedgehog signaling. (6/251)

Anorectal malformations are a common clinical problem affecting the development of the distal hindgut in infants. The spectrum of anorectal malformations ranges from the mildly stenotic anus to imperforate anus with a fistula between the urinary and intestinal tracts to the most severe form, persistent cloaca. The etiology, embryology, and pathogenesis of anorectal malformations are poorly understood and controversial. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is an endoderm-derived signaling molecule that induces mesodermal gene expression in the chick hindgut. However, the role of Shh signaling in mammalian hindgut development is unknown. Here, we show that mutant mice with various defects in the Shh signaling pathway exhibit a spectrum of distal hindgut defects mimicking human anorectal malformations. Shh null-mutant mice display persistent cloaca. Mutant mice lacking Gli2 or Gli3, two zinc finger transcription factors involved in Shh signaling, respectively, exhibit imperforate anus with recto-urethral fistula and anal stenosis. Furthermore, persistent cloaca is also observed in Gli2(-/-);Gli3(+/-), Gli2(+/-);Gli3(-/-), and Gli2(-/-);Gli3(-/-) mice demonstrating a gene dose-dependent effect. Therefore, Shh signaling is essential for normal development of the distal hindgut in mice and mutations affecting Shh signaling produce a spectrum of anorectal malformations that may reveal new insights into their human disease equivalents.  (+info)

Excretory role of the midgut in larvae of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (L.). (7/251)

Caterpillars of Manduca sexta use two distinct transport mechanisms for the excretion of dyes. One pump (Type A) has a high affinity for acid (anionic) dyes and occurs in the midgut and medial Malpighian tubules. Acid dyes accumulate rapidly in the lumen of the midgut while the Malpighian tubules appear to play only a minor role in the excretion of these dyes. The other pump (Type B) excretes basic (cationic) dyes and is located primarily in the proximal Malpighian tubules. Evidence is presented that hippuric acid competes with acid dyes for excretion by both midgut and Malpighian tubules. After the final-instar larva purges its gut the ability of the midgut and Malpighian tubules to excrete dyes gradually decreases. Sixty hours after the purge only the Malpighian tubules retain some dye excreting activity.  (+info)

The removal of sulphate by the excretory apparatus of the blowfly Calliphora vomitoria. (8/251)

The excretion of sulphate by the isolated Malpighian tubules of Calliphora vomitoria has been investigated. Contrary to expectation, it was found that the isolated tubules are freely permeable to sulphate. The rate of sulphate secretion is comparable to the rates of secretion of both phosphate and chloride. The excretion of sulphate by the intact fly has also been verified.  (+info)

Looking for cloacal membrane? Find out information about cloacal membrane. structure composed mostly of lipid lipids, a broad class of organic products found in living systems. Most are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar... Explanation of cloacal membrane
The embryonic disc (green) and embryonic mesoderm (pink). The amnion has been cut.. Keywords: cephalic end of embryonic disc, cephalic end of epiblast, dorsal surface of epiblast, embryonic mesoderm, gastrulation (primitive) groove, gastrulation (primitive) node, gastrulation (primitive) streak, head mesenchyme, junction of amnion and epiblast, notochordal process, outer surface of epiblast, presumptive cloacal membrane, presumptive neural plate, primordium of cloacal membrane, ventral surface of epiblast Source: The Virtual Human Embryo.. ...
Introduction: Sacral agenesis (SA) is a caudal regression anomaly that can cause neurogenic bladder but is not generally recognized as high risk. We studied the clinical presentation, upper urinary tract, bone and spine abnormalities, and urodynamic findings in patients with SA and compared them with related high-risk conditions, anorectal malformation (ARM), and cloacal malformation. Materials and Methods: Patient records between May 2011 and December 2015 were identified and grouped into isolated SA without an overt anomaly (Group I), SA with overt caudal regression anomalies (Group II), and ARM or cloacal malformation without the SA (Group III). Distribution of clinical and urodynamic findings and factors associated with reduced eGFR were tested with rank sum test, t-test, and unadjusted odds (P , 0.05 significant) using R statistical program (version 3.1.3). Results: Of 605 neurogenic bladder patients treated in the study period, 39 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. 12 were Group I, 5 Group ...
The virotype Influenza A RT-PCR Kit allows the safe detection of RNA from Influenza A Virus in samples from birds and pigs. The kit contains all of the reagents for real-time RT-PCR in a single ready-to-use reaction mix. It can be used with oropharyngeal, tracheal, and cloacal swabs, fecal samples, or tissue samples from birds, and nasal swabs, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and tissue samples from swine. It can also be used with cell culture supernatants. Due to the high sensitivity of the test, pools of up to 10 individual swab samples can be tested.. ...
Definition: Anorectal malformations are a group of malformations that involve the distal anus and rectum as well as the urinary and genital tracts. Defects range from mild anal anomalies to complex cloacal malformations. Most anorectal malformations result from abnormal development of the urorectal septum, resulting in incomplete separation of the cloaca into urogenital and anorectal portions. A-The following are low malformations of the anorectal region: 1-Anal Agenesis, with or without fistula-The anal canal may end blindly and there may be an ectopic opening (ectopic anus), or fistula, that commonly opens into the perineum. However, the fistula may open into the vulva in females or the urethra in males. Anal agenesis with fistula results from incomplete separation of the cloaca by the urorectal septum. It accounts for about 46 percent of cases. 2- Anal Stenosis--The anus is in the normal position, but there is a narrowing of the anal canal. This malformation is probably caused by a slight ...
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The cause of fetal LUTO is varied. The most common cause in male fetuses is posterior urethral valves (membrane blocks the flow of urine from the bladder). Oligohydramnios (low amniotic fluid volume defined as the maximum vertical pocket less that or equal to 2.0 centimeters) may then develop, and is associated with a worse prognosis. In females the most common cause is urethral atresia (a body orifice or passage in the body is abnormally closed or absent). Other causes of fetal LUTO include but are not limited to obstructive ureterocele (area between the tube that carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder), urethral stricture (abnormal narrowing of the urethra) or agenesis (absence of), persistent cloaca (a defect in which the rectum, vagina, and urinary tract are fused together into a single common channel), and megalourethra (congenital dilation of the urethra). The ultrasound findings of many of these conditions are similar, and it is often difficult to differentiate the cause of the ...
The cause of fetal LUTO is varied. The most common cause in male fetuses is posterior urethral valves (membrane blocks the flow of urine from the bladder). Oligohydramnios (low amniotic fluid volume defined as the maximum vertical pocket less that or equal to 2.0 centimeters) may then develop, and is associated with a worse prognosis. In females the most common cause is urethral atresia (a body orifice or passage in the body is abnormally closed or absent). Other causes of fetal LUTO include but are not limited to obstructive ureterocele (area between the tube that carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder), urethral stricture (abnormal narrowing of the urethra) or agenesis (absence of), persistent cloaca (a defect in which the rectum, vagina, and urinary tract are fused together into a single common channel), and megalourethra (congenital dilation of the urethra). The ultrasound findings of many of these conditions are similar, and it is often difficult to differentiate the cause of the ...
Imperforate anus, a type of anorectal malformation, is caused by the failed rupture of the cloacal membrane during embryological development. The defect presents with failure to pass meconium within 24 hours, abdominal distension, and bilious vomiting. Imperforate anus should be detected on physical exam and can be complicated by fistulas between the rectum and urogenital system resulting in passage of meconium in urine in males and urinary tract infections. Imperforate anus is also associated with other congenital defects which are classified as VACTERL (vertebral, anal, cardiac, trachea-esophageal fistula, renal, and limb defects) abnormalities ...
Larus hyperboreus (es); Jeges sirály (hu); Hvítmáfur (is); Ipar-kaio (eu); Larus hyperboreus (ast); gavinot hiperbori (ca); Eismöwe (de); Larus hyperboreus (sq); Naajarujussuaq (kw); 北极鸥 (zh); Gråmåge (da); Kutup martısı (tr); シロカモメ (ja); Larus hyperboreus (ia); Glacimevo (eo); Vittrut (sv); Faoileán glas (ga); שחף לבן-כנף (he); Larus hyperboreus (la); Larus hyperboreus (it); Glaucous Gull (en); Nauyavasugruk (ik); Stuorraskávli (se); Ismeew (frr); Larus hyperboreus (pms); racek šedý (cs); Isolokki (fi); Foillan glass (gv); Бургомистр (ru); Goéland bourgmestre (fr); Valmási (fo); Ledeni galeb (hr); Polarmåse (nn); Grote burgemeester (nl); Polarmåke (nb); Larus hyperboreus (ro); Мөсний цахлай (mn); Gwylan y Gogledd (cy); Gaivota-hiperbórea (pt); Larus hyperboreus (war); Lielā polārkaija (lv); Larus hyperboreus (vi); Tónteel tsídii dinilbáhígíí (nv); čajka bledá (sk); Didysis poliarinis kiras (lt); полярна чайка ...
23-26 (58-66 cm). Adult white with light gray back and wings; wing tip black with white spots; bill yellow with red spot on lower mandible; feet pink or flesh colored. First-year birds brownish. Acquires adult plumage in 4 years. See California Gull.
Gastrulation is continuing as cells migrate from the epiblast, continuing to form mesoderm. Mesoderm lies between the ectoderm and endoderm as a continuous sheet except at the buccopharyngeal and cloacal membranes. These membranes have ectoderm and endoderm only and will lie at the rostral (head) and caudal (tail) of the gastrointestinal tract. From the primitive node a tube extends under the ectoderm in the opposite direction to the primitive streak. This tube forms first the axial process then notochordal process, then finally the notochord. The notochord is a key to embryonic folding and regulation of ectoderm and mesoderm differentiation. It lies in the rostrocordal axis and the embryonic disc will fold either side ventrally, pinching off a portion of the yolk sac to form the lining of the gastrointestinal tract. ...
Adv Anat Embryol Cell Biol. 1989;116:1-102. Mizoguti H. Abstract The morphological features of a well-preserved human embryo having 15 pairs of somites are described and illustrated with a complete set of photomicrographs. This embryo was found during a forensic dissection of a Japanese woman, fixed in 10% formalin for 5 days, and embedded in an epoxy resin mixture according to routine procedures. Serial sections about 0.75 microns thick were made and stained with toluidine blue. The most important features were as follows: 1. The embryo measured 4.1 mm in greatest length and was quite symmetrical viewed dorsally. 2. Closure of the neural tube took place from the level of the first branchial groove, corresponding to the level of the anterior one-third of the rhombencephalon, to that of about 0.4 mm posterior to the 15th somite, coming across the anterior end of the cloacal membrane. The neural plate and the wall of the neural tube consisted exclusively of a pseudostratified columnar epithelium, ...
Strontium Chloride Sr 89 is a radioactive pharmaceutical used in the treatment of certain types of bone cancers to both shrink the tumor and reduce pain
Raw Material India (RMI) is a new startup - an online platform Only For Industrial Raw Materials of all types. This is Indias First-Of-Its-Kind Exclusive B2B Raw Materials website.. ...
Oropharyngeal swabs or Tracheal Swabs preferred for gallinaceous poultry. Cloacal swabs preferred for domestic waterfowl and other wild birds. Tissues (spleen, lung, brain and intestine). ...
Oropharyngeal swabs or Tracheal Swabs preferred for gallinaceous poultry. Cloacal swabs preferred for domestic waterfowl and other wild birds. Tissues (spleen, lung, brain and intestine). ...
Wild Ducks is a film about four IBM clients whose questioning minds and unconventional ideas are transforming our world. See and hear their inspirational stories.
Ducks head to nesting grounds around this time of year and many people in the Susquehanna Valley are finding out some not so wild ducks are choosing to nest in suburbia.
TY - JOUR. T1 - 46, XY female with cloacal exstrophy and masculinization at puberty. AU - Mirheydar, H.. AU - Evason, K.. AU - Coakley, F.. AU - Baskin, L. S.. AU - DiSandro, M.. PY - 2009/10/1. Y1 - 2009/10/1. N2 - Cloacal exstrophy of the bladder is a rare complex disorder occurring 1 in 400,000 live births and associated with cryptorchidism, vesicoureteral reflux, severe phallic inadequacy, omphalocele with short-gut syndrome, exstrophied bladder separated by exstrophied ileocecal segment, and pubic symphyseal diastasis. The association of undescended and ectopic testis with cloacal exstrophy is not uncommon, but the presence of an unexpected persistent ectopic testis at the time of puberty is quite unusual. We report the case of a 17-year-old girl with a history of 46, XY cloacal exstrophy and gender reassignment presenting with an ectopic testis of unclear location. We then review controversial literature surrounding gender assignment in these patients.. AB - Cloacal exstrophy of the ...
Summary Twelve influenza A viruses, antigenically related to the H0, H1 and Hsw1 subtypes, were isolated from cloacal samples of feral ducks in Canada. Antigenic comparisons showed that these viruses were most closely related to the recent Hsw1N1 isolates from man and pigs, whereas in vivo pathogenicity tests revealed differences between the Hsw1N1 viruses from the ducks and those from humans and pigs. Antigenic characterization of 94 additional influenza A viruses from the ducks showed four haemagglutinin subtypes (Hav1, Hav4, Hav5 and Hav7), an unclassified haemagglutinin, and six neuraminidase subtypes (N1, N2, Neq2, Nav1, Nav2 and Nav5) in various combinations, some of which are novel and have not previously been reported. Three of these duck influenza viruses possessed a haemagglutinin antigenically related to that of classical fowl plague virus. A much higher percentage of virus isolations were from juvenile ducks (18.5%) than from adults (5%). All of the ducks, from which viruses were isolated,
Sometimes factors can occasionally interfere with bladder development, as is the case for children with cloacal exstrophy. This is the most severe birth defect in the exstrophy-epispadias complex. A child with this condition will have the bladder and a portion of the intestines, exposed outside the abdomen, with the bony pelvis open like a book.
UroToday - GU OncToday brings coverage of the clinically relevant content needed to stay at the forefront of the dynamic field of GU oncology and urology.
The hindgut follows the midgut, in the embryo, and extends from the posterior intestinal portal to the cloacal membrane. It gives rise to the left one-third to one-half or distal portion of the transverse colon, the descending colon, the sigmoid or pelvic colon, the rectum, the upper portion of the anal canal, and part of the urogenital system (e.g., the bladder and urethra). It is supplied by the inferior mesenteric artery. The terminal part of the hindgut enters into the cloaca, which is an entoderm-lined cavity that is in direct contact with the surface ...
The Northern Red-legged Frog is a medium-sized (7-10 cm) reddish-brown and black-speckled frog that gets its name from the translucent red undersides of its hind legs. Its range extends along the Pacific coast, west of the Coast and Cascade Mountains from southwestern British Columbia to northwestern California. In British Columbia, the Northern Red-legged Frog occurs mainly throughout the forested lowlands (| 1200 m elevation) of Vancouver Island, the adjacent Gulf Islands, along the mainland coast as far north as Kingcome Inlet, and in the Lower Fraser Valley to Hope. The Northern Red-legged Frog requires structurally complex wetlands (i.e., the ratio of emergent vegetation to open water) and forest habitats (i.e., abundant canopy cover, downed wood and litter) in a suitable spatial configuration to complete its life cycle.
DataMed is a prototype biomedical data search engine. Its goal is to discover data sets across data repositories or data aggregators. In the future it will allow searching outside these boundaries. DataMed supports the NIH-endorsed FAIR principles of Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability and Reusability of datasets with current functionality assisting in finding datasets and providing access information about them.
Gulls are sociable and often found in groups at rest or when feeding.. Most gulls, particularly Larus species, are ground nesting carnivores, which will take live food or scavenge opportunistically. Live food often includes crabs and small fish. Gulls have prophylactic unhinging jaws which allow them to consume large prey. Apart from the kittiwakes, gulls are typically coastal or inland species, rarely venturing far out to sea.[citation needed] The large species take up to four years to attain full adult plumage, but two years is typical for small gulls. Large White-Headed Gulls are typically long-lived birds, with a maximum age of 49 years recorded for the Herring Gull.[2]. Gulls nest in large, densely packed noisy colonies. They lay two to three speckled eggs in nests composed of vegetation. The young are precocial, being born with dark mottled down, and mobile upon hatching.[3]. Gulls-the larger species in particular-are resourceful, inquisitive and intelligent[4] birds, demonstrating complex ...
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Birds mate by rubbing their cloaca together in what scientists call a cloacal kiss. Birds of both sexes have a cloaca, which is an opening that swells and
Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) species account - latest update of status, international importance, population size and trends in breeding abundance, productivity, survival rates, phenology and diet in the UK, Scotland, England, Wales, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland, Channel Islands and the Isle of Man.
Squalidus argentatus (Sauvage and Dabry de Thiersant 1874) is a small-sized freshwater fish which is distributed in Mainland China, Hainan Island and Taiwan. The populations of S. argentatus have dropped sharply probably due to overharvesting and water pollution recently. Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the cyprinid fish S. argentatus. These new markers were tested on 43 individuals collected from Yangtze River and Qiantang River. The number of alleles, observed and expected heterozygosity per locus, in two populations ranged from 3 to 14, from 0.333 to 0.954 and from 0.480 to 0.928, respectively. Only two loci are significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg expectations due to the heterozygote deficiency. No significant linkage disequilibrium was detected between the pairwise comparisons of these loci. These polymorphic microsatellite loci will enable us to study the genetic variation, population structure, and conservation genetics of this species in the future.
Phylogeographical analyses on Squalidus argentatus samples from thirteen localities within mainland China and Taiwan were conducted for biogeographic studies, as their dispersal strictly depends on geological evolution of the landmasses. A total of 95 haplotypes were genotyped for mtDNA cyt b gene in 160 specimens from nine river systems. Relatively high levels of haplotype diversity (h = 0.984) and low levels of nucleotide diversity (π = 0.020) were detected in S. argentatus. Two major phylogenetic haplotype groups, A and B, were revealed via phylogenetic analysis. The degree of intergroup divergence (3.96%) indicates that these groups diverged about 4.55 myr (million years) ago. Haplotype network and population analyses indicated significant genetic structure (FST = 0.775), largely concordant with the geographical location of the populations. According to SAMOVA analysis, we divided these populations into four units: Yangtze-Pearl, Qiantang-Minjiang, Jiulong-Beijiang and Taiwan groups. Mismatch
Enterobacter species are important human opportunistic pathogens, responsible for nosocomial infections such as urinary tract infections, osteomyelitis, cholecystitis, and neonatal meningitis (15). Enterobacter cloacae, the type species of Enterobacter, is a prevalent nosocomial pathogen due to high-level resistance to disinfectants and antimicrobial agents (9). E. cloacae ATCC 13047 was isolated from human cerebrospinal fluid by Edwin Oakes Jordan in 1890 and is the type strain of E. cloacae subsp. cloacae (8).. Whole-genome sequencing of E. cloacae ATCC 13047 was performed with a combined strategy using a Sanger shotgun approach (5) and 454 single-end sequencing technology (13). Genomic libraries containing 5-kb inserts were constructed, and 10,236 sequences were generated with an ABI 3730 DNA analyzer, giving 1.5-fold coverage of the genome. A total of 281,462 single-end reads, giving 19.1-fold coverage of the genome, were generated using the GS FLX system (454 Life Sciences Corporation) and ...
Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae ATCC ® 13047D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae strain CDC 442-68 TypeStrain=False Application:
Rhodnius prolixus are ectoparasitic solenophages that feed primarily on the blood of mammals and birds. Rhodnius prolixus have sucking mouthparts which fold back beneath the head and thorax when at rest. The mouthparts consist of long stylets that include a short labrum with a long tubular labium that contains the mandibles and the maxillae. The maxillae enclose a food canal for sucking fluid, and a salivary canal that injects saliva to help digest host tissue.. The saliva contains some anticoagulants, and the painless bites of R. prolixus are usually around the eyes and mouth of the host, where they can suck blood for several minutes. Endosymbiotic bacteria help to digest the blood ingested by R. prolixus. The bacteria are contained in epithelial cells of the triatomine gut and are found among many of its tissues throughout its growth and maturation.. Dogs, cats, and rats are important Rhodnius prolixus hosts in urban environments. Some other less common hosts include opossum, armadillos, bats, ...
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Melanoplus femurrubrum, Red-legged Grasshopper image
Kinet JP, Bensinger WI, Balland N, Saint-Remy M, Frankenne F, Hennen G, Mahieu P. Ex vivo perfusion of plasma over protein A columns in human mammary adenocarcinoma. Role of the Fc-binding capacity of protein A in the side effects and the tumoricidal response. Eur J Clin Invest. 1986 Feb; 16(1):50-5 ...
The Common Gull (European and Asian subspecies; see below) or Mew Gull (North American subspecies) Larus canus is a medium-sized gull which breeds in northern Asia, northern Europe and northwestern North America. It migrates further south in winter.[2] Its name does not indicate that it is an abundant species, but that during the winter it feeds on common land, short pasture used for grazing.[3]. Adults are 40-46 cm long, obviously smaller than the Herring Gull, and slightly smaller than the Ring-billed Gull, also differing from this in its shorter, more tapered bill with a more greenish shade of yellow, as well as being unmarked during the breeding season. The body is grey above and white below. The legs are greenish-yellow. In winter, the head is streaked grey, and the bill often has a poorly-defined blackish band near the tip (sometimes sufficiently obvious to cause confusion with Ring-billed Gull). They have black wingtips with large white mirrors. Young birds have scaly black-brown ...
En välvandrad stig. A Well trodden path. Korp Raven Utsikt över älvdalen. Looking out over the river valley. Japp, det är stigen. Yeah, th ...
Pterocystis heliozoan. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Pterocystis a freshwater protozoan. This single-celled organism has many projections, known as axopods, radiating from its cell body. The axopods are used to capture prey and for movement. In this species the axopods are funnel shaped. Magnification: x 3000 when printed at 10cm wide. Specimen collected from Vietnam courtesy of Mike Allen, Plymouth Marine Laboratory. - Stock Image C036/0565
My cervix is an asshole. I mean, not technically. Its not, like, a cloaca or anything, even though its acting kind of shitty. Its still a cervix. But its kind of being a dick. Again, not technically. Its still a lady-part. What I mean is that, for the last 6 or 7 years, its taken…
My cervix is an asshole. I mean, not technically. Its not, like, a cloaca or anything, even though its acting kind of shitty. Its still a cervix. But its kind of being a dick. Again, not technically. Its still a lady-part. What I mean is that, for the last 6 or 7 years, its taken…
Synonyms for genus Coturnix in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for genus Coturnix. 1 synonym for genus Coturnix: Coturnix. What are synonyms for genus Coturnix?
Fig. 1: Lactate clearance throughout ex vivo perfusion. Recordsdata availabilityRecordsdata from this undercover agent will seemingly be made on hand upon cheap
Usabilidade: conceitos, práticas e futuro Ana Isabel Veloso . [email protected] Seminário . PD . MCMM . 5 Dezembro 2008
The embryology of the human digestive system and the body cavities concerns the epithelium of the digestive system and the parenchyma of its derivatives, which originate from the endoderm. Connective tissue, muscular components, and peritoneal components originate in the mesoderm. Different regions of the gut tube such as the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, etc. are specified by a retinoic acid gradient that causes transcription factors unique to each region to be expressed. Differentiation of the gut and its derivatives depends upon reciprocal interactions between the gut endoderm and its surrounding mesoderm. Hox genes in the mesoderm are induced by a Hedgehog signaling pathway secreted by gut endoderm and regulate the craniocaudal organization of the gut and its derivatives. The gut system extends from the oropharyngeal membrane to the cloacal membrane and is divided into the foregut, midgut, and hindgut. At the end of the third week, the neural tube, which is a fold of one of the layers of the ...
Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis is an important venereal pathogen. We sequenced the genomes of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis bv. venerealis strain B6 and bv. intermedius strain 642-21. The genetic variability of these Australian strains will facilitate the study of mechanisms of geographical adaptation of these pathogens that impact livestock.. ...
Introduction: Increasing the usage of hearts from marginal donors and from donors after circulatory death (DCD) has the potential to expand the donor pool. Such hearts may be resuscitated when subjected to ex vivo perfusion. In addition, this may provide an opportunity for viability testing prior to transplant. We describe a novel ex vivo perfusion system designed to reanimate porcine DCD hearts. The same system was subsequently tested using a human heart from a marginal brainstem-dead donor.. Method: In the first phase of the study 23 porcine hearts were procured following circulatory death. All hearts were subjected to a period of primary warm ischemia followed by 120 minutes of hypothermic preservation. The period of hypothermic preservation was initially static cold storage (SCS); then oxygenated machine perfusion and finally a combination of static cold storage and oxygen persufflation via the coronary sinus. Ex vivo perfusion of the hearts was performed with a normothermic, oxygenated ...
Microphallus piriformes is a parasitic trematode (fluke). It belongs to the Plagiorchiata, a large suborder of the digenean fluke order Plagiorchiida. M. piriformes is unusual among the flukes in having only one intermediate host rather than two, and no free-swimming cercarian stage. It is most notable, however, for modifying the behaviour of its intermediate host in a way that increases its chance of transmission to the primary host. This has been researched by Helen O. McCarthy and her team of University of Ulster scientists both in the laboratory and at Muck Island in Scotland. The life cycle of M. piriformes requires two hosts: the rough periwinkle Littorina saxatilis (a littoral snail) and the herring gull Larus argentatus (and perhaps other members of the herring gull complex). The immature flukes live in the snail, and the adult flukes live in the bird. Normally, rough periwinkles are rarely eaten by herring gulls. This is due to two reasons: First, the birds forage in the snails rocky ...
Strontium is named after the village of Strontian in Scotland. Adair Crawford in 1790 recognized a new mineral (strontianite) in samples of witherite (a mineral consisting of barium carbonate, BaCO3) from Scotland. It was some time before it was recognized that strontianite contained a new element. Strontianite is now known to consists of strontium carbonate, SrCO3. The element itself was not isolated for a number of years after this when strontium metal was isolated by Davy by electrolysis of a mixture containing strontium chloride and mercuric oxide in 1808. Today, strontium is obtained from two of its most common ores, celestite (SrSO4) and strontianite (SrCO3), by treating them with hydrochloric acid, forming strontium chloride. The strontium chloride, usually mixed with potassium chloride (KCl), is then melted and electrolyzed, forming strontium and chlorine gas (Cl2). Strontium is a bright silvery metal that is softer than calcium and even more reactive in water; strontium will decompose ...
Egg composition varies both within and between clutches, and mothers are expected to alter their deposition of resources to the egg depending on environmental conditions and breeding strategies. Within-clutch variation in egg composition has been proposed to reflect an adaptive maternal strategy influencing sibling competition. In species with brood reduction, mothers should reinforce brood hierarchies due to hatching asynchrony and favour senior chicks by making first-laid eggs larger, richer in nutrients, with higher testosterone and carotenoid levels and lower corticosterone concentrations than last-laid eggs [parental favouritism hypothesis (PFH)]. Moreover, mothers that are of better quality and/or experience better feeding conditions during laying are expected to increase their deposition of resources to the egg, resulting in differences between clutches [investment hypothesis (IH)]. Several components may act together to provide an optimal reproductive strategy, but studies of variation ...
www.MOLUNA.de Diseases of Wild Waterfowl [4195852] - Management of wild waterfowl has become increasingly intensive. Many birds now hatch in managed nesting cover or in artificial nesting structures, use man-made wetlands, and winter on crowded refuges while consuming a grain diet The water they use is often limited in supply and may contain residues from its many
Abstract Objective: To determine the cause and mode of transmission of a cluster of infections due to Enterobacter cloacae. Design and Setting: Retrospective cohort study in a neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU) from December 1996 to January 1997; environmental and laboratory investigations. Subjects: 60 infants hospitalized in the NICU during the outbreak period. Main Outcome Measures: Odds ratios (OR) linking E cloacae colonization or infection and various exposures. All available E cloacae isolates were typed and characterized by contour-clamped homogenous electric-field electrophoresis to confirm possible cross-transmission. Results: Of eight case-patients, two had bacteremia; one, pneumonia; one, soft-tissue infection; and four, respiratory colonization. Infants weighing |2,000 g and born before week 33 of gestation were more likely to become cases (P|.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that the use of multidose vials was independently associated with E cloacae carriage (OR, 16.3; 95% confidence
Looking for Malpighian Tubules? Find out information about Malpighian Tubules. excretory organs in the majority of arachnids, myriopods, and insects; they are blind tubular appendages of the intestine, on the boundary between the... Explanation of Malpighian Tubules
Domain architectures containing the following SCOP superfamilies 51419 in Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus 82-40. Domain architectures illustrate each occurrence of 51419.
Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae ATCC ® 13047™ Designation: CDC 442-68 TypeStrain=True Application: Quality control strain Quality control strain for API, BBL, and Sensititre products
The present study describes the development of a SYBR Green based real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) for detection and quantitation of all fowl adenovirus (FAdV) species. Primers were designed based on conserved nucleotide sequences within the 52K gene. Ten-fold serial dilutions of a vector DNA were used as standard for quantitation. The real-time PCR had an efficiency of 98%, a regression squared value of 0.999 and showed a range of 6.73-6.73×10(8) copies of FAdV DNA per reaction. The assay was highly specific for FAdVs and an exact quantitation of all 5 FAdV species (FAdV-A to FAdV-E) could be demonstrated. It was shown, that twelve FAdV serotypes (FAdV-1 to 8a, and 8b to 11) were detectable and quantifiable. Other viral genomes as well as uninfected chicken embryo liver (CEL) cells did not produce positive signal. Cloacal swabs were taken during the animal experiment, which was performed with all FAdV species. Shedding of FAdVs was investigated in cell culture, by ...
Proteome IDi ,p>The proteome identifier (UPID) is the unique identifier assigned to the set of proteins that constitute the ,a href=http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual>proteome,/a>. It consists of the characters UP followed by 9 digits, is stable across releases and can therefore be used to cite a UniProt proteome.,p>,a href=/help/proteome_id target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> ...
Slender-billed Gull (Larus genei). Birds of Kazakhstan. author: Askar Isabekov. date: 2017-05-29. location: Ashyozek river, between Volga and Ural rivers..
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Understanding the uptake of a drug by diseased tissue, and the drugs subsequent spatiotemporal distribution, are central factors in the development of effective targeted therapies. However, the interaction between the pathophysiology of diseased tissue and individual therapeutic agents can be complex, and can vary across tissue types and across subjects. Here, we show that the combination of mathematical modelling, high-resolution optical imaging of intact and optically cleared tumour tissue from animal models, and in vivo imaging of vascular perfusion predicts the heterogeneous uptake, by large tissue samples, of specific therapeutic agents, as well as their spatiotemporal distribution. In particular, by using murine models of colorectal cancer and glioma, we report and validate predictions of steady-state blood flow and intravascular and interstitial fluid pressure in tumours, of the spatially heterogeneous uptake of chelated gadolinium by tumours, and of the effect of a vascular disrupting agent on
Follow the ducks this season using the most comprehensive waterfowl migration map on the web. Read real-time reports from DU biologists, field editors, expert waterfowlers and more.
Follow the ducks this season using the most comprehensive waterfowl migration map on the web. Read real-time reports from DU biologists, field editors, expert waterfowlers and more.
absorption. Unabsorbed food particles pass through the proctodeal valve into the hindgut. At the junction of the midgut and hindgut are a group of long, thread-like tubules that flex about in the hemolymph. These tubules are called Malpighian tubules, and they are the insect excretory system. Malpighian tubules filter the hemolymph and form a urine containing water, salts ...
GenDR A curated database of genes associated with dietary restriction in model organisms either from genetic manipulation experiments or gene expression profiling.. ...
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details ...
Klubas buvo įkurtas 1993 m. Volto Disnėjaus kompanijos iniacityva, pagal filmą „The Mighty Ducks. Disnėjus 2005 m. pardavė komandą Henriui ir Siuzanai Samueliams, kurie pakeitė pavadinimą į Anaheimo „Ducks.. ...
... separating the cloaca from the exterior. After the separation of the rectum from the dorsal part of the cloaca, the ventral ... Cloaca. cp. Elevation which becomes clitoris or penis. i. Lower part of the intestine. ls. Fold of integument from which the ... In the male, by the greater growth of the pelvic portion of the cloaca, a longer urethra is formed, and the primitive opening ... This continues to grow caudally until it opens into the ventral part of the cloaca; beyond the pronephros it is termed the ...
Division of cloaca[edit]. Tail end of human embryo thirty-two to thirty-three days old. The entodermal cloaca is visible at ... separating the cloaca from the exterior. After the separation of the rectum from the dorsal part of the cloaca, the ventral ... Cloaca. * cp. Elevation which becomes clitoris or penis. * i. Lower part of the intestine. * ls. Fold of integument from which ... This continues to grow caudally until it opens into the ventral part of the cloaca; beyond the pronephros it is termed the ...
The female picks up egg packets from substratum through cloaca. After fertilization eggs are laid on moist places on land. ...
The excrement produced by the machine is vacuum-sealed in Cloaca-branded bags and sold to art collectors and dealers; every ... In 2006, Belgian conceptual artist Wim Delvoye introduced the world to his "Cloaca Machine", a mechanical art work that ... Many iterations of the Cloaca Machine have since been produced; the current iteration sits vertically, mimicking the human ...
The atrial siphon has atrial or excurrent aperture or cloaca. Each aperture is surrounded by four lobes or lips. The whole body ...
... ' cloaca is comparable to those of crocodilians', with a "longitudionally opening vent" and a "rosette pattern of ... A 2020 study of SMF R 4970 identified it as an approximately 6-7 year old subadult, and found it preserves the first cloaca ... The specimen also had dense clusters of pigment on its shoulders, face (possibly for display), and cloaca (which may have had ... Bell, P. R.; Pittman, M.; Kaye, T. G.; Hendrickx, H. (2020). "A crocodylian-style cloaca in a non-avialan dinosaur" (PDF). ...
When not in use, the penis is retracted inside a preputial sac in the cloaca. The male echidna's penis is 7 cm (3 in) long when ... Most male birds (e.g., roosters and turkeys) have a cloaca (also present on the female), but not a penis. Among bird species ... Females have a small phallic organ in the cloaca which becomes larger during the breeding season. As with any other bodily ... Monotremes and marsupial moles are the only mammals in which the penis is located inside the cloaca. Male echidnas have a ...
The egg may be stuck near the cloaca, or further inside. Egg binding is a reasonably common, and potentially serious condition ...
The male inserts one clasper into the female cloaca during copulation. Reproduction is aplacental viviparous, which was once ...
A part of a Roman kitchen and a "cloaca" (sewage system). and traces of later Visigoth buildings. A very visible part of a ...
He opened his mouth - and such a fetid cloaca poured on us all ... About the Jewish mafia, the Masonic conspiracy, about the ...
There are two sharp points beneath the cloaca known as the pelvic bone. If the points are nearer together, the bird is male; if ...
The lower belly and crissum (the undertail coverts surrounding the cloaca) is white. As with related species, they have white ...
Maximum body length is the measurement from snout to cloaca of the lizard. General "Missouri Department of Conservation Online ...
In the developing embryo, at the hind end lies an inpouching called the cloaca. This, over the fourth to the seventh week, ...
This causes the wall of the cloaca to tear and the anus to gape. The evisceration process in Eupentacta quinquesemita proceeds ... The paired respiratory trees and cloaca also remain (although they may be expelled in other species) The introvert changes from ... and the junction of intestine and cloaca. The softening is a state-transformation of the collagen components in the tissue. ...
The opening of the Cloaca Maxima is between the docks and the stone bridge. Beyond the bridge you can just see the Aesculapium ... Between the two, the Cloaca Maxima, or Great Sewer, was effluent into the Tiber. In the drawing by Friedrich Polack (published ...
The spiral valve then empties into the rectum and anus, then into the cloaca. Pancreas- This digestive gland passes secretions ...
The crissum (the undertail coverts surrounding the cloaca) is cinnamon with a scaly pattern. A thin green and purple strip is ...
The rump is bright yellow and the crissum (the area around the cloaca) is red. The bare skin around the eye is blue. The bill ...
They have a single opening, a cloaca, that contains the genital, digestive and excretory openings. The cloaca evolved ...
The emperor ordered him to be beaten to death, and thrown into the Cloaca Maxima. Sebastian's body was removed by another pious ...
Unlike females, the opening of the cloaca is beyond the rear edge of the carapace. Young map turtles have a pronounced dorsal ...
The female may also rub her cloaca on nearby rocks while rocking to and fro. If the male does not respond, the female may nip ...
He then attaches a spermatophore to the substrate, which she will retrieve into her cloaca. The egg mass released by the female ...
In reproduction, the male's claspers are inserted into the female's cloaca, and fertilisation is internal. As the fertilised ...
The resulting stress causes her cloaca to open, and aids the male in inserting his hemipenis. The stronger and more frequent ... the caudocephalic waves and the closer the male's cloaca to the female's, the more likely the male is to mate successfully. ...
The parasite attaches to the cloaca and in some cases the intestinal wall using a hook-covered proboscis. Infestation can cause ... These worms exclusively parasitize birds by attaching themselves around the cloaca using their hook-covered proboscis. The bird ... Apororhynchus silesiacus Okulewicz and Maruszewski, 1980 A. silesiacus was found in the cloaca of the European robin (Erithacus ... and in the colon and cloaca of the Eastern yellow wagtail (Motacilla tschutschensis) in Chukotka and Kamchatka (including the ...
These snakes will also discharge a malodorous, musky-scented secretion from a gland near the cloaca. They often use these ...
One organism is Enterobacter cloacae, which biologically metabolizes the sludge parabens into PHBA. Through various analytical ... and Their Aerobic Transformation into Phenol by the Resistant Enterobacter cloacae Strain EM". Applied and Environmental ... and Their Aerobic Transformation into Phenol by the Resistant Enterobacter cloacae Strain EM. Applied and Environmental ...
In animal anatomy, a cloaca /kloʊˈeɪkə/ kloh-AY-kə (plural cloacae /kloʊˈeɪsi/ kloh-AY-see or /kloʊˈeɪki/ kloh-AY-kee) is the ... The word is from the Latin verb cluo, "to cleanse", thus the noun cloaca, "sewer, drain". Birds reproduce using their cloaca; ... With a few exceptions noted below, mammals have no cloacae. Even in those that have one, the cloaca is partially subdivided ... Most adult placental mammals have no remaining trace of the cloaca. In the embryo, the embryonic cloaca divides into a ...
... creating a cloaca, a single common channel. Diagnosis of a female with cloaca should be suspected in a female born with an ... A persistent cloaca is a symptom of a complex anorectal congenital disorder, in which the rectum, vagina, and urinary tract ... The goal for treatment of a female born with cloaca is to achieve bowel control, urinary control, and sexual function, which ... The prognostic outcomes for this type of cloaca are good for bowel control and urinary function. The surgical repair for this ...
cloaca (plural cloacas or cloacae) *(sometimes figuratively) A sewer. *1773, Gentlemans Magazine, No. 43, p. 598: The Thames, ... Italian: cloaca (it) f, fogna (it) f. *Japanese: 総排出腔 (そうはいしゅつこう, sōhaishutsukō, そうはいしゅつくう, sōhaishutsukū), 排出腔 (はいしゅつこう, ... anatomy) cloaca (excretory and genital duct in bird, reptiles and fish). Spanish[edit]. Etymology[edit]. Borrowed from Latin ... Across this shell [sc. of bone] small holes are eaten, by which the matter escapes,
Make research projects and school reports about cloaca easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... cloaca (klōā´kə), in biology, enlarged posterior end of the digestive tract of some animals. The cloaca, from the Latin word ... cloaca sewer XVIII; (anat.) excretory canal XIX. - L. cloāca, cluāca, earlier clovāca, rel. to cluere cleanse, f. IE. *klu- * ... Specifically, the cloaca is present in birds, reptiles, amphibians, most fish, and monotremes. ∎ archaic a sewer. DERIVATIVES: ...
"Bacillus cloacae" Jordan 1890. ›"Bacterium cloacae" (Jordan 1890) Lehmann and Neumann 1896. ›"Cloaca cloacae" (Jordan 1890) ... Aerobacter cloacae. ›BCCM/LMG:2783. ›Bacillus cloacae. ›Bacterium cloacae. ›CCUG 28448. ›CCUG 29301. ›CCUG 6323. ›CCUG:28448. › ... Cloaca cloacae. ›DSM 30054. ›DSM:30054. ›Enterobacter cloacae (Jordan 1890) Hormaeche and Edwards 1960. ›Enterobacter cloaceae ... "Aerobacter cloacae" (Jordan 1890) Bergey et al. 1923. ›"Aerobacter cloacae" (Jordan 1890) Hormaeche and Edwards 1958. ›" ...
Definition of Enterobacter cloacae. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... Enterobacter cloacae. Definition: a bacterial species found in the feces of humans and other animals and in sewage, soil, and ...
The prognosis of E cloacae complex infections depends on numerous variables, including the infection site (eg, bloodstream, ... Enterobacter cloacae sepsis outbreak in a newborn unit caused by contaminated total parenteral nutrition solution. Am J Infect ... Heller I, Grif K, Orth D. Emergence of VIM-1-carbapenemase-producing Enterobacter cloacae in Tyrol, Austria. J Med Microbiol. ... Outbreak of infection caused by Enterobacter cloacae producing the novel VEB-3 beta-lactamase in China. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 ...
dissolvens ATCC ® 23373D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Enterobacter cloacae subsp. dissolvens strain ICPB ED105 TypeStrain= ... Enterobacter cloacae subsp. dissolvens (ATCC® 23373D-5™) Strain Designations: Genomic DNA from Enterobacter cloacae subsp. ... Enterobacter cloacae subsp. dissolvens ATCC® 23373D-5™ dried Total DNA: At least 5 µg in 1X TE buffer ... Genomic DNA from Enterobacter cloacae subsp. dissolvens strain ICPB ED105 [ATCC® 23373™] ...
cloacae ATCC ® 13047™ Designation: CDC 442-68 TypeStrain=True Application: Quality control strain Quality control strain for ... Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae (Jordan) Hormaeche and Edwards, subsp. nov. (ATCC® 13047D-5™) Add to ... Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae (Jordan) Hormaeche and Edwards, subsp. nov. (ATCC® 13047™) Strain Designations: CDC 442-68 ... Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae (Jordan) Hormaeche and Edwards, subsp. nov. ATCC® 13047™ freeze-dried ...
DNA replication - Enterobacter cloacae EcWSU1 [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show description ...
Chromosomal ampC genes in Enterobacter species other than Enterobacter cloacae, and ancestral association of the ACT-1 plasmid- ...
Miscellaneous: Anti-infection, Antibiotic resistance, Antibiotics, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterococcus faecium, Escherichia coli ...
... cloacae? Find a list of current medications, their possible side effects, dosage, and efficacy when used to treat or reduce the ... symptoms of infection+of+urinary+tract+due+to+enterobacter+cloacae ... Considering taking medication to treat infection+of+urinary+tract+due+to+enterobacter+cloacae? Below is a list of common ... 120 medications found for infection+of+urinary+tract+due+to+enterobacter+cloacae ...
Crystal structure of thiamindiphosphate-dependent indolepyruvate decarboxylase from Enterobacter cloacae, an enzyme involved in ... Crystal structure of Indolepyruvate decarboxylase from Enterobacter cloacae. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1ovm/pdb ...
Species: cloacae Description and significance. Enterobacter cloacae is a rod-shaped, gram-negative bacteria from the ... Enterobacter cloacae can be found on human skin and tissues as well as fruits, vegetables, and devices such as a hot water ... Enterobacter cloacae are gram-negative bacteria which means they contain two cell walls. On the outer membrane, the lipid-A ... The strains revealed that E. cloacae can be used as a biological control agent for Pythium ultimum. The study shows that ...
We examined 55 Enterobacter cloacae isolates from clinical specimens for the production of cytotonic and cytotoxic toxins and ... Cytotoxic activity of Enterobacter cloacae human isolates FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2009 Aug;56(3):248-52. doi: 10.1111/j. ... We examined 55 Enterobacter cloacae isolates from clinical specimens for the production of cytotonic and cytotoxic toxins and ...
The cloaca, from the Latin word for sewer, is a single chamber into which pass... Explanation of cloaca ... Find out information about cloaca. in biology, enlarged posterior end of the digestive tract of some animals. ... cloaca. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia. cloaca. (klōā`kə), in biology, enlarged posterior end of the ... Cloaca. the broadened extremity of the hindgut of some vertebrate animals. The wall of the cloaca is covered with a many- ...
Enterobacter cloacae complex sp. ECNIH11Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ... tr,A0A2S4SS17,A0A2S4SS17_9ENTR 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase OS=Enterobacter cloacae complex sp. ECNIH11 OX=2080662 GN=fadI PE=3 SV=1 ...
Molecular characterization of an Enterobacter cloacae outer membrane protein (OmpX).. J Stoorvogel, M J van Bussel, J Tommassen ... Molecular characterization of an Enterobacter cloacae outer membrane protein (OmpX).. J Stoorvogel, M J van Bussel, J Tommassen ... Molecular characterization of an Enterobacter cloacae outer membrane protein (OmpX).. J Stoorvogel, M J van Bussel, J Tommassen ... Molecular characterization of an Enterobacter cloacae outer membrane protein (OmpX). Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded ...
French, C. E., Nicklin S. and Bruce N. C. (1998). Aerobic degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by Enterobacter cloacae PB2 and ... 1999) The Degradation of Nitrate Ester Explosives and TNT by Enterobacter Cloacae PB2. In: Fass R., Flashner Y., Reuveny S. ( ... In this paper we describe the isolation and characterisation of a strain of Enterobacter cloacae from explosives contaminated ... The Degradation of Nitrate Ester Explosives and TNT by Enterobacter Cloacae PB2. ...
Structure of Nitroreductase from E. cloacae complex with inhibitor benzoate. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1kqb/pdb ...
Established 1994. Marc Foxx and Rodney Nonaka-Hill want to express their deep gratitude to all the artists, institutions, curators, writers, publications, colleagues and collectors who have supported the gallery over the years and send best wishes and regards.
Yay for Art!: Cloaca No 5 Machine Literally Produces Pieces of Crap. February 4th, 2009 by Lambert Varias ... A team of technicians is needed to set up Cloaca, after which Designboom says, it is then fed twice a day with cafeteria ... I dont know how long it takes for Cloaca to digest its "food", but I do know, thanks to numerous, high-quality images, that ... Why? Why not? As you can also see, the Cloacas logo looks really familiar. I guess its in keeping with the inspiration behind ...
Here, we report the completion of the genome sequence of E. cloacae ATCC 13047, the type strain of E. cloacae subsp. cloacae. ... Complete Genome Sequence of Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae Type Strain ATCC 13047 Yan Ren, Yi Ren, Zhemin Zhou, Xi Guo, ... cloacae (8).. Whole-genome sequencing of E. cloacae ATCC 13047 was performed with a combined strategy using a Sanger shotgun ... Reassignment of Enterobacter dissolvens to Enterobacter cloacae as E. cloacae subspecies dissolvens comb. nov. and emended ...
Gabriela and Adrian found out their baby, Allison, had cloaca when they were 26 weeks pregnant. Theyre looking to Tashis ... had cloaca, a type of anorectal malformation. Now, Tashis had reconstructive surgery and is a vibrant 4-year-old. ... Living with cloaca. With the right treatment and support, children born with an anorectal malformation can lead healthy, ... Children born with cloaca will need several surgeries to treat the condition and reconstruct their anatomy. Our experienced ...
The results obtained with the E. cloacae enzyme confirmed its cephalosporinase activity and showed that, unlike the enzyme from ... Comparison of the substrate specificities of the -lactamases from Klebsiella aerogenes 1082E and Enterobacter cloacae P99.. ... Aerobacter cloacae) P99. The K. aerogenes enzyme, although predominantly a penicillinase, had a wide range of specificity. In ... and its activity against a range of substrates has been compared with that of the enzyme from Enterobacter cloacae ( ...
We showed that this gene, previously identified in P. aeruginosa, was located in a different genetic background in E. cloacae. ... cloacae of the bla(GIM-1) gene, which is responsible for reduced susceptibility to carbapenems. ... Detection of the carbapenemase GIM-1 in Enterobacter cloacae in Germany J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013 Mar;68(3):558-61. doi: ... Conclusions: This is the first identification in E. cloacae of the bla(GIM-1) gene, which is responsible for reduced ...
E. cloacae.A total of 114 E. cloacae isolates underwent polymyxin B susceptibility testing; 10 were known to carry blaKPC. All ... cloacae (8, 15). Heteroresistant E. cloacae was more readily identified by the Etest method using Isosensitest agar (compared ... For E. cloacae in particular, MIC determinations by dilution methods lack precision and often lead to uninterpretable results. ... Irreproducible and Uninterpretable Polymyxin B MICs for Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter aerogenes David Landman, Julius ...
Cloaca / colon manual replacement Synonym(s): Manual replacement of the cloaca / colon ... Manual replacement of prolapsed cloaca or colon is relatively easy for non-experienced staff in acute, uncomplicated cases, ...
... resistance rates remained stable in Klebsiella pneumoniae but increased in Enterobacter cloacae complex, suggesting a " ... Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacter cloacae in Patients from the US Veterans Health Administration, 2006-2015 Brigid M. Wilson, ... Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacter cloacae in Patients from the US Veterans Health Administration, 2006-2015. ... D) Nationwide percentage of carbapenem nonsusceptibility and resistance in E. cloacae complex. Isolates from patients in Puerto ...
  • 31] The type strains of the species are E. cloacae ATCC 49162 and 13047. (wikipedia.org)
  • cloacae ATCC 13047 genome contains a single circular chromosome of 5,314,588 bp and two circular plasmids, pECL_A and pECL_B, of 200,370 and 85,650 bp (GenBank accession numbers CP001918, CP001919 and CP001920, respectively). (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we report the completion of the genome sequence of E. cloacae ATCC 13047, the type strain of E. cloacae subsp. (asm.org)
  • E. cloacae ATCC 13047 was isolated from human cerebrospinal fluid by Edwin Oakes Jordan in 1890 and is the type strain of E. cloacae subsp. (asm.org)
  • Whole-genome sequencing of E. cloacae ATCC 13047 was performed with a combined strategy using a Sanger shotgun approach ( 5 ) and 454 single-end sequencing technology ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • The complete E. cloacae ATCC 13047 genome contains a single circular chromosome of 5,314,588 bp and two circular plasmids, pECL_A and pECL_B, of 200,370 and 85,650 bp. (asm.org)
  • The genome of E. cloacae ATCC 13047 possesses virulence properties recognized to be important in the onset of infection. (asm.org)
  • cloacae ATCC 13047 revealed to us that 10 other genes putatively coded for RND-type transporters. (asm.org)
  • The genomes of several strains of Enterobacter cloacae have been partially sequenced with the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. (kenyon.edu)
  • Of 29 infections (11 involving the urinary tract, 7 pneumonias, 3 skin/soft tissue infections, 3 intra-abdominal infections, 3 bacteremias, and 2 other infections), 7 (24%) were caused by Enterobacter cloacae strains harboring a bla VIM-1 gene associated or not with a bla SHV12 gene. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Fatty acid transport and degradation mutants of E. cloacae (strains EcL1 and Ec31, respectively) did not reduce sporangial activation in either of the spermospheres. (asm.org)
  • Although wild-type or mutant strains of E. cloacae failed to reduce seed colonization incidence, pathogen biomass on cucumber seeds was reduced in the presence of E. cloacae strains EcCT-501R3 and Ec31 by 4 and 8 h after sowing, respectively. (asm.org)
  • Accordingly, the expression level of the AcrAB promoter was higher in E. cloacae Jc194 strains overproducing SoxS, RobA, and RamA. (asm.org)
  • Molecular biological studies of E. cloacae have revealed six species, and some strains that have been phenotypically identified as E. cloacae are opportunistic pathogens that have been implicated as the causative agent of local and systemic infections in humans [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although E. cloacae complex strains are among the most common Enterobacter species causing nosocomial bloodstream infections in the last decade, little is known regarding their virulence-associated properties. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In our previous study, we obtained 98 strains of E. cloacae from the Ningbo sewage outfall using rpo B genotyping, multi-locus sequence analysis and comparative genomic hybridization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Occurrence of Virulence-Associated Properties in Enterobacter cloacae - "in patients receiving antibiotic therapy, E. cloacae strains may be selected and may excessively grow in the gastrointestinal tract. (cfsremission.com)
  • The substantial increase in the prevalence of CPE in Queensland has been associated mainly with the emergence E. cloacae strains possessing HI2 plasmids carrying blaIMP-4 over the past 2 years. (edu.au)
  • Aerobacter cloacae in 1958 (Hormaeche and Edwards) and E. cloacae in 1960 (Hormaeche and Edwards), by which it is still known today. (wikipedia.org)
  • 6] E. cloacae is also an important nosocomial pathogen responsible for bacteremia and lower respiratory tract, urinary tract and intra-abdominal infections, as well as endocarditis, septic arthritis, osteomyelitis and skin and soft tissue infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is the prognosis of Enterobacter cloacae complex infections? (medscape.com)
  • The prognosis of E cloacae complex infections depends on numerous variables, including the infection site (eg, bloodstream, meninges, lungs), time to diagnosis and treatment, antimicrobial resistance, and underlying host vulnerabilities. (medscape.com)
  • Enterobacter cloacae infections have the highest mortality rate compared to other Enterobacter infections. (kenyon.edu)
  • Enterobacter cloacae are nosocomial pathogens that can cause a range of infections such as bacteremia, lower respiratory tract infection, skin and soft tissue infections, urinary tract infections, endocarditis, intra-abdominal infections, septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, and ophthalmic infections (4). (kenyon.edu)
  • Abstract Objective: To determine the cause and mode of transmission of a cluster of infections due to Enterobacter cloacae. (rero.ch)
  • Multiclonal VIM-1-producing E. cloacae infections are difficult to diagnose due to an apparent susceptibility to various beta-lactams, including carbapenems, and are associated with a high relapse rate and a more prolonged duration of antibiotic therapy. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This indicates a direct link between the level of seed-colonizing biomass of P. ultimum and the number of activated and germinated sporangia in the spermosphere, suggesting that E. cloacae suppresses P. ultimum seed infections by reducing sporangial activation and germination within the first 30 to 90 min after sowing. (asm.org)
  • Enterobacter cloacae is a common seed-associated bacterium that suppresses seed infections, protecting a number of plant species from P. ultimum -induced damping-off ( 3 , 4 , 8 , 12 ). (asm.org)
  • Enterobacter cloacae is an important nosocomial pathogen responsible for various infections, including sepsis, infections of the respiratory tract and urinary tract, wound infections, and meningitis. (asm.org)
  • Paediatric infections caused by multidrug-resistant ESBL-producing Enterobacter cloacae constitute a critical clinical and epidemiological issue. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Outbreak of infections caused by Enterobacter cloacae producing the integron-associated β-lactamase IBC-1 in a neonatal intensive care unit of a Greek hospital. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • E. cloacae and E. aerogenes are important nosocomial pathogens responsible for a number of infections such as bacteremia, lower respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and septic arthritis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Among the most common risk factors for developing E. cloacae bloodstream infections are prolonged hospitalization, the severity of the illness, and exposure to invasive procedures [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An increased incidence of healthcare-associated infections or carriage with E. cloacae can, therefore, result from endogenous selection, but also from clonal transmission, either or not facilitated by selective antibiotic pressure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Leverstein-van Hall MA , Blok HE , Paauw A , Fluit AC , Troelstra A , Mascini EM , Extensive hospital-wide spread of a multidrug-resistant Enterobacter cloacae clone, with late detection due to a variable antibiogram and frequent patient transfer. (cdc.gov)
  • In the present study, two clinical isolates of E. cloacae , EcDC64 (a multidrug-resistant strain overexpressing the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump) and Jc194 (a strain with a basal AcrAB-TolC expression level), were used to determine whether similar global stress responses operate in E. cloacae and also to establish the molecular mechanisms underlying this response. (asm.org)
  • Isolates recovered were all, but 4, multidrug resistant, particularly to fluoroquinolones (FQ) except for 21 E. cloacae isolates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Arbitrarily primed PCR, ribotyping, and plasmid pattern analysis applied to investigation of a nosocomial outbreak due to Enterobacter cloacae in a neonatal intensive care unit. (semanticscholar.org)
  • E. cloacae was described for the first time in 1890 by Jordan[201][citation needed] as Bacillus cloacae, and then underwent numerous taxonomical changes, becoming 'Bacterium cloacae' in 1896 (Lehmann and Neumann), Cloaca cloacae in 1919 (Castellani and Chalmers), it was identified as 'Aerobacter cloacae' in 1923 (Bergey et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enterobacter cloacae is an important nosocomial pathogen. (asm.org)
  • Aerobacter cloacae" (Jordan 1890) Bergey et al. (uniprot.org)
  • Aerobacter cloacae (Jordon) Bergey et al. (atcc.org)
  • The enzyme has been partly purified, and its activity against a range of substrates has been compared with that of the enzyme from Enterobacter cloacae (Aerobacter cloacae) P99. (nih.gov)
  • The cloaca, from the Latin word for sewer, is a single chamber into which pass solid and liquid waste materials as well as the products of the reproductive organs, the gametes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • 1650s, euphemism for "underground sewer," from Latin cloaca "public sewer, drain," from cluere "to cleanse," from PIE root *kleue- "to wash, clean" (cf. (dictionary.com)
  • Sexual products (sperm and eggs), metabolic wastes (uric acid) and digestive wastes (feces) must all pass through the cloaca (which literally means "common sewer"), a storage chamber opening to the outside at the vent. (featheredphotography.com)
  • In microbiology labs, E. cloacae is frequently grown at 30 °C on nutrient agar or at 35 °C in tryptic soy broth. (wikipedia.org)
  • E. cloacae is considered a biosafety level 1 organism in the United States and level 2 in Canada. (wikipedia.org)
  • The wall of the cloaca is covered with a many-layered epithelium. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In amphibians the urinary bladder is formed from an evagination of the abdominal wall of the cloaca. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Instead of an external organ resembling a penis, the rooster has a small bump, or papilla, located on the back wall of the cloaca under the tail feathers. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Persistent cloaca is a severe form of malformation of the anorectum. (ajol.info)
  • Persistent cloaca is a rare congenital defect that only occurs in females. (verywellhealth.com)
  • In some cases, persistent cloaca can be diagnosed before a baby is born (prenatally). (verywellhealth.com)
  • Even if signs suggesting persistent cloaca are present, it can be difficult to make a definitive diagnosis in utero. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Persistent cloaca is most often diagnosed at birth when it becomes apparent that rather than having three distinct, normally developed urogenital openings, the vagina, rectum, and urinary system of the newborn all convene at a single opening. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Infants with persistent cloaca are often found to have other conditions as well, including an imperforate anus or underdeveloped/absent genitalia. (verywellhealth.com)
  • While it is one of the most severe anorectal malformations, the cause of persistent cloaca is not known . (verywellhealth.com)
  • Like other birth defects, persistent cloaca is likely due to many different factors. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Diagnosis of persistent cloaca may be made prenatally if the condition is severe and causes signs that can be identified on a prenatal ultrasound, such as fluid collection in the vagina. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Persistent cloaca is rare, occurring in one in every 20,000 to 50,000 live births. (verywellhealth.com)
  • In order to mitigate risk and maximize the potential for normal urogenital and bowel function in the long term, babies with persistent cloaca need the expertise of specialized pediatric surgeons. (verywellhealth.com)
  • The needs of infants with persistent cloaca must be evaluated promptly after birth and on a case-by-case basis. (verywellhealth.com)
  • The main goal of treatment for persistent cloaca is to prevent immediate and potentially serious complications caused by the malformation, such as sepsis, and to correct the defect so a child can grow up with as close to normal urinary, bowel, and sexual function as possible. (verywellhealth.com)
  • In many cases it will take several surgeries to correct the defect and address any other abnormalities or conditions a baby with persistent cloaca may have. (verywellhealth.com)
  • This historic 1938 paper by Burns and Ogryzlo describes two clinical cases of congenital abnormalities including hernia into the placental cord , and a persistent cloaca . (edu.au)
  • The persistent difference in dorsoventral growth straightened the embryonic caudal body axis and concomitantly extended the frontally oriented 'urorectal (Tourneux's) septum' caudally between the ventral urogenital and dorsal anorectal parts of the cloaca. (edu.au)
  • Enterobacter cloacae B29, an endotoxin-producing strain dominated in the gut of a morbidly obese volunteer (weight 174.8 kg, BMI 58.8 kg m -2 ) was isolated and transplanted to germfree mice (inoculated 10 10 cells of B29 per day for 1 week). (frontiersin.org)
  • Enterobacter cloacae B29, an Enterobacter strain from this volunteer, was then isolated and transplanted to germfree mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • When this bacteria (Enterobacter cloacae B29) was added to germ-free mice, "the expression of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, I kappa B kinase epsilon and Toll-like receptor 4 pro-inflammatory genes increased significantly" - in other words, CFS-like inflammation. (cfsremission.com)
  • Enterobacter cloacae is a clinically significant Gram-negative, facultatively-anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enterobacte r cloacae is an anaerobic gram-negative nosocomial bacterium that can be acquired through the skin, gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract or derived externally due to the ubiquitous nature. (viracor-eurofins.com)
  • In a recent Italian nationwide survey of acquired MBLs in gram-negative pathogens, among 14,812 consecutive nonreplicate clinical isolates (12,245 Enterobacteriaceae isolates and 2,567 gram-negative nonfermenters) screened for reduced carbapenem susceptibility during a 4-month period, 30 (0.2%) isolates (28 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, 1 Pseudomonas putida isolate, and 1 Enterobacter cloacae isolate) carried acquired MBL determinants ( 20 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 30] In recent years, E. cloacae has emerged as one of the most commonly found nosocomial pathogen in neonatal units, with several outbreaks of infection being reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • Considering taking medication to treat infection+of+urinary+tract+due+to+enterobacter+cloacae? (webmd.com)
  • Below is a list of common medications used to treat or reduce the symptoms of infection+of+urinary+tract+due+to+enterobacter+cloacae. (webmd.com)
  • Main Outcome Measures: Odds ratios (OR) linking E cloacae colonization or infection and various exposures. (rero.ch)
  • are an important cause of nosocomial infection, but only a few cases of infection due to MBL-producing E. cloacae have been reported in the English literature worldwide ( 10 , 16 , 23 , 29 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In both control and E. cloacae colonized pigs, HuNoV infection of enterocytes was confirmed, however infection of B cells was not observed in ileum, and the entire lamina propria in sections of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were HuNoV-negative. (vt.edu)
  • From April 2012 to March 2013, 29 ESBL-producing E. cloacae and 15 K. pneumoniae were isolated from blood culture ( n = 32) or gastric samples ( n = 12) performed at day 0 or 2 from 39/303 newborns suspected of early neonatal infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first complete genome sequence of the E. cloacae species. (asm.org)
  • To test the influences of E. cloacae on HuNoV infectivity and to determine whether HuNoV infects B cells in vivo, we colonized gnotobiotic pigs with E. cloacae and inoculated pigs with 2.74 × 10(4) genome copies of HuNoV. (vt.edu)
  • The term cloaca is also used for analogous chambers in many invertebrates, such as worms of the phylum Nematoda Nematoda , phylum consisting of about 12,000 known species, and many more predicted species, of worms (commonly known as roundworms or threadworms). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Enterobacter cloacae , the type species of Enterobacter , is a prevalent nosocomial pathogen due to high-level resistance to disinfectants and antimicrobial agents ( 9 ). (asm.org)
  • Seed application of the wild-type strain of E. cloacae (EcCT-501R3) reduced sporangial activation by 45% in the cucumber spermosphere, whereas no reduction was observed in the corn spermosphere. (asm.org)
  • The ampR gene and its regulation of AmpC B-lactamase synthesis were investigated for Enterobacter cloacae 1194E, a wild-type strain producing a group A (pI 8.7) enzyme. (elsevier.com)
  • For study of enzyme expression in a more closely related host, the cloned E. cloacae 1194EampR-ampC region was transformed into E. cloacae 55, a wild-type strain producing a group B (pI 7.8) enzyme. (elsevier.com)
  • The ureter, the genital ducts (sperm ducts or oviducts), and the urinary bladder open into the cloaca. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • cloaca - (cloacal cavity) The term describing the common cavity into which the intestinal, genital, and urinary tracts open in vertebrates. (edu.au)
  • A bird also has a cloaca which is an opening for the urinary tract, genital, and intestinal canals to empty. (blogspot.com)
  • Common endogenous reservoirs of E. cloacae include the gastrointestinal tract of healthy adults and the urinary and respiratory tracts of sick patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Colonization of E. cloacae also reduced HuNoV titers in intestinal tissues and in blood. (vt.edu)
  • In summary, E. cloacae inhibited HuNoV infectivity, and B cells were not a target cell type for HuNoV in gnotobiotic pigs, with or without E. cloacae colonization. (vt.edu)
  • Dysregulation of dorsal cloacal development is probably an important cause of anorectal malformations: too little regressive development may result in anorectal agenesis, and too much regression in stenosis or atresia of the remaining part of the dorsal cloaca. (edu.au)
  • Unlike most anorectal malformations, cloaca, or suspected cloaca, is one of the few which may be identified prenatally. (globalcastmd.com)
  • Knock down of wnt3 in zebrafish showed cloaca malformations, including disorganization of the cloaca epithelium and expansion of the cloaca lumen. (cdc.gov)
  • AF052256 Enterobacter cloacae DNA gyrase A (gyrA) gene, partial cds. (atcc.org)
  • U65720 Enterobacter cloacae 16S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. (atcc.org)
  • U77435 Enterobacter cloacae RNA polymerase beta-subunit (rpoB) gene, partial cds. (atcc.org)
  • A chromosomal gene of Enterobacter cloacae encoding an outer membrane protein (OmpX) has been cloned. (asm.org)
  • This is the first identification in E. cloacae of the bla(GIM-1) gene, which is responsible for reduced susceptibility to carbapenems. (nih.gov)
  • We showed that this gene, previously identified in P. aeruginosa, was located in a different genetic background in E. cloacae. (nih.gov)
  • Results indicated a functional E. cloacae 1194EampR gene that could not be transcomplemented by E. cloacae 55. (elsevier.com)
  • All available E cloacae isolates were typed and characterized by contour-clamped homogenous electric-field electrophoresis to confirm possible cross-transmission. (rero.ch)
  • Learn how our families have managed their cloaca diagnosis and the journey that lies ahead. (childrenscolorado.org)
  • The results obtained with the E. cloacae enzyme confirmed its cephalosporinase activity and showed that, unlike the enzyme from K. aerogenes, it was relatively inactive against the penicillins. (nih.gov)
  • In this study involving clinical isolates of E. cloacae and E. aerogenes , susceptibility testing methods with polymyxin B were analyzed. (asm.org)
  • Partial sequences for the AcrR and complete sequence of the AcrA and AcrB genes of Enterobacter cloacae are available. (kenyon.edu)
  • A comparative analysis of ampR nucleotide and amino acid-sequence data from E. cloacae 1194E and E. cloacaeMHNI revealed related but divergent genes. (elsevier.com)
  • 2018). The development of the cloaca in the human embryo. (edu.au)
  • Delvoye has dubbed his work "Cloaca", after the excretory orifice of birds, reptiles and amphibians. (technabob.com)
  • Manual replacement of prolapsed cloaca or colon is relatively easy for non-experienced staff in acute, uncomplicated cases, Cloacal organ prolapse . (vetstream.com)
  • Waterfowl cloacal exam, male cloacal protuberance, distended cloaca of female shorebirds. (usgs.gov)
  • In birds the rectum , at the termination of its canal, forms an oval or elongated pouch [ … ] and then expands into a cavity, which has been named cloaca . (wiktionary.org)
  • This study aimed at isolation of a bacteriophage against MDR clinical strain of E. cloacae and its efficacy against bacterial planktonic cells and biofilm. (springer.com)
  • A 2012 study in which Enterobacter cloacae transplanted into previously germ-free mice resulted in increased obesity when compared with germ-free mice fed an identical diet, suggesting a link between obesity and the presence of Enterobacter gut flora. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using a susceptibility breakpoint of ≤2 μg/ml, categorical agreement by all four dilution tests (two broth microdilution and two agar dilution) was achieved in only 76/114 (67%) of E. cloacae isolates (65 susceptible, 11 resistant). (asm.org)
  • Three different culture environments (Fe stimulation, blood agar plate and normal plate) were used to stimulate Enterobacter cloacae , and their respective pathogenicities were compared at the proteomic, mRNA and metabolomic levels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results show that culture in a blood agar plate and a suitable concentration of iron promote the pathogenicity of E. cloacae and that high iron concentrations may have adverse effects on growth and iron uptake and utilization by E. cloacae . (biomedcentral.com)
  • We examined 55 Enterobacter cloacae isolates from clinical specimens for the production of cytotonic and cytotoxic toxins and the presence of the type III secretion system (TTSS). (nih.gov)
  • This study was carried out during the period from May 2007 to March 2008 to detect the presence of Enterobacter cloacae in stool specimens from patients suffering from gastrointestinal disturbance. (sustech.edu)
  • A 5 day old full term male infant admitted with a two day history of fever, irritability, and convulsions was diagnosed as having Enterobacter cloacae septicaemia and meningitis. (bmj.com)
  • Nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis, E. cloacae septicaemia and disseminated intravascular coagulation were identified as the final diagnoses of the patient. (who.int)
  • Methods: The analysis included 195 rectal carriage E. cloacae isolates resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs), collected from patients in 12 hospital units across Europe and Israel. (uu.nl)
  • Colistin-resistant E. cloacae was first detected in November 2009 and carriage was demonstrated in 141 patients until October 2014. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conversion rates from carriage of colistin-susceptible to resistant E. cloacae were 0.20 and 0.13 per 1000 patient days, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this paper we describe the isolation and characterisation of a strain of Enterobacter cloacae from explosives contaminated soil t that is capable of utilising nitrate ester explosives and TNT as sole nitrogen sources for growth. (springer.com)
  • 34] The other genomes of E. cloacae that have been sequenced are deposited in GenBank under accession numbers CP002272, CP002886, FP929040 and AGSY00000000. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unfortunately there are no genomes of Enterobacter cloacae that have been fully sequenced. (kenyon.edu)
  • The mesonephric ducts end in an epithelial elevation, the sinus tubercle , on the ventral part of the cloaca between the orifices of the mesonephric ducts. (wikipedia.org)