A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in water, sewage, soil, meat, hospital environments, and on the skin and in the intestinal tract of man and animals as a commensal.
A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.
Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.
Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
A genus of destructive root-parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Pythiaceae, order Peronosporales, commonly found in cultivated soils all over the world. Differentiation of zoospores takes place in a vesicle.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in humans and other animals including MAMMALS; BIRDS; REPTILES; and AMPHIBIANS. It has also been isolated from SOIL and WATER as well as from clinical specimens such as URINE; THROAT; SPUTUM; BLOOD; and wound swabs as an opportunistic pathogen.
Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.
Gram-negative, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature. Both motile and non-motile strains exist. The species is closely related to KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE and is frequently associated with nosocomial infections
Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A group of beta-lactam antibiotics in which the sulfur atom in the thiazolidine ring of the penicillin molecule is replaced by a carbon atom. THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain.
A congenital abnormality characterized by the persistence of the anal membrane, resulting in a thin membrane covering the normal ANAL CANAL. Imperforation is not always complete and is treated by surgery in infancy. This defect is often associated with NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS; MENTAL RETARDATION; and DOWN SYNDROME.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Congenital structural abnormalities of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.
A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.
Bis(nitrato-O)dioxouranium. A compound used in photography and the porcelain industry. It causes severe renal insufficiency and renal tubular necrosis in mammals and is an effective lymphocyte mitogen.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.
A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic which can be administered intravenously or by suppository. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It has few side effects and is reported to be safe and effective in aged patients and in patients with hematologic disorders.
A fluid-filled VAGINA that is obstructed.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Enzymes which reduce nitro groups (NITRO COMPOUNDS) and other nitrogenous compounds.
A birth defect in which the URINARY BLADDER is malformed and exposed, inside out, and protruded through the ABDOMINAL WALL. It is caused by closure defects involving the top front surface of the bladder, as well as the lower abdominal wall; SKIN; MUSCLES; and the pubic bone.
A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.
Infections with bacteria of the genus SERRATIA.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
A building block of penicillin, devoid of significant antibacterial activity. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A country in northern Africa bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between MOROCCO and TUNISIA. Its capital is Algiers.
Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.

Fluid secretion by the malpighian tubules of the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans: the effects of ouabain, ethacrynic acid and amiloride. (1/251)

The effects of three inhibitors of sodium transport on the secretion of fluid by the Malpighian tubules of Glossina morsitans have been observed. The cardiac glycoside, ouabain, affects neither the rate of secretion nor the sodium concentration of the fluid secreted when isolated tubules are bathed by solutions containing a range of sodium and potassium concentrations. Secretion is inhibited, however, by ethacrynic acid and amiloride. The results confirm that fluid secretion by the Malpighian tubules of this insect is dependent on the active transport of sodium ions and show that Na+/k+ exchange pumps are not involved in this process.  (+info)

Sodefrin: a novel sex pheromone in a newt. (2/251)

The abdominal gland in the male red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster, is the source of a female-attracting pheromone. An attempt was made to isolate and characterize the female-attracting pheromone in the abdominal glands of male newts. The active substance, named sodefrin (from the Japanese 'sodefuri' which means 'soliciting') has been isolated and shown to be a novel decapeptide with the sequence, Ser-Ile-Pro-Ser-Lys-Asp-Ala-Leu-Leu-Lys. Its minimum effective concentration in water is 0.1-1.0 pmol 1-1. Synthetic sodefrin shows a female-attracting activity similar to that of the native peptide, and acts through the olfactory organ of female newts. Electrophysiological studies reveal that sodefrin evokes a marked electroolfactogram response in the vomeronasal epithelium in sexually mature females and in ovariectomized females treated with prolactin and oestrogen. The pheromonal activity of sodefrin appears to be species-specific since it does not attract females of a congeneric species, the sword-tailed newt C. ensicauda. However, C. ensicauda has a variant of sodefrin differing from that in C. pyrrhogaster by substitutions of Leu for Pro at position 3 and Gln for Leu at position 8. The C. ensicauda variant sodefrin does not attract C. pyrrhogaster females. Genes encoding the sodefrin precursor protein have been cloned in both C. pyrrhogaster and C. ensicauda. Immunostaining of the abdominal gland using the antiserum against sodefrin shows that sodefrin occurs in the epithelial cells, predominantly within the secretory granules. Sodefrin content, detected by immunoassay, in C. pyrrhogaster males decreases after castration and hypophysectomy and increases markedly in the castrated and hypophysectomized newts after treatment with androgen and prolactin. This combination of hormones also enhances sodefrin mRNA content in the abdominal gland as assessed by northern blot analysis using sodefrin cDNA.  (+info)

Chick Barx2b, a marker for myogenic cells also expressed in branchial arches and neural structures. (3/251)

We have isolated a new chicken gene, cBarx2b, which is related to mBarx2 in sequence, although the expression patterns of the two genes are quite different from one another. The cBarx2b gene is expressed in craniofacial structures, regions of the neural tube, and muscle groups in the limb, neck and cloaca. Perturbation of anterior muscle pattern by application of Sonic Hedgehog protein results in a posteriorization of cBarx2b expression.  (+info)

Ortho- and paramyxoviruses from migrating feral ducks: characterization of a new group of influenza A viruses. (4/251)

Ortho- and parainfluenza viruses isolated from the cloacas of migrating feral ducks shot on the Mississippi flyway included three strains of influenza. A virus (Hav6 Nav1, Hav6 Nl, Hav7 Neq2) as well as Newcastle disease virus. One influenza virus, A/duck/Memphis/546/74, possessed Hav3 haemagglutinin, but the neuraminidase was not inhibited by any of the known influenza reference antisera. The neuraminidase on this virus was related to the neuraminidases on A/duck/GDR/72 (H2 N?), A/turkey/Ontario/7732/66 (Hav 5 N?), A/duck/Ukraine/1/60 (Hav3 N?) and A/turkey/Wisconsin/68. We therefore propose that the neuraminidase on this group of influenza viruses be designated Nav6. The A/duck/Memphis/546/74 influenza virus caused an ocular discharge in 1 of 5 ducks and was shed in faeces for 10 days; it was stable in faecal samples for up to 3 days at 20 degrees C. These results suggest that ecological studies on influenza in avian species should include attempts to isolate virus from faeces. Faecal-oral transmission is an attractive explanation for the spread of influenza virus from feral birds to other animals.  (+info)

Innervation of NADPH diaphorase-containing neurons correlated with acetylcholinesterase, tyrosine hydroxylase, and neuropeptides in the pigeon cloaca. (5/251)

The motility of the avian cloaca is under neural control, but little is known about the neural network that accomplishes this function. This present study was designed to determine the distribution of nitric oxide-synthesising neurons in the pigeon cloaca by enzyme histochemistry for reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d). NADPH-d-positive staining was seen in the neurons and fibres in the cloaca. The highest density of nerve fibres was noted in the coprodeum and the lowest in the proctodeum. In the coprodeum, NADPH-d neurons were found singly, formed small groups of 2-10 neurons, or were seen in plexuses in the muscle layer, lamina propria, or around the arterioles. Several NADPH-d-positive neurons were also observed in the ganglia of the cloaca. NADPH-d fibres ran in the muscle layer, lamina muscularis mucosae and lamina propria, or surrounded blood vessels. The distribution pattern of acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-stained neurons and fibres in the cloaca was similar to that of NADPH-d. Double staining for NADPH-d and AChE showed colocalisation of the 2 enzymes in many neurons of the cloaca. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive nerve fibres originating outside the cloaca were also noted. In the urodeum and proctodeum, neurons or fibres positive for NADPH-d, AChE or TH were scattered in the lamina propria. Nerve fibres immunoreactive for calcitonin-gene related peptide, galanin, methionine-enkephalin, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide were found sparsely in the cloaca. Our results demonstrate that nitrergic neurons constitute a subpopulation which is closely associated with the cholinergic system in the pigeon cloaca.  (+info)

Anorectal malformations caused by defects in sonic hedgehog signaling. (6/251)

Anorectal malformations are a common clinical problem affecting the development of the distal hindgut in infants. The spectrum of anorectal malformations ranges from the mildly stenotic anus to imperforate anus with a fistula between the urinary and intestinal tracts to the most severe form, persistent cloaca. The etiology, embryology, and pathogenesis of anorectal malformations are poorly understood and controversial. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is an endoderm-derived signaling molecule that induces mesodermal gene expression in the chick hindgut. However, the role of Shh signaling in mammalian hindgut development is unknown. Here, we show that mutant mice with various defects in the Shh signaling pathway exhibit a spectrum of distal hindgut defects mimicking human anorectal malformations. Shh null-mutant mice display persistent cloaca. Mutant mice lacking Gli2 or Gli3, two zinc finger transcription factors involved in Shh signaling, respectively, exhibit imperforate anus with recto-urethral fistula and anal stenosis. Furthermore, persistent cloaca is also observed in Gli2(-/-);Gli3(+/-), Gli2(+/-);Gli3(-/-), and Gli2(-/-);Gli3(-/-) mice demonstrating a gene dose-dependent effect. Therefore, Shh signaling is essential for normal development of the distal hindgut in mice and mutations affecting Shh signaling produce a spectrum of anorectal malformations that may reveal new insights into their human disease equivalents.  (+info)

Excretory role of the midgut in larvae of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (L.). (7/251)

Caterpillars of Manduca sexta use two distinct transport mechanisms for the excretion of dyes. One pump (Type A) has a high affinity for acid (anionic) dyes and occurs in the midgut and medial Malpighian tubules. Acid dyes accumulate rapidly in the lumen of the midgut while the Malpighian tubules appear to play only a minor role in the excretion of these dyes. The other pump (Type B) excretes basic (cationic) dyes and is located primarily in the proximal Malpighian tubules. Evidence is presented that hippuric acid competes with acid dyes for excretion by both midgut and Malpighian tubules. After the final-instar larva purges its gut the ability of the midgut and Malpighian tubules to excrete dyes gradually decreases. Sixty hours after the purge only the Malpighian tubules retain some dye excreting activity.  (+info)

The removal of sulphate by the excretory apparatus of the blowfly Calliphora vomitoria. (8/251)

The excretion of sulphate by the isolated Malpighian tubules of Calliphora vomitoria has been investigated. Contrary to expectation, it was found that the isolated tubules are freely permeable to sulphate. The rate of sulphate secretion is comparable to the rates of secretion of both phosphate and chloride. The excretion of sulphate by the intact fly has also been verified.  (+info)

Looking for cloacal membrane? Find out information about cloacal membrane. structure composed mostly of lipid lipids, a broad class of organic products found in living systems. Most are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar... Explanation of cloacal membrane
The embryonic disc (green) and embryonic mesoderm (pink). The amnion has been cut.. Keywords: cephalic end of embryonic disc, cephalic end of epiblast, dorsal surface of epiblast, embryonic mesoderm, gastrulation (primitive) groove, gastrulation (primitive) node, gastrulation (primitive) streak, head mesenchyme, junction of amnion and epiblast, notochordal process, outer surface of epiblast, presumptive cloacal membrane, presumptive neural plate, primordium of cloacal membrane, ventral surface of epiblast Source: The Virtual Human Embryo.. ...
Introduction: Sacral agenesis (SA) is a caudal regression anomaly that can cause neurogenic bladder but is not generally recognized as high risk. We studied the clinical presentation, upper urinary tract, bone and spine abnormalities, and urodynamic findings in patients with SA and compared them with related high-risk conditions, anorectal malformation (ARM), and cloacal malformation. Materials and Methods: Patient records between May 2011 and December 2015 were identified and grouped into isolated SA without an overt anomaly (Group I), SA with overt caudal regression anomalies (Group II), and ARM or cloacal malformation without the SA (Group III). Distribution of clinical and urodynamic findings and factors associated with reduced eGFR were tested with rank sum test, t-test, and unadjusted odds (P , 0.05 significant) using R statistical program (version 3.1.3). Results: Of 605 neurogenic bladder patients treated in the study period, 39 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. 12 were Group I, 5 Group ...
Pages that link to Paper - The Early Development of Man, with Special Reference to the Development of the Mesoderm and Cloacal Membrane ...
The virotype Influenza A RT-PCR Kit allows the safe detection of RNA from Influenza A Virus in samples from birds and pigs. The kit contains all of the reagents for real-time RT-PCR in a single ready-to-use reaction mix. It can be used with oropharyngeal, tracheal, and cloacal swabs, fecal samples, or tissue samples from birds, and nasal swabs, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and tissue samples from swine. It can also be used with cell culture supernatants. Due to the high sensitivity of the test, pools of up to 10 individual swab samples can be tested.. ...
Definition: Anorectal malformations are a group of malformations that involve the distal anus and rectum as well as the urinary and genital tracts. Defects range from mild anal anomalies to complex cloacal malformations. Most anorectal malformations result from abnormal development of the urorectal septum, resulting in incomplete separation of the cloaca into urogenital and anorectal portions. A-The following are low malformations of the anorectal region: 1-Anal Agenesis, with or without fistula-The anal canal may end blindly and there may be an ectopic opening (ectopic anus), or fistula, that commonly opens into the perineum. However, the fistula may open into the vulva in females or the urethra in males. Anal agenesis with fistula results from incomplete separation of the cloaca by the urorectal septum. It accounts for about 46 percent of cases. 2- Anal Stenosis--The anus is in the normal position, but there is a narrowing of the anal canal. This malformation is probably caused by a slight ...
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The cause of fetal LUTO is varied. The most common cause in male fetuses is posterior urethral valves (membrane blocks the flow of urine from the bladder). Oligohydramnios (low amniotic fluid volume defined as the maximum vertical pocket less that or equal to 2.0 centimeters) may then develop, and is associated with a worse prognosis. In females the most common cause is urethral atresia (a body orifice or passage in the body is abnormally closed or absent). Other causes of fetal LUTO include but are not limited to obstructive ureterocele (area between the tube that carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder), urethral stricture (abnormal narrowing of the urethra) or agenesis (absence of), persistent cloaca (a defect in which the rectum, vagina, and urinary tract are fused together into a single common channel), and megalourethra (congenital dilation of the urethra). The ultrasound findings of many of these conditions are similar, and it is often difficult to differentiate the cause of the ...
The cause of fetal LUTO is varied. The most common cause in male fetuses is posterior urethral valves (membrane blocks the flow of urine from the bladder). Oligohydramnios (low amniotic fluid volume defined as the maximum vertical pocket less that or equal to 2.0 centimeters) may then develop, and is associated with a worse prognosis. In females the most common cause is urethral atresia (a body orifice or passage in the body is abnormally closed or absent). Other causes of fetal LUTO include but are not limited to obstructive ureterocele (area between the tube that carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder), urethral stricture (abnormal narrowing of the urethra) or agenesis (absence of), persistent cloaca (a defect in which the rectum, vagina, and urinary tract are fused together into a single common channel), and megalourethra (congenital dilation of the urethra). The ultrasound findings of many of these conditions are similar, and it is often difficult to differentiate the cause of the ...
Imperforate anus, a type of anorectal malformation, is caused by the failed rupture of the cloacal membrane during embryological development. The defect presents with failure to pass meconium within 24 hours, abdominal distension, and bilious vomiting. Imperforate anus should be detected on physical exam and can be complicated by fistulas between the rectum and urogenital system resulting in passage of meconium in urine in males and urinary tract infections. Imperforate anus is also associated with other congenital defects which are classified as VACTERL (vertebral, anal, cardiac, trachea-esophageal fistula, renal, and limb defects) abnormalities ...
Larus hyperboreus (es); Jeges sirály (hu); Hvítmáfur (is); Ipar-kaio (eu); Larus hyperboreus (ast); gavinot hiperbori (ca); Eismöwe (de); Larus hyperboreus (sq); Naajarujussuaq (kw); 北极鸥 (zh); Gråmåge (da); Kutup martısı (tr); シロカモメ (ja); Larus hyperboreus (ia); Glacimevo (eo); Vittrut (sv); Faoileán glas (ga); שחף לבן-כנף (he); Larus hyperboreus (la); Larus hyperboreus (it); Glaucous Gull (en); Nauyavasugruk (ik); Stuorraskávli (se); Ismeew (frr); Larus hyperboreus (pms); racek šedý (cs); Isolokki (fi); Foillan glass (gv); Бургомистр (ru); Goéland bourgmestre (fr); Valmási (fo); Ledeni galeb (hr); Polarmåse (nn); Grote burgemeester (nl); Polarmåke (nb); Larus hyperboreus (ro); Мөсний цахлай (mn); Gwylan y Gogledd (cy); Gaivota-hiperbórea (pt); Larus hyperboreus (war); Lielā polārkaija (lv); Larus hyperboreus (vi); Tónteel tsídii dinilbáhígíí (nv); čajka bledá (sk); Didysis poliarinis kiras (lt); полярна чайка ...
23-26 (58-66 cm). Adult white with light gray back and wings; wing tip black with white spots; bill yellow with red spot on lower mandible; feet pink or flesh colored. First-year birds brownish. Acquires adult plumage in 4 years. See California Gull.
Header}} == Introduction == {, , [[Image:Stage8 SEM1.jpg,240px,left]] , Gastrulation is continuing as cells migrate from the epiblast, continuing to form mesoderm. Mesoderm lies between the ectoderm and endoderm as a continuous sheet except at the buccopharyngeal and cloacal membranes. These membranes have ectoderm and endoderm only and will lie at the rostral (head) and caudal (tail) of the gastrointestinal tract. From the primitive node a tube extends under the ectoderm in the opposite direction to the {{primitive streak}}. This tube forms first the axial process then notochordal process, then finally the {{notochord}}. The {{notochord}} is a key to embryonic folding and regulation of {{ectoderm}} and {{mesoderm}} differentiation. It lies in the rostrocordal axis and the embryonic disc will fold either side ventrally, pinching off a portion of the yolk sac to form the lining of the gastrointestinal tract. ===Summary=== Human embryonic stage 8 occurs during week 3 between 17 to 19 days. The ...
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Raw Material India (RMI) is a new startup - an online platform Only For Industrial Raw Materials of all types. This is Indias First-Of-Its-Kind Exclusive B2B Raw Materials website.. ...
Oropharyngeal swabs or Tracheal Swabs preferred for gallinaceous poultry. Cloacal swabs preferred for domestic waterfowl and other wild birds. Tissues (spleen, lung, brain and intestine). ...
Oropharyngeal swabs or Tracheal Swabs preferred for gallinaceous poultry. Cloacal swabs preferred for domestic waterfowl and other wild birds. Tissues (spleen, lung, brain and intestine). ...
Wild Ducks is a film about four IBM clients whose questioning minds and unconventional ideas are transforming our world. See and hear their inspirational stories.
Ducks head to nesting grounds around this time of year and many people in the Susquehanna Valley are finding out some not so wild ducks are choosing to nest in suburbia.
TY - JOUR. T1 - 46, XY female with cloacal exstrophy and masculinization at puberty. AU - Mirheydar, H.. AU - Evason, K.. AU - Coakley, F.. AU - Baskin, L. S.. AU - DiSandro, M.. PY - 2009/10/1. Y1 - 2009/10/1. N2 - Cloacal exstrophy of the bladder is a rare complex disorder occurring 1 in 400,000 live births and associated with cryptorchidism, vesicoureteral reflux, severe phallic inadequacy, omphalocele with short-gut syndrome, exstrophied bladder separated by exstrophied ileocecal segment, and pubic symphyseal diastasis. The association of undescended and ectopic testis with cloacal exstrophy is not uncommon, but the presence of an unexpected persistent ectopic testis at the time of puberty is quite unusual. We report the case of a 17-year-old girl with a history of 46, XY cloacal exstrophy and gender reassignment presenting with an ectopic testis of unclear location. We then review controversial literature surrounding gender assignment in these patients.. AB - Cloacal exstrophy of the ...
Summary Twelve influenza A viruses, antigenically related to the H0, H1 and Hsw1 subtypes, were isolated from cloacal samples of feral ducks in Canada. Antigenic comparisons showed that these viruses were most closely related to the recent Hsw1N1 isolates from man and pigs, whereas in vivo pathogenicity tests revealed differences between the Hsw1N1 viruses from the ducks and those from humans and pigs. Antigenic characterization of 94 additional influenza A viruses from the ducks showed four haemagglutinin subtypes (Hav1, Hav4, Hav5 and Hav7), an unclassified haemagglutinin, and six neuraminidase subtypes (N1, N2, Neq2, Nav1, Nav2 and Nav5) in various combinations, some of which are novel and have not previously been reported. Three of these duck influenza viruses possessed a haemagglutinin antigenically related to that of classical fowl plague virus. A much higher percentage of virus isolations were from juvenile ducks (18.5%) than from adults (5%). All of the ducks, from which viruses were isolated,
Sometimes factors can occasionally interfere with bladder development, as is the case for children with cloacal exstrophy. This is the most severe birth defect in the exstrophy-epispadias complex. A child with this condition will have the bladder and a portion of the intestines, exposed outside the abdomen, with the bony pelvis open like a book.
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The hindgut follows the midgut, in the embryo, and extends from the posterior intestinal portal to the cloacal membrane. It gives rise to the left one-third to one-half or distal portion of the transverse colon, the descending colon, the sigmoid or pelvic colon, the rectum, the upper portion of the anal canal, and part of the urogenital system (e.g., the bladder and urethra). It is supplied by the inferior mesenteric artery. The terminal part of the hindgut enters into the cloaca, which is an entoderm-lined cavity that is in direct contact with the surface ...
The Northern Red-legged Frog is a medium-sized (7-10 cm) reddish-brown and black-speckled frog that gets its name from the translucent red undersides of its hind legs. Its range extends along the Pacific coast, west of the Coast and Cascade Mountains from southwestern British Columbia to northwestern California. In British Columbia, the Northern Red-legged Frog occurs mainly throughout the forested lowlands (| 1200 m elevation) of Vancouver Island, the adjacent Gulf Islands, along the mainland coast as far north as Kingcome Inlet, and in the Lower Fraser Valley to Hope. The Northern Red-legged Frog requires structurally complex wetlands (i.e., the ratio of emergent vegetation to open water) and forest habitats (i.e., abundant canopy cover, downed wood and litter) in a suitable spatial configuration to complete its life cycle.
DataMed is a prototype biomedical data search engine. Its goal is to discover data sets across data repositories or data aggregators. In the future it will allow searching outside these boundaries. DataMed supports the NIH-endorsed FAIR principles of Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability and Reusability of datasets with current functionality assisting in finding datasets and providing access information about them.
Usually in this area there are lots of Black-legged Kittiwakes at this time of year but not this winter. Gulls were surprisingly thin on the ground: a few Glaucous-winged and this lone Common Gull being the only vaguely interesting ones. ...
Gulls are sociable and often found in groups at rest or when feeding.. Most gulls, particularly Larus species, are ground nesting carnivores, which will take live food or scavenge opportunistically. Live food often includes crabs and small fish. Gulls have prophylactic unhinging jaws which allow them to consume large prey. Apart from the kittiwakes, gulls are typically coastal or inland species, rarely venturing far out to sea.[citation needed] The large species take up to four years to attain full adult plumage, but two years is typical for small gulls. Large White-Headed Gulls are typically long-lived birds, with a maximum age of 49 years recorded for the Herring Gull.[2]. Gulls nest in large, densely packed noisy colonies. They lay two to three speckled eggs in nests composed of vegetation. The young are precocial, being born with dark mottled down, and mobile upon hatching.[3]. Gulls-the larger species in particular-are resourceful, inquisitive and intelligent[4] birds, demonstrating complex ...
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Birds mate by rubbing their cloaca together in what scientists call a cloacal kiss. Birds of both sexes have a cloaca, which is an opening that swells and
Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) species account - latest update of status, international importance, population size and trends in breeding abundance, productivity, survival rates, phenology and diet in the UK, Scotland, England, Wales, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland, Channel Islands and the Isle of Man.
Squalidus argentatus (Sauvage and Dabry de Thiersant 1874) is a small-sized freshwater fish which is distributed in Mainland China, Hainan Island and Taiwan. The populations of S. argentatus have dropped sharply probably due to overharvesting and water pollution recently. Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the cyprinid fish S. argentatus. These new markers were tested on 43 individuals collected from Yangtze River and Qiantang River. The number of alleles, observed and expected heterozygosity per locus, in two populations ranged from 3 to 14, from 0.333 to 0.954 and from 0.480 to 0.928, respectively. Only two loci are significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg expectations due to the heterozygote deficiency. No significant linkage disequilibrium was detected between the pairwise comparisons of these loci. These polymorphic microsatellite loci will enable us to study the genetic variation, population structure, and conservation genetics of this species in the future.
Phylogeographical analyses on Squalidus argentatus samples from thirteen localities within mainland China and Taiwan were conducted for biogeographic studies, as their dispersal strictly depends on geological evolution of the landmasses. A total of 95 haplotypes were genotyped for mtDNA cyt b gene in 160 specimens from nine river systems. Relatively high levels of haplotype diversity (h = 0.984) and low levels of nucleotide diversity (π = 0.020) were detected in S. argentatus. Two major phylogenetic haplotype groups, A and B, were revealed via phylogenetic analysis. The degree of intergroup divergence (3.96%) indicates that these groups diverged about 4.55 myr (million years) ago. Haplotype network and population analyses indicated significant genetic structure (FST = 0.775), largely concordant with the geographical location of the populations. According to SAMOVA analysis, we divided these populations into four units: Yangtze-Pearl, Qiantang-Minjiang, Jiulong-Beijiang and Taiwan groups. Mismatch
Enterobacter species are important human opportunistic pathogens, responsible for nosocomial infections such as urinary tract infections, osteomyelitis, cholecystitis, and neonatal meningitis (15). Enterobacter cloacae, the type species of Enterobacter, is a prevalent nosocomial pathogen due to high-level resistance to disinfectants and antimicrobial agents (9). E. cloacae ATCC 13047 was isolated from human cerebrospinal fluid by Edwin Oakes Jordan in 1890 and is the type strain of E. cloacae subsp. cloacae (8).. Whole-genome sequencing of E. cloacae ATCC 13047 was performed with a combined strategy using a Sanger shotgun approach (5) and 454 single-end sequencing technology (13). Genomic libraries containing 5-kb inserts were constructed, and 10,236 sequences were generated with an ABI 3730 DNA analyzer, giving 1.5-fold coverage of the genome. A total of 281,462 single-end reads, giving 19.1-fold coverage of the genome, were generated using the GS FLX system (454 Life Sciences Corporation) and ...
Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae ATCC ® 13047D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae strain CDC 442-68 TypeStrain=False Application:
Rhodnius prolixus are ectoparasitic solenophages that feed primarily on the blood of mammals and birds. Rhodnius prolixus have sucking mouthparts which fold back beneath the head and thorax when at rest. The mouthparts consist of long stylets that include a short labrum with a long tubular labium that contains the mandibles and the maxillae. The maxillae enclose a food canal for sucking fluid, and a salivary canal that injects saliva to help digest host tissue.. The saliva contains some anticoagulants, and the painless bites of R. prolixus are usually around the eyes and mouth of the host, where they can suck blood for several minutes. Endosymbiotic bacteria help to digest the blood ingested by R. prolixus. The bacteria are contained in epithelial cells of the triatomine gut and are found among many of its tissues throughout its growth and maturation.. Dogs, cats, and rats are important Rhodnius prolixus hosts in urban environments. Some other less common hosts include opossum, armadillos, bats, ...
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Melanoplus femurrubrum, Red-legged Grasshopper image
Kinet JP, Bensinger WI, Balland N, Saint-Remy M, Frankenne F, Hennen G, Mahieu P. Ex vivo perfusion of plasma over protein A columns in human mammary adenocarcinoma. Role of the Fc-binding capacity of protein A in the side effects and the tumoricidal response. Eur J Clin Invest. 1986 Feb; 16(1):50-5 ...
Although ornithologists find the concept of a partridge sitting in a pear tree pretty ridiculous (they are not passerines - perching birds - but rather denizens of open country), but to my mind there are excellent culinary reasons to associate these little game birds with Christmas . . .
Maria is a Red-Legged Partridge, sometimes known as a French partridge. This card is perfect for letting someone know you care and is blank inside for your own message. Maria comes with her own envelope and cellophane bag. Height: 178mm Width: 129mm Inside: Blank Envelope: White Made In England
The Common Gull (European and Asian subspecies; see below) or Mew Gull (North American subspecies) Larus canus is a medium-sized gull which breeds in northern Asia, northern Europe and northwestern North America. It migrates further south in winter.[2] Its name does not indicate that it is an abundant species, but that during the winter it feeds on common land, short pasture used for grazing.[3]. Adults are 40-46 cm long, obviously smaller than the Herring Gull, and slightly smaller than the Ring-billed Gull, also differing from this in its shorter, more tapered bill with a more greenish shade of yellow, as well as being unmarked during the breeding season. The body is grey above and white below. The legs are greenish-yellow. In winter, the head is streaked grey, and the bill often has a poorly-defined blackish band near the tip (sometimes sufficiently obvious to cause confusion with Ring-billed Gull). They have black wingtips with large white mirrors. Young birds have scaly black-brown ...
En välvandrad stig. A Well trodden path. Korp Raven Utsikt över älvdalen. Looking out over the river valley. Japp, det är stigen. Yeah, th ...
Pterocystis heliozoan. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Pterocystis a freshwater protozoan. This single-celled organism has many projections, known as axopods, radiating from its cell body. The axopods are used to capture prey and for movement. In this species the axopods are funnel shaped. Magnification: x 3000 when printed at 10cm wide. Specimen collected from Vietnam courtesy of Mike Allen, Plymouth Marine Laboratory. - Stock Image C036/0565
My cervix is an asshole. I mean, not technically. Its not, like, a cloaca or anything, even though its acting kind of shitty. Its still a cervix. But its kind of being a dick. Again, not technically. Its still a lady-part. What I mean is that, for the last 6 or 7 years, its taken…
My cervix is an asshole. I mean, not technically. Its not, like, a cloaca or anything, even though its acting kind of shitty. Its still a cervix. But its kind of being a dick. Again, not technically. Its still a lady-part. What I mean is that, for the last 6 or 7 years, its taken…
Synonyms for genus Coturnix in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for genus Coturnix. 1 synonym for genus Coturnix: Coturnix. What are synonyms for genus Coturnix?
Fig. 1: Lactate clearance throughout ex vivo perfusion. Recordsdata availabilityRecordsdata from this undercover agent will seemingly be made on hand upon cheap
Sara B. Fournier is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Ex Vivo Perfusion of the Rodent Placenta
Enter the name or part of a name you wish to search for. The asterisk character * can be used as wildcard, but must not be used as first character ...
Other articles where Gonoduct is discussed: animal reproductive system: Tracts: …a pair of tubes (gonoducts) extending from anterior, funnel-like openings (ostia) to the cloaca, except as noted below. The gonoducts are specialized along their length for secretion of substances added to the eggs; for transport, storage, nutrition, and expulsion of eggs or the products of conception; and, in species…
Usabilidade: conceitos, práticas e futuro Ana Isabel Veloso . [email protected] Seminário . PD . MCMM . 5 Dezembro 2008
Division of cloaca[edit]. Tail end of human embryo thirty-two to thirty-three days old. The entodermal cloaca is visible at ... separating the cloaca from the exterior. After the separation of the rectum from the dorsal part of the cloaca, the ventral ... Cloaca. * cp. Elevation which becomes clitoris or penis. * i. Lower part of the intestine. * ls. Fold of integument from which ... This continues to grow caudally until it opens into the ventral part of the cloaca; beyond the pronephros it is termed the ...
... separating the cloaca from the exterior. After the separation of the rectum from the dorsal part of the cloaca, the ventral ... Cloaca. cp. Elevation which becomes clitoris or penis. i. Lower part of the intestine. ls. Fold of integument from which the ... In the male, by the greater growth of the pelvic portion of the cloaca, a longer urethra is formed, and the primitive opening ... This continues to grow caudally until it opens into the ventral part of the cloaca; beyond the pronephros it is termed the ...
Cloaca. cp. Elevation which becomes clitoris or penis. i. Lower part of the intestine. ls. Fold of integument from which the ... This continues to grow caudally until it opens into the ventral part of the cloaca; beyond the pronephros it is termed the ... At a later stage the eminence opens in the middle, connecting the Müllerian ducts with the cloaca. In the male the Müllerian ... The urinary bladder is formed partly from the endodermal cloaca and partly from the ends of the Wolffian ducts. In other words ...
Cloaca Maxima. Ed. Hans Ulrich Obrist. Ostfildern: Cantz Verlag, 1994. 1993 Gerhard Richter, Gerhard Richter, Text: Schriften ... Hans Ulrich Obrist, Cloaca Maxima. Museum der Stadtentwässerung, Zürich, June 10 - October 30, 1994. 1993 Hans Ulrich Obrist, ...
The cloaca is lacking. Dal Sasso & Maganuco suggested the cloaca exit was rather low, at the level of the ischial feet and that ...
"Gouden Film voor Cloaca". goudenfilm.nl (in Dutch). Netherlands Film Festival / Netherlands Film Fund. 2004-01-09. Archived ...
Enterobacter cloacae: ,16 μg/ml. *Escherichia coli: 1 μg/ml. *Proteus vulgaris: 0.25 μg/ml ...
Cloaca (2003; film for television) Embracing Time (2004; film for television) Lepel (2005) Leef! (2005) Ik Omhels Je Met 1000 ...
Birds, monotremes, and some reptiles have a part of the oviduct that leads to the cloaca. Chickens have a vaginal aperture that ... ISBN 978-0-521-11389-2. "What Is a Bird's Cloaca?". The Spruce. Retrieved January 13, 2018. Brennan, P. L. R., Clark, C. J. & ... In amphibians, birds, reptiles and monotremes, the cloaca is the single external opening for the gastrointestinal tract, the ... Birds have a cloaca into which the urinary, reproductive tract (vagina) and gastrointestinal tract empty. Females of some ...
Jus cloacae. In civil law, the right of sewerage or drainage. An easement consisting in the right to have a sewer, or to ...
A journey through the American cloaca. Bourke, J.G. (2005). Escatología y civilización: los excrementos y su presencia en las ...
A journey through the American cloaca". Harper's Magazine. Festus, De verborum significatu, 432L Varro Lingua Latina V 52. ...
... the cloaca) for their urinary, defecatory, and reproductive systems. Like reptiles, monotremes have a single cloaca. Marsupials ... The name monotreme derives from the Greek words μονός (monós 'single') and τρῆμα (trêma 'hole'), referring to the cloaca. Like ... only semen passes through the penis while urine is excreted through the male's cloaca. The monotreme penis is similar to that ...
cloaca A multi-purpose opening terminating at the vent at the posterior of a bird: birds expel waste from it; most birds mate ... Vent pecking frequently occurs immediately after an egg has been laid when the cloaca often remains partly everted exposing the ... vent The external opening of the cloaca. vent pecking An abnormal behaviour of birds in captivity, performed primarily by ... a compartment inside the cloaca), which then make their way into the oviduct. clutch All of the eggs produced by birds often at ...
Other nonditrysian moths have a common cloaca. The moths are homoneurous with similar forewings and hindwings, and are ...
In some reptiles, a midventral wall in the cloaca may open into a urinary bladder, but not all. It is present in all turtles ... The only mammals in which this does not take place are the platypus and the spiny anteater both of which retain the cloaca into ... Although all birds have kidneys, the ureters open directly into a cloaca which serves as a reservoir for urine, fecal matter, ... This structure begins as an embryonic cloaca. In the vast majority, this eventually becomes differentiated into a dorsal part ...
Enterobacter cloacae • Escherichia coli • Haemophilus influenzae • Helicobacter Pylori • Klebsiella oxytoca • Klebsiella ...
The male has a slit-shaped vent (cloaca) near the tip of its tail; the female has an asterisk-shaped vent (cloaca). Russian ...
Cloacae, cloacal glands and female sperm storage in giant salamanders. pp 1-40 In: O. P. Jenkins (ed), Advances in Zoology ... Female reproductive anatomy: cloaca, oviduct, and sperm storage. pp. 144-195. In: Rheubert, J. L., Siegel, D. S. and Trauth, S ... Male reproductive anatomy: The gonads, gonadoducts, sexual segment of the kidney, and cloaca. pp. 253-301. In: Rheubert, J. L ... Comparative anatomy and phylogeny of the cloacae of salamanders (Amphibia: Caudata). VI. Ambystomatidae and Dicamptodontidae. J ...
2000 Wim Delvoye: Cloaca, mechanism that makes feces. 2001 Him by Maurizio Cattelan, depicting Adolf Hitler kneeling in prayer ...
... to the Cloaca Maxima, which emptied into the Tiber River. The Cloaca Maxima was built in the fourth century BC, and was largely ... The sewage system as a whole did not really take off until the arrival of the Cloaca Maxima, an open channel that was later ... The sewer system, like a little stream or river, ran beneath it, carrying the waste away to the Cloaca Maxima. The Romans ... Aqueduct (Roman) Cloaca Maxima Frontinus Roman architecture Roman engineering Roman technology History of water supply and ...
Unlike nematomorphs, mermithids do not have a terminal cloaca. Male mermithids have one or two spicules just before the end ... Adults have cylindrical gonads, opening into the cloaca. The larvae have rings of cuticular hooks and terminal stylets that are ...
Doctor Cloaca - An entry in the Refusenik Dossier. SS Ilsa - An entry in the Refusenik Dossier. Captain Priapus - An entry in ...
The cloaca of males swells during breeding season. The skin is smooth during the breeding season and granular outside it, and ... and blocks the female's path so she picks it up with her cloaca. Several rounds of spermatophore deposition may follow. Males ...
Public latrines were built over the Cloaca Maxima. Beginning in the Roman era a water wheel device known as a noria supplied ... It is still in working condition, after about 3000 years.[citation needed] In ancient Rome, the Cloaca Maxima, considered a ...
Males try to ensure their paternity by pecking at the cloaca of the female to stimulate ejection of rival males' sperm. ... The Life of Birds BBC ISBN 0563-38792-0 Davies, N. B. (1983). "Polyandry, cloaca-pecking and sperm competition in dunnocks". ...
The male has winglike folds surrounding its cloaca. Its sex organs include a pair of flanged spicules and a protruding ...
Both the male and female have a cloaca. They have tabulars in the occipital which is not found in other mammals. Their ...
In females, these gonads are then connected by oviducts to an opening to the outside of the body, typically the cloaca, but ... In this process, females use their cloaca to release large quantities of their gametes, called spawn into the water and one or ... Intercourse is performed by pressing the lips of the cloacae together, which is sometimes known as intromittent organ which is ... All have paired, internal gonads, connected by ducts to the cloaca. Fish exhibit a wide range of different reproductive ...
Two thread-like projections spicules originate from the cloaca. The female is considerable larger, about 4-5 cm long and 0.23 ... The tail end contains cloaca and precloacal sucker on the ventral side, which are surrounded by sensory structures called ...
cloaca (plural cloacas or cloacae) *(sometimes figuratively) A sewer. *1773, Gentlemans Magazine, No. 43, p. 598: The Thames, ... Italian: cloaca (it) f, fogna (it) f. *Japanese: 総排出腔 (そうはいしゅつこう, sōhaishutsukō, そうはいしゅつくう, sōhaishutsukū), 排出腔 (はいしゅつこう, ... anatomy) cloaca (excretory and genital duct in bird, reptiles and fish). Spanish[edit]. Etymology[edit]. Borrowed from Latin ... Across this shell [sc. of bone] small holes are eaten, by which the matter escapes,
One study has looked into birds that use their cloaca for cooling. The cloaca in birds may also be referred to as the vent. ... In animal anatomy, a cloaca /kloʊˈeɪkə/ kloh-AY-kə (plural cloacae /kloʊˈeɪsi/ kloh-AY-see or /kloʊˈeɪki/ kloh-AY-kee) is the ... With a few exceptions noted below, mammals have no cloaca. Even in those that have one, the cloaca is partially subdivided into ... The word is from the Latin verb cluo, "to cleanse", thus the noun cloaca, "sewer, drain". Birds reproduce using their cloaca; ...
Cloaca is a 2003 Dutch film, directed by Willem van de Sande Bakhuyzen. It is a film adaptation of the 2002 theatre play Cloaca ...
Make research projects and school reports about cloaca easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... cloaca (klōā´kə), in biology, enlarged posterior end of the digestive tract of some animals. The cloaca, from the Latin word ... cloaca sewer XVIII; (anat.) excretory canal XIX. - L. cloāca, cluāca, earlier clovāca, rel. to cluere cleanse, f. IE. *klu- * ... Specifically, the cloaca is present in birds, reptiles, amphibians, most fish, and monotremes. ∎ archaic a sewer. DERIVATIVES: ...
"Bacillus cloacae" Jordan 1890. ›"Bacterium cloacae" (Jordan 1890) Lehmann and Neumann 1896. ›"Cloaca cloacae" (Jordan 1890) ... Aerobacter cloacae. ›BCCM/LMG:2783. ›Bacillus cloacae. ›Bacterium cloacae. ›CCUG 28448. ›CCUG 29301. ›CCUG 6323. ›CCUG:28448. › ... Cloaca cloacae. ›DSM 30054. ›DSM:30054. ›Enterobacter cloacae (Jordan 1890) Hormaeche and Edwards 1960. ›Enterobacter cloaceae ... "Aerobacter cloacae" (Jordan 1890) Bergey et al. 1923. ›"Aerobacter cloacae" (Jordan 1890) Hormaeche and Edwards 1958. ›" ...
Definition of Enterobacter cloacae. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... Enterobacter cloacae. Definition: a bacterial species found in the feces of humans and other animals and in sewage, soil, and ...
The prognosis of E cloacae complex infections depends on numerous variables, including the infection site (eg, bloodstream, ... Enterobacter cloacae sepsis outbreak in a newborn unit caused by contaminated total parenteral nutrition solution. Am J Infect ... Heller I, Grif K, Orth D. Emergence of VIM-1-carbapenemase-producing Enterobacter cloacae in Tyrol, Austria. J Med Microbiol. ... Outbreak of infection caused by Enterobacter cloacae producing the novel VEB-3 beta-lactamase in China. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 ...
dissolvens ATCC ® 23373D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Enterobacter cloacae subsp. dissolvens strain ICPB ED105 TypeStrain= ... Enterobacter cloacae subsp. dissolvens (ATCC® 23373D-5™) Strain Designations: Genomic DNA from Enterobacter cloacae subsp. ... Enterobacter cloacae subsp. dissolvens ATCC® 23373D-5™ dried Total DNA: At least 5 µg in 1X TE buffer ... Genomic DNA from Enterobacter cloacae subsp. dissolvens strain ICPB ED105 [ATCC® 23373™] ...
cloacae ATCC ® 13047™ Designation: CDC 442-68 TypeStrain=True Application: Quality control strain Quality control strain for ... Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae (Jordan) Hormaeche and Edwards, subsp. nov. (ATCC® 13047D-5™) Add to ... Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae (Jordan) Hormaeche and Edwards, subsp. nov. (ATCC® 13047™) Strain Designations: CDC 442-68 ... Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae (Jordan) Hormaeche and Edwards, subsp. nov. ATCC® 13047™ freeze-dried ...
DNA replication - Enterobacter cloacae EcWSU1 [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show description ...
Chromosomal ampC genes in Enterobacter species other than Enterobacter cloacae, and ancestral association of the ACT-1 plasmid- ...
Miscellaneous: Anti-infection, Antibiotic resistance, Antibiotics, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterococcus faecium, Escherichia coli ...
... cloacae? Find a list of current medications, their possible side effects, dosage, and efficacy when used to treat or reduce the ... symptoms of infection+of+urinary+tract+due+to+enterobacter+cloacae ... Considering taking medication to treat infection+of+urinary+tract+due+to+enterobacter+cloacae? Below is a list of common ... 120 medications found for infection+of+urinary+tract+due+to+enterobacter+cloacae ...
Crystal structure of thiamindiphosphate-dependent indolepyruvate decarboxylase from Enterobacter cloacae, an enzyme involved in ... Crystal structure of Indolepyruvate decarboxylase from Enterobacter cloacae. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1ovm/pdb ...
Species: cloacae Description and significance. Enterobacter cloacae is a rod-shaped, gram-negative bacteria from the ... Enterobacter cloacae can be found on human skin and tissues as well as fruits, vegetables, and devices such as a hot water ... Enterobacter cloacae are gram-negative bacteria which means they contain two cell walls. On the outer membrane, the lipid-A ... The strains revealed that E. cloacae can be used as a biological control agent for Pythium ultimum. The study shows that ...
We examined 55 Enterobacter cloacae isolates from clinical specimens for the production of cytotonic and cytotoxic toxins and ... Cytotoxic activity of Enterobacter cloacae human isolates FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2009 Aug;56(3):248-52. doi: 10.1111/j. ... We examined 55 Enterobacter cloacae isolates from clinical specimens for the production of cytotonic and cytotoxic toxins and ...
His cloaca is very bright red and swollen as well as the surrounding area. It also looks like a bunch of feathers are broken ...
The cloaca, from the Latin word for sewer, is a single chamber into which pass... Explanation of cloaca ... Find out information about cloaca. in biology, enlarged posterior end of the digestive tract of some animals. ... cloaca. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia. cloaca. (klōā`kə), in biology, enlarged posterior end of the ... Cloaca. the broadened extremity of the hindgut of some vertebrate animals. The wall of the cloaca is covered with a many- ...
Enterobacter cloacae complex sp. ECNIH11Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ... tr,A0A2S4SS17,A0A2S4SS17_9ENTR 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase OS=Enterobacter cloacae complex sp. ECNIH11 OX=2080662 GN=fadI PE=3 SV=1 ...
Molecular characterization of an Enterobacter cloacae outer membrane protein (OmpX).. J Stoorvogel, M J van Bussel, J Tommassen ... Molecular characterization of an Enterobacter cloacae outer membrane protein (OmpX).. J Stoorvogel, M J van Bussel, J Tommassen ... Molecular characterization of an Enterobacter cloacae outer membrane protein (OmpX).. J Stoorvogel, M J van Bussel, J Tommassen ... Molecular characterization of an Enterobacter cloacae outer membrane protein (OmpX). Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded ...
French, C. E., Nicklin S. and Bruce N. C. (1998). Aerobic degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by Enterobacter cloacae PB2 and ... 1999) The Degradation of Nitrate Ester Explosives and TNT by Enterobacter Cloacae PB2. In: Fass R., Flashner Y., Reuveny S. ( ... In this paper we describe the isolation and characterisation of a strain of Enterobacter cloacae from explosives contaminated ... The Degradation of Nitrate Ester Explosives and TNT by Enterobacter Cloacae PB2. ...
Structure of Nitroreductase from E. cloacae complex with inhibitor benzoate. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1kqb/pdb ...
Established 1994. Marc Foxx and Rodney Nonaka-Hill want to express their deep gratitude to all the artists, institutions, curators, writers, publications, colleagues and collectors who have supported the gallery over the years and send best wishes and regards.
Yay for Art!: Cloaca No 5 Machine Literally Produces Pieces of Crap. February 4th, 2009 by Lambert Varias ... A team of technicians is needed to set up Cloaca, after which Designboom says, it is then fed twice a day with cafeteria ... I dont know how long it takes for Cloaca to digest its "food", but I do know, thanks to numerous, high-quality images, that ... Why? Why not? As you can also see, the Cloacas logo looks really familiar. I guess its in keeping with the inspiration behind ...
Here, we report the completion of the genome sequence of E. cloacae ATCC 13047, the type strain of E. cloacae subsp. cloacae. ... Complete Genome Sequence of Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae Type Strain ATCC 13047 Yan Ren, Yi Ren, Zhemin Zhou, Xi Guo, ... cloacae (8).. Whole-genome sequencing of E. cloacae ATCC 13047 was performed with a combined strategy using a Sanger shotgun ... Reassignment of Enterobacter dissolvens to Enterobacter cloacae as E. cloacae subspecies dissolvens comb. nov. and emended ...
For more information about cloaca, refer to the references below.. Dr Fabrice Cuillier contributed to the US images, and of ... Gupta A, Bischoff A, Peña A, Runck LA, Guasch G. The great divide: septation and malformation of the cloaca, and its ... Bischoff A, Calvo-Garcia MA, Baregamian N, Levitt MA, Lim FY, Hall J, Peña A. Prenatal counseling for cloaca and cloacal ... malformation and bilateral ureter and kidney pelvis dilation in a female fetus was very suggestive of a persistent cloaca. ...
Gabriela and Adrian found out their baby, Allison, had cloaca when they were 26 weeks pregnant. Theyre looking to Tashis ... had cloaca, a type of anorectal malformation. Now, Tashis had reconstructive surgery and is a vibrant 4-year-old. ... Living with cloaca. With the right treatment and support, children born with an anorectal malformation can lead healthy, ... Children born with cloaca will need several surgeries to treat the condition and reconstruct their anatomy. Our experienced ...
The results obtained with the E. cloacae enzyme confirmed its cephalosporinase activity and showed that, unlike the enzyme from ... Comparison of the substrate specificities of the -lactamases from Klebsiella aerogenes 1082E and Enterobacter cloacae P99.. ... Aerobacter cloacae) P99. The K. aerogenes enzyme, although predominantly a penicillinase, had a wide range of specificity. In ... and its activity against a range of substrates has been compared with that of the enzyme from Enterobacter cloacae ( ...
We showed that this gene, previously identified in P. aeruginosa, was located in a different genetic background in E. cloacae. ... cloacae of the bla(GIM-1) gene, which is responsible for reduced susceptibility to carbapenems. ... Detection of the carbapenemase GIM-1 in Enterobacter cloacae in Germany J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013 Mar;68(3):558-61. doi: ... Conclusions: This is the first identification in E. cloacae of the bla(GIM-1) gene, which is responsible for reduced ...
E. cloacae.A total of 114 E. cloacae isolates underwent polymyxin B susceptibility testing; 10 were known to carry blaKPC. All ... cloacae (8, 15). Heteroresistant E. cloacae was more readily identified by the Etest method using Isosensitest agar (compared ... For E. cloacae in particular, MIC determinations by dilution methods lack precision and often lead to uninterpretable results. ... Irreproducible and Uninterpretable Polymyxin B MICs for Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter aerogenes David Landman, Julius ...
  • On the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names, and on the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names (Amended Edition), this nomenclatural name is incorrectly cited as Enterobacter cloacae (Jordon [sic] 1890) Hormaeche and Edwards 1960. (dsmz.de)
  • Aerobacter cloacae in 1958 (Hormaeche and Edwards) and E. cloacae in 1960 (Hormaeche and Edwards), by which it is still known today. (ebooklibrary.org)
  • However, a few human congenital disorders result in persons being born with a cloaca, including persistent cloaca and sirenomelia (mermaid syndrome). (wikipedia.org)
  • The combination of a hydrometrocolpos, an anorectal malformation and bilateral ureter and kidney pelvis dilation in a female fetus was very suggestive of a persistent cloaca . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Persistent cloaca is a severe form of malformation of the anorectum. (ajol.info)
  • Persistent cloaca is a rare congenital defect that only occurs in females. (verywellhealth.com)
  • In some cases, persistent cloaca can be diagnosed before a baby is born (prenatally). (verywellhealth.com)
  • Even if signs suggesting persistent cloaca are present, it can be difficult to make a definitive diagnosis in utero. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Persistent cloaca is most often diagnosed at birth when it becomes apparent that rather than having three distinct, normally developed urogenital openings, the vagina, rectum, and urinary system of the newborn all convene at a single opening. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Infants with persistent cloaca are often found to have other conditions as well, including an imperforate anus or underdeveloped/absent genitalia. (verywellhealth.com)
  • While it is one of the most severe anorectal malformations, the cause of persistent cloaca is not known . (verywellhealth.com)
  • Like other birth defects, persistent cloaca is likely due to many different factors. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Diagnosis of persistent cloaca may be made prenatally if the condition is severe and causes signs that can be identified on a prenatal ultrasound, such as fluid collection in the vagina. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Persistent cloaca is rare, occurring in one in every 20,000 to 50,000 live births. (verywellhealth.com)
  • In order to mitigate risk and maximize the potential for normal urogenital and bowel function in the long term, babies with persistent cloaca need the expertise of specialized pediatric surgeons. (verywellhealth.com)
  • The needs of infants with persistent cloaca must be evaluated promptly after birth and on a case-by-case basis. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Clean intermittent catheterization as an initial management strategy provides for adequate preservation of renal function in newborns with persistent cloaca. (ucdenver.edu)
  • The persistent difference in dorsoventral growth straightened the embryonic caudal body axis and concomitantly extended the frontally oriented 'urorectal (Tourneux's) septum' caudally between the ventral urogenital and dorsal anorectal parts of the cloaca. (edu.au)
  • This historic 1938 paper by Burns and Ogryzlo describes two clinical cases of congenital abnormalities including hernia into the placental cord , and a persistent cloaca . (edu.au)
  • Persistent cloaca: are we ready for a correct prenatal diagnosis? (elsevier.com)
  • We present 3 cases of prenatal diagnosis of this malformation, emphasizing that in the presence of a plurilobed cystic pelvic fetal mass with associated malformations, such as cardiac, renal, and vertebral anomalies, a persistent cloaca can reasonably be suspected. (elsevier.com)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Persistent cloaca: are we ready for a correct prenatal diagnosis? (elsevier.com)
  • Enterobacter cloacae subsp. (atcc.org)
  • Genomic DNA from Enterobacter cloacae subsp. (atcc.org)
  • Complete Genome Sequence of Enterobacter cloacae subsp. (asm.org)
  • Here, we report the completion of the genome sequence of E. cloacae ATCC 13047, the type strain of E. cloacae subsp. (asm.org)
  • E. cloacae ATCC 13047 was isolated from human cerebrospinal fluid by Edwin Oakes Jordan in 1890 and is the type strain of E. cloacae subsp. (asm.org)
  • However, detailed genome sequence analysis of the strain E. cloacae subsp. (asm.org)
  • A draft genome sequence of Enterobacter cloacae subsp. (omicsgroup.org)
  • The genomes of several strains of Enterobacter cloacae have been partially sequenced with the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. (kenyon.edu)
  • Of 29 infections (11 involving the urinary tract, 7 pneumonias, 3 skin/soft tissue infections, 3 intra-abdominal infections, 3 bacteremias, and 2 other infections), 7 (24%) were caused by Enterobacter cloacae strains harboring a bla VIM-1 gene associated or not with a bla SHV12 gene. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Fatty acid transport and degradation mutants of E. cloacae (strains EcL1 and Ec31, respectively) did not reduce sporangial activation in either of the spermospheres. (asm.org)
  • Although wild-type or mutant strains of E. cloacae failed to reduce seed colonization incidence, pathogen biomass on cucumber seeds was reduced in the presence of E. cloacae strains EcCT-501R3 and Ec31 by 4 and 8 h after sowing, respectively. (asm.org)
  • Accordingly, the expression level of the AcrAB promoter was higher in E. cloacae Jc194 strains overproducing SoxS, RobA, and RamA. (asm.org)
  • Molecular biological studies of E. cloacae have revealed six species, and some strains that have been phenotypically identified as E. cloacae are opportunistic pathogens that have been implicated as the causative agent of local and systemic infections in humans [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although E. cloacae complex strains are among the most common Enterobacter species causing nosocomial bloodstream infections in the last decade, little is known regarding their virulence-associated properties. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In our previous study, we obtained 98 strains of E. cloacae from the Ningbo sewage outfall using rpo B genotyping, multi-locus sequence analysis and comparative genomic hybridization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Occurrence of Virulence-Associated Properties in Enterobacter cloacae - "in patients receiving antibiotic therapy, E. cloacae strains may be selected and may excessively grow in the gastrointestinal tract. (cfsremission.com)
  • Whole-genome sequencing of E. cloacae ATCC 13047 was performed with a combined strategy using a Sanger shotgun approach ( 5 ) and 454 single-end sequencing technology ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • The complete E. cloacae ATCC 13047 genome contains a single circular chromosome of 5,314,588 bp and two circular plasmids, pECL_A and pECL_B, of 200,370 and 85,650 bp. (asm.org)
  • The genome of E. cloacae ATCC 13047 possesses virulence properties recognized to be important in the onset of infection. (asm.org)
  • cloacae ATCC 13047 revealed to us that 10 other genes putatively coded for RND-type transporters. (asm.org)
  • The cloaca, from the Latin word for sewer, is a single chamber into which pass solid and liquid waste materials as well as the products of the reproductive organs, the gametes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • 1650s, euphemism for "underground sewer," from Latin cloaca "public sewer, drain," from cluere "to cleanse," from PIE root *kleue- "to wash, clean" (cf. (dictionary.com)
  • Sexual products (sperm and eggs), metabolic wastes (uric acid) and digestive wastes (feces) must all pass through the cloaca (which literally means "common sewer"), a storage chamber opening to the outside at the vent. (featheredphotography.com)
  • Comparison of the substrate specificities of the -lactamases from Klebsiella aerogenes 1082E and Enterobacter cloacae P99. (nih.gov)
  • In this work, we examined the potential of the endophytes of banana plants Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae , as antagonists of P. fijiensis and support plant growth in nutrient limited soils by N-transfer. (frontiersin.org)
  • Conclusions: Together with the information available in the MLST database, our results suggest that, like Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, E. cloacae harbours clonal lineages of increased epidemic potential that may be associated with resistance spread. (uu.nl)
  • What is the prognosis of Enterobacter cloacae complex infections? (medscape.com)
  • The prognosis of E cloacae complex infections depends on numerous variables, including the infection site (eg, bloodstream, meninges, lungs), time to diagnosis and treatment, antimicrobial resistance, and underlying host vulnerabilities. (medscape.com)
  • Enterobacter cloacae infections have the highest mortality rate compared to other Enterobacter infections. (kenyon.edu)
  • Enterobacter cloacae are nosocomial pathogens that can cause a range of infections such as bacteremia, lower respiratory tract infection, skin and soft tissue infections, urinary tract infections, endocarditis, intra-abdominal infections, septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, and ophthalmic infections (4). (kenyon.edu)
  • Abstract Objective: To determine the cause and mode of transmission of a cluster of infections due to Enterobacter cloacae. (rero.ch)
  • Multiclonal VIM-1-producing E. cloacae infections are difficult to diagnose due to an apparent susceptibility to various beta-lactams, including carbapenems, and are associated with a high relapse rate and a more prolonged duration of antibiotic therapy. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This indicates a direct link between the level of seed-colonizing biomass of P. ultimum and the number of activated and germinated sporangia in the spermosphere, suggesting that E. cloacae suppresses P. ultimum seed infections by reducing sporangial activation and germination within the first 30 to 90 min after sowing. (asm.org)
  • Enterobacter cloacae is a common seed-associated bacterium that suppresses seed infections, protecting a number of plant species from P. ultimum -induced damping-off ( 3 , 4 , 8 , 12 ). (asm.org)
  • Enterobacter cloacae is an important nosocomial pathogen responsible for various infections, including sepsis, infections of the respiratory tract and urinary tract, wound infections, and meningitis. (asm.org)
  • Paediatric infections caused by multidrug-resistant ESBL-producing Enterobacter cloacae constitute a critical clinical and epidemiological issue. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Outbreak of infections caused by Enterobacter cloacae producing the integron-associated β-lactamase IBC-1 in a neonatal intensive care unit of a Greek hospital. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • 6] E. cloacae is also an important nosocomial pathogen responsible for bacteremia and lower respiratory tract, urinary tract and intra-abdominal infections, as well as endocarditis, septic arthritis, osteomyelitis and skin and soft tissue infections. (ebooklibrary.org)
  • E. cloacae and E. aerogenes are important nosocomial pathogens responsible for a number of infections such as bacteremia, lower respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and septic arthritis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Among the most common risk factors for developing E. cloacae bloodstream infections are prolonged hospitalization, the severity of the illness, and exposure to invasive procedures [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An increased incidence of healthcare-associated infections or carriage with E. cloacae can, therefore, result from endogenous selection, but also from clonal transmission, either or not facilitated by selective antibiotic pressure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • E. cloacae infection is associated with the highest mortality rate of all Enterobacter infections. (mesitran.com)
  • Leverstein-van Hall MA , Blok HE , Paauw A , Fluit AC , Troelstra A , Mascini EM , Extensive hospital-wide spread of a multidrug-resistant Enterobacter cloacae clone, with late detection due to a variable antibiogram and frequent patient transfer. (cdc.gov)
  • In the present study, two clinical isolates of E. cloacae , EcDC64 (a multidrug-resistant strain overexpressing the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump) and Jc194 (a strain with a basal AcrAB-TolC expression level), were used to determine whether similar global stress responses operate in E. cloacae and also to establish the molecular mechanisms underlying this response. (asm.org)
  • Isolates recovered were all, but 4, multidrug resistant, particularly to fluoroquinolones (FQ) except for 21 E. cloacae isolates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • E. cloacae was described for the first time in 1890 by Jordan[201] as Bacillus cloacae , and then underwent numerous taxonomical changes, becoming 'Bacterium cloacae' in 1896 (Lehmann and Neumann), Cloaca cloacae in 1919 (Castellani and Chalmers), it was identified as 'Aerobacter cloacae' in 1923 (Bergey et al. (omicsgroup.org)
  • Three methods, O-serotyping, phage typing and susceptibility to bacteriocins, were used to type 357 clinical isolates of Enterobacter cloacae cultured from 219 patients. (semanticscholar.org)
  • E. cloacae is considered a biosafety level 1 organism in the United States and level 2 in Canada. (omicsgroup.org)
  • Birds that mate using this method touch their cloacae together, in some species for only a few seconds, sufficient time for sperm to be transferred from the male to the female. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some species have modified cloacae for increased gas exchange (see Reptile respiration and Reptile reproduction). (wikipedia.org)
  • The term cloaca is also used for analogous chambers in many invertebrates, such as worms of the phylum Nematoda Nematoda , phylum consisting of about 12,000 known species, and many more predicted species, of worms (commonly known as roundworms or threadworms). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first complete genome sequence of the E. cloacae species. (asm.org)
  • Enterobacter cloacae , the type species of Enterobacter , is a prevalent nosocomial pathogen due to high-level resistance to disinfectants and antimicrobial agents ( 9 ). (asm.org)
  • Enterobacter cloacae is an important nosocomial pathogen. (asm.org)
  • Production of protease enzyme from fish guts using Pseudomonas fluorescens, Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillus megaterium. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Three proteolytic organisms (Pseudomonas fluorescens, Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillus megaterium) were used in the production of protease and the most effective production was observed at a temperature of 45°C and pH 9. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Aerobacter cloacae" (Jordan 1890) Bergey et al. (uniprot.org)
  • Aerobacter cloacae (Jordon) Bergey et al. (atcc.org)
  • The enzyme has been partly purified, and its activity against a range of substrates has been compared with that of the enzyme from Enterobacter cloacae (Aerobacter cloacae) P99. (nih.gov)
  • In microbiology labs, E. cloacae is frequently grown at 30°C on nutrient agar or broth or at 35°C in tryptic soy broth . (omicsgroup.org)
  • In a recent Italian nationwide survey of acquired MBLs in gram-negative pathogens, among 14,812 consecutive nonreplicate clinical isolates (12,245 Enterobacteriaceae isolates and 2,567 gram-negative nonfermenters) screened for reduced carbapenem susceptibility during a 4-month period, 30 (0.2%) isolates (28 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, 1 Pseudomonas putida isolate, and 1 Enterobacter cloacae isolate) carried acquired MBL determinants ( 20 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Delvoye has dubbed his work "Cloaca", after the excretory orifice of birds, reptiles and amphibians. (technabob.com)
  • In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Note that the cloaca in mammals is an early embryonic transient structure and only persists in birds and reptiles. (edu.au)
  • The wall of the cloaca is covered with a many-layered epithelium. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In amphibians the urinary bladder is formed from an evagination of the abdominal wall of the cloaca. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Instead of an external organ resembling a penis, the rooster has a small bump, or papilla, located on the back wall of the cloaca under the tail feathers. (ehow.co.uk)
  • In animal anatomy, a cloaca /kloʊˈeɪkə/ kloh-AY-kə (plural cloacae /kloʊˈeɪsi/ kloh-AY-see or /kloʊˈeɪki/ kloh-AY-kee) is the posterior orifice that serves as the only opening for the digestive, reproductive, and urinary tracts (if present) of many vertebrate animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • In lampreys and in some ray-finned fishes, part of the cloaca remains in the adult to receive the urinary and reproductive ducts, although the anus always opens separately. (wikipedia.org)
  • Being placental animals, humans only have an embryonic cloaca, which is split up into separate tracts during the development of the urinary and reproductive organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Considering taking medication to treat infection+of+urinary+tract+due+to+enterobacter+cloacae? (webmd.com)
  • Below is a list of common medications used to treat or reduce the symptoms of infection+of+urinary+tract+due+to+enterobacter+cloacae. (webmd.com)
  • The ureter, the genital ducts (sperm ducts or oviducts), and the urinary bladder open into the cloaca. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Enterobacte r cloacae is an anaerobic gram-negative nosocomial bacterium that can be acquired through the skin, gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract or derived externally due to the ubiquitous nature. (viracor-eurofins.com)
  • A bird also has a cloaca which is an opening for the urinary tract, genital, and intestinal canals to empty. (blogspot.com)
  • Common endogenous reservoirs of E. cloacae include the gastrointestinal tract of healthy adults and the urinary and respiratory tracts of sick patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Reassignment of Enterobacter dissolvens to Enterobacter cloacae as E. cloacae subspecies dissolvens comb. (atcc.org)
  • Enterobacter cloacae is a rod-shaped, gram-negative bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family. (kenyon.edu)
  • Enterobacter cloacae are gram-negative bacteria which means they contain two cell walls. (kenyon.edu)
  • Plants treated with bacteria showed good growth, but E. cloacae AC treated plants had significantly greater biomass than the E. cloacae HKC. (frontiersin.org)
  • After 60 days, plants inoculated with E. cloacae AC showed intracellular bacteria within root cells, suggesting that a stable symbiosis was established. (frontiersin.org)
  • In Gram-negative bacteria, the active efflux is an important mechanism of antimicrobial resistance, but little is known about the Enterobacter cloacae complex (ECC). (asm.org)
  • Recently, enteric commensal bacteria Enterobacter cloacae has been recognized as a helper in HuNoV infection of B cells in vitro. (vt.edu)
  • Enterobacter cloacae are commensal bacteria of the human gut that can inactivate third-generation cephalosporins through overproduction of chromosomally encoded AmpC beta-lactamases, especially during treatment with these antibiotics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When this bacteria (Enterobacter cloacae B29) was added to germ-free mice, "the expression of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, I kappa B kinase epsilon and Toll-like receptor 4 pro-inflammatory genes increased significantly" - in other words, CFS-like inflammation. (cfsremission.com)
  • Arbitrarily primed PCR, ribotyping, and plasmid pattern analysis applied to investigation of a nosocomial outbreak due to Enterobacter cloacae in a neonatal intensive care unit. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Enterobacter cloacae is a clinically significant Gram-negative , facultatively-anaerobic , rod-shaped bacterium . (omicsgroup.org)
  • After identification using API 20E and 16S sequencing, the bacterial isolate strain B2 is Citrobacter braakii and B3 is Enterobacter cloacae. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Small-colony variants (SCVs) were obtained from an Enterobacter cloacae clinical isolate in Okinawa, Japan. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Gupta A, Bischoff A, Peña A, Runck LA, Guasch G. The great divide: septation and malformation of the cloaca, and its implications for surgeons. (radiopaedia.org)
  • At 23 weeks of pregnancy, Sandy and Karsang found out their baby, Tashi, had cloaca, a type of anorectal malformation. (childrenscolorado.org)
  • Main Outcome Measures: Odds ratios (OR) linking E cloacae colonization or infection and various exposures. (rero.ch)
  • are an important cause of nosocomial infection, but only a few cases of infection due to MBL-producing E. cloacae have been reported in the English literature worldwide ( 10 , 16 , 23 , 29 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In both control and E. cloacae colonized pigs, HuNoV infection of enterocytes was confirmed, however infection of B cells was not observed in ileum, and the entire lamina propria in sections of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were HuNoV-negative. (vt.edu)
  • From April 2012 to March 2013, 29 ESBL-producing E. cloacae and 15 K. pneumoniae were isolated from blood culture ( n = 32) or gastric samples ( n = 12) performed at day 0 or 2 from 39/303 newborns suspected of early neonatal infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In recent years, E. cloacae has emerged as one of the most commonly found nosocomial pathogen in neonatal units, with several outbreaks of infection being reported. (ebooklibrary.org)
  • Learn how our families have managed their cloaca diagnosis and the journey that lies ahead. (childrenscolorado.org)
  • Mating through the cloaca is known as cloacal copulation, commonly referred to as cloacal kiss. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bischoff A, Calvo-Garcia MA, Baregamian N, Levitt MA, Lim FY, Hall J, Peña A. Prenatal counseling for cloaca and cloacal exstrophy-challenges faced by pediatric surgeons. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Manual replacement of prolapsed cloaca or colon is relatively easy for non-experienced staff in acute, uncomplicated cases, Cloacal organ prolapse . (vetstream.com)
  • Located at the inferior end of the cloaca is the cloacal membrane, that also forms part of the embryo surface. (edu.au)
  • Dysregulation of dorsal cloacal development is probably an important cause of anorectal malformations: too little regressive development may result in anorectal agenesis, and too much regression in stenosis or atresia of the remaining part of the dorsal cloaca. (edu.au)
  • With a few exceptions noted below, mammals have no cloaca. (wikipedia.org)
  • The monotremes (egg-laying mammals) possess a true cloaca. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is one of the features of marsupials (and monotremes) that suggest their basal nature, as the amniotes from which mammals evolved possessed a cloaca, and the earliest animals to diverge into the mammalian class would most likely have had this feature, too. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike other marsupials, marsupial moles have a true cloaca, a fact that has been used to argue against a marsupial identity for these mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most adult placental mammals have no remaining trace of the cloaca. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the tenrecs and golden moles, small placental mammals native to Africa, as well as some shrews retain a cloaca as adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cloaca is found in mammals of the subclass Prototheria. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Expression of the cloned E. cloacae 1194E ampR-ampC region was examined initially in Escherichia coli HBIOI. (elsevier.com)
  • Colonization of E. cloacae also reduced HuNoV titers in intestinal tissues and in blood. (vt.edu)
  • In summary, E. cloacae inhibited HuNoV infectivity, and B cells were not a target cell type for HuNoV in gnotobiotic pigs, with or without E. cloacae colonization. (vt.edu)
  • Unlike most anorectal malformations, cloaca, or suspected cloaca, is one of the few which may be identified prenatally. (globalcastmd.com)
  • Knock down of wnt3 in zebrafish showed cloaca malformations, including disorganization of the cloaca epithelium and expansion of the cloaca lumen. (cdc.gov)
  • AF052256 Enterobacter cloacae DNA gyrase A (gyrA) gene, partial cds. (atcc.org)
  • U65720 Enterobacter cloacae 16S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. (atcc.org)
  • U77435 Enterobacter cloacae RNA polymerase beta-subunit (rpoB) gene, partial cds. (atcc.org)
  • A chromosomal gene of Enterobacter cloacae encoding an outer membrane protein (OmpX) has been cloned. (asm.org)
  • This is the first identification in E. cloacae of the bla(GIM-1) gene, which is responsible for reduced susceptibility to carbapenems. (nih.gov)
  • We showed that this gene, previously identified in P. aeruginosa, was located in a different genetic background in E. cloacae. (nih.gov)
  • The ampR gene and its regulation of AmpC B-lactamase synthesis were investigated for Enterobacter cloacae 1194E, a wild-type strain producing a group A (pI 8.7) enzyme. (elsevier.com)
  • Results indicated a functional E. cloacae 1194EampR gene that could not be transcomplemented by E. cloacae 55. (elsevier.com)
  • All available E cloacae isolates were typed and characterized by contour-clamped homogenous electric-field electrophoresis to confirm possible cross-transmission. (rero.ch)
  • Mezzatesta ML, Gona F, Stefani S. Enterobacter cloacae complex: clinical impact and emerging antibiotic resistance. (medscape.com)
  • The sequences of three Enterobacter cloacae ampC beta-lactamase genes have been determined. (biochemj.org)
  • The results obtained with the E. cloacae enzyme confirmed its cephalosporinase activity and showed that, unlike the enzyme from K. aerogenes, it was relatively inactive against the penicillins. (nih.gov)
  • In this study involving clinical isolates of E. cloacae and E. aerogenes , susceptibility testing methods with polymyxin B were analyzed. (asm.org)
  • Partial sequences for the AcrR and complete sequence of the AcrA and AcrB genes of Enterobacter cloacae are available. (kenyon.edu)
  • A comparative analysis of ampR nucleotide and amino acid-sequence data from E. cloacae 1194E and E. cloacaeMHNI revealed related but divergent genes. (elsevier.com)
  • Nosocomial outbreak due to extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Enterobacter cloacae in a cardiothoracic intensive care unit. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In this paper we describe the isolation and characterisation of a strain of Enterobacter cloacae from explosives contaminated soil t that is capable of utilising nitrate ester explosives and TNT as sole nitrogen sources for growth. (springer.com)
  • This study aimed at isolation of a bacteriophage against MDR clinical strain of E. cloacae and its efficacy against bacterial planktonic cells and biofilm. (springer.com)
  • Seed application of the wild-type strain of E. cloacae (EcCT-501R3) reduced sporangial activation by 45% in the cucumber spermosphere, whereas no reduction was observed in the corn spermosphere. (asm.org)
  • For study of enzyme expression in a more closely related host, the cloned E. cloacae 1194EampR-ampC region was transformed into E. cloacae 55, a wild-type strain producing a group B (pI 7.8) enzyme. (elsevier.com)
  • A 2012 study in which Enterobacter cloacae transplanted into previously germ-free mice resulted in increased obesity when compared with germ-free mice fed an identical diet, suggesting a link between obesity and the presence of Enterobacter gut flora. (omicsgroup.org)
  • Enterobacter cloacae is a biofilm-forming and multi-drug-resistant (MDR) nosocomial pathogen leading to significant morbidity and mortality. (springer.com)
  • Enterobacter cloacae is a member of the normal gut flora of many humans and is not usually a primary pathogen. (omicsgroup.org)
  • In marsupials (and a few birds), the genital tract is separate from the anus, but a trace of the original cloaca does remain externally. (wikipedia.org)
  • The initial cloaca is the common early endoderm lined space of the hindgut that will later become partitioned by a septum into a dorsal gastrointestinal component (rectum) and ventral renal/genital component (urogenital sinus). (edu.au)
  • In the embryo, the embryonic cloaca divides into a posterior region that becomes part of the anus, and an anterior region that has different fates depending on the sex of the individual: in females, it develops into the vestibule that receives the urethra and vagina, while in males it forms the entirety of the penile urethra. (wikipedia.org)
  • The development of the cloaca in the human embryo [1] "Subdivision of cloaca into urogenital and anorectal passages has remained controversial because of disagreements about the identity and role of the septum developing between both passages. (edu.au)
  • a condition in which the urorectal fold has failed to divide the cloaca into rectal and urogenital portions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We examined 55 Enterobacter cloacae isolates from clinical specimens for the production of cytotonic and cytotoxic toxins and the presence of the type III secretion system (TTSS). (nih.gov)
  • This study was carried out during the period from May 2007 to March 2008 to detect the presence of Enterobacter cloacae in stool specimens from patients suffering from gastrointestinal disturbance. (sustech.edu)
  • Molecular characterization of an Enterobacter cloacae outer membrane protein (OmpX). (asm.org)
  • A 5 day old full term male infant admitted with a two day history of fever, irritability, and convulsions was diagnosed as having Enterobacter cloacae septicaemia and meningitis. (bmj.com)
  • Nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis, E. cloacae septicaemia and disseminated intravascular coagulation were identified as the final diagnoses of the patient. (who.int)