A genus of small, shell-less, marine mollusks in the family Clione, superorder GASTROPODA. These pteropod (possessing a foot developed into wing-like organ for swimming) sea slugs feed exclusively on another pteropod mollusk, Limacina.
A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.
Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.
An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Hearing loss due to damage or impairment of both the conductive elements (HEARING LOSS, CONDUCTIVE) and the sensorineural elements (HEARING LOSS, SENSORINEURAL) of the ear.
Management of the acquisition, organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)
A formal process of examination of patient care or research proposals for conformity with ethical standards. The review is usually conducted by an organized clinical or research ethics committee (CLINICAL ETHICS COMMITTEES or RESEARCH ETHICS COMMITTEES), sometimes by a subset of such a committee, an ad hoc group, or an individual ethicist (ETHICISTS).
Individuals responsible for the development of policy and supervision of the execution of plans and functional operations.
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.
The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Aggregates of matter in outer space, such as stars, planets, comets, etc. and the properties and processes they undergo.
The behavior and interactions of matter and energy in outer space.
The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.
Instruments used to observe distant objects.
Separation systems containing a relatively long-lived parent radionuclide which produces a short-lived daughter in its decay scheme. The daughter can be periodically extracted (milked) by means of an appropriate eluting agent.
The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.
An imagined sequence of events or mental images, e.g., daydreams.
Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
Substances added to foods and medicine to improve the quality of taste.
Foods eaten between MEALTIMES.
Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Schools which offer training in the area of health.
Terms or expressions which provide the major means of access by subject to the bibliographic unit.
The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.
The sciences dealing with processes observable in nature.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The normal length of time of an organism's life.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A competitive nine-member team sport including softball.
Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).
Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.
A species of European freshwater LEECHES used for BLOODLETTING in ancient times and also for LEECHING in modern times.
A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.
Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.
A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.
A phylum of metazoan invertebrates comprising the segmented worms, and including marine annelids (POLYCHAETA), freshwater annelids, earthworms (OLIGOCHAETA), and LEECHES. Only the leeches are of medical interest. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
Organisms that live in water.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).

The role of sensory network dynamics in generating a motor program. (1/9)

Sensory input plays a major role in controlling motor responses during most behavioral tasks. The vestibular organs in the marine mollusk Clione, the statocysts, react to the external environment and continuously adjust the tail and wing motor neurons to keep the animal oriented vertically. However, we suggested previously that during hunting behavior, the intrinsic dynamics of the statocyst network produce a spatiotemporal pattern that may control the motor system independently of environmental cues. Once the response is triggered externally, the collective activation of the statocyst neurons produces a complex sequential signal. In the behavioral context of hunting, such network dynamics may be the main determinant of an intricate spatial behavior. Here, we show that (1) during fictive hunting, the population activity of the statocyst receptors is correlated positively with wing and tail motor output suggesting causality, (2) that fictive hunting can be evoked by electrical stimulation of the statocyst network, and (3) that removal of even a few individual statocyst receptors critically changes the fictive hunting motor pattern. These results indicate that the intrinsic dynamics of a sensory network, even without its normal cues, can organize a motor program vital for the survival of the animal.  (+info)

Neural mechanisms underlying co-activation of functionally antagonistic motoneurons during a Clione feeding behavior. (2/9)

The ability of some neural networks to produce multiple motor patterns required during different behaviors is a well-documented phenomenon. We describe here a dramatic transition from coordinated inhibition between two functionally antagonistic groups of motoneurons to their co-activation in the feeding neural network of the predatory mollusk Clione limacina. To seize its prey, Clione uses specialized oral appendages, called buccal cones, which are controlled by two groups of motoneurons: cerebral A (Cr-A) neurons controlling buccal cone protraction and cerebral B (Cr-B) neurons controlling buccal cone retraction. When Cr-A neurons are active, Cr-B neurons usually receive strong inhibitory inputs that terminate their firing, which leads to the full protraction and elongation of the buccal cones. We have found, however, that the Cr-A and Cr-B motoneurons sometimes burst simultaneously without any traces of inhibition in the Cr-B motoneurons. This transformation of the neural network activity from inhibitory interactions to co-activation presumably occurs during the late "extraction" period of the feeding behavior when buccal cones become partially retracted and rhythmically active. The transition from the inhibitory interaction to co-activation is controlled by the activity of a single pair of cerebral interneurons (Cr-Aint interneurons), which are electrically coupled to the Cr-A neurons and monosynaptically inhibit Cr-B neurons. Normally, the Cr-Aint interneurons are active along with Cr-A motoneurons and inhibit Cr-B motoneurons. During a period of co-activation, however, these interneurons do not produce spikes, thus allowing Cr-A motoneuron activation without inhibition of the Cr-B motoneurons.  (+info)

Trade-off between aerobic capacity and locomotor capability in an Antarctic pteropod. (3/9)

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Buccal neurons activate ciliary beating in the foregut of the pteropod mollusk Clione limacina. (4/9)

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Response of the Arctic pteropod Limacina helicina to projected future environmental conditions. (5/9)

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Changes in wingstroke kinematics associated with a change in swimming speed in a pteropod mollusk, Clione limacina. (6/9)

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Temperature compensation of aerobic capacity and performance in the Antarctic pteropod, Clione antarctica, compared with its northern congener, C. limacina. (7/9)

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Transformation of context-dependent sensory dynamics into motor behavior. (8/9)

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Böer, M. , Graeve, M. and Kattner, G. (2007): Exceptional long-term starvation ability and sites of lipid storage of the Arctic pteropod Clione limacina , Polar biology ...
Thecosome pteropods (pelagic mollusks) can play a key role in the food web of various marine ecosystems. They are a food source for zooplankton or higher predators such as fishes, whales and birds that is particularly important in high latitude areas. Since they harbor a highly soluble aragonitic shell, they could be very sensitive to ocean acidification driven by the increase of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. The effect of changes in the seawater chemistry was investigated on Limacina helicina, a key species of Arctic pelagic ecosystems. Individuals were kept in the laboratory under controlled pCO2 levels of 280, 380, 550, 760 and 1020 µatm and at control (0°C) and elevated (4°C) temperatures. The respiration rate was unaffected by pCO2 at control temperature, but significantly increased as a function of the pCO2 level at elevated temperature. pCO2 had no effect on the gut clearance rate at either temperature. Precipitation of CaCO3, measured as the incorporation of 45Ca, significantly declined as a
Epigenetic processes such as variation in DNA methylation may promote phenotypic plasticity and the rapid acclimatization of species to environmental change. The extent to which an organism can mount an epigenetic response to current and future climate extremes may influence its capacity to acclimatize or adapt to global change on ecological rather than evolutionary time…
This work was supported by National Institutes of Health DC 016293 and USAFOSR FA9550-17-1-0117 to A.M.D.; Howard Hughes Medical Institute Janelia Research Campus Visiting Scientist Program project to A.M.D. and K.E.C.; and Wellcome Trust Collaborative Award 203261/Z/16/Z and National Institutes of Health RF1 MH120679 01 Award to D.D.B. The Howard Hughes Medical Institute supported the generation and hosting of the FAFB dataset. We thank the FAFB tracing community for helpful insights and contributions of neuron tracings; Tom Kazimiers and Andrew Champion for CATMAID development; Peter Li for development of the autosegmented instance of the FAFB dataset; Eric Perlman for making the autosegmented dataset available in CATMAID; the Cambridge Drosophila Connectomics group, especially Greg Jefferis, Marta Costa, Philipp Schlegel, Alex Bates, Ruairi Roberts, Robert Turnbull, Lisa Marin, and Nik Drummond for use of hundreds of neuron reconstructions, assistance with custom analyses, and facilitating ...
In this study, the authors used resting state fMRI to examined changes in intrinsic functional connectivity in subjects suffering from migraine associated with sensory abnormalities (photophobia, phonophobia, and osmophobia) compared to healthy controls. Specifically, they explored and contrasted the effects of convergence and interactions of the primary sensory systems, including vision, audition, and somatosensation, with brain regions thought to be involved in perception and information integration, the default mode network (DMN) and the saliency network (SN). The authors also assessed reported migraine symptoms, including the prevalence of sensory symptoms at different phases of the migraine attack. In an additional analysis, the authors investigated the extent of correlation between the sensory networks and the DMN and SN networks. They found that sensory networks in subjects with migraine exhibited significantly decreased anti-correlation with the DMN and decreased correlation with SN. The ...
This paper presents the concept, structural design and implementation of components of a multifunctional sensory network, consisting of a Mobile Robotic Platform (MRP) and stationary multifunctional sensors, which are wirelessly communicating with the MRP. Each section provides the review of the principles of operation and the network components practical implementation. The analysis is focused on the structure of the robotic platform, sensory network and electronics and on the methods of the environment monitoring and data processing algorithms that provide maximal reliability, flexibility and stable operability of the system. The main aim of this project is the development of the Robotic Nurse (RN)-a 24/7 robotic helper for the hospital nurse personnel. To support long-lasting autonomic operation of the platform, all mechanical, electronic and photonic components were designed to provide minimal weight, size and power consumption, while still providing high operational efficiency, accuracy of
In both cortices and sensory systems, information is represented and transmitted through the correlated activity of large neuronal networks. Methods borrowed from Statistical Physics and Machine Learning are powerful tools for characterizing the collective behavior of large systems and thus offer promising approaches to understand the activity of neuronal populations. In this talk I will show how the Maximum Entropy principle, applied to cortical in-vivo recording, allows for comparing the population behavior during wakefulness and deep sleep and eventually for identifying cell-assemblies, i.e. strongly co-activated groups of neurons that play a central role in memory consolidation. I will then use hidden layer models, point processes and experimental linear response theory to account for the non-linear stimulus processing in sensory networks such as the retina. These approaches allow for constructing high performing models of the retinal population response to visual stimuli and thus for ...
Correlations in sensory neural networks have both extrinsic and intrinsic origins. Extrinsic or stimulus correlations arise from shared inputs to the network and, thus, depend strongly on the stimulus ensemble. Intrinsic or noise correlations reflect biophysical mechanisms of interactions between neurons, which are expected to be robust to changes in the stimulus ensemble. Despite the importance of this distinction for understanding how sensory networks encode information collectively, no method exists to reliably separate intrinsic interactions from extrinsic correlations in neural activity data, limiting our ability to build predictive models of the network response. In this paper we introduce a general strategy to infer population models of interacting neurons that collectively encode stimulus information. The key to disentangling intrinsic from extrinsic correlations is to infer the couplings between neurons separately from the encoding model and to combine the two using corrections ...
Changes to just three genetic letters among billions led to evolution and development of the mammalian motor sensory network, and laid the groundwork for the defining characteristics of the human brain, Yale University researchers ...
The European Sensory Network (ESN) is a powerful international network of leading research institutions and industrial partners at the cutting edge of sensory and consumer sciences.
Alzheimers disease is a progressive disorder, starting in certain areas and proceeding through the brain in a particular pattern. Specific brain regions may develop Alzheimers-like changes including the clumping of a protein fragment called beta-amyloid, ultimately forming amyloid plaques, a hallmark of the disease. Though amyloid clumping can first occur in certain brain areas, it appears to trigger more widespread damage to the brains circuitry - the pathways through which chemical and electrical signals are transmitted and brain areas are connected. Thus damage in the upstream brain areas hinders the ability of connected downstream brain areas from processing information correctly. This can lead to a loss of function related to the networks affected, for example sensory networks such as those needed for olfaction which is the sense of smell. Daniel Wesson, Ph.D., and colleagues plan to study how damage localized to cells in the nasal cavity behind the nose (called olfactory receptor ...
This paper reviews on results from a million-cell granule cell model of the rat dentate gyrus that was used to explore the efforts of local interneuronal and associational circuits to network-level activity. activity. Outcomes furthermore present that the topography of regional interneuronal circuits can possess simply as solid an influence on the advancement of spatio-temporal groupings in the granule cell inhabitants as the perforant route topography will, both sharpening existing groupings and presenting brand-new types with a better spatial level. Finally, outcomes present that the connections between the inhibitory and associational loops can trigger high regularity oscillations that are modulated by a low-frequency oscillatory sign. These outcomes serve to additional illustrate the importance of topographical restrictions on a global sign digesting feature of a sensory network, while also showing how wealthy spatio-temporal and oscillatory aspect can evolve from a fairly little amount ...
Oceanic species, but can tolerate neritic conditions (Ref. 7862). Members of the order Thecosomata are mostly simultaneous hermaphrodites (Ref. 102997). ...
Cruise summary report for RV Clione CLI5A/86 - produced from a first level inventory of measurements and samples collected at sea that provides information on who has collected what, where and when. Assembled initially from cruise plans and then updated from other sources including the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) Cruise Summary Report (ROSCOP) forms submitted to BODC for each UK research cruise. Provides a useful resource of cruise activities to scientists, programme managers and data managers.
Shop clione metal prints from thousands of artists from around the world. Our metal wall art produces vibrant colors and amazing details. Worldwide shipping available at Society6.com.
The folding pathway, three-dimensional structure and intrinsic dynamics of proteins are governed by their amino acid sequences. Internal protein surfaces with physicochemical properties appropriate to modulate conformational fluctuations could play important roles in folding and dynamics. We show he …
Stevenson TJ, Alward BA, Ebling FJP, Fernald, RD, Kelly AM, Ophir AG. (in press) The value of comparative animal research: the application of Kroghs principle facilitates scientific discoveries. Policy Insights from the Brain and Behavioral Sciences.. Heller A, Ledbetter E, Singh B, Lee DN, Ophir AG. (in press) Ophthalmic examination findings and intraocular pressures in wild-caught African Giant pouched rats (Cricetomys spp.) Veterinary Ophthalmology. Rice MA, Hobbs LE, Wallace KJ, Ophir AG (2017) Cryptic sexual dimorphism in spatial memory and hippocampal oxytocin receptors in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Hormones and Behavior. 95, 94-102.. Ophir AG (2017) Navigating monogamy: Nonapeptide sensitivity in a memory neural circuit may shape social behavior and mating decisions. Frontiers in Neuroscience. 11, 397.. Kelly AM, Hiura LC, Saunders AG, Ophir AG. (2017) Oxytocin neurons exhibit extensive functional plasticity due to offspring age in mothers and fathers. Integrative and ...
Ocean acidification (OA) increases aragonite shell dissolution in calcifying marine organisms. It has been proposed that bacteria associated with molluscan shell surfaces in situ could damage the periostracum and reduce its protective function against shell dissolution. However, the influence of bacteria on shell dissolution under OA conditions is unknown. In this study, dissolution in dead…
that need it most. To achieve this feat, the capillary sensory network relies on a protein (an ion channel) that detects increases in potassium during neuronal activity.. Increased activity of this channel facilitates the flow of ions across the capillary membrane, thereby creating a small electrical current that generates a negative charge - a rapidly transmitted signal - that communicates the need for additional blood flow to the upstream arterioles, which then results in increased blood flow to the capillaries, researchers said. Researchers also determined that if the potassium level is too high, this mechanism can be disabled, which may contribute to blood flow disturbances in a broad range of brain disorders.. These findings open new avenues in the way we can investigate cerebral diseases with a vascular component, said Fabrice Dabertrand of University of Vermont. These findings were published in the journal Nature Neuroscience.. ...
The shells of tiny sea snails called pteropods, or sea butterflies, are dissolving thanks to the acidification of sea water brought about to increasing levels of CO2 in the ocean, according to researchers from the British Antarctic Survey BAS).. A letter in Nature Geoscience titled Extensive dissolution of live pteropods in the Southern Ocean details the research, which according to BAS saw researchers examine ... an area of upwelling, where winds cause cold water to be pushed upwards from the deep to the surface of the ocean. Such areas are of interest because their waters are ... usually more corrosive to a particular type of calcium carbonate (aragonite) that pteropods use to build their shells.. A saturation horizon of 1000 metres is usually the depth at which ocean water becomes sufficiently corrosive to damage pteropod shells, but the sample taken by researchers came from just 200 metres down reached the same level of acidity.. BAS says as a result of the additional influence of ...
Author Summary Dynamic gain, the amount by which features at specific frequencies in the input to a neuron are amplified or attenuated in its output spiking, is fundamental for the encoding of information by neural populations. Most studies of dynamic gain have focused on neurons without intrinsic degrees of freedom exhibiting integrator-type subthreshold dynamics. Many neuron types in the brain, however, exhibit complex subthreshold dynamics such as resonance, found for instance in cortical interneurons, stellate cells, and mitral cells. A resonator neuron has at least two degrees of freedom for which the classical Fokker-Planck approach to calculating the dynamic gain is largely intractable. Here, we lift the voltage-reset rule after a spike, allowing us to derive a complete expression of the dynamic gain of a resonator neuron model. We find the gain can exhibit only six shapes. The resonant ones have peaks that become large due to intrinsic adaptation and become sharp due to an intrinsic frequency. A
Harper, E. M. and Peck, L.. S. (2016) Latitudinal and depth gradients in marine predation pressure. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 25 (6). pp. 670-678. ISSN 1466-822X, 1466-8238 DOI 10.1111/geb.12444 Batista, F.M. and Grade, A. and Power, D.M. and Ruano, F. and Harper, E. M. (2016) Occurrence and characterization of pearls from oysters of the genus Crassostrea. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. pp. 1-6. ISSN 0025-3154, 1469-7769 DOI 10.1017/S0025315416000382 Peck, Victoria L and Tarling, Geraint A and Manno, Clara and Harper, Elizabeth M. and Tynan, Eithne (2016) Outer organic layer and internal repair mechanism protects pteropod Limacina helicina from ocean acidification. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 127. pp. 41-52. ISSN 0967-0645 DOI 10.1016/j.dsr2.2015.12.005 Harper, Elizabeth M. (2016) Unanswered Questions in the Evolution of Biomineralisation. In: Isotopic Landscapes in Bioarchaeology. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 1-13. ...
There are two important goals in neuroscience. One concerns the understanding of functions related to animal and human behavior - a research topic of neuroethology; the other, based on results of the...
He briefly mentioned how grateful he was for the support of the Society following the tsunami and subsequent Fukishima disaster. Then, he described a series of experiments looking at how chicks decide how to feed. They can train chicks to peck for food, and do various manipulations where they reward less food immediately, or more food after a brief delay. He again invoked the Heiligenberg rule (Use the champion animal) to say that chicks were champion feeders. There is high mortality among chicks, and they have to put on weight very quickly in the first few days after hatching ...
Bloomfield, L.L., Farrell, T.M. & Sturdy, C.B. (2008). Categorization and discrimination of chick-a-dee calls by wild-caught and hand-reared chickadees. Behavioural Processes, 77(2), 166-176. (doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2007.08.003) Included in Special Issue in honour of the contributions of Ronald G. Weisman, Edited by C.B. Sturdy - this paper edited by Dr. J. Crystal. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2007.08.003. ...
Encoded in the strings of DNA bases that make up the genomes of living species are codes that regulate, control, and describe all sorts of biological processes. The underpinnings of these codes lie in the base sequence-dependent micromechanical properties of DNA, which determine the degree to which the long, threadlike molecule fluctuates and how it responds to the proteins that control its processing and govern its packaging. In order to understand the mechanisms by which DNA base sequence and tightly bound proteins control the biophysical properties of the long, threadlike molecule, we have developed a coarse-grained model, in which the DNA base pairs are treated as rigid bodies subject to realistic, knowledge-based energy constraints, and computational techniques to determine the minimum-energy configurations, intrinsic dynamics, and looping/cyclization propensities of these molecules. The presentation will highlight some of the unique, sequence-dependent spatial information that has been ...
Co-activation graphs for each emotion category.A) Force-directed graphs for each emotion category, based on the Fruchterman-Reingold spring algorithm (134). The
The Buccal neurons are divided into motoneurons, which innervate muscles and interneurons, which are mostly confined to the buccal ganglion. The interneurons are active in turn, with each type of nterneuron only active in one phase of the rhythm. Motoneurons may be active in more than one phase. the picture below shows a simplified diagram, showing which neurons are active in any one phase ...
主要利用现代生物物理学、神经电生理学、神经行为学、神经药理学及生理心理学手段,探讨意识、认知过程的起源、演化及其脑机制。目前主要进行啮齿类和非人灵长类猕猴的大脑前额叶认知功能的研究,探讨其功能异常与某些精神、神经疾病等的关系以及药物成瘾的心理戒断的脑机制。. We combined technologies of multiple disciplines, including modern biophysics, electrophysiology, neuroethology, neuropharmacology and psychology, to explore the origin, evolution and brain mechanism of consciousness and cognitive processes. We are now mainly focused on the cognitive function of prefrontal lobe in rodent and non-human primate macaques and its involvement in certain mental and neurological diseases. We are also interested in the brain mechanism of psychological withdrawal from drug addiction. ...
BERMEL, Afghanistan - Down a dirt alley a half-mile from Forward Operating Base Boris, a no-frills bastion that houses several hundred U.S. and Afghan troops behind 10-foot-high, sand-filled walls with a pair of 145 mm mortars at the center, American soldiers slinked like cats on the prowl.
We propose a new mathematical modeling framework to investigate the transmission and spread of foot-and-mouth disease. Our models incorporate relevant biological and ecological factors, vaccination effects, and seasonal impacts during the complex interaction among susceptible, vaccinated, exposed, infected, carrier, and recovered animals. We conduct both epidemic and endemic analysis, with a focus on the threshold dynamics characterized by the basic reproduction numbers. In addition, numerical simulation results are presented to demonstrate the analytical findings.
All biological processes including perturbation-responses are inherently dynamic. Investigating the temporal behavior of these dynamic processes is an important part of biological research. With the advancement of technology and reduction in cost, study of time-series gene expression has become routine [1]. The objectives of these types of research cannot be achieved without appropriate computational algorithms and methods. For example, a targeted perturbation like drug treatment activates or inhibits certain molecules in the cellular system in a transient or sustained manner; however, if we ignore these intrinsic dynamics of molecular changes due to lack of analysis techniques, we may miss out critical biological findings.. To analyze time-series gene expression profiles, several approaches have been used which can be divided into two classes. One of the classes is conventional clustering algorithms such as hierarchical, k-means clustering and self-organizing maps, which do not consider any ...
Neuroethology and Behavioral Physiology Conference is for the researchers, scientists, scholars, engineers, academic, scientific and university practitioners to present research activities that might want to attend events, meetings, seminars, congresses, workshops, summit, and symposiums.
Impaired awareness or denial of ones disorder. A significant problem in several kinds of strokes and in neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. It is strikingly manifest when a person with a paralysed limb claims it is still functioning. [One of Professor Ramachandrans patients, who had suffered a stroke which had paralysed the left side of her body, refused to accept that her arm couldnt move. Even though lucid in every other aspect (including awareness of the fact that she had suffered a stroke) she claimed her left arm was carrying out tasks even though clearly it wasnt. An explanation may involve close analysis of the different roles of the left and right hemispheres of the brain.] ...
Accumulation of carbonate mud is minor on the Northwest Shelf (Western Australia), a broad (, 200-300 km wide), distally steepened, tropical carbonate ramp. It is negligible along most of the inner ramp (0 to 50 m water depth) owing to siliciclastic (riverine) input. It is also negligible along the mid (from 50 to 120 m) ramp, and where the entire ramp narrows to , 100 km, owing to constant reworking by storm waves and ocean swell. In these areas, carbonate mud is derived mostly from mechanical degradation of skeletal fragments, but this does not include calcified remains of calcareous green algae (e.g., Halimeda) although these plants grow locally. Only along the outer (120 to 200 m water depth) ramp and slope is there any relatively abundant accumulation of carbonate mud. Here the sediment consists of modern pelagic (foraminifer, pteropod, and nannoplantkon) ooze and aragonitic needle-rich (, 2 μm) micrite, the latter having an age (based on AMS 14C) of ~ 19 ka. Distribution of aragonite ...
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Definition: Calcareous ooze is a marine sediment composed primarily of the shells--also known as tests--of foraminifera, coccolithophores, and pteropods. This is the most common pelagic sediment by area, covering 48% of the world oceans floor. This type of ooze is limited to depths above the Carbonate Compensation Depth at time of burial. It accumulates more rapidly than any other pelagic sediment type, with a rate that varies from 0.3 - 5 cm / 1000 yr ...
Definition: Calcareous ooze is a marine sediment composed primarily of the shells--also known as tests--of foraminifera, coccolithophores, and pteropods. This is the most common pelagic sediment by area, covering 48% of the world oceans floor. This type of ooze is limited to depths above the Carbonate Compensation Depth at time of burial. It accumulates more rapidly than any other pelagic sediment type, with a rate that varies from 0.3 - 5 cm / 1000 yr ...
Species within the genus Clione include: Clione antarctica (Smith, 1902) Clione elegantissima (Dall, 1871) Clione limacina ( ... Phipps, 1774) Clione okhotensis Yamazaki & Kuwahara, 2017 Pallas P. S. (1774). Spic. Zool. 10: 28. Gofas, S. (2012). Clione. ... Clione is a genus of small floating sea slugs, pelagic marine gastropod mollusks in the family Clionidae, the sea angels. ... 180-213 Gilmer R. W. & Lalli C. M. (1990). "Bipolar variation in Clione, a gymnosomatous pteropod". Am. Malacol. Union Bull. 8( ...
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Cruise summary report for RV Clione CLI5A/86 - produced from a first level inventory of measurements and samples collected at ...
Exceptional long-term starvation ability and sites of lipid storage of the Arctic pteropod Clione limacina ... Exceptional long-term starvation ability and sites of lipid storage of the Arctic pteropod Clione limacina , Polar biology, 30 ...
Species within the genus Clione include: Clione antarctica (Smith, 1902) Clione elegantissima (Dall, 1871) Clione limacina ( ... Phipps, 1774) Clione okhotensis Yamazaki & Kuwahara, 2017 Pallas P. S. (1774). Spic. Zool. 10: 28. Gofas, S. (2012). Clione. ... Clione is a genus of small floating sea slugs, pelagic marine gastropod mollusks in the family Clionidae, the sea angels. ... 180-213 Gilmer R. W. & Lalli C. M. (1990). "Bipolar variation in Clione, a gymnosomatous pteropod". Am. Malacol. Union Bull. 8( ...
Clione synonyms, Clione pronunciation, Clione translation, English dictionary definition of Clione. n. 1. A genus of naked ... Clione. Also found in: Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. Cli`o´ne. n.. 1.. A genus of naked pteropods. One species (Clione papilonacea ... Clione - definition of Clione by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Clione ... Exceptional long-term starvation ability and sites of lipid storage of the Arctic pteropod Clione limacina.. Growth and lipid ...
View Name Sources Download CSV Download BibTeX Bibliography for Clione limacina by Page ...
Species Clione stationis Nassonow, 1883 accepted as Pione stationis (Nassonow, 1883) (genus transfer). ... Clione stationis Nassonow, 1883 accepted as Pione stationis (Nassonow, 1883) (type by monotypy) ... Zur Biologie und Anatomie der Clione. Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche Zoologie 39: 295-308, pls. 18-19. [details] ... Über die aushöhlende Kraft und zum feineren Bau der Clione. Zoologischer Anzeiger 4: 459-460. [details] ...
Oxygen consumption rates for Clione antarctica at −1.8°C (open bars) and Clione limacina at 5°C (filled bars). Clione limacina ... Citrate synthase (CS) activity in wing muscle tissue of Clione limacina acclimatized to 10°C (filled bar) and Clione antarctica ... Morphometrics of wing muscles and mitochondria in Clione limacina and Clione antarctica at different temperatures ... in wing muscles of Clione antarctica (open bars) and Clione limacina (black bars) in comparison to locomotory muscles of polar ...
Impact of feeding and starvation on the lipid metabolism of the Arctic pteropod Clione limacina Böer, M., Graeve, Martin ORCID ... Impact of feeding and starvation on the lipid metabolism of the Arctic pteropod Clione limacina , Journal of experimental ...
Lipids and fatty acids in Clione limacina and Limacina helicina in Svalbard waters and the Arctic Ocean: trophic implications. ... Falk-Petersen S, Sargent JR, Kwasniewski S, Gulliksen B, Millar R (2001) Lipids and fatty acids in Clione limacina and Limacina ...
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Smooth muscle fiber types and a novel pattern of thick filaments in the wing of the pteropod mollusc Clione limacina ... Wing (parapodial) retraction in the pteropod mollusc Clione limacina is a reflex triggered by tactile stimulation. Light and ... Smooth muscle fiber types and a novel pattern of thick filaments in the wing of the pteropod mollusc Clione limacina. Cell and ...
CLIONE LIMACINA: Clione limacina is one of the centimeter-long creatures that live both in the Arctic and Antarctic. The shell- ...
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... a defensive metabolite of the abducted antarctic pteropod clione antarctica. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Clione ... keywords = "Aldol reaction, Clione antarctica, Marine natural products, Metabolites, Pteroenone",. author = "Hiroki Asao and ... Synthesis of pteroenone and its stereoisomers, a defensive metabolite of the abducted antarctic pteropod clione antarctica. ... Synthesis of pteroenone and its stereoisomers, a defensive metabolite of the abducted antarctic pteropod clione antarctica. / ...
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Modulation of sensory inputs to the feeding system of the pteropod Clione during feeding motivation. Jennifer Sawchuk NOAA ... Cellular mechanisms controlling locomotor speed in Clione limacina. Marianne Porter, Ph.D. Vassar College, Department of ...
Clione limacina. Naked sea butterfly Cuthona nana. Aeolid nudibranch Lymnaea stagnalis. Pond snail ...
H. dilatate carrying a very small Clione limacina antarctica. (Image credit: Charlotte Havermans/Alfred Wegener Institute for ... Hyperiella dilatata which only carried the sea snail Clione limacina antarctica, and Hyperiella antarctica, which favored the ...
Note that the leech innexins form a robust clade along with the Clione and Chaetopterus innexins but that this clade does not ... and the mollusc Clione (Panchin et al., 2000). Shading indicates identical residues, whereas boxes indicate the predicted ... Altering electrical connections in the nervous system of the pteropod mollusc Clione limacina by neuronal injections of gap ... are clearly members of the innexin family and show most homology to innexins from other Lophotrochozoan species such as Clione ...
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1986) Control of locomotion in marine mollusc Clione limacina. VI. Activity of isolated neurons of pedal ganglia. Exp Brain Res ... 1993) Neuronal control of swimming locomotion: analysis of the pteropod mollusc Clione and embryos of the amphibian Xenopus. ...
Clione limacina, a shell-less cold water gastropod and whatappears to be a small comb jellyfish. ...
8-Br-cGMP has been used in experiments with other molluscs, such as Clione limacina (Moroz et al., 2000) and the pond snail ... Norekian, T. P. (1995). Prey capture phase of feeding behavior in the pteropod mollusc Clione limacina: neuronal mechanisms. J ... 2000), in a study examining the effects of NO on feeding and locomotor circuitry in the pteropod mollusc Clione limacina, ... Melibe leonina remain stationary when they feed, whereas Clione limacina feed in the water column, and swimming is therefore ...
Clione limacina (Phipps, 1774) Belgian Exclusive Economic Zone for Colus gracilis (da Costa, 1778) Belgian Exclusive Economic ...
Exceptional long-term starvation ability and sites of lipid storage of the Arctic pteropod Clione limacina. Polar Biol.. Growth ... GAB Ah neurons were detected in the buccal, cerebral, and pedal ganglia of the marine euopisthobranchs Clione limacina ( ...
The snail Clione limacina grows up to a length of 70-85 mm. Photo: M. Boeer, Alfred Wegener Institute. ...
Satterlie RA (1995). Serotonergic modulation of swimming speed in the pteropod mollusc Clione limacina. Peripheral modulatory ... Clione (35), Tritonia, and Pleurobranchaea (8). Few studies about the locomotion of land snails are available (16). The 5-HT ...
fruity 3-methylnonane-2,4-clione. There are many varieties of fig tree and fig fruit has many different shapes and colours. The ...
  • Species within the genus Clione include: Clione antarctica (Smith, 1902) Clione elegantissima (Dall, 1871) Clione limacina (Phipps, 1774) Clione okhotensis Yamazaki & Kuwahara, 2017 Pallas P. S. (1774). (wikipedia.org)
  • Exceptional long-term starvation ability and sites of lipid storage of the Arctic pteropod Clione limacina. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Modulation of swimming speed in the pteropod mollusc, Clione limacina: role of a compartmental serotonergic system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Only in the prosobranch Lunatia triseriata (Joseph 1982) and in the polar pelagic opisthobranchs Clione limacina, Limacina helicina and Spongiobranchaea australis (Phleger et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • GABAergie excitatory synapses and electrical coupling sustain prolonged discharges in the prey capture neural network of Clione limacina. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Serotonergic modulation of swimming speed in the pleropod mollusc Clione limacina. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We investigated muscle and mitochondrial ultrastructure of Clione antarctica from the Southern Ocean (−1.8°C) and populations of a sister species, Clione limacina , from the Arctic (−0.5 to 3°C) and from the North Atlantic (10°C). We also measured oxygen consumption and the activity of the mitochondrial enzyme citrate synthase (CS) in isolated wings of the two species. (biologists.org)
  • Falk-Petersen S, Sargent JR, Kwasniewski S, Gulliksen B, Millar R (2001) Lipids and fatty acids in Clione limacina and Limacina helicina in Svalbard waters and the Arctic Ocean: trophic implications. (oalib.com)
  • Wing (parapodial) retraction in the pteropod mollusc Clione limacina is a reflex triggered by tactile stimulation. (cshl.edu)
  • Clione limacina is one of the centimeter-long creatures that live both in the Arctic and Antarctic. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Hyperiella dilatata which only carried the sea snail Clione limacina antarctica , and Hyperiella antarctica , which favored the Spongiobranchaea australis sea snail. (livescience.com)
  • H. dilatate carrying a very small Clione limacina antarctica . (livescience.com)
  • Clione limacina, a shell-less cold water gastropod. (noaa.gov)
  • Clione limacina, a shell-less cold water gastropod and whatappears to be a small comb jellyfish. (noaa.gov)
  • Arshavsky Yu.I., Beloozerova I.N., Orlovsky G.N., Panchin Yu.V., and Pavlova G.A. (1985) Control of locomotion in marine mollusc Clione limacina. (scorcher.ru)
  • GAB Ah neurons were detected in the buccal, cerebral, and pedal ganglia of the marine euopisthobranchs Clione limacina (Arshavsky et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The snail Clione limacina grows up to a length of 70-85 mm. (innovations-report.com)
  • Total mercury and MMHg transfer in a unique prey-predator linkage (Limacina helicina-Clione limacina) are investigated and discussed with regard to known physiological and biochemical characteristics. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The naked sea butterfly (Clione limacina) "flies" through the water by flapping a small pair of wings at the front of its body. (noaa.gov)
  • Feeding and starvation experiments are performed with the pteropod Clione limacina and on the transfer of lipids from calanoid copepods to the ctenophore Mertensia ovum , the re-conversion of wax esters and the fate of long-chain fatty alcohols of zooplankton origin. (awi.de)
  • Small cardioactive peptide B increases the responsiveness of the neural system underlying prey capture reactions in the pteropod mollusc, Clione limacina. (lktlabs.com)
  • Cerebral serotonergic neurons reciprocally modulate swim and withdrawal neural networks in the mollusk Clione limacina. (pianolarge.ga)
  • sea butterflies have moved toward either pole and are less common overall, along with their predators the sea angels ( Clione limacina , another kind of plankton-dwelling snail). (si.edu)
  • Four stereoisomers of (+)-pteroenone, a defensive metabolite of the abducted Antarctic pteropod Clione antarctica, were synthesized by employing anti-/syn-selective aldol reactions as the key step. (elsevier.com)
  • Among them is the graceful Clione antarctica, a kind of marine slug also known as a sea angel. (florafaunafungi.com)
  • Another large polar species of sea angel, Clione antarctica, defends itself from predators by synthesizing a previously unknown molecule, pteroenone. (fopyc.com)
  • Rather than evolve its own chemical defenses, the amphipod Hyperiella dilatata kidnaps the pteropod (also called a sea butterfly) Clione antarctica and carries it around affixed to its back. (nationalgeographic.org)
  • One species ( Clione papilonacea ), abundant in the Arctic Ocean, constitutes a part of the food of the Greenland whale. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2008a), where the small Siphonodictyon crypticum, Clione vermifera, and Pione carpenteri were among the most com mon species, with the latter two being more closely taxonomically related to the four "rubble-species" from Orpheus Island than to "the usual suspects" in attached materials, such as C. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Small cardioactive peptide B (SCPB) is a peptide co-transmitter intrinsic to motor neurons that controls feeding behavior and muscle movement in molluscs such as species of Lymnea, Aplysia, and Clione. (lktlabs.com)
  • Clione is a genus of small floating sea slugs, pelagic marine gastropod mollusks in the family Clionidae, the sea angels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clione is the type genus of the family Clionidae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both polar and temperate pteropods of the genus Clione , however, are able to swim continuously by flapping their parapodia (wings) at comparable frequencies at their respective habitat temperatures. (biologists.org)
  • Sex steroid metabolism in the antarctic pteropod Clione antarctic (Mollusca:Gastropoda). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Taxonomy This is not Clione Pallas, 1766 (Mollusca), but a misspelling for Cliona, maintained consequently throughout all four. (marinespecies.org)
  • There are also examples of one spike bursts such as in the CPGs for swimming in Clione and in Xenopus tadpoles. (scholarpedia.org)
  • This observation supports the findings of varicose GABA-ir fibers in the neuropil areas and in the cell body layers of the ganglia in Helisoma trivolvis, Clione limacine, Helix pomatia and Limax maximus (Cooke & Gelperin 1988, Richmond et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Reproduction and development of Paedoclione doliiformis, and a comparison with Clione limacine (Opisthobranchia: Gymnosomata). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • CLIONE PRIME Lash is 100% manual product that manufactured experienced workers using premium Korean PBT fiber. (clionelash.com)