Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Works about studies that are usually controlled to assess the effectiveness and dosage (if appropriate) of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques. These studies are performed on several hundred volunteers, including a limited number of patients with the target disease or disorder, and last about two years. This concept includes phase II studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Works about comparative studies to verify the effectiveness of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques determined in phase II studies. During these trials, patients are monitored closely by physicians to identify any adverse reactions from long-term use. These studies are performed on groups of patients large enough to identify clinically significant responses and usually last about three years. This concept includes phase III studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Works about studies performed to evaluate the safety of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques in healthy subjects and to determine the safe dosage range (if appropriate). These tests also are used to determine pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic properties (toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, and preferred route of administration). They involve a small number of persons and usually last about 1 year. This concept includes phase I studies conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
The conjugation of exogenous substances with various hydrophilic substituents to form water soluble products that are excretable in URINE. Phase II modifications include GLUTATHIONE conjugation; ACYLATION; and AMINATION. Phase II enzymes include GLUTATHIONE TRANSFERASE and GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. In a sense these reactions detoxify phase I reaction products.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Works about clinical trials involving one or more test treatments, at least one control treatment, specified outcome measures for evaluating the studied intervention, and a bias-free method for assigning patients to the test treatment. The treatment may be drugs, devices, or procedures studied for diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic effectiveness. Control measures include placebos, active medicines, no-treatment, dosage forms and regimens, historical comparisons, etc. When randomization using mathematical techniques, such as the use of a random numbers table, is employed to assign patients to test or control treatments, the trials are characterized as RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS AS TOPIC.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.
Works about controlled studies which are planned and carried out by several cooperating institutions to assess certain variables and outcomes in specific patient populations, for example, a multicenter study of congenital anomalies in children.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
Planned post-marketing studies of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques that have been approved for general sale. These studies are often conducted to obtain additional data about the safety and efficacy of a product. This concept includes phase IV studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.
Establishment of the level of a quantifiable effect indicative of a biologic process. The evaluation is frequently to detect the degree of toxic or therapeutic effect.
The highest dose of a biologically active agent given during a chronic study that will not reduce longevity from effects other than carcinogenicity. (from Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
Committees established to review interim data and efficacy outcomes in clinical trials. The findings of these committees are used in deciding whether a trial should be continued as designed, changed, or terminated. Government regulations regarding federally-funded research involving human subjects (the "Common Rule") require (45 CFR 46.111) that research ethics committees reviewing large-scale clinical trials monitor the data collected using a mechanism such as a data monitoring committee. FDA regulations (21 CFR 50.24) require that such committees be established to monitor studies conducted in emergency settings.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
An alkaloid isolated from the stem wood of the Chinese tree, Camptotheca acuminata. This compound selectively inhibits the nuclear enzyme DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I. Several semisynthetic analogs of camptothecin have demonstrated antitumor activity.
Organic compounds which contain platinum as an integral part of the molecule.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.
The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)
An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
An organoplatinum compound that possesses antineoplastic activity.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Earlier than planned termination of clinical trials.
Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses.
Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.
Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)
A therapeutic approach, involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery, after initial regimens have failed to lead to improvement in a patient's condition. Salvage therapy is most often used for neoplastic diseases.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
An antineoplastic agent. It has significant activity against melanomas. (from Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p564)
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.
The active metabolite of FOLIC ACID. Leucovorin is used principally as an antidote to FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS.
Drugs which have received FDA approval for human testing but have yet to be approved for commercial marketing. This includes drugs used for treatment while they still are undergoing clinical trials (Treatment IND). The main heading includes drugs under investigation in foreign countries.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.
A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
Persons who are enrolled in research studies or who are otherwise the subjects of research.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.
Organic salts and esters of benzenesulfonic acid.
The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.
Compounds that include the amino-N-phenylamide structure.
A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
An important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and PELLAGRA. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake.
Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.
A group of 16-member MACROLIDES which stabilize MICROTUBULES in a manner similar to PACLITAXEL. They were originally found in the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum, now renamed to Polyangium (MYXOCOCCALES).
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.
Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.
Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.
Congener of FLUOROURACIL with comparable antineoplastic action. It has been suggested especially for the treatment of breast neoplasms.
The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.
Financial support of research activities.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Strategy for the analysis of RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS AS TOPIC that compares patients in the groups to which they were originally randomly assigned.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.
Antagonist of urate oxidase.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that is widely distributed in TICKS and various mammals throughout the world. Infection with this genus is particularly prevalent in CATTLE; SHEEP; and GOATS.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.
An effect usually, but not necessarily, beneficial that is attributable to an expectation that the regimen will have an effect, i.e., the effect is due to the power of suggestion.
Patient involvement in the decision-making process in matters pertaining to health.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
An anthracycline which is the 4'-epi-isomer of doxorubicin. The compound exerts its antitumor effects by interference with the synthesis and function of DNA.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
Positional isomer of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE which is active as an alkylating agent and an immunosuppressive agent.
The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.
A piperidinyl isoindole originally introduced as a non-barbiturate hypnotic, but withdrawn from the market due to teratogenic effects. It has been reintroduced and used for a number of immunological and inflammatory disorders. Thalidomide displays immunosuppressive and anti-angiogenic activity. It inhibits release of TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA from monocytes, and modulates other cytokine action.
An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)
Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
A flavoprotein that reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of NADH or NADPH by various quinones and oxidation-reduction dyes. The enzyme is inhibited by dicoumarol, capsaicin, and caffeine.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
Tumors or cancer of the PERITONEUM.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.
A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research with the objective of cancer prevention, early stage identification and elimination. This Institute was established in 1937.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Cyclic hydrocarbons that contain multiple rings and share one or more atoms.
Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
Human experimentation that is intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed.
Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.
Organic compounds that have a tetrahydronaphthacenedione ring structure attached by a glycosidic linkage to the amino sugar daunosamine.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain the basic structure RB(OH)2.
A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
A nitrogen mustard linked to estradiol, usually as phosphate; used to treat prostatic neoplasms; also has radiation protective properties.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)

Incremental costs of enrolling cancer patients in clinical trials: a population-based study. (1/883)

BACKGROUND: Payment for care provided as part of clinical research has become less predictable as a result of managed care. Because little is known at present about how entry into cancer trials affects the cost of care for cancer patients, we conducted a matched case-control comparison of the incremental medical costs attributable to participation in cancer treatment trials. METHODS: Case patients were residents of Olmsted County, MN, who entered phase II or phase III cancer treatment trials at the Mayo Clinic from 1988 through 1994. Control patients were patients who did not enter trials but who were eligible on the basis of tumor registry matching and medical record review. Sixty-one matched pairs were followed for up to 5 years after the date of trial entry for case patients or from an equivalent date for control patients. Hospital, physician, and ancillary service costs were estimated from a population-based cost database developed at the Mayo Clinic. RESULTS: Trial enrollees incurred modestly (no more than 10%) higher costs over various follow-up periods. The mean cumulative 5-year cost in 1995 inflation-adjusted U.S. dollars among trial enrollees after adjustment for censoring was $46424 compared with $44 133 for control patients. After 1 year, trial enrollee costs were $24645 compared with $23 964 for control patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that cancer chemotherapy trials may not imply budget-breaking costs. Cancer itself is a high-cost illness. Clinical protocols may add relatively little to that cost.  (+info)

Development of difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) as a chemoprevention agent. (2/883)

D,L-alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) was synthesized over 20 years ago. It was hoped that this enzyme-activated, irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, the first enzyme in polyamine synthesis, would be effective as a chemotherapy for hyperproliferative diseases, including cancer and/or infectious processes. DFMO was generally found to exert cytostatic effects on mammalian cells and tissues, and its effectiveness as a therapeutic agent has been modest. DFMO was also found to cause treatment-limiting (but reversible) ototoxicity at high doses. This side effect, along with its minimal therapeutic activity, contributed to the loss of interest by many clinicians in further developing DFMO as a cancer therapeutic agent. However, DFMO was subsequently shown to inhibit carcinogen-induced cancer development in a number of rodent models, and interest in developing this compound as a preventive agent has increased. The rationale for the inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase as a cancer chemopreventive agent has been strengthened in recent years because this enzyme has been shown to be transactivated by the c-myc oncogene in certain cell/tissue types and to cooperate with the ras oncogene in malignant transformation of epithelial tissues. Recent clinical cancer chemoprevention trials, using dose de-escalation designs, indicate that DFMO can be given over long periods of time at low doses that suppress polyamine contents in gastrointestinal and other epithelial tissues but cause no detectable hearing loss or other side effects. Current clinical chemoprevention trials are investigating the efficacy of DFMO to suppress surrogate end point biomarkers (e.g., colon polyp recurrence) of carcinogenesis in patient populations at elevated risk for the development of specific epithelial cancers, including colon, esophageal, breast, cutaneous, and prostate malignancies.  (+info)

Preclinical and early clinical development of keratinocyte growth factor, an epithelial-specific tissue growth factor. (3/883)

Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a 28-kDa heparin-binding member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family (alternative designation = FGF-7) that specifically binds to the KGF receptor, a splice variant of FGF receptor 2, which is expressed only in epithelial tissues. KGF has been identified as an important paracrine mediator of proliferation and differentiation in a wide variety of epithelial cells, including hepatocytes and gastrointestinal epithelial cells, type II pneumocytes, transitional urothelial cells, and keratinocytes in all stratified squamous epithelia. Systemic administration of recombinant human KGF (rHuKGF) provides significant cytoprotection to epithelial tissues in a number of different animal models of epithelial/mucosal damage, including models of injury to the gastrointestinal tract, lung, urinary bladder, and hair follicles. The results obtained with these preclinical models prompted an investigation of the use of rHuKGF as a cytoprotective agent against radiation- and/or chemotherapy-induced oral and gastrointestinal mucositis. Several dose- and time-variable studies were conducted in normal rhesus macaques to determine the lowest dose and shortest duration of rHuKGF administration required to induce oral mucosal proliferation without other significant systemic effects. Numerous studies were also conducted in murine models of chemotherapy-induced mucositis to fine-tune the dosing schedule. These studies showed that 2-3 days of rHuKGF administration were sufficient to induce significant oral mucosal proliferation and to protect against gastrointestinal mucositis when administered prior to the initiation of chemotherapy. The results from these models were used to design a phase I study in normal human volunteers to evaluate the safety of rHuKGF and its ability to induce oral mucosal proliferation. rHuKGF was well tolerated and induced a significant increase in markers of oral mucosal proliferation following 3 days of administration at the highest doses. Phase I/II studies to evaluate the safety and efficacy of rHuKGF in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced mucositis are currently in progress.  (+info)

Safety and tolerability of fluconazole in children. (4/883)

The safety profile of fluconazole was assessed for 562 children (ages, 0 to 17 years) comprising 323 males and 239 females. The data are derived from 12 clinical studies of fluconazole as prophylaxis or treatment for a variety of fungal infections in predominantly immunocompromised patients. Most children received multiple doses of fluconazole in the range of 1 to 12 mg/kg of body weight; a few received single doses. Administration was mainly by oral suspension or intravenous injection. Overall, 58 (10.3%) children reported 80 treatment-related side effects. The most common side effects were associated with the gastrointestinal tract (7.7%) or skin (1.2%). Self-limiting, treatment-related side effects affecting the liver and biliary system were reported in three patients (0.5%). Overall, 18 patients (3.2%) discontinued treatment due to side effects, mainly gastrointestinal symptoms. Dose and age did not appear to influence the incidence and pattern of side effects. Treatment-related laboratory abnormalities were uncommon, the most frequent being transient elevated alanine aminotransferase (4.9%), aspartate aminotransferase (2.7%), and alkaline phosphatase (2.3%) levels. Although 98.6% of patients were taking concomitant medications, no clinical or laboratory interactions were observed. The safety profile of fluconazole was compared with those of other antifungal agents, mostly oral polyenes, by using a subset of data from five controlled studies. Side effects were reported by more patients treated with fluconazole (45 of 382; 11.8%) than by those patients treated with comparable agents (25 of 381; 6.6%); vomiting and diarrhea were the most common events in both groups. The incidence and type of treatment-related laboratory abnormalities were similar for the two groups. In conclusion, fluconazole was well tolerated by the pediatric population, many of whom were suffering from severe underlying disease and were taking a variety of concurrent medications. The safety profile of fluconazole in children mirrors the excellent safety profile seen in adults.  (+info)

The induction of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) is a common event in the response of human primary non-small cell lung carcinomas to exposure to the new antitumor polyamine analogue N1,N11-bis(ethyl)norspermine. (5/883)

Several new polyamine analogues have been developed for the treatment of human solid tumors. The phenotype-specific activity of some of these analogues has been associated with the superinduction of the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine catabolism spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT). Using immunohistochemistry, we found a majority (64%) of human primary lung cancer explants to exhibit high expression of SSAT after treatment with 10 microM N1,N11-bis(ethyl)norspermine, an agent currently undergoing Phase II clinical trials against several important human solid tumors. The staining of SSAT was found specifically in the tumor tissue and not in the neighboring normal lung tissue. These results demonstrate the ability to detect induction of SSAT in clinical specimens and suggest the potential of this test as a prognostic indicator of drug response.  (+info)

Progressive disease rate as a surrogate endpoint of phase II trials for non-small-cell lung cancer. (6/883)

BACKGROUND: Although the potential activity of anticancer agents has been traditionally assessed by the response rate (RR) in phase II trials, there is an increasing need to identify alternative endpoints to evaluate the efficacy of novel types of antineoplastic agents such as cytostatic agents. However, none of the proposed alternatives have been validated. DESIGN: RR, rate of progressive disease (PD), and median survival time (MST) were obtained from 44 treatment arms in 42 single-agent phase II trials for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Correlations between these parameters and their significance in selection of promising drugs were evaluated. RESULTS: The median (range) RR and PD rate per treatment arm were 17% (0%-40%) and 41% (8%-93%), respectively. The PD rate correlated more closely with MST (correlation coefficient (r) = 0.80, P < 0.001) than did the RR (r = 0.62, P < 0.001). The RR of active agents against NSCLC ranged broadly from 7% to 40%, whereas their PD rates were all 50% or less. In addition, all treatment arms with a PD rate over 50% had a poor MST of six months or shorter. CONCLUSIONS: The PD rate was potentially as good an endpoint as RR, and it may be a good candidate for the primary endpoint of phase II trials for novel types of anticancer agents.  (+info)

Valuing clinical strategies early in development: a cost analysis of allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. (7/883)

Allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (alloPBSCT) is an emerging technology. As this technology develops, transplant centers are concerned with looking for technologic advances that will result in improvements in clinical outcomes and lower costs. We provide comparative estimates of costs and resource use for alloPBSCT in comparison to allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (alloBMT) for persons with hematologic malignancies from the time of harvest to 100 days post transplant. A retrospective, cost-identification analysis was conducted for patients in two consecutive phase II clinical trials at the University of Nebraska Medical Center. Identical preparative regimens, graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis, post-transplant hematopoietic colony-stimulating factor treatment regimens, and discharge criteria were used. Total median costs were $18,304 lower for alloPBSCT, with lower costs during recovery; specifically for hospitalization, platelet products, hematopoietic growth factors, intravenous hyperalimentation, supportive care agents, supplies, and antibacterial agents. This study provides preliminary evidence for short-term cost savings associated with alloPBSCT. However, concerns exist over the potential for higher costs due to preliminary reports of higher rates of chronic graft-versus-host disease, as well as more intensive induction regimens that may result in lower relapse rates. The premature adoption of new technologies based on short-term economic factors, in the absence of adequate clinical trial data, may prove to be ill-advised, particularly for complex medical treatments such as allogeneic transplantation.  (+info)

Eligibility and response guidelines for phase II clinical trials in androgen-independent prostate cancer: recommendations from the Prostate-Specific Antigen Working Group. (8/883)

PURPOSE: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a glycoprotein that is found almost exclusively in normal and neoplastic prostate cells. For patients with metastatic disease, changes in PSA will often antedate changes in bone scan. Furthermore, many but not all investigators have observed an association between a decline in PSA levels of 50% or greater and survival. Since the majority of phase II clinical trials for patients with androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC) have used PSA as a marker, we believed it was important for investigators to agree on definitions and values for a minimum set of parameters for eligibility and PSA declines and to develop a common approach to outcome analysis and reporting. We held a consensus conference with 26 leading investigators in the field of AIPC to define these parameters. RESULT: We defined four patient groups: (1) progressive measurable disease, (2) progressive bone metastasis, (3) stable metastases and a rising PSA, and (4) rising PSA and no other evidence of metastatic disease. The purpose of determining the number of patients whose PSA level drops in a phase II trial of AIPC is to guide the selection of agents for further testing and phase III trials. We propose that investigators report at a minimum a PSA decline of at least 50% and this must be confirmed by a second PSA value 4 or more weeks later. Patients may not demonstrate clinical or radiographic evidence of disease progression during this time period. Some investigators may want to report additional measures of PSA changes (ie, 75% decline, 90% decline). Response duration and the time to PSA progression may also be important clinical end point. CONCLUSION: Through this consensus conference, we believe we have developed practical guidelines for using PSA as a measurement of outcome. Furthermore, the use of common standards is important as we determine which agents should progress to randomized trials which will use survival as an end point.  (+info)

Chi-Med highlights publication of Phase II data showing promising efficacy for Savolitinib in MET-amplified gastric cancers - read this article along with other careers information, tips and advice on BioSpace
New Novartis Phase II data show LCZ696 may provide clinical benefits in patients with a difficult-to-treat form of heart failure -- PARAMOUNT study shows LCZ696 reduced a key predictor of...
New phase II data presented at ECCO 15 - 34th ESMO Congress reinforces exciting potential of Algetas Alpharadin as a new treatment for bone metastases in cancer patients Oslo, Norway, 22 September
Allergan Reports Topline Phase II Data Supporting Advancement of BOTOX® (onabotulinumtoxinA) for the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
Sanofi reports that the first patient outside of the US has been treated as part of a global clinical program evaluating Sanofis and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Kevzara (sarilumab) in patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19. The global clinical program has now been initiated in Italy, Spain, Germany, France, Canada, Russia and the US, all countries that have been impacted by COVID-19. Sanofi is leading trials outside the US while Regeneron is leading US trials.. This is the second multi-center, double-blind, Phase II/III trial as part of the Kevzara COVID-19 program, and the companies say that they are continuing to work with authorities around the world to secure initiation at additional sites. This follows Sanofi and Regenerons earlier announcement of the initiation of the first trial, which is US-based.. Kevzara is a fully human monoclonal antibody that inhibits the interleukin-6 (IL-6) pathway by binding and blocking the IL-6 receptor. IL-6 may play a role in driving the overactive ...
Patients were administered FOLFIRI every 2 weeks in one course. FOLFIRI:CPT-11 150 mg per square meter on day1 with l-LV 200 mg per square meter administered as a 2-hour infusion before 5-FU 400 mg per square meter administered as an intravenous bolus injection, and 5-FU 2400 mg per square meter as a 46-hour infusion immediately after 5-FU bolus injection on day1 in 2 weeks ...
This research study is evaluating a drug called isoquercetin to prevent venous thrombosis (blood clots), in participants who have pancreas, non small cell lung
This study investigated the efficacy, tolerability and effects on immune reconstitution of daclizumab for the prevention of graft versus host disease in
Cancer forums by research scientists for patients. Discussing any cancer Mesothelioma, Leukemia, Prostate, Myeloma, Breast Cancer, Colon, Pancreatic
NVA237 demonstrated sustained 24-hour bronchodilation with efficacy comparable to tiotropium and potentially faster onset of action 1 Data show NVA237 was well
BioWorld Online is the news service of record for the biotechnology industry and is updated every business morning. BioWorld Online will keep you up to date on all of the industrys business, science and regulatory news -- mergers and collaborations, FDA hearings and results, breakthroughs in research and much more.
AzurRx BioPharma is a development stage biopharmaceutical company (NASDAQ: AZRX) focused on the development of recombinant proteins for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases and microbiome related conditions. Our therapeutic products will be administered to patients as oral non-systemic biologics.
The Journal of Alzheimers Disease has published today the results of the first clinical trial of a Tau Aggregation Inhibitor (TAI) in Alzheimers disease (AD).1 This Phase II clinical trial, conducted by TauRx Therapeutics Ltd (a Singapore incorporated spinout from the University of Aberdeen), provided the basis and rationale for subsequent Phase III clinical trials of a TAI in AD currently in progress. The double-blind dose-finding Phase II clinical trial involved 321 patients in 16 clinical research centres in the UK and one centre in Singapore and tested three doses of the drug. The study met its predefined primary efficacy endpoint at 24 weeks on the standard scale most commonly used to measure cognitive decline in clinical trials (ADAS-cog) at the 138 mg / day dose. The primary result was also supported by benefit on two other clinical scales. The effect sizes seen were statistically significant and clinically meaningful in moderate subjects at 24 weeks. The clinical results were also ...
There is a pressing need for more-efficient trial designs for biomarker-stratified clinical trials. We suggest a new approach to trial design that links novel treatment evaluation with the concurrent evaluation of a biomarker within a confirmatory phase II/III trial setting. We describe a new protocol using this approach in advanced colorectal cancer called FOCUS4. The protocol will ultimately answer three research questions for a number of treatments and biomarkers: (1) After a period of first-line chemotherapy, do targeted novel therapies provide signals of activity in different biomarker-defined populations? (2) If so, do these definitively improve outcomes? (3) Is evidence of activity restricted to the biomarker-defined groups? The protocol randomizes novel agents against placebo concurrently across a number of different biomarker-defined population-enriched cohorts: BRAF mutation; activated AKT pathway: PI3K mutation/absolute PTEN loss tumors; KRAS and NRAS mutations; and wild type at all the
SUNNYVALE, Calif., May 31, 2015 /PRNewswire/ -- Ibrutinib (IMBRUVICA®) Phase Ib/II Data Show Promise in Patients with Chronic Graft-Versus-Host-Disease....
This randomized phase II/III trial studies how well giving combination chemotherapy with or without rituximab works in treating younger patients with st
A Randomized Phase II/III Trial of Afatinib Plus Cetuximab Versus Afatinib Alone in Treatment-Naive Patients with Advanced, EGFR Mutation Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). ...
Positive interim results prompt request for meeting with FDA Cell Therapeutics, Inc. (CTI) announced today that interim results of its phase II III trial compar
Amgen and Novartis will expand their collaboration with the Banner Alzheimers Institute by launching a new Phase II/III trial designed to assess whether the oral BACE1 inhibitor CNP520 codeveloped by the companies can prevent or delay symptoms in people at high risk for the disease
Atacicept, a biologic agent that targets two B-cell factors in patients with moderate-to-severe lupus, failed to meet the primary endpoint in a yearlong phase II/III trial, researchers reported.
Comprehensive analyses of pooled data from three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase II/III trials showing the efficacy and tolerability of Vimpat® (lacosamide) C-V for...
Excerpt:. The combination of dabrafenib (Tafinlar) and trametinib (Mekinist) was highly effective as a treatment for patients with BRAF V600E-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), according to lead investigator David Planchard MD, PhD, who presented the phase II data at the 2016 ASCO Annual Meeting.1 Findings from the study were also concurrently published in Lancet Oncology.2. The investigator assessed objective response rate (ORR) with the combination was 63% (95% CI, 49-75), which lasted for a median duration of 9.0 months (95% CI, 6.9-18.3). When adding those with stable disease for ≥12 weeks, the overall disease control rate was 79% (95% CI, 66-89). The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 9.7 months (95% CI, 6.9-19.6).. In addition to the combination cohort, the study also included a single-agent arm that included 78 previously treated patients with metastatic BRAF V600E-mutant NSCLC. In this cohort, the ORR with single-agent dabrafenib was 33% and the median PFS was 5.5 ...
Roches breakthrough immunotherapy atezolizumab is being given a priority review in the US on the back of Phase II data supporting its potential as a treatment for bladder cancer. - News - PharmaTimes
Damian Garde Arrowhead Research watched its shares nose-dive after a peek at Phase II data on its in-development treatment for hepatitis B revealed that the RNAi therapy isnt measuring ...
Los Angeles, CA, January 18, 2019 - ImaginAb Inc., an emerging immuno-oncology imaging company, announced today the enrollment of the first patient in the Phase II clinical trial of ImaginAbs CD8+ T Cell imaging agent. The trial will enroll metastatic cancer patients and will study the correlation of imaging signals observed using ImaginAbs CD8+ T cell ImmunoPET imaging agent, standard-of-care scans, and immunohistochemistry analysis of CD8 in biopsied tissues. The trial will also measure changes in CD8+ T-cell distribution before and after immuno-oncology therapies. The study is, in part, financially supported by Boehringer Ingelheim and contributes to the aims of the strategic collaboration between ImaginAb and Boehringer Ingelheim to develop ImaginAbs CD8+ T cell Immuno-PET imaging agent, IAB22M2C.. IAB22M2C is designed to be used with PET scan technology to non-invasively measure CD8+ T cell tumor infiltrates in patients with cancer, including the identification of changes in CD8+ T cell ...
Alnylam Completes Enrollment of Phase II Clinical Trial and Initiates Open-Label Extension (OLE) Study with ALN-TTR02, an RNAi Therapeutic Targeting Transthyretin (TTR) for the Treatment of
Intercell AG (VSE: ICLL) today announced that its collaborator Merck & Co., Inc. has initiated a Phase II clinical trial of V710, an investigational vaccine for the prevention of Staphylococcus
While its not common for vaccine candidates that have delivered good results in early stages to fail in subsequent phases, it can happen.
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The two-stage design in a non-stringent test situation. (A) Data simulation experiment: empirical density functions of the DE genes (solid curve), noisy non-DE
Promising clinical trial drug, defactinib, is now in phase II of trials. Learn how it stops the growth of stem cells and prevents further tumor growth.
This course is mainly focused on the quantitative aspects of design and presents a unifying framework called Multidisciplinary System Design Optimization (MSDO). The objective of the course is to present tools and methodologies for performing system optimization in a multidisciplinary design context, focusing on three aspects of the problem: (i) The multidisciplinary character of engineering systems, (ii) design of these complex systems, and (iii) tools for optimization. There is a version of ...
Kiadis announces that ongoing Phase II clinical trial (NCT01794299/EudraCT 2012-004461-41) data for ATIR101™ has been selected for presentation
Axon Presented Positive Phase II Trial Results of AADvac1 at AAT-AD/PD 2020 - read this article along with other careers information, tips and advice on BioSpace
All symptoms had positive predictive values below 1%, except for abdominal distension. These low values reflect both the high frequency of abdominal symptoms in the healthy population allied to the relatively low incidence of ovarian cancer. Nevertheless, a 2.5% risk of ovarian cancer with abdominal distension clearly warrants investigation. This symptom was also reported by over a third of women. Furthermore, it remained associated with cancer even when we removed the final six months from analysis. It was also equally as common in stages I and II cancer as it was in advanced cancer, as has been noted before.20 Yet, abdominal distension is not included in current guidance for urgent investigation7; if it were, some women could have their diagnosis expedited by many months.. An allied symptom is bloating. This is not a mainstream medical term in the UK, and it is likely that the records of bloating represent a verbatim note of the word the woman used. Women, however, use the term for two ...
1,155 patients have been randomized in GLADIATOR, with a retention rate of 74% of those patients 100 mg and 200 mg doses of lasmiditan collectively have been administered over 7,500 times in GLADIATOR and have been well tolerated with no significant increase in cardiovascular adverse events in patients Interim update on GLADIATOR presented at a symposium...
A discussion on the PROSPER phase III and ARAMIS phase II clinical trials.|strong|               |/strong|
Dignan, I stumbled across Transition Therapeutics (Canadian company). They have the following drug/s? in trial. Not sure if it / they are on your list? Ian Clinical Development A Phase II clinical trial is underway in MS patients with data ...
The pharmacokinetics (PK) of ADS-5102 were assessed in two phase I studies in healthy subjects, and a blinded, randomized phase II/III dose-finding study in PD ...
Its always hard to know how many new therapies will make it all the way through a drug development pipeline.There are 12 combination therapies in phase II trials, 19 individual agents in phase II, and five more in phase III.
Cornerstone Pharmaceuticals gets Approval to Conduct Phase I/II Clinical Trial of CPI-613 in Cancer Patients by US FDA 25 th July 2008. Cornerstone Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a privately held pharmaceutical company, has received clearance from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to begin a Phase I/II clinical trial evaluating the safety and early efficacy of its first-in-class Altered Energy Metabolism-Directed (AEMD) compound, CPI-613, in a variety of cancer types.. CPI-613 targets distinctive changes in the energy generating processes associated with the vast majority of solid tumor types, according to preclinical studies. CPI-613 has shown possible utility in multiple preclinical studies including studies conducted using human tumor biopsies from patients bearing lung, colon, pancreatic and breast tumors as well as cancer cell lines resistant to traditional chemotherapeutics.. The approved clinical trial will be open to patients with a variety of tumor types who have failed previous ...
Durham, NC, September 18, 2012 /PRNewswire/ - CoLucid Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a privately held biopharmaceutical company, has reached agreement with the Food and Drug Administrations Division of Neurology Products concerning the development strategy for lasmiditan at a recently completed End of Phase 2 meeting. Lasmiditan is a novel therapy for acute migraine and will initially be developed to address major unmet needs in two patient populations who are poorly served by currently available therapies: 1) patients with risk factors for cardiovascular disease and those with diagnosed cardiovascular disease and 2) patients who have not had adequate efficacy from triptans. The development program will be confirmed via the Special Protocol Assessment process.. Lasmiditan is a first-in-class Neurally Acting Anti-Migraine Agent (NAAMA) designed to deliver efficacy in migraine without the vasoconstrictor activity associated with previous generations of migraine therapies such as triptans. Lasmiditan is a ...
Because of previous exposure to nevirapine or other non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), either by direct treatment or through their mothers in pregnancy, infants must often receive an alternate antiretroviral regimen that includes LPV/r. Dosing of LPV/r is currently based on a childs specific weight, and calculations of proper dosages are often too complicated to be practical in busy clinics, particularly those in limited resource settings. In order to simplify medication delivery and reduce prescribing errors, the WHO has released a dosing schedule for LPV/r based on groupings of infants and children by weight. This study will evaluate the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerance of LPV/r dosed according to these guidelines. The following strata were used to guide accrual:. Number of Participants to be Enrolled by Weight Band:. 3-4.9 kg: 11 liquid. 5-6.9 kg: 11 liquid. 7-9.9 kg: 17 liquid. 10-16.9 kg: 11 liquid, 22 tablet. 17-19.9 kg: 11 tablet. 20-24.9 kg: 11 ...
Sanofi Pasteur, the vaccines division of Sanofi, presented Phase II (H-030-012) trial results for an investigational vaccine for the prevention of
...- Afinitor significantly reduced tumor size by 50% or more in one out ... ...- Phase III study underway to explore potential of Afinitor to prevent... ...,Afinitor(R),Phase,II,Data,Show,Positive,Results,for,Patients,With,Multiple,Types,of,Lymphoma,,Leading,to,Phase,III,Trial,medicine,advanced medical technology,medical laboratory technology,medical device technology,latest medical technology,Health
...RIDGEFIELD Conn. Dec. 10 2012 /- Boehringer Ingel...AML is one of the most common types of leukemia in adults. 2 ...The open-label study enrolled 87 adult patients randomly assigned to r...,Boehringer,Ingelheim,Presents,New,Phase,II,Data,for,Volasertib,in,Adult,Patients,with,AML,medicine,advanced medical technology,medical laboratory technology,medical device technology,latest medical technology,Health
GTB-3550 is the Companys first TriKE™ product candidate being initially developed for the treatment of AML and MDS, and other CD33+ hematologic cancers. GTB-3550 is a single-chain, tri-specific scFv recombinant fusion protein conjugate composed of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains of anti-CD16 and anti-CD33 antibodies and a modified form of Interleukin 15 (IL-15). The natural killer (NK) cell-stimulating cytokine human IL-15 portion of the molecule provides a self-sustaining signal that activates NK cells and enhances their ability to kill. We intend to study GTB-3550 in CD33 positive leukemias such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and other CD33+ hematopoietic malignancies.. About GTB-3550 TriKE™ Clinical Trial ...
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We conclude that this drug combination and dosage are feasible and have potential as either a front- or second-line chemotherapeutic regimen for advanced lung cancer, and phase II/III trials should be performed. However, hematologic toxicities, as found in this study, could probably be reduced with …
Subject of this analysis is the assessment of the effect of cariporideon the event probability of a myocardial infarction (MI) or death inthe scope of a coronary artery bypass graft. Thesodium-hydrogen-exchange system (NHE) in the myocardial cell inducesthe sodium and calcium influx caused by an ischaemia induced hydrogenoverload. Cariporide is a NHE-inhibitor which is seen to be delayingthe necrosis of myocardial cells caused by the ischaemia inducedcalcium influx. The influence of different intravenous doses of cariporide on thefrequency of MI and death in ACS/NQMI, PTCA, and CABG patients hadbeen investigated in a combined phase II/III trial (GUARDIAN,n=11590). Only the highest dosed CABG-subgroup showed a significantreduction of the event-rate compared to placebo of 24.7% (p=0.027).This weak dose-effect-relationship could be translated into aconcentration-effect relationship by using a populationpharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) analysis. To develop thispopulation model a series of ...
Can-Fite enrolled 326 patients through 17 scientific centers in the U.S., Europe, and Israel. The first study cohort was comprised of three hands with patients receiving: 1 mg of CF101; 2 mg of CF101; and placebo. All sufferers receiving placebo were switched to either 1 mg or 2 mg of CF101 after 12 weeks. The principal efficacy endpoints certainly are a statistically significant improvement in regular measures utilized by dermatologists to assess psoriasis like the Psoriasis Area Sensitivity Index rating and the secondary end points among others will be the Doctors Global Assessment score as well as various safety parameters.. Can-Fite BioPharma completes affected individual enrollment in CF101 Phase II/III psoriasis trial Can-Fite BioPharma Ltd. , a biotechnology company with a pipeline of proprietary small molecule medications that address cancers and inflammatory diseases, announced today that all patients enrolled in its Phase II/III psoriasis trial for the Firms drug applicant CF101 have ...
Evotec AG (Frankfurt Stock Exchange: EVT) is pleased to invite you to a webcast presentation and conference call on detailed Phase II data for its lead compound EVT 201 in the treatment
The success of the healing process is supported by how fast the disease is detected and the extent of patient compliance in undergoing the process of therapy or treatment. The faster the cancer is detected (early stage), the higher the level of success to achieve healing. This success is also directly proportional to the level of patient adherence to follow the process of therapy. The process of cancer development is divided into four stages / phases. Phase I is the phase where the cancer is still localized to one part of the body, such as the one titi in breast, lung, and others. In phase II cancer has begun to develop in parts of the body becomes more widespread. Phase III development, even worse. Phase II and III of its development process is still in one organ of the body. Phase IV is the most dreaded phase in which the cancer has spread, or in terms of experiencing health-organ metastasis to other body organs. In this last phase of the healing process becomes very difficult. Usually ...
The success of the healing process is supported by how fast the disease is detected and the extent of patient compliance in undergoing the process of therapy or treatment. The faster the cancer is detected (early stage), the higher the level of success to achieve healing. This success is also directly proportional to the level of patient adherence to follow the process of therapy. The process of cancer development is divided into four stages / phases. Phase I is the phase where the cancer is still localized to one part of the body, such as the one titi in breast, lung, and others. In phase II cancer has begun to develop in parts of the body becomes more widespread. Phase III development, even worse. Phase II and III of its development process is still in one organ of the body. Phase IV is the most dreaded phase in which the cancer has spread, or in terms of experiencing health-organ metastasis to other body organs. In this last phase of the healing process becomes very difficult. Usually ...
Buy Flex GF Chair w/ Gas Lift II from A2S. The Flex has an ergonomically shaped plastic shell, which promotes sitting to prevent fatigue and supports mu...
Need something stylish to store your travel tissue packet than the plastic wrapper that travel tissues come in? This travel tissue holder is your solution.
Millennium Pharmaceuticals, a division of Takeda Oncology Company of Japan, released its curtain raiser press release Friday evening. What is a curtain raiser press release? These are pre-ASCO releases, distributed to the press to create excitement prior to the actual event.. Along with Celgene, Millennium is one of the two largest and most successful multiple myeloma chemotherapy drug companies. Its primary drug, Velcade, has, in some cases, doubled the median life expectancy of multiple myeloma patients.. I just wrote an article about Millennium and the trend toward crossover chemotherapy earlier today on this site. But Takeda and Millennium are making progress in other research areas, against other forms of cancer. Here is an inside look at some of the most anticipated research studies their scientists will be presenting at ASCO:. Pipeline Solid Tumor Data. TAK-700, a compound in development for the treatment of prostate cancer, will have a first presentation of Phase II data. This ...
Idera Pharmaceuticals, Inc. recently announced successful completion of the Phase I portion of the ongoing Phase I/II clinical trial of intratumoral IMO-2125. Intratumoral IMO-2125 is an agonist of TLR9, in combination with ipilimumab for the treatment of anti-PD-1 refractory metastatic melanoma. Enrollment has begun for the Phase II portion of the trial with the 8-mg dose of intratumoral IMO-2125. The Phase I dose escalation of IMO-2125 in combination with pembrolizumab is ongoing.
Read about how antibiotics developer Cempra Inc. has released positive interim results from a Phase II clinical trial for their drug, solithromycin, in the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)
Interim Results of a Phase II Clinical Trial Comparing Outcomes of Recipients of Lungs Recovered from Uncontrolled Donation After Circulatory Determination of Death Donors (uDCDDs) Assessed by Ex-Vivo Lung Perfusion (EVLP) and CT Scan to Outcomes of Recipients of Lungs from Brain-Dead Donors (BDDs)
Researchers reported on a study of a new oral anti-clotting agent - rivaroxaban - designed to identify doses that would be safe to test in subsequent Phase III efficacy and safety trials. The results of ATLAS ACS-TIMI 46 were presented as a late-breaking clinical trial at the American Heart Associations Scientific Sessions 2008.. ...
Clovis Oncology's Rucaparib Demonstrates Encouraging Results from Ongoing Phase I/II Monotherapy Study in Patients with Solid Tumors Objective responses seen in BRCA-mutant ovarian,
NeuroSigma, Inc. (NeuroSigma), a California-based life sciences company focused on commercialization of its non-invasive Monarch eTNS System for the treatment
Nordic randomized phase II trial which evaluates whether biweekly cetuximab with alternating FOLFIRI and mFOLFOX6 is more effective than biweekly cetuxi
Avicena Group has announced that a Phase II clinical trial of two combination therapies incorporating ALS-08, one of its proprietary drug candidates for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrigs Disease) has been initiated.
GlobalDatas clinical trial report, Ureter Cancer Global Clinical Trials Review, H1, 2014 provides data on the Ureter Cancer clinical trial scenario. This report provides elemental information and
RECENT FOREX KONG ARTICLES. Mind Medicine (MindMed) Inc. (NEO:MMED) is Already Preparing TWO Potential Breakthrough Products for Phase II Clinical Trials June 1, 2020; Gaps Now Filled - Apple And Tech Stocks Maxed Out May 27, 2020; A Most Profitable Trade - After This Crashes May 24, 2020; Get Macro - The Wilshire 5000 Index April 30, 2020; Hopium Is Not A Plan - Case For New Lows ...
/CNW/ - ProNAi Therapeutics, Inc. (NASDAQ: DNAI), a clinical-stage oncology company pioneering a novel class of therapeutics based on its proprietary DNAi...
In the previous funding cycles of this proposal, we carried out two pivotal studies of a humanized FcR non- binding anti-CD3 mAb (hOKT3?1(Ala-Ala) or teplizumab...
Arena Pharmaceuticals watched its stock rocket more than 75% after APD334, its experimental drug for autoimmune disorders, showed strong promise in Phase II trials, slingshotting its development into Phase II. - News - PharmaTimes
OK, I go on Tuesday 12/1 for my initial screening for the Tirasemtiv Phase III trial but I check my email today and received this for the NP001 Phase II at...
  • That there are trials by cancer research. (
  • The researchers tested the diagnostic particles in two mouse models of metastatic colon cancer, in which tumor cells travel to and grow in the liver or the lungs. (
  • Nemesis, these last two posts are all allegations or speculation from you. (
  • So we deleted that section of a post of yours with the false allegations.If you can't prove these two are tied to BM we'll have to delete these two posts as well. (
  • Agar dilution method was used to determine the effect of different concentrations of camel's urine (10%, 7.5%, 5% and 2.5%) on 50 clinical bacterial isolates including: 10 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), 10 multi-drug resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS), 10 multi-drug resistant Enterococcus spp. (
  • Solidarity trial investigators will interrupt the trials with immediate effect. (
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