Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic: Works about comparative studies to verify the effectiveness of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques determined in phase II studies. During these trials, patients are monitored closely by physicians to identify any adverse reactions from long-term use. These studies are performed on groups of patients large enough to identify clinically significant responses and usually last about three years. This concept includes phase III studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic: Works about studies that are usually controlled to assess the effectiveness and dosage (if appropriate) of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques. These studies are performed on several hundred volunteers, including a limited number of patients with the target disease or disorder, and last about two years. This concept includes phase II studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic: Works about studies performed to evaluate the safety of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques in healthy subjects and to determine the safe dosage range (if appropriate). These tests also are used to determine pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic properties (toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, and preferred route of administration). They involve a small number of persons and usually last about 1 year. This concept includes phase I studies conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials involving one or more test treatments, at least one control treatment, specified outcome measures for evaluating the studied intervention, and a bias-free method for assigning patients to the test treatment. The treatment may be drugs, devices, or procedures studied for diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic effectiveness. Control measures include placebos, active medicines, no-treatment, dosage forms and regimens, historical comparisons, etc. When randomization using mathematical techniques, such as the use of a random numbers table, is employed to assign patients to test or control treatments, the trials are characterized as RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS AS TOPIC.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Multicenter Studies as Topic: Works about controlled studies which are planned and carried out by several cooperating institutions to assess certain variables and outcomes in specific patient populations, for example, a multicenter study of congenital anomalies in children.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Clinical Trials, Phase IV as Topic: Planned post-marketing studies of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques that have been approved for general sale. These studies are often conducted to obtain additional data about the safety and efficacy of a product. This concept includes phase IV studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.DeoxycytidineFollow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Early Termination of Clinical Trials: Earlier than planned termination of clinical trials.Endpoint Determination: Establishment of the level of a quantifiable effect indicative of a biologic process. The evaluation is frequently to detect the degree of toxic or therapeutic effect.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Clinical Protocols: Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Taxoids: A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Clinical Trials Data Monitoring Committees: Committees established to review interim data and efficacy outcomes in clinical trials. The findings of these committees are used in deciding whether a trial should be continued as designed, changed, or terminated. Government regulations regarding federally-funded research involving human subjects (the "Common Rule") require (45 CFR 46.111) that research ethics committees reviewing large-scale clinical trials monitor the data collected using a mechanism such as a data monitoring committee. FDA regulations (21 CFR 50.24) require that such committees be established to monitor studies conducted in emergency settings.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Sample Size: The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Vinblastine: Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)Drugs, Investigational: Drugs which have received FDA approval for human testing but have yet to be approved for commercial marketing. This includes drugs used for treatment while they still are undergoing clinical trials (Treatment IND). The main heading includes drugs under investigation in foreign countries.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Carboplatin: An organoplatinum compound that possesses antineoplastic activity.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.United StatesMedical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.Leucovorin: The active metabolite of FOLIC ACID. Leucovorin is used principally as an antidote to FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic: Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.Myoelectric Complex, Migrating: A pattern of gastrointestinal muscle contraction and depolarizing myoelectric activity that moves from the stomach to the ILEOCECAL VALVE at regular frequency during the interdigestive period. The complex and its accompanying motor activity periodically cleanse the bowel of interdigestive secretion and debris in preparation for the next meal.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Organoplatinum Compounds: Organic compounds which contain platinum as an integral part of the molecule.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Nausea: An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses.Epirubicin: An anthracycline which is the 4'-epi-isomer of doxorubicin. The compound exerts its antitumor effects by interference with the synthesis and function of DNA.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Vincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Clinical Trial, Phase IIIRisk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Research Subjects: Persons who are enrolled in research studies or who are otherwise the subjects of research.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Radiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Remission Induction: Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.Neutropenia: A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.Drug Evaluation: Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Camptothecin: An alkaloid isolated from the stem wood of the Chinese tree, Camptotheca acuminata. This compound selectively inhibits the nuclear enzyme DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I. Several semisynthetic analogs of camptothecin have demonstrated antitumor activity.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.EuropeNational Cancer Institute (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research with the objective of cancer prevention, early stage identification and elimination. This Institute was established in 1937.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.QuinazolinesCross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Prednisone: A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.Molecular Targeted Therapy: Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Megestrol Acetate: Megestrol acetate is a progestogen with actions and uses similar to those of the progestogens in general. It also has anti-androgenic properties. It is given by mouth in the palliative treatment or as an adjunct to other therapy in endometrial carcinoma and in breast cancer. Megestrol acetate has been approved to treat anorexia and cachexia. (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)Angiogenesis Inhibitors: Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.ThiophenesMelanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Vomiting: The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.Neoadjuvant Therapy: Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antithrombin III: A plasma alpha 2 glycoprotein that accounts for the major antithrombin activity of normal plasma and also inhibits several other enzymes. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Mitomycin: An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional ALKYLATING AGENTS causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Placebo Effect: An effect usually, but not necessarily, beneficial that is attributable to an expectation that the regimen will have an effect, i.e., the effect is due to the power of suggestion.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)RNA Polymerase III: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 22.214.171.124.Dacarbazine: An antineoplastic agent. It has significant activity against melanomas. (from Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p564)Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Pyrroles: Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.Interferon-alpha: One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.Dose Fractionation: Administration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Meta-Analysis as Topic: A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Maximum Tolerated Dose: The highest dose of a biologically active agent given during a chronic study that will not reduce longevity from effects other than carcinogenicity. (from Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Ifosfamide: Positional isomer of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE which is active as an alkylating agent and an immunosuppressive agent.Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Patient Participation: Patient involvement in the decision-making process in matters pertaining to health.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Motilin: A peptide of about 22-amino acids isolated from the DUODENUM. At low pH it inhibits gastric motor activity, whereas at high pH it has a stimulating effect.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.TriazolesPain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Niacinamide: An important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and PELLAGRA. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Therapeutic Equipoise: Expectation of real uncertainty on the part of the investigator regarding the comparative therapeutic merits of each arm in a trial.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Androstenols: Unsaturated androstanes which are substituted with one or more hydroxyl groups in any position in the ring system.Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating: A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.Maintenance Chemotherapy: Treatment designed to help prevent a relapse of a disease following the successful primary treatments (INDUCTION CHEMOTHERAPY and CONSOLIDATION CHEMOTHERAPY) with a long-term low-dose drug therapy.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Vindesine: Vinblastine derivative with antineoplastic activity against CANCER. Major side effects are myelosuppression and neurotoxicity. Vindesine is used extensively in chemotherapy protocols (ANTINEOPLASTIC COMBINED CHEMOTHERAPY PROTOCOLS).Phenylurea Compounds: Compounds that include the amino-N-phenylamide structure.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Immunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Platinum Compounds: Inorganic compounds which contain platinum as the central atom.Survival: Continuance of life or existence especially under adverse conditions; includes methods and philosophy of survival.Therapeutic Human Experimentation: Human experimentation that is intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed.Intention to Treat Analysis: Strategy for the analysis of RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS AS TOPIC that compares patients in the groups to which they were originally randomly assigned.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.International Agencies: International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Bias (Epidemiology): Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Benzenesulfonates: Organic salts and esters of benzenesulfonic acid.Pyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Therapies, Investigational: Treatments which are undergoing clinical trials or for which there is insufficient evidence to determine their effects on health outcomes; coverage for such treatments is often denied by health insurers.Anthracyclines: Organic compounds that have a tetrahydronaphthacenedione ring structure attached by a glycosidic linkage to the amino sugar daunosamine.Carcinoma, Renal Cell: A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Topotecan: An antineoplastic agent used to treat ovarian cancer. It works by inhibiting DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.LeukopeniaAnticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.Vaginal Creams, Foams, and Jellies: Medicated dosage forms for topical application in the vagina. A cream is a semisolid emulsion containing suspended or dissolved medication; a foam is a dispersion of a gas in a medicated liquid resulting in a light, frothy mass; a jelly is a colloidal semisolid mass of a water soluble medicated material, usually translucent.Palliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.